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Kaiser Wilhelm Society

Former Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut for Chemistry in Berlin, the place at which nuclear fission was detected
Former Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut for Biology, Berlin

The Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science (German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften) was a German scientific institution established in the German Empire in 1911. Under the Third Reich it was involved in Nazi scientific operations, and after the Second World War concluded, its functions were taken over by the Max Planck Society. The Kaiser Wilhelm Society was an umbrella organisation for many institutes, testing stations, and research units created under its authority.

Constitution
Opening of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut in Berlin-Dahlem, 1913. From right: Adolf von Harnack, Friedrich von Ilberg, Kaiser Wilhelm II, Carl Neuberg, August von Trott zu Solz

The Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft (KWG) was founded in 1911 in order to promote the natural sciences in Germany, by founding and maintaining research institutions formally independent from the state and its administrations. The institutions were to be under the guidance of prominent directors, which included luminaries such as Walther Bothe, Peter Debye, Albert Einstein, Fritz Haber and Otto Hahn; a board of trustees also provided guidance.

Funding was ultimately obtained from sources internal and external to Germany. Internally, money was raised from individuals, industry and the government, as well as through the Notgemeinschaft der Deutschen Wissenschaft (Emergency Association of German Science).

External to Germany, the Rockefeller Foundation granted students worldwide one-year study stipends, for whichever institute they chose, some studied in Germany.[1][2][3] In contrast to the German universities with their formal independence from state administrations, the institutions of the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft had no obligation to teach students.

The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute and its research facilities were involved in weapons research, experimentation and production in both the First World War and the Second World War.

After the Second World War

By the end of the Second World War, the KWG and its institutes had lost their central location in Berlin and were operating in other locations. The KWG was operating out of its Aerodynamics Testing Station in Göttingen. Albert Vögler, the president of the KWG, committed suicide on 14 April 1945. Thereupon, Ernst Telschow assumed the duties until Max Planck could be brought from Magdeburg to Göttingen, which was in the British zone of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany. Planck assumed the duties on 16 May until a president could be elected. Otto Hahn was selected by directors to be president, but there were a number of difficulties to be overcome. Hahn, being related to nuclear research had been captured by the allied forces of Operation Alsos, and he was still interned at Farm Hall in Britain, under Operation Epsilon. At first, Hahn was reluctant to accept the post, but others prevailed upon him to accept it. Hahn took over the presidency three months after being released and returned to Germany. However, the Office of Military Government, United States (OMGUS) passed a resolution to dissolve the KWG on 11 July 1946.

Meanwhile, members of the British occupation forces, specifically in the Research Branch of the OMGUS, saw the society in a more favourable light and tried to dissuade the Americans from taking such action. The physicist Howard Percy Robertson was director of the department for science in the British Zone; he had a National Research Council Fellowship in the 1920s to study at the Georg-August University of Göttingen and the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich. Also, Colonel Bertie Blount was on the staff of the British Research Branch, and he had received his doctorate at Göttingen under Walther Borsche. Among other things, Bertie suggested to Hahn to write to Sir Henry Hallett Dale, who had been the president of the Royal Society, which he did. While in Britain, Bertie also spoke with Dale, who came up with a suggestion. Dale believed that it was only the name which conjured up a pejorative picture and suggested that the society be renamed the Max Planck Gesellschaft. On 11 September 1946, the Max Planck Gesellschaft was founded in the British Zone only. The second founding took place on 26 February 1948 for both the American and British occupation zones. The physicists Max von Laue and Walther Gerlach were also instrumental in establishing the society across the allied zones, including the French zone.[4][5]

Presidents Institutes, testing stations and unitsKaiser Wilhelm Institutes Kaiser Wilhelm Society organisations
  • Aerodynamic Testing Station (Göttingen e. V.) of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. The testing unit Aerodynamische Versuchsanstalt (AVA) was formed in 1925 along with the KWI of Flow (Fluid Dynamics) Research. In 1937, it became the testing station of the KWG.
  • Biological Station Lunz of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • German Entomological Institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • Hydrobiological Station of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • Institute for Agricultural Work Studies in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • Research Unit "D" in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • Rossitten Bird Station of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, founded 1901 in Rossitten and integrated into the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in 1921. The ornithological station was ceased at the end of the Second World War, but work continues at the ornithological station Radolfzell which is part of the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology.
  • Silesian Coal Research Institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, in Breslau.
Institutions outside Germany
  • Bibliotheca Hertziana, founded 1913 in Rome. It is now the Bibliotheca Hertziana - Max Planck Institute of Art History in Rome.
  • German-Bulgarian Institute for Agricultural Science founded in 1940 in Sofia.
  • German-Greek Institute for Biology in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society founded in 1940 in Athens.
  • German-Italian Institute for Marine Biology at Rovigno, Italy.
  • Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Cultivated Plant Research founded in 1940 in Vienna, Austria.
Other
  • Institute for the Science of Agricultural Work—founded in 1940 in Breslau.
  • Research Unit for Virus Research of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biochemistry and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology
  • Institute for Theoretical Physics
See also Notes
  1. Macrakis, 1993, 11-28 and 273-274.
  2. Hentschel, 1996, Appendix A; see the entries for the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Dynamics Research.
  3. List of Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes Archived 2013-09-09 at the Wayback Machine. in summary of holdings, Section I (Bestandsübersicht, I. Abteilung), on the website of the Max Planck Gesellschaft Archives (in German). Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  4. Macrakis, 1993, 187-198.
  5. Hentschel, 1996, Appendix A; see the entries for the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Dynamics Research.
  6. Kunze, Rolf-Ulrich (2004). Ernst Rabel und das Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für ausländisches und internationales Privatrecht 1926-1945. Göttingen: Wallstein. p. 13.
  7. Kunze (2004), p. 47-48.
Bibliography
  • Hans-Walter Schmuhl: Grenzüberschreitungen. Das Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Anthropologie, Menschliche Erblehre und Eugenik 1927–1945. Reihe: Geschichte der Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft im Nationalsozialismus, 9. Wallstein, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-89244-799-3
  • Hentschel, Klaus (ed.) (1996). Physics and National Socialism: An Anthology of Primary Sources. Basel, Boston: Birkhäuser Verlag. ISBN 0-8176-5312-0.
  • Macrakis, Kristie (1993). Surviving the swastika: Scientific research in Nazi Germany. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 0-19-507010-0.
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Kaiser Wilhelm Society

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Kaiser Wilhelm Society

Former Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut for Chemistry in Berlin, the place at which nuclear fission was detected Former Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut for Biology, Berlin The Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science (German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften) was a German scientific institution established in the German Empire in 1911. Under the Third Reich it was involved in Nazi scientific operations, and after the Second World War concluded, its functions were taken over by the Max Planck Society. The Kaiser Wilhelm Society was an umbrella organisation for many institutes, testing stations, and research units created under its authority. Constitution Opening of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut in Berlin-Dahlem, 1913. From right: Adolf von Harnack, Friedrich von Ilberg, Kaiser Wilhelm II, Carl Neuberg, August von Trott zu Solz The Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft (KWG) was founded in 1911 in order to promote the natural sciences in Germany, by founding and maintaining research i ...more...



Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics

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Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics

Former Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Racial Hygiene, at the Free University of Berlin Eugen Fischer during a ceremony at the University of Berlin 1934 The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics was founded in 1927 in Berlin, Germany. When confronted with financial demands, the Rockefeller Foundation supported both the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Psychiatry and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics.[1] The Rockefeller Foundation partially funded the actual building of the Institute and helped keep the Institute afloat during the Great Depression. Eugenics Josef Mengele in 1956 In its early years, and during the Nazi era, it was strongly associated with theories of Nazi eugenics and racial hygiene advocated by its leading theorists Fritz Lenz, (first director) Eugen Fischer, and by its second director Otmar von Verschuer. In the years of 1937–1938, Fischer and his colleagues analysed 600 children in Nazi Germany descending from F ...more...



Wilhelm II, German Emperor

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Wilhelm II, German Emperor

Wilhelm II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern; 27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. He was the eldest grandchild of the Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and related to many monarchs and princes of Europe, most notably King George V of the United Kingdom and Emperor Nicholas II of Russia. Acceding to the throne in 1888, he dismissed the Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, in 1890. He also launched Germany on a bellicose "New Course" in foreign affairs that culminated in his support for Austria-Hungary in the crisis of July 1914 that led in a matter of days to the First World War. Bombastic and impetuous, he sometimes made tactless pronouncements on sensitive topics without consulting his ministers, culminating in a disastrous Daily Telegraph interview in 1908 that cost him most of his influence.[1] His leading generals, Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludend ...more...



Max Planck Institute for Physics

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Max Planck Institute for Physics

Aerial view of the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics with assembly hall (left) and lecture hall (right) The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is a physics institute in Munich, Germany that specializes in high energy physics and astroparticle physics. It is part of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft and is also known as the Werner Heisenberg Institute, after its first director in its current location. The founding of the institute traces back to 1914, as an idea from Fritz Haber, Walther Nernst, Max Planck, Emil Warburg, Heinrich Rubens. On October 1, 1917, the institute was officially founded in Berlin as Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Physik (KWIP, Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics) with Albert Einstein as the first head director. In October 1922, Max von Laue succeeded Einstein as managing director. Einstein gave up his position as a director of the institute in April 1933. In June 1942, Werner Heisenberg took over as managing director. The Institute took part in the German nuclear weapon project fro ...more...



Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society

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Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society

Berlin-Dahlem, Van't-Hoff-Straße, Fritz-Haber-Institut The Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (FHI) is a science research institute located at the heart of the academic district of Dahlem, in Berlin, Germany. The original Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, founded in 1911, was incorporated in the Max Planck Society and simultaneously renamed for its first director, Fritz Haber, in 1953. The research topics covered throughout the history of the institute include chemical kinetics and reaction dynamics, colloid chemistry, atomic physics, spectroscopy, surface chemistry and surface physics, chemical physics and molecular physics, theoretical chemistry, and materials science. During World War I and World War II, the research of the institute was directed more or less towards Germany's military needs. To the illustrious past members of the Institute belong Herbert Freundlich, James Franck, Paul Friedlander, Rudolf Ladenburg, Michael Polanyi, Eugene Wigner, Ladi ...more...



Otto Heinrich Warburg

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Otto Heinrich Warburg

Otto Heinrich Warburg (; 8 October 1883 – 1 August 1970), son of physicist Emil Warburg, was a German physiologist, medical doctor, and Nobel laureate. He served as an officer in the elite Uhlan (cavalry regiment) during the First World War, and was awarded the Iron Cross (1st Class) for bravery.[2] He was the sole recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1931.[1] In total, he was nominated for the award 47 times over the course of his career.[3] Biography Otto Heinrich Warburg was born in Freiburg im Breisgau in 1883, close to the Swiss border. Otto's mother was the daughter of a Protestant family of bankers and civil servants from Baden. His father, Emil Warburg, had converted to Protestantism as an adult, although Emil’s parents were Orthodox Jews.[4] Emil was a member of the illustrious Warburg family of Altona, and had converted to Christianity reportedly after a disagreement with his Conservative Jewish parents. Emil was also president of the Physikalische Reichsanstalt, Wirklicher Geh ...more...



Walther Bothe

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Walther Bothe

Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe (8 January 1891 – 8 February 1957) was a German nuclear physicist, who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1954 with Max Born. In 1913, he joined the newly created Laboratory for Radioactivity at the Reich Physical and Technical Institute (PTR), where he remained until 1930, the latter few years as the director of the laboratory. He served in the military during World War I from 1914, and he was a prisoner of war of the Russians, returning to Germany in 1920. Upon his return to the laboratory, he developed and applied coincidence methods to the study of nuclear reactions, the Compton effect, cosmic rays, and the wave–particle duality of radiation, for which he would receive the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1954. In 1930 he became a full professor and director of the physics department at the University of Giessen. In 1932, he became director of the Physical and Radiological Institute at the University of Heidelberg. He was driven out of this position by elements of the deutsche Phy ...more...



Lise Meitner

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Lise Meitner

Lise Meitner (; 7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics. Meitner and Otto Hahn led the small group of scientists who first discovered nuclear fission of uranium when it absorbed an extra neutron; the results were published in early 1939.[4][5] Meitner and Otto Frisch understood that the fission process, which splits the atomic nucleus of uranium into two smaller nuclei, must be accompanied by an enormous release of energy. Nuclear fission is the process exploited by nuclear reactors to generate heat and, subsequently, electricity.[6] This process is also the basis of the nuclear weapons that were developed in the U.S. during World War II and used against Japan in 1945. Meitner spent most of her scientific career in Berlin, Germany, where she was a physics professor and a department head at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute; she was the first woman to become a full professor of physics in Germany. She lost these positions in the 1930s bec ...more...



Isolde Hausser

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Isolde Hausser

Isolde Hausser (née Ganswindt, 7 December 1889 – 5 October 1951) was a German physicist. She became the head of a department of the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research (then Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research) in Heidelberg in 1935. Life and work Ganswindt was the daughter of Hermann Ganswindt and his first wife Anna Minna (née Fritsche, 1866-1911). After graduating from the Chamisso School in Berlin-Schöneberg in 1909, she began studying physics, mathematics, and philosophy at the University of Berlin. In 1914, she received a doctorate degree in physics with a dissertation titled Erzeugung und Empfang kurzer elektrischer Wellen ("Production and reception of short electrical waves"). From 1914 to 1929 she worked as a staff member in the research department of Telefunken in Berlin under the direction of Hans Rukop (1883-1958), with whom she also published several research papers. She married the physicist Karl Wilhelm Hausser (1887-1933) in 1918, with whom she had a son, Karl Hermann Hausser ...more...



Fritz Albert Lipmann

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Fritz Albert Lipmann

Fritz Albert Lipmann, ForMemRS (June 12, 1899 – July 24, 1986) was a German-American biochemist and a co-discoverer in 1945 of coenzyme A. For this, together with other research on coenzyme A, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1953 (shared with Hans Adolf Krebs). Life and career Lipmann was born in Königsberg, Germany, to a Jewish family. His parents were Gertrud (Lachmanski) and Leopold Lipmann, an attorney. Lipmann studied medicine at the University of Königsberg, Berlin, and Munich, graduating in Berlin in 1924. He returned to Königsberg to study chemistry under Professor Hans Meerwein. In 1926 he joined Otto Meyerhof at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, Berlin, for his Ph.D. thesis. After that he followed Meyerhof to Heidelberg to the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research. From 1939 on, he lived and worked in the United States. He was a Research Associate in the Department of Biochemistry, Cornell University Medical College, New York from 1939 to 1941. He joined the resear ...more...



German nuclear weapon project

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German nuclear weapon project

The German nuclear weapon project (German: Uranprojekt; informally known as the Uranverein; English: Uranium Society or Uranium Club) was a scientific effort led by Germany to develop and produce nuclear weapons during World War II. The first effort started in April 1939, just months after the discovery of nuclear fission in December 1938, but ended only months later due to the German invasion of Poland, after many notable physicists were drafted into the Wehrmacht. A second effort began under the administrative purview of the Wehrmacht's Heereswaffenamt on 1 September 1939, the day of the invasion of Poland. The program eventually expanded into three main efforts: the Uranmaschine (nuclear reactor), uranium and heavy water production, and uranium isotope separation. Eventually it was assessed that nuclear fission would not contribute significantly to ending the war, and in January 1942, the Heereswaffenamt turned the program over to the Reich Research Council (Reichsforschungsrat) while continuing to fund t ...more...



Hans Tropsch

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Hans Tropsch

Hans Tropsch (October 7, 1889 – October 8, 1935) was a chemist responsible, along with Franz Fischer, for the development of the Fischer-Tropsch process. Life Tropsch was born in Plan bei Marienbad, Sudet-German Bohemia at that time part of Austria–Hungary now Czech Republic. He studied at the German Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague and the German Technical University in Prague from 1907 until 1913. He received his Ph.D for work with Hans Meyer. Tropsch worked in a dye factory in Mülheim in 1916–1917, then for a few months at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Coal Research. From 1917 to 1920 Tropsch worked in a tar distillery of the Rütgers company in Niederau, but returned to the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Coal Research in 1920, staying until 1928. There he worked with both Franz Fischer and Otto Roelen. It was during this time that the ground-breaking inventions of the Fischer-Tropsch process were patented. In 1928 Tropsch became professor at the new Institute for Coal Research in Prague. He later ...more...



Karin Magnussen

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Karin Magnussen

Karin Magnussen (9 February 1908 – 19 February 1997) was a German biologist, teacher and researcher at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics during the Third Reich. She is known for her 1936 publication "Race and Population Policy Tools", and her studies of heterochromia iridis (different-colored eyes) using iris specimens, supplied by Josef Mengele, from Auschwitz concentration camp victims.[1] Early life and education Karin Magnussen, daughter of the landscape painter and ceramist Walter Magnussen, grew up with her sister in a middle-class home. She completed her schooling in Bremen, graduating with a degree. She then studied biology, geology, chemistry and physics at the University of Göttingen. Magnussen joined the National Socialist German Students' League (NSDStB) while she was still an undergraduate in college. By 1931, at the age of 23 years, she was a member of the National Socialist German Workers Party. Later, she became a leader of the League of German Girls ( ...more...



Robert Havemann

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Robert Havemann

Robert Havemann (11 March 1910 – 9 April 1982) was a chemist, and an East German dissident. Life and career He studied chemistry in Berlin and Munich from 1929 to 1933, and then later received a doctorate in physical chemistry from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute. Havemann joined the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) in 1932 and was one of the founders of the resistance group, European Union. It was in connection with this group that he was arrested by the Gestapo in 1943. He received a death sentence, but his execution was continually postponed because of the intervention of former colleagues, who insisted that Havemann was as important as his work on chemical weapons had been and that he was still needed to explain the research. His execution was postponed so many times, he was able to survive until the Brandenburg-Görden Prison was liberated by the Red Army.[1][2] After the war, he became head of administration in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry in Berlin, but in 194 ...more...



Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer

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Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer

Otmar von Verschuer (rear) supervises the measurement of two men's head circumference as part of an anthropometric study of heredity. Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer (16 July 1896 – 8 August 1969) was a German human biologist and geneticist, who was the Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Münster until his 1965 retirement. A member of the Dutch noble Verschuer family, his title Freiherr is often translated as baron. He was regarded as a pioneer in the twin methodology in genetics research and in the study of the inheritance of diseases and anomalies,[1] and was a prominent eugenicist with an interest in racial hygiene and an advocate of compulsory sterilization programs in the first half of the 20th century.[2][3] Among his many students were Josef Mengele. He successfully redefined himself as a geneticist in the postwar era. During the 1950s and 1960s he was noted for research on the effects of nuclear radiation on humans and for his warnings against the possibility of creating "scientifically ...more...



Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization

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Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization

The Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization in Göttingen, Germany, is a research institute for investigations of complex non-equilibrium systems, particularly in physics and biology. Its founding history goes back to Ludwig Prandtl who in 1911 requested a Kaiser Wilhelm Institute to be founded for the investigation of aerodynamics and hydrodynamics. As a first step the Aeronautische Versuchsanstalt (now the DLR) was established in 1915 and then finally the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Flow Research was established in 1924. In 1948 it became part of the Max Planck Society. The Max Planck Society was founded in this institute. In 2003 it was renamed to Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization. It is one of 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society (Max Planck Gesellschaft). History The early history of the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization is closely linked to the work of the famous physicist Ludwig Prandtl. Prandtl is regarded as the founder of fluid dynamic ...more...



Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law

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Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law

The Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law (Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches und internationales Privatrecht, MPIPRIV) is a legal research institute located in Hamburg, Germany. It is operated by the Max Planck Society. Founded in 1949, it is the successor institution of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Foreign and International Private Law, which was founded in 1926. Since 1956 it is based in Hamburg's district of Rotherbaum. See also Max Planck Society University of Hamburg References "Academic Body." Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law. Retrieved 5 July 2015. "Academic History." Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law. Retrieved 15 September 2015. The Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law (Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches und internationales Privatrecht, MPIPRIV) is a legal research institute located in Hamburg, Germany. It is operated by the Max Planck Society. Found ...more...



Fritz Lenz

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Fritz Lenz

Fritz A Lenz (9 March 1887 in Pflugrade, Pomerania – 6 July 1976 in Göttingen, Lower Saxony) was a German geneticist, member of the Nazi Party,[1] and influential specialist in eugenics in Nazi Germany. Biography The pupil of Alfred Ploetz, Lenz took over the publication of the magazine "Archives for Racial and Social Biology" from 1913 to 1933 and received in 1923 the first chair in eugenics in Munich. In 1933 he came to Berlin where he established the first specific department devoted to eugenics, at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics. Lenz specialised in the field of the transmission of hereditary human diseases and "racial health". The results of his research were published in 1921 and 1932 in collaboration with Erwin Baur and Eugen Fischer in two volumes that were later combined under the title Human Heredity Theory and Racial Hygiene (1936). This work and his theory of "race as a value principle" placed Lenz and his two colleagues in the position of Germany's l ...more...



Julius Hallervorden

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Julius Hallervorden

Julius Hallervorden (21 October 1882 – 29 May 1965) was a German physician and neuroscientist. In 1938, he became the head of the Neuropathology Department of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research. He was a member of the Nazi Party, and admitted to knowingly performing much of his research on the brains of executed prisoners. Along with Hugo Spatz, he is credited with the discovery of Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome (now, in light of revelations of his Nazi past, more commonly referred to as Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration). See also List of medical eponyms with Nazi associations References Strous, Rael D.; Morris C. Edelman (March 2007). "Eponyms and the Nazi Era: Time to Remember and Time For Change" (PDF). Israel Medical Association Journal. 9 (3): 207–214. Retrieved 2010-11-01. Shevell, Michael; Jüergen Peiffer (August 2001). "Julius Hallervorden's wartime activities: implications for science under dictatorship". Pediatr Neurol. 25 (2): 162–165. PMID 11551747. Juliu ...more...



Fritz Haber

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Fritz Haber

Fritz Haber (German: ; 9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German[4] chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber–Bosch process, a method used in industry to synthesize ammonia from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas. This invention is of importance for the large-scale synthesis of fertilizers and explosives. The food production for half the world's current population depends on this method for producing nitrogen fertilizers.[5] Haber, along with Max Born, proposed the Born–Haber cycle as a method for evaluating the lattice energy of an ionic solid. Haber is also considered the "father of chemical warfare" for his years of pioneering work developing and weaponizing chlorine and other poisonous gases during World War I, especially his actions during the Second Battle of Ypres. Early life and education Fritz Haber was born in Breslau, Prussia, into a well-off Jewish family.[6]:38 The family name Haber was a common one in the area, but Fritz Haber's family has been t ...more...



Nikolay Timofeev-Ressovsky

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Nikolay Timofeev-Ressovsky

Nikolaj Vladimirovich Timofeev-Resovskij (Russian: Николай Владимирович Тимофеев-Ресовский; 20 September [O.S. 7 September] 1900 – 28 March 1981) was a Soviet biologist. He conducted research in radiation genetics, experimental population genetics, and microevolution. His work was of special importance to Soviet biology because it stood in direct opposition to the damage done by Lysenkoism, while his life was highlighted by scientific achievements in the face of severe personal hardship. His life was described by Daniil Granin in the novel Zubr. He was Director of the Genetics Division as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research in the 1930s, where he received direct funding for his research from the Third Reich, who praised him as one of the world's best geneticists and trusted him because he was an opponent of Communism.[1][2] His department of genetics in Nazi Berlin was also described in a novel by Elly Welt, Berlin Wild; although fictional names were used, the characters are recognizable. Educa ...more...



Erwin Baur

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Erwin Baur

Erwin Baur (16 April 1875, Ichenheim, Grand Duchy of Baden – 2 December 1933) was a German geneticist and botanist. Baur worked primarily on plant genetics. He was director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Breeding Research (since 1938 Erwin Baur-Institute). Baur is considered to be the father of plant virology. He discovered the inheritance of plastids.[1] In 1908 Baur demonstrated a lethal gene in the Antirrhinum plant. In 1909 working on the chloroplast genes in Pelargonium (geraniums) he showed that they violated four of Mendel's five laws. Baur stated that plastids are carriers of hereditary factors which are able to mutate. in variegated plants, random sorting out of plastids is taking place. the genetic results indicate a biparental inheritance of plastids by egg cells and sperm cells in pelargonium. Since the 1930s and the work of Otto Renner, plastid inheritance became a widely accepted genetic theory. In 1921 and 1932 Baur co-authored with Fritz Lenz and Eugen Fischer two volumes that bec ...more...



Walter Seelmann-Eggebert

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Walter Seelmann-Eggebert

Wilhem Walter Rudolph Max Seelmann-Eggebert (17 April 1915 – 19 July 1988) was a German radiochemist. He was son of Erich Eggebert and Edwig Schmidt. He was a student of Otto Hahn at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry, where, after 1939, he worked with Fritz Strassmann on nuclear fission. In 1949, he joined the University of Tucuman in Argentina as a professor of chemistry. Later he created the radiochemistry group at the Buenos Aires University and at the National Atomic Energy Commission, working together with other notable pioneers of radichemistry, such as Sara Abecasis, Gregorio Baro, Juan Flegenheimer, Jaime Pahissa-Campá, María Cristina Palcos, Enzo Ricci, Renato Radicella, Plinio Rey, Josefina Rodríguez, and Maela Viirsoo, just to mention a few. During his Argentinian years his group discovered 20 new nuclides. In 1955, Otto Hahn invited him to come back to Germany for the reconstruction of Radiochemistry studies in the country. He became professor in Mainz before creating and managing the ...more...



Carl Neuberg

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Carl Neuberg

Carl Alexander Neuberg (29 July 1877 – 30 May 1956) was an early pioneer in biochemistry, and he is often referred to as the "father of modern biochemistry".[1][2] His notable contribution to science includes the discovery of the carboxylase and the elucidation of alcoholic fermentation which he showed to be a process of successive enzymatic steps, an understanding that became crucial as to how metabolic pathways would be investigated by later researchers. Personal life Carl Sandel Neuberg was born on 29 July 1877 to a Jewish family in Hanover as the first child of Julius and Alma Neuberg.[3][4] He was educated in the classical language gymnasium Lyceum I of the Ratsgymnasium until he was 15. In 1892 he moved with his parents to Berlin where he attended Friedrich-Werdersches Gymnasium.[3] After graduating school in 1896, he studied astronomy, but soon switched to chemistry to comply with his father's wishes for him to become a master of brewery. He studied at the University of Würzburg and University of Berl ...more...



Wilhelm Steinkopf

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Wilhelm Steinkopf

Georg Wilhelm Steinkopf (28 June 1879 – 12 March 1949) was a German chemist. Today he is mostly remembered for his work on the production of mustard gas during World War I. Life Georg Wilhelm Steinkopf was born on 28 June 1879 in Staßfurt, in the Prussian Province of Saxony in the German Empire, the son of Gustav Friedrich Steinkopf, a merchant, and his wife Elise Steinkopf (née Heine). In 1898 he began studying chemistry and physics at the University of Heidelberg. In 1899 he moved to the Technische Hochschule Karlsruhe (today the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology), where he finished his studies with a degree as Diplomingenieur in 1905. In Karlsruhe, he also met his future colleagues Fritz Haber and Roland Scholl. After receiving his Doctor of Science and eventually his Habilitation in 1909, he worked as an associate professor at the TU Karlsruhe until 1914, when he volunteered for service in World War I. In 1916 Fritz Haber, who was now the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry ...more...



Wang Pu (physicist)

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Wang Pu (physicist)

Statue of Wang Pu on the Central Campus of Shandong University. Wang Pu (Chinese: 王普, English/German name Paul Wang, September 9, 1902 – January 15, 1969) was a Chinese nuclear physicist. He was one of two Chinese PhD students working with Lise Meitner at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry. He founded the School of Physics at Shandong University. Wang Pu was born in Yishui County to the west of Qingdao then a part of the German Kiautschou Bay concession. He was the son of a Chinese highschool teacher.[1] He studied first in Beijing and worked from September 1935 to July 1938 in Lise Meitner's group at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry.[1] See also Wang Ganchang (first Chinese PhD student of Lise Meitner) References Horst Kant: Forschungen über Radioaktivität am Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Chemie: Die Abteilung(en) Hahn/Meitner und ihre internationalen Kontakte, 2005 Statue of Wang Pu on the Central Campus of Shandong University. Wang Pu (Chinese: 王普, English/German nam ...more...



Adolf Butenandt

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Adolf Butenandt

Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (24 March 1903 – 18 January 1995) was a German biochemist.[1] He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1939 for his "work on sex hormones." He initially rejected the award in accordance with government policy, but accepted it in 1949 after World War II.[1][2][3][4] He was President of the Max Planck Society from 1960 to 1972. Biography Born in Lehe, near Bremerhaven, he started his studies at the University of Marburg. For his Ph.D he joined the working group of the Nobel laureate Adolf Windaus at the University of Göttingen and he finished his studies with a Ph.D. in chemistry in 1927. Estrone Adolf Windaus and Walter Schöller of Schering gave him the advice to work on hormones extracted from ovaries. This research lead to the discovery of estrone and other primary female sex hormones, which were extracted from several thousand liters of urine.[5][6] While working as professor in Gdańsk at the Chemisches Institut he was continuing his works over hormones extrac ...more...



Max Planck Institute for Coal Research

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Max Planck Institute for Coal Research

The Max Planck Institute for Coal Research (German: Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung) is an institute located in Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany specializing in chemical research on catalysis. It is one of the 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft). Founded in 1912 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Coal Research (Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Kohlenforschung) in Mülheim an der Ruhr to study the chemistry and uses of coal, it became an independent Max Planck Institute in 1949. Research The Institute carries out basic research in organic and organometallic chemistry, in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis as well as in theoretical chemistry. The principal aim is to develop new methods for the selective and environmentally benign preparation of new compounds and materials. The MPI KoFo has been at the forefront of research in chemistry since its formation. One of these is the development of the Fischer–Tropsch process through the efforts of Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch in ...more...



Werner Heisenberg

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Werner Heisenberg

Werner Karl Heisenberg (;[2] German: ; 5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics. He published his work in 1925 in a breakthrough paper. In the subsequent series of papers with Max Born and Pascual Jordan, during the same year, this matrix formulation of quantum mechanics was substantially elaborated. He is known for the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which he published in 1927. Heisenberg was awarded the 1932 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the creation of quantum mechanics".[3] He also made important contributions to the theories of the hydrodynamics of turbulent flows, the atomic nucleus, ferromagnetism, cosmic rays, and subatomic particles, and he was instrumental in planning the first West German nuclear reactor at Karlsruhe, together with a research reactor in Munich, in 1957. He was a principal scientist in the Nazi German nuclear weapon project during World War II. He travelled to occupied Copenhagen where he met and discusse ...more...

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Wolfgang Abel

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Wolfgang Abel

Wolfgang Abel (13 May 1905 – 1 November 1997) was an Austrian anthropologist and one of Nazi Germany's racial biologists. He was the son of the Austrian paleontologist Othenio Abel. From 1931 Wolfgang Abel was engaged at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics. In 1933 he became a member of the NSDAP. He was involved in compulsory sterilization of children, who resulted from relationships between German women and dark-skinned French soldiers.[1] In 1934 he wrote an article, which was published in the German newspaper "Neues Volk", with the title "Bastarde am Rhein" (Rhineland Bastards). In 1935 he joined the SS. In 1942 Abel was successor to Eugen Fischer for the professorship of racial biology at the University of Berlin. Wolfgang Abel delivered in 1938 a speech at the "Congres International des Sciences Anthropologiques et Ethnologiques, Deuxieme Session, Copenhague 1938. The topic was: Die Rasse der rumänischen Zigeuner. Meaning, On the Race of the Rumanian Gypsies. In ...more...



Horst Böhme (chemist)

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Horst Böhme (chemist)

Horst Böhme Horst Böhme, born Johann Friedrich Horst Böhme (30 May 1908 in Bernau bei Berlin – 27 July 1996 in Arolsen) was a German chemist. He became an expert on mustard gas. During the war he worked from 1943 at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry at Berlin-Dahlem.[1] After the war he became a professor of chemistry and a rector of the University of Marburg. Pathways to Human Experimentation, 1933-1945: Germany, Japan, and the United States by Gerhard Baader, Susan E. Lederer, Morris Low, Florian Schmaltz and Alexander V.Schwerin; Osiris, 2nd Series, Vol. 20, Politics and Science in Wartime: Comparative International Perspectives on the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (2005), p213. Literature Horst Böhme: Lehr- und Entwicklungsjahre eines Pharmazeuten in Berlin und München, (2 Teile), Deutsche Apotheker-Zeitung, 1989, 129, 2707–2712 und 2832–2840. Christoph Friedrich: Wissenschaftliche Schulen und die Marburger Pharmazie, Pharmazeutische Zeitung 2001, 146, 2410– ...more...



Fritz Strassmann

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Fritz Strassmann

Friedrich Wilhelm "Fritz" Strassmann (German: Straßmann; 22 February 1902 – 22 April 1980) was a German chemist who, with Otto Hahn in early 1939, identified barium in the residue after bombarding uranium with neutrons, results which, when confirmed, demonstrated the previously unknown phenomenon of nuclear fission. Life and career Born in Boppard, he began his chemistry studies in 1920 at the Technical University of Hannover and earned his Ph.D. in 1929. He did his Ph.D. work on the solubility of iodine gaseous carbonic acid. Strassmann started an academic career because the employment situation in the chemical industry was much worse than at the universities at that time. Strassmann worked at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin-Dahlem, from 1929. In 1933 he resigned from the Society of German Chemists when it became part of a Nazi-controlled public corporation. He was blacklisted. Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner found an assistantship for him at half pay. Strassmann considered himself fortuna ...more...



Peter Debye

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Peter Debye

Peter Joseph William Debye ForMemRS[1] (;[2] Dutch: ; March 24, 1884 – November 2, 1966) was a Dutch-American physicist and physical chemist, and Nobel laureate in Chemistry. BiographyEarly life Born Petrus Josephus Wilhelmus Debije[3] in Maastricht, Netherlands, Debye enrolled in the Aachen University of Technology in 1901. In 1905, he completed his first degree in electrical engineering. He published his first paper, a mathematically elegant solution of a problem involving eddy currents, in 1907. At Aachen, he studied under the theoretical physicist Arnold Sommerfeld, who later claimed that his most important discovery was Peter Debye. In 1906, Sommerfeld received an appointment at Munich, Bavaria, and took Debye with him as his assistant. Debye got his Ph.D. with a dissertation on radiation pressure in 1908. In 1910, he derived the Planck radiation formula using a method which Max Planck agreed was simpler than his own. In 1911, when Albert Einstein took an appointment as a professor at Prague, Bohemia, ...more...



Peter Emil Becker

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Peter Emil Becker

Peter Emil Becker (23 November 1908 – 7 October 2000) was a German neurologist, psychiatrist and geneticist.[1] He is remembered for his studies of muscular dystrophies. Becker's muscular dystrophy (OMIM 300376) and Becker myotonia (OMIM 255700) are named after him. Since 1998, the Gesellschaft für Neuropädiatrie (GNP) grants Peter-Emil-Becker-Preis for special achievements in the field of child neurology.[2] He studied medicine in Marburg, Berlin, Munich, Vienna and Hamburg, graduating in 1933. Afterwards he trained in neurology and psychiatry in Hamburg and Freiburg. Between 1934 and 1936 he was attached to the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics (KWI-A), working under the guidance of Eugen Fischer. While at the KWI-A, Becker also worked with the prominent geneticist, eugenics specialist, and Nazi Party member Dr. Fritz Lenz.[3] Becker was a member of the SA (Sturmabteilung) since 1934, and in 1940 he joined the Nazi Party.[4] After the war he was dismissed from the Univ ...more...



Emperor William monuments

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Emperor William monuments

Monument on the Hohenzollern Bridge in Cologne Emperor William monument in Dortmund-Hohensyburg Statue of Emperor William, seated, in Dortmund's Westfalenpark A large number of monuments were erected in Germany in honour of Emperor William I (known in German as Kaiser-Wilhelm-Denkmal). As early as 1867 the Berlin sculptor, Friedrich Drake, had created the first equestrian statue, that portrayed William I as the King of Prussia. To date the Prussian Monument Institute (Preußische Denkmal-Institut) has recorded: 63 equestrian statues 231 standing statues 5 seated statues and 126 busts that were created and erected between 1888 and 1918 in the German-speaking region. In addition there are numerous William I monuments on which the emperor is portrayed in a relief medallion or which commemorates the emperor in a dedicatory inscription. During the "imperial era" 28 Emperor William I towers were also built. They are most commonly known in English sources as Emperor William monuments or Kaiser ...more...



Eugen Fischer

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Eugen Fischer

Eugen Fischer (5 July 1874 – 9 July 1967) was a German professor of medicine, anthropology, and eugenics, and a member of the Nazi Party. He served as director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics, and also served as rector of the Frederick William University of Berlin. Fischer's ideas informed the Nuremberg Laws of 1935 which served to justify the Nazi Party's belief in German racial superiority.[1] Adolf Hitler read Fischer's work while he was imprisoned in 1923 and he used Fischer's eugenical notions to support the ideal of a pure Aryan society in his manifesto, Mein Kampf (My Struggle).[1] Biography Fischer was born in Karlsruhe, Grand Duchy of Baden, in 1874. He studied medicine, folkloristics, history, anatomy, and anthropology in Berlin, Freiburg and Munich.[2] In 1918, he joined the Anatomical Institute in Freiburg in 1918,[3] part of the University of Freiburg.[4] In 1927, Fischer became the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human He ...more...



Max Planck Institute for Chemistry

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Max Planck Institute for Chemistry

The Max Planck Institute for Chemistry (Otto Hahn Institute) (German: Max Planck Institut für Chemie - Otto Hahn Institut) is a non-university research institute under the auspices of the Max Planck Society (German: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft). It is based in Mainz. In 2016 research at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz aims at an integral understanding of chemical processes in the Earth system, particularly in the atmosphere and biosphere. Investigations address a wide range of interactions between air, water, soil, life and climate in the course of Earth history up to today´s human-driven epoch, the Anthropocene. The Institute consists of five scientific departments (Atmospheric Chemistry, Climate Geochemistry, Biogeochemistry, Multiphase Chemistry, and Particle Chemistry) and additional research groups. The departments are independently led by their Directors. Research The Institute consists of five scientific departments and additional research groups. Atmospheric Chemistry Department: The ...more...



Magnussen

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Magnussen

Magnussen may refer to: Arne Magnussen (1884–1970), Norwegian trade unionist, newspaper editor and politician for the Labour and the Social Democratic Labour parties Billy Magnussen (born 1985), American actor Davur Juul Magnussen, Faroese Trombonist from Tórshavn, Faroe Islands, who now lives in Scotland Einar Magnussen (1931–2004), Norwegian economist and politician for the Labour Party Fritz Magnussen (1878–1920), Danish film director and screenwriter of the silent era Harro Magnussen (1861–1908), German sculptor from Hamburg, Germany James Magnussen (born 1991), swimmer from Australia Jan Magnussen (born 1973), racing driver from Denmark and a GM factory driver Jon Magnussen (born 1959), Norwegian Professor in health economics at Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim Karen Magnussen, OC (born 1952), Canadian figure skater Karin Magnussen (1908–1997), researcher at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics during Germany's ...more...



Rhineland Bastard

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Rhineland Bastard

Young Rhinelander who was classified as a bastard and hereditarily unfit Rhineland Bastard (German: Rheinlandbastard) was a derogatory term used in Nazi Germany to describe multiracial children with white, German mothers who had been fathered by Africans serving as French colonial troops during the Occupation of the Rhineland after World War I. According to Nazi racial theory, these children were considered inferior to Aryan children and consigned to compulsory sterilization. History The term "Rhineland Bastard" can be traced back to 1919, just after World War I, when Entente troops, most of them French, occupied the Rhineland.[1] A relatively high number of German women married soldiers from the occupying forces, while many others had children by them out of wedlock (hence the disparaging label "bastards"). The resulting children numbered from 160,000 to 180,000, including with white French soldiers.[2] The British historian Richard J. Evans suggests the number of mixed race children among them was not m ...more...



Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine

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Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine

The Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine (German: Max-Planck-Institut für Experimentelle Medizin) is located in Göttingen, Germany. It was founded as Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research in 1947, and was renamed in 1965. It is one of 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft). Prof. Dr. Klaus-Armin Nave is currently the acting director of the institute. Research The research focus of the institute is on neuroscience. Research activities cover a wide spectrum of topics, ranging from basic molecular analyses of neuronal processes to clinical studies on novel therapies of neurological and psychiatric disorders in patients. The central aim of all these studies is to understand basic molecular and cellular processes in brain function, to analyze their pathological dysfunction in psychiatric and neurological diseases, and ultimately to develop novel therapies for these disorders. Departments Neurogenetics The Department of Neurogenetics, led by Klaus-Armin Nave, uses ...more...



Phosphocreatine

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Phosphocreatine

Phosphocreatine, also known as creatine phosphate (CP) or PCr (Pcr), is a phosphorylated creatine molecule that serves as a rapidly mobilizable reserve of high-energy phosphates in skeletal muscle and the brain to recycle adenosine triphosphate, the energy currency of the cell. Chemistry In the kidneys, the enzyme AGAT catalyzes the conversion of two amino acids — arginine and glycine — into guanidinoacetate (also called glycocyamine or GAA), which is then transported in the blood to the liver. A methyl group is added to GAA from the amino acid methionine by the enzyme GAMT, forming non-phosphorylated creatine. This is then released into the blood by the liver where it travels mainly to the muscle cells (95% of the body's creatine is in muscles), and to a lesser extent the brain, heart, and pancreas. Once inside the cells it is transformed into phosphocreatine by the enzyme complex creatine kinase, which makes it able to donate its phosphate group to convert adenosine diphosphate (ADP) into adenosine triphos ...more...



Joachim Hämmerling

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Joachim Hämmerling

Dr. Joachim Hämmerling ForMemRS[1] (9 March 1901 - 5 August 1980) was a pioneering Danish-German biologist funded by Nazi Germany who determined that the nucleus of a cell controls the development of organisms. His experimentation with the green algae Acetabularia provided a model subject for modern cell biological research, and proved the existence of morphogenetic substances, or mRNP. Early life and professions Joachim August Wilhelm Hämmerling was born on 9 March 1901 in Berlin. He was educated at the University of Berlin and University of Marburg. He received his doctorate in 1924. From 1924 to 1931 he was a research assistant at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology, and from 1931 to 1940 a lecturer. In 1940 he became Director of the German-Italian Institute of Marine Biology. In 1942 he became an associate professor of marine biology at the University of Berlin, before becoming the head of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology in Langenargen am Bodensee in 1946. From 1949-1970 he served as the D ...more...



Hans Hellmann

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Hans Hellmann

Hans Gustav Adolf Hellmann (14 October 1903 – 29 May 1938) was a German theoretical physicist. Hellmann was born in Wilhelmshaven, Prussian Hanover. He began studying electrical engineering in Stuttgart, but changed to engineering physics after a semester. Hellmann also studied at the University of Kiel. He received his diploma from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin for work on radioactive compounds under Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner. He received his Ph.D. at Stuttgart with Prof. Erich Regener for work on the decomposition of ozone [1]. Hellmann's future spouse Victoria Bernstein was the foster daughter of Regener. In 1929 Hellmann became assistant professor at the University of Hanover. After the Nazi rise to power, Hellmann was dismissed on 24 December 1933 as ‘undesirable’ because of his Jewish wife. He immigrated to the Soviet Union, taking up a position at the Karpov institute in Moscow working among other things on pseudopotentials. However, he was later denounced during the Great Pu ...more...



Michael Polanyi

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Michael Polanyi

Michael Polanyi, FRS[1] (11 March 1891 – 22 February 1976) was a Hungarian-British polymath, who made important theoretical contributions to physical chemistry, economics, and philosophy. He argued that positivism supplies a false account of knowing, which if taken seriously undermines humanity's highest achievements. His wide-ranging research in physical science included chemical kinetics, x-ray diffraction, and adsorption of gases. He pioneered the theory of fibre diffraction analysis in 1921, and the dislocation theory of plastic deformation of ductile metals and other materials in 1934. He emigrated to Germany, in 1926 becoming a chemistry professor at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin, and then in 1933 to England, becoming first a chemistry professor, and then a social sciences professor at the University of Manchester. Two of his pupils and his son won Nobel Prizes in Chemistry. In 1944 Polanyi was elected to the Royal Society. The contributions which Polanyi made to the social sciences, for exam ...more...



Karl Friedrich Bonhoeffer

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Karl Friedrich Bonhoeffer

Karl Friedrich Bonhoeffer (13 January 1899 – 15 May 1957) was a German chemist. Life Born in Breslau, he was an older brother of martyred theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer. Bonhoeffer studied from 1918 in Tübingen and Berlin, finishing his PhD in 1922 in Berlin with Walther Nernst. From 1923 to 1930 he was an assistant with Fritz Haber at Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Elektrochemistry in Berlin Dahlem. After the Habilitation in 1927, he became full professor at the University of Berlin. In 1930, Bonhoeffer was appointed a professor of Physical Chemistry at the University of Frankfurt. Four years later, he was appointed a professor of Physical Chemistry at the University of Leipzig. He became a professor for physical chemistry at the University of Berlin in 1947 Bonhoeffer was also director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for physical and electrochemistry (now the Fritz Haber Institute of the MPG). In 1949, he was appointed director of the Max Planck Institute for Physical Chemistry in G ...more...



History of eugenics

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History of eugenics

The history of eugenics is the study of development and advocacy of ideas related to eugenics around the world. Early eugenic ideas were discussed in Ancient Greece and Rome. The height of the modern eugenics movement came in the late 19th and early 20th century. Today eugenics continues to be a topic of political and social debate. HistoryPre-Galtonian philosophies The philosophy was most famously expounded by Plato, who believed human reproduction should be monitored and controlled by the state.[1] However, Plato understood this form of government control would not be readily accepted, and proposed the truth be concealed from the public via a fixed lottery. Mates, in Plato's Republic, would be chosen by a "marriage number" in which the quality of the individual would be quantitatively analyzed, and persons of high numbers would be allowed to procreate with other persons of high numbers. In theory, this would lead to predictable results and the improvement of the human race. However, Plato acknowledged the ...more...



Nazi eugenics

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Nazi eugenics

An "Information Poster" from the exhibition wonders of life in Berlin in 1935 Nazi eugenics (German: Nationalsozialistische Rassenhygiene, "National Socialist racial hygiene") were Nazi Germany's racially based social policies that placed the biological improvement of the Aryan race or Germanic "Übermenschen" master race through eugenics at the center of Nazi ideology. In Germany, eugenics were mostly known under the synonymous term racial hygiene. Following the Second World War, both terms effectively vanished and were replaced by Humangenetik (human genetics). Eugenics research in Germany before and during the Nazi period was similar to that in the United States (particularly California), by which it had been partly inspired. However, its prominence rose sharply under Adolf Hitler's leadership when wealthy Nazi supporters started heavily investing in it. The programs were subsequently shaped to complement Nazi racial policies. Those humans targeted for destruction under Nazi eugenics policies were large ...more...



Bibliotheca Hertziana – Max Planck Institute for Art History

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Bibliotheca Hertziana – Max Planck Institute for Art History

The Bibliotheca Hertziana – Max Planck Institute for Art History is a German research institute located in Rome, Italy. It was founded by a donation of Henriette Hertz in 1912 as a Kaiser Wilhelm Institute. Of the 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society (Max Planck Gesellschaft), it is one of the few not located in Germany. The institute is situated in the historical centre of Rome near Trinità dei Monti in a cluster of four buildings along the Via Gregoriana: the 16th-century Palazzo Zuccari, the adjacent Palazzo Stroganoff, the Villino Stroganoff across the road and the new library building (completed in 2012) designed by the Spanish architect Juan Navarro Baldeweg.[1] Purpose/Activities The Bibliotheca Hertziana was founded in 1913 in Rome as an institute of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Society for research on Italian art from the period immediately following antiquity, and in particular the Renaissance and the Baroque periods. These two epochs take centre stage in the research to date and soon will be joined by a ...more...



Eugene Wigner

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Eugene Wigner

Eugene Paul "E. P." Wigner (Hungarian: Wigner Jenő Pál; November 17, 1902 – January 1, 1995) was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist, engineer and mathematician. He received half of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963 "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles".[1] A graduate of the Technical University of Berlin, Wigner worked as an assistant to Karl Weissenberg and Richard Becker at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin, and David Hilbert at the University of Göttingen. Wigner and Hermann Weyl were responsible for introducing group theory into physics, particularly the theory of symmetry in physics. Along the way he performed ground-breaking work in pure mathematics, in which he authored a number of mathematical theorems. In particular, Wigner's theorem is a cornerstone in the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics. He is also known for his research into the stru ...more...



Maria Kobel

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Maria Kobel

Maria Kobel (5 August 1897 – August 1996), was a German biochemist. Life and work Maria Kobel was born on 5 August 1897 in Liegnitz, German Empire (now Legnica, Poland). After finished her Ph.D at the University of Breslau in 1921, she was hired by Carl Neuberg, head of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biochemistry, who became her mentor. She studied the chemical processes of tobacco fermentation there. She became the acting head of the Department for Tobacco Research in 1928 and became head in her own right the following year until it was closed in 1936 for lack of funding. Kobel then worked in the laboratory of Hoffman House studying the chemical basis of fermentation. During this time she contributed several articles to the standard handbook, (German: Die Methoden der Fermentforschung). When the building housing the Hoffman House laboratory in Berlin was destroyed by Allied bombs during World War II, Kobel was evacuated to Frankfurt-am-Main where she became an editor of the Beilstein Edition until her re ...more...




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