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Kaiser Wilhelm Institute

Former Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut for Biology, Berlin

The Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science (German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften) was a German scientific institution established in the German Empire in 1911. Under the Third Reich it was involved in Nazi scientific operations, and after the Second World War concluded, its functions were taken over by the Max Planck Society. The Kaiser Wilhelm Society was an umbrella organisation for many institutes, testing stations, and research units created under its authority.

Opening of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut in Berlin-Dahlem, 1913. From right: Adolf von Harnack, Friedrich von Ilberg, Kaiser Wilhelm II, Carl Neuberg, August von Trott zu Solz

The Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft (KWG) was founded in 1911 in order to promote the natural sciences in Germany, by founding and maintaining research institutions formally independent from the state and its administrations. The institutions were to be under the guidance of prominent directors, which included luminaries such as Walther Bothe, Peter Debye, Albert Einstein, Fritz Haber and Otto Hahn; a board of trustees also provided guidance.

Funding was ultimately obtained from sources internal and external to Germany. Internally, money was raised from individuals, industry and the government, as well as through the Notgemeinschaft der Deutschen Wissenschaft (Emergency Association of German Science).

External to Germany, the Rockefeller Foundation granted students worldwide one-year study stipends, for whichever institute they chose, some studied in Germany.[1] [2] [3] In contrast to the German universities with their formal independence from state administrations, the institutions of the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft had no obligation to teach students.

The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute and its research facilities were involved in weapons research, experimentation and production in both the First World War and the Second World War.

After the Second World War

By the end of the Second World War, the KWG and its institutes had lost their central location in Berlin and were operating in other locations. The KWG was operating out of its Aerodynamics Testing Station in Göttingen. Albert Vögler, the president of the KWG, committed suicide on 14 April 1945. Thereupon, Ernst Telschow assumed the duties until Max Planck could be brought from Magdeburg to Göttingen, which was in the British zone of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany. Planck assumed the duties on 16 May until a president could be elected. Otto Hahn was selected by directors to be president, but there were a number of difficulties to be overcome. Hahn, being related to nuclear research had been captured by the allied forces of Operation Alsos, and he was still interned at Farm Hall in Britain, under Operation Epsilon. At first, Hahn was reluctant to accept the post, but others prevailed upon him to accept it. Hahn took over the presidency three months after being released and returned to Germany. However, the Office of Military Government, United States (OMGUS) passed a resolution to dissolve the KWG on 11 July 1946.

Meanwhile, members of the British occupation forces, specifically in the Research Branch of the OMGUS, saw the society in a more favourable light and tried to dissuade the Americans from taking such action. The physicist Howard Percy Robertson was director of the department for science in the British Zone; he had a National Research Council Fellowship in the 1920s to study at the Georg-August University of Göttingen and the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich. Also, Colonel Bertie Blount was on the staff of the British Research Branch, and he had received his doctorate at Göttingen under Walther Borsche. Among other things, Bertie suggested to Hahn to write to Sir Henry Hallett Dale, who had been the president of the Royal Society, which he did. While in Britain, Bertie also spoke with Dale, who came up with a suggestion. Dale believed that it was only the name which conjured up a pejorative picture and suggested that the society be renamed the Max Planck Gesellschaft. On 11 September 1946, the Max Planck Gesellschaft was founded in the British Zone only. The second founding took place on 26 February 1948 for both the American and British occupation zones. The physicists Max von Laue and Walther Gerlach were also instrumental in establishing the society across the allied zones, including the French zone.[4] [5]

Institutes, testing stations and units
Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes
Kaiser Wilhelm Society organisations
  • Aerodynamic Testing Station (Göttingen e. V.) of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. The testing unit Aerodynamische Versuchsanstalt (AVA) was formed in 1925 along with the KWI of Flow (Fluid Dynamics) Research. In 1937, it became the testing station of the KWG.
  • Biological Station Lunz of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • German Entomological Institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • Hydrobiological Station of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • Institute for Agricultural Work Studies in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • Research Unit "D" in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • Rossitten Bird Station of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, founded 1901 in Rossitten and integrated into the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in 1921. The ornithological station was ceased at the end of the Second World War, but work continues at the ornithological station Radolfzell which is part of the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology.
  • Silesian Coal Research Institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, in Breslau.
Institutions outside Germany
  • Bibliotheca Hertziana, founded 1913 in Rome. It is now the Bibliotheca Hertziana - Max Planck Institute of Art History in Rome.
  • German-Bulgarian Institute for Agricultural Science founded in 1940 in Sofia.
  • German-Greek Institute for Biology in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society founded in 1940 in Athens.
  • German-Italian Institute for Marine Biology at Rovigno, Italy.
  • Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Cultivated Plant Research founded in 1940 in Vienna, Austria.
  • Institute for the Science of Agricultural Work—founded in 1940 in Breslau.
  • Research Unit for Virus Research of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biochemistry and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology
  • Institute for Theoretical Physics
See also
  1. Macrakis, 1993, 11-28 and 273-274.
  2. Hentschel, 1996, Appendix A; see the entries for the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Dynamics Research.
  3. List of Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes in summary of holdings, Section I (Bestandsübersicht, I. Abteilung), on the website of the Max Planck Gesellschaft Archives (in German). Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  4. Macrakis, 1993, 187-198.
  5. Hentschel, 1996, Appendix A; see the entries for the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Dynamics Research.
  6. Kunze, Rolf-Ulrich (2004). Ernst Rabel und das Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für ausländisches und internationales Privatrecht 1926-1945. Göttingen: Wallstein. p. 13.
  7. Kunze (2004), p. 47-48.
  • Hans-Walter Schmuhl: Grenzüberschreitungen. Das Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Anthropologie, Menschliche Erblehre und Eugenik 1927–1945. Reihe: Geschichte der Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft im Nationalsozialismus, 9. Wallstein, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-89244-799-3
  • Hentschel, Klaus (ed.) (1996). Physics and National Socialism: An Anthology of Primary Sources. Basel, Boston: Birkhäuser Verlag. ISBN 0-8176-5312-0.
  • Macrakis, Kristie (1993). Surviving the swastika: Scientific research in Nazi Germany. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 0-19-507010-0.
External links
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Jes Wilhelm Schlaikjer


Jes Wilhelm Schlaikjer (1897–1982) was an American artist, most known for his recruitment and war bonds posters during World War II . Early life Schlaikjer was born during a storm at sea on the maiden voyage of the SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse . His parents, Erich Hansen Schlaikjer and Clara Ryser, were emigrating from Germany to New York . Supposedly they, at first, named their son, Wilhelm Parker Schlaikjer, after the ship and the ship's American pilot, William Parker. His father was a successful salesman of drug remedies. Erich and Clara were married in Germany in 1896. The Schlaikjer family lived in Ohio and Johnstown City, Kentucky before settling down on a farm in Carter township, Tripp County, South Dakota in 1907. Jes Wilhelm was the firstborn of five children: Arthur, Oscar, Hugo, and Erich. From an early age, Schlaikjer enjoyed drawing and was known for his talent in school. At first, he enjoyed painting the horses he saw roaming the plains. His cartoons were featured in a local newspaper in ...more...

Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry


The Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry ( German : Max-Planck-Institut für Psychiatrie ) is a scientific institute based in the city of Munich in Germany specializing in psychiatry . Currently directed by Elisabeth Binder, Alon Chen and Martin Keck, it is one of the 81 institutes in the Max Planck Society . History The Institute was founded as the German Institute for Psychiatric Research ( German : Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Psychiatrie ) by King Ludwig III of Bavaria in Munich on February 13, 1917. The main force behind the institute was the psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin . Substantial funding was received from the Jewish-American banker James Loeb , as well as from the Rockefeller Foundation , well into the 1930s. The Institute became affiliated with the K. W. Society for the Advancement of Science ( German : Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften ) in 1924. In 1928 a new building of the institute was opened at 2 Kraepelinstrasse. The building was financed primarily by a donation ...more...

To Hell with the Kaiser!


To Hell with the Kaiser! is a lost 1918 American silent Great War propaganda comedy film produced by Screen Classics Productions and distributed by Metro Pictures . It was directed by George Irving and starred Lawrence Grant as the Kaiser . Made toward the close of World War I , this film falls in line with other films of this popular genre, the wartime propaganda film, made at the same time i.e. The Kaiser, Beast of Berlin , Yankee Doodle in Berlin , Hearts of the World , The Heart of Humanity , Over the Rhine , The False Faces and The Unpardonable Sin to name a few. Plot Lawrence Grant, who spent his lengthy career playing odious villains, appeared in the dual role of Kaiser Wilhelm II and his look-alike, German actor Robert Graubel. Terrified of being assassinated, the Kaiser hires Graubel to impersonate him at various political functions. In the film, the Kaiser achieves military success through an infernal pact with Satan. Once this is established, the film concentrates on the seemingly endless tally of ...more...

Free University of Berlin


The Free University of Berlin ( German : Freie Universität Berlin , often abbreviated as FU Berlin or simply FU ) is a research university located in Berlin , Germany. One of Germany's most recognised universities, it is known for its research in the humanities and social sciences, as well as in the field of natural and life sciences. The Free University was founded in West Berlin in 1948 with American support during the early Cold War period as a de facto western continuation of the Frederick William University , which was located in East Berlin and faced strong communist repression; its name refers to West Berlin's status as part of the Western " free world ," in contrast to the "unfree" Communist world in general and the "unfree" communist-controlled university in East Berlin in particular. The Free University of Berlin is one of eleven German elite universities in the German Universities Excellence Initiative . History Free University of Berlin was established by students and scholars on 4 December 1948. ...more...

Hans Stubbe


Hans Karl Oskar Stubbe (7 March 1902 - 14 May 1989) was a German agronomist and plant breeder . During the Second World War he was dismissed by the Nazi government from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Breeding Research in Müncheberg in 1936. After the war he went to work in East Germany where he was the founding director of the Institute for Cultivated Plant Research (which started as the Institut für Kulturpflanzenforschung in Vienna) in Gatersleben . He stood up against the ideas of Trofim Lysenko and prevented East German genetics from being influenced by politics that had caused damage in the Soviet Union . Head cast of Hans Stubbe Stubbe was born in 1902 at Berlin where his father was a school inspector. He studied agriculture and biology at the University of Göttingen and the Agricultural University of Berlin . He became a student of Erwin Baur at the Institute for Inheritance Research in Berlin where he worked on a doctoral thesis on mutagenesis in 1929. He then joined the newly established Kaiser Wil ...more...

Franz Joseph Emil Fischer


Franz Joseph Emil Fischer (19 March 1877 in Freiburg im Breisgau – 1 December 1947 in Munich ) was a German chemist . He and Hans Tropsch discovered the Fischer-Tropsch process . With Hans Schrader he developed the Fischer Assay , a standardized laboratory test for determining the oil yield from oil shale to be expected from a conventional shale oil extraction . He also worked with Wilhelm Ostwald and Hermann Emil Fischer . In 1913 he became Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Coal Research in Mülheim. Awards Wilhelm Exner Medal , 1936 References Heistand, Robert N. (1976). "The Fischer Assay, standard method?" (PDF) . San Francisco: Symposium on oil shale, tar sands, and related materials — production and utilization of synfuels . Retrieved 2008-08-18 . Chemist biographies Franz Joseph Emil Fischer (19 March 1877 in Freiburg im Breisgau – 1 December 1947 in Munich ) was a German chemist . He and Hans Tropsch discovered the Fischer-Tropsch process . With Hans Schrader he developed the Fischer Assay ...more...



The Wilhelm-Orden (English "William-Order") was instituted on 18 January 1896 by the German Emperor and King of Prussia Willhelm II as a high civilian award, and was dedicated to the memory of his grandfather Emperor William I "the Great". Insignia The insignia of the Order consisted of a golden medal with the portrait of William I, surrounded by a golden wreath and suspended from a heavy golden collar. This collar with a weight of 222 grams bore the words WIRKE IM ANDENKEN AN KAISER WILHELM DEN GROSSEN (English: "Work in the memory of Emperor William the Great") and was designed by the jewellers Emil Weigand en Otto Schultz. List of recipients The order was very exclusive. One of the first to be decorated was Otto von Bismarck . Also among the recipients were: Heinrich von Stephan , General Post Director - 1896. Count Arthur von Posadowsky-Wehner , politician - 27 January 1900 - on the occasion of the Emperor´s birthday. Princess Marie Elisabeth of Saxe-Meiningen , musician and composer - 28 August 1913 - th ...more...

Wang Pu (physicist)


Wang Pu ( Chinese : 王 普 , English/German name Paul Wang, September 9, 1902 – January 15, 1969) was a Chinese nuclear physicist. He was one of two Chinese PhD students working with Lise Meitner at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry . He founded the School of Physics at Shandong University . Wang Pu was born in Yishui County to the west of Qingdao then a part of the German Kiautschou Bay concession . He was the son of a Chinese highschool teacher. He studied first in Beijing and worked from September 1935 to July 1938 in Lise Meitner's group at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry. See also Wang Ganchang (first Chinese PhD student of Lise Meitner) References Horst Kant: Forschungen über Radioaktivität am Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Chemie: Die Abteilung(en) Hahn/Meitner und ihre internationalen Kontakte, 2005 Wang Pu ( Chinese : 王 普 , English/German name Paul Wang, September 9, 1902 – January 15, 1969) was a Chinese nuclear physicist. He was one of two Chinese PhD students working with Lise Meitn ...more...

August von Wassermann


August Paul von Wassermann (21 February 1866 – 16 March 1925) was a German bacteriologist and hygienist . Born in Bamberg , with Jewish origins, he studied at several universities throughout Germany, receiving his medical doctorate in 1888 from the University of Strassburg . In 1890 began work under Robert Koch at the Institute for Infectious Diseases in Berlin . In 1906 he became director of the division for experimental therapy and serum research at the institute, followed by a directorship of the department of experimental therapy at the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft for the Advancement of Science in Berlin-Dahlem (1913). Wassermann developed a complement fixation test for the diagnosis of syphilis in 1906, just one year after the causative organism, Spirochaeta pallida , had been identified by Fritz Schaudinn and Erich Hoffmann . The so-called " Wassermann test " allowed for early detection of the disease (despite its nonspecific symptoms ), and thus prevention of transmission. He attributed the developmen ...more...

Bibliotheca Hertziana – Max Planck Institute for Art History


The Bibliotheca Hertziana – Max Planck Institute for Art History is a German research institute located in Rome , Italy . It was founded by a donation of Henriette Hertz in 1912 as a Kaiser Wilhelm Institute . Of the 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society (Max Planck Gesellschaft), it is one of the few not located in Germany. The institute is situated in the historical centre of Rome near Trinità dei Monti in a cluster of four buildings along the Via Gregoriana: the 16th-century Palazzo Zuccari , the adjacent Palazzo Stroganoff, the Villino Stroganoff across the road and the new library building (completed in 2012) designed by the Spanish architect Juan Navarro Baldeweg . Purpose/Activities The Bibliotheca Hertziana was founded in 1913 in Rome as an institute of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Society for research on Italian art from the period immediately following antiquity, and in particular the Renaissance and the Baroque periods. These two epochs take centre stage in the research to date and soon will be joined by a ...more...

SMS Prinzess Wilhelm


SMS Prinzess Wilhelm ("His Majesty's Ship Princess Wilhelm") was a protected cruiser of the German Imperial Navy (Kaiserliche Marine). She was the second Irene-class cruiser ; her only sister ship was SMS Irene . Prinzess Wilhelm was laid down in 1886 at the Germaniawerft shipyard in Kiel , launched in September 1887, and commissioned into the fleet in November 1889. As built, the ship was armed with a main battery of fourteen 15 cm (5.9 in) guns and had a top speed of 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph). In 1895, Prinzess Wilhelm was deployed to East Asian waters, where she frequently served as the flagship of the East Asia Cruiser Division. She was one of the three ships that participated in the seizure of Kiaochou Bay under the command of Rear Admiral Otto von Diederichs . She subsequently was present in the Philippines in the immediate aftermath of the Battle of Manila Bay between American and Spanish squadrons during the Spanish–American War in 1898. Prinzess Wilhelm returned to Germany in 1899 and was moderniz ...more...

SMS Kaiser Karl der Grosse


SMS Kaiser Karl der Grosse (His Majesty's Ship " Charlemagne ") was a German pre-dreadnought battleship of the Kaiser Friedrich III class , built around the turn of the 20th century for the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy). Kaiser Karl der Grosse was built in Hamburg , at the Blohm and Voss shipyard. She was laid down in September 1898 and launched in October 1899. A shipyard strike and an accidental grounding delayed her completion until February 1902; she was therefore the last member of her class to enter service. The ship was armed with four 24-centimeter (9.4 in) guns in two twin gun turrets and had a top speed of 17.5 knots (32.4 km/h; 20.1 mph). Kaiser Karl der Grosse served with the active fleet until 1908, participating in the normal peacetime routine of training cruises and fleet maneuvers. By 1908, the new "all-big-gun" dreadnought battleships were entering service. As she was completely obsolete, Kaiser Karl der Grosse was withdrawn from active service and placed in the Reserve Division. At th ...more...

Cockcroft–Walton generator


The Cockcroft–Walton (CW) generator , or multiplier , is an electric circuit that generates a high DC voltage from a low-voltage AC or pulsing DC input. It was named after the British and Irish physicists John Douglas Cockcroft and Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton , who in 1932 used this circuit design to power their particle accelerator , performing the first artificial nuclear disintegration in history. They used this voltage multiplier cascade for most of their research, which in 1951 won them the Nobel Prize in Physics for "Transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles". Less well known is the fact that the circuit was discovered much earlier, in 1919, by Heinrich Greinacher , a Swiss physicist . For this reason, this doubler cascade is sometimes also referred to as the Greinacher multiplier . Cockcroft–Walton circuits are still used in particle accelerators. They also are used in everyday electronic devices that require high voltages, such as X-ray machines , television sets , m ...more...

Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine


The Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine ( German : Max-Planck-Institut für Experimentelle Medizin ) is located in Göttingen , Germany . It was founded as Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research in 1947, and was renamed in 1965. It is one of 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft). Prof. Dr. Klaus-Armin Nave is currently the acting director of the institute. Research The research focus of the institute is on neuroscience . Research activities cover a wide spectrum of topics, ranging from basic molecular analyses of neuronal processes to clinical studies on novel therapies of neurological and psychiatric disorders in patients. The central aim of all these studies is to understand basic molecular and cellular processes in brain function, to analyze their pathological dysfunction in psychiatric and neurological diseases, and ultimately to develop novel therapies for these disorders. Departments Neurogenetics The Department of Neurogenetics, led by Klaus-Armin Nave, uses t ...more...

Eugen Fischer


Eugen Fischer (5 July 1874 – 9 July 1967) was a German professor of medicine , anthropology , and eugenics , and a member of the Nazi Party . He served as director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics , and also served as rector of the Frederick William University of Berlin . Fischer's ideas informed the Nuremberg Laws of 1935 which served to justify the Nazi Party's belief in German racial superiority. Adolf Hitler read Fischer's work while he was imprisoned in 1923 and he used Fischer's eugenical notions to support the ideal of a pure Aryan society in his manifesto, Mein Kampf (My Struggle). Biography Fischer was born in Karlsruhe , Grand Duchy of Baden , in 1874. He studied medicine, folkloristics , history , anatomy , and anthropology in Berlin , Freiburg and Munich . In 1918, he joined the Anatomical Institute in Freiburg in 1918, part of the University of Freiburg . In 1927, Fischer became the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Here ...more...

Karl Wirtz


Karl Eugen Julius Wirtz (24 April 1910 – 12 February 1994) was a German nuclear physicist , born in Cologne . He was arrested by the allied British and American Armed Forces and incarcerated at Farm Hall for six months in 1945 under Operation Epsilon . Education From 1929 to 1934, Wirtz studied physics , chemistry , and mathematics at the University of Bonn , the Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg , and the University of Breslau . He received his doctorate in 1934 under C. Schäfer. From 1935 to 1937, he was a teaching assistant to Carl-Friedrich Bonhoeffer at the University of Leipzig . During this period, he became a member of the Nationalsozialistischer Lehrerbund (NSLB, National Socialist Teachers League), but not the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP, National Socialist German Workers Party). Some of the more established scientists, such as Max von Laue , could demonstrate more autonomy than the younger and less established scientists. This was, in part, due to political organizati ...more...

Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics


The Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics (MPA) is a research institute located in Garching , just north of Munich , Bavaria , Germany . It is one of many scientific research institutes belonging to the Max Planck Society. The MPA is widely considered to be one of the leading institutions in the world for theoretical astrophysics research. According to Thomson Reuters , from 1999-2009 the Max Planck Society as a whole published more papers and accumulated more citations in the fields of physics and space science than any other research organization in the world. History The Max Planck Society was founded on 26 February 1948. It effectively replaced the Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science, which was dissolved after World War II . The society is named after Max Planck , one of the founders of the quantum theory . The MPA was founded as Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics in 1958 and split into the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics and the Max Planck Institute for Physics in 1 ...more...

Rominten Hunting Lodge


The Rominten Hunting Lodge (German: Jagdschloss Rominten ) was the residence of Kaiser Wilhelm II in the Rominter Heath in East Prussia . History Rominten Hunting Lodge, the deer's bridge. The statue was moved to Sosnovka near Moscow after World War II Rominten Hunting Lodge. The bronze deer was moved to Smolensk after World War II Rominten Hunting Lodge, postcard. The Stave church is on the left The electoral Hunting Lodge of Rominten ("Kurfürstliche Jagdbude Rominten") was first mentioned in historical records in 1572. In 1674, a new lodge was built, as the old one had fallen into disrepair. By the late 19th century, neither lodge was in existence; all that remained was a small forestry workers' settlement, a tavern and a forester's office. Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia rediscovered the Rominter Heath as a potential hunting ground. Kaiser Wilhelm II first visited the Heath in 1890 and decided to build a Royal Hunting Lodge at Theerbude (lit: Tarhut). The building was constructed by Norwegian workers in ...more...

Wilhelm Eitel


Wilhelm Hermann Julius Eitel (6 May 1891 – 20 July 1979) was born on 6 May 1891 (Frankfurt am Main) and became a prominent German-American scientist, dying in the United States in 1979. Education In Frankfurt am Main , Wilhelm Eitel completed his pre-academical training at the Wöhler-Gymnasium in 1909; after that he studied at the universities of Tübingen (1 semester) and Heidelberg (5 semesters), where, on 23 July 1912, he obtained his Ph.D. in "Mineralchemie" (mineralogical chemistry) from his promotor Professor Theodor Curtius . Research and Positions In 1920 and 1921 Wilhelm Eitel was assistant professor in mineralogy at the University of Leipzig ; from 1921 to 1926 professor at the University of Königsberg , and from 1926 to 1945 full professor in mineralogy at the Technical University of Berlin From 1926 to 1945 Professor Wilhelm Eitel also held the office of director of the "Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Silicatforschung" in Berlin (now: Fraunhofer-Institut für Silicatforschung). In this function Eitel i ...more...

Wilhelm Erben


Wilhelm Erben (3 December 1864, in Salzburg – 7 April 1933, in Graz ) was an Austrian historian, known for his work in the field of auxiliary sciences of history and his studies involving the history of medieval warfare . He studied history at the University of Vienna , and from 1885 studied with Theodor von Sickel at the Institut für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung (Institute for Austrian Historical Research) in Vienna. From 1888 to 1891 he was an employee of the Monumenta Germaniae historica , and afterwards, served as curator at the Imperial Army Museum in Vienna. In 1901 he qualified as a lecturer, and two years later was named professor of medieval history and historical auxiliary sciences at the University of Innsbruck . From 1917 up until his death in 1933, he taught classes as a professor at the University of Graz . In 1915 he became a member of the Vienna Academy of Sciences . Selected works Die Kaiser- und Königsurkunden des Mittelalters in Deutschland, Frankreich und Italien, 1907 – The imperia ...more...

Gerhart Jander


Gerhart Jander (26 October 1892 – 8 December 1961) was a German inorganic chemist. His book, now normally only called "Jander-Blasius", on analytical chemistry is still used in German universities. His involvement in the chemical weapon research and close relation to the NSDAP have been unrecovered by recent research. Life and work Jander was born in Altdöbern , Oberspreewald-Lausitz . Jander studied in Technical University of Munich , and at University of Berlin where he received his Ph.D for work with Arthur Rosenheim in 1917. He joined Richard Zsigmondy at the University of Göttingen . He became professor in 1925 and after a two-year period being a temporary director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Elektrochemistry from 1933 till 1935 he became professor for inorganic chemistry at the University of Greifswald . In 1951 he changed to the Technical University of Berlin . Jander died in Berlin in 1961. Critical reviews The involvement of Jander in the research on chemical warfare an ...more...

Joseph Joshua Weiss


Joseph Joshua Weiss ( J J Weiss ) (30 August 1905 – 9 April 1972) was a Jewish-Austrian chemist and Professor at the Newcastle University . He was a pioneer in the field of radiation and photochemistry Weiss was born in 1905 in Austria . He had obtained a Dipl.Ing. degree in the Technische Hochschule in Vienna . He entered the Textile Institute at Sorau in 1928 and was the head of the chemistry department there. He left his post two years later to become an assistant to the German chemist Fritz Haber at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Elektrochemistry in Berlin. Together they discovered the Haber–Weiss reaction . He fled with Haber (who was born Jewish) from Nazi Germany to Cambridge in 1933. He later moved to University College London , where he got his PhD in 1935 from Prof Frederick George Donnan . in 1937 he started teaching at the King's College in Durham, which later became the Newcastle University . In 1956 he was appointed a professor of Radiation Chemistry at the Newcastl ...more...

SS Kronprinz Wilhelm


A colorful poster advertising Norddeutscher Lloyd's four express sisters SS Kronprinz Wilhelm was a German passenger liner built for the Norddeutscher Lloyd , a former shipping company now part of Hapag-Lloyd , by the AG Vulcan shipyard in Stettin , in 1901. She took her name from Crown Prince Wilhelm , son of the German Emperor Wilhelm II , and was a sister ship of SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse . She had a varied career, starting off as a world-record-holding passenger liner, then becoming an auxiliary warship from 1914–1915 for the Imperial German Navy , sailing as a commerce raider for a year, and then interned in the United States when she ran out of supplies. When the U.S. entered World War I, she was seized and served as a United States Navy troop transport until she was decommissioned and turned over to the United States Shipping Board , where she remained in service until she was scrapped in 1923. German passenger liner (1901–1914) Deck plans from 1908 Kronprinz Wilhelm was launched on 30 March 1901 an ...more...

Ernst Heymann


Ernst Heymann (April 6, 1870 - March 2, 1946) was a German jurist from Berlin .In 1889 he put on Breslauer Mary Magdalene School from the matriculation examination. He then studied until 1892 Law at the Silesian Friedrich-Wilhelm University in Breslau . Heymann 1899 professor at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Berlin . In 1902 he was appointed to the Chair of Law at the Albertus University of Königsberg appointed, two years later he moved to the University of Marburg . In 1914 he returned to Berlin at the Friedrich Wilhelm University. Since 1918 Heymann was a regular member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences . From 1926 to 1938 he was secretary of the Philosophical and Historical Class of the Academy, after initially until 1939. Acting Vice President and from 1939 to 1942 finally Vice President. Heymann was longtime chairman of the Academy commissions " German Law Dictionary ", "German Commission" and " Vocabularium Iurisprudentiae Romanae " and justice expert of the Academy. Since 1926, Heymann was sc ...more...

Otto von Bismarck


Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck ( German:  (   listen ) ), was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890. In the 1860s, he engineered a series of wars that unified the German states , deliberately excluding Austria , into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. With that accomplished by 1871, he skillfully used balance of power diplomacy to maintain Germany's position in a Europe which, despite many disputes and war scares, remained at peace. For historian Eric Hobsbawm , it was Bismarck who "remained undisputed world champion at the game of multilateral diplomatic chess for almost twenty years after 1871, [and] devoted himself exclusively, and successfully, to maintaining peace between the powers". However, his annexation of Alsace-Lorraine gave new fuel to French nationalism and promoted Germanophobia in France. This helped set the stage for the First ...more...

Herbert Freundlich


Herbert Max Finlay Freundlich ForMemRS (28 January 1880 in Charlottenburg – 30 March 1941 in Minneapolis ) was a German chemist . His father was Jewish descendable German, and his mother ( Finlay ) was from Scotland . His younger brother was Erwin Finlay Freundlich (1885–1964) He was director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry from 1919 until 1933, when the racial policies of the Nazi party demanded the dismissal of non-Aryans from senior posts. In 1934 he became foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences . Emigrating to England, Freundlich accepted a guest professorship at University College London. Five years later, he accepted a professorship at the University of Minnesota. He died in Minneapolis two years later. His most prominent student was Robert Havemann who became a well known colloid chemist of the German Democratic Republic . Freundlich's main works dealt with the coagulation and stability of colloidal solutions. His work is of cont ...more...

Fritz Haber


Fritz Haber ( German: ; 9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber–Bosch process , a method used in industry to synthesize ammonia from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas. This invention is of importance for the large-scale synthesis of fertilizers and explosives . The food production for half the world's current population depends on this method for producing nitrogen fertilizers. Haber, along with Max Born , proposed the Born–Haber cycle as a method for evaluating the lattice energy of an ionic solid. Haber is also considered the "father of chemical warfare " for his years of pioneering work developing and weaponizing chlorine and other poisonous gases during World War I , especially his actions during the Second Battle of Ypres . Early life and education Fritz Haber was born in Breslau, in Prussian Silesia (now Wrocław , in western Poland ), into a well-off Jewish family. The family name Haber was a common one in th ...more...

Günther Hillmann


Günther Hillmann (born 15 April 1919 in Ludwigslust , 8 May 1976 in Nuremberg ) was a German biochemist . During the Second World War he worked on a research project to which the concentration camp doctor Josef Mengele delivered blood samples from Auschwitz concentration camp . After the war, he directed the Chemical Institute of the Nuremberg Hospitals for the rest of his life. Publications Über die Spaltung racemischer Aminosäuren in die optischen Antipoden in Verbindung mit der Peptidsynthese. (1947). Synthese des Schilddrüsenhormons. Tübingen 1955. Biosynthese und Stoffwechselwirkungen der Schilddrüsenhormone. Tübingen 1961. Weblinks Literature by and about Günther Hillmann in the German National Library catalogue Achim Trunk : Zweihundert Blutproben aus Auschwitz - ein Forschungsvorhaben zwischen Anthropologie und Biochemie (1943-1945) - Reihe Ergebnisse, Bd. 12 der Kommission zur Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft im Nationalsozialismus (PDF, 600 kB) Secondary literature Achim Trunk: Rassenforschung und Bioche ...more...

Carl Correns


Carl Erich Correns (19 September 1864 – 14 February 1933) was a German botanist and geneticist , who is notable primarily for his independent discovery of the principles of heredity , and for his rediscovery of Gregor Mendel 's earlier paper on that subject, which he achieved simultaneously but independently of the botanists Erich Tschermak von Seysenegg and Hugo de Vries , and the agronomist William Jasper Spillman . Correns was a student of Karl Nägeli , a renowned botanist with whom Mendel corresponded about his work with peas, but who failed to understand how significant Mendel's work was. Early life and education Carl Correns was born September 1864 in Munich . Orphaned at an early age, he was raised by an aunt in Switzerland . He entered the University of Munich in 1885. While there, he was encouraged to study botany by Karl Nägeli , a botanist whom Mendel corresponded with on the subject of his pea plant experiments. After completing his thesis, Correns became a tutor at the University of Tübingen an ...more...

Fritz von Wettstein


Friedrich Wettstein, Ritter von Westersheim (24 June 1895 in Prague – 12 February 1945 in Trins , Tirol) was an Austrian botanist. Academic career Fritz Wettstein was the son of Richard Wettstein . From 1925 he was professor at Göttingen , in 1931 in Munich and in 1934 director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology in Berlin-Dahlem . Wettstein made a major contribution to botanical and genetical science. He worked especially on cytoplasmic inheritance in mosses and fireweed . Following Erwin Baur at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institut, Berlin-Dahlem, he investigated hybrids and polyploids of mosses, and advanced the understanding of the relationships and characteristics of polyploid forms. Political implications Wettstein has been criticised because at international scientific conferences before the war he defended National Socialist racial ideas. Works Morphologie und Physiologie des Formwechsels der Moose auf genetischer Grundlage (1924) Über plasmatische Vererbung sowie Plasma-und Genwirkung (1930) Genetik ( ...more...

Max Planck Institute for Iron Research


The Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH (MPIE) is a research institute of the Max Planck Society located in Düsseldorf . Since 1971 it is legally independent and organized in the form of a GmbH , owned and financed equally by the Max Planck Society and the Steel Institute VDEh . It conducts basic research on advanced materials, specifically steels and related metallic alloys. History The institute was founded as Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Iron Research in Aachen 1917, with Fritz Wüst being the founding director. It moved 1921 to Düsseldorf and relocated from the "Rheinischen Metallwarenfabrik" to its current location in 1935. In 1943, it move temporarily to Claustahl and in 1946 back to Düsseldorf. The 50% institutional co-sponsoring by industry (by Steel Institute VDEh ) determines a unique example of a public private partnership both for the Max-Planck Society and for the European industry and should guarantee a close match between knowledge-oriented and pre-competitive basic research on the one h ...more...

Werner Heisenberg


Werner Karl Heisenberg ( ; German: ; 5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics . He published his work in 1925 in a breakthrough paper . In the subsequent series of papers with Max Born and Pascual Jordan , during the same year, this matrix formulation of quantum mechanics was substantially elaborated. He is known for the Heisenberg uncertainty principle , which he published in 1927. Heisenberg was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1932 "for the creation of quantum mechanics ". He also made important contributions to the theories of the hydrodynamics of turbulent flows , the atomic nucleus, ferromagnetism , cosmic rays , and subatomic particles , and he was instrumental in planning the first West German nuclear reactor at Karlsruhe , together with a research reactor in Munich , in 1957. He was a principal scientist in the Nazi German nuclear weapon project during World War II . He travelled to occupied Copenhagen where he met an ...more...

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Michael A. Sherbon (MichaelSherbon)

Max Planck Institute for Biology


The Max Planck Institute for Biology was located in Tübingen , Germany . It was created as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology in Berlin in 1912, and moved to Tübingen 1943. It was one of 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society (Max Planck Gesellschaft) and was closed in 2005. The Max Planck Institute for Biology was located in Tübingen , Germany . It was created as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology in Berlin in 1912, and moved to Tübingen 1943. It was one of 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society (Max Planck Gesellschaft) and was closed in 2005. ...more...

Maximilian Berlitz


Maximilian (Maximilien) Delphinius Berlitz (April 14, 1852 – April 6, 1921) was a linguist and the founder of the Berlitz Language Schools , the first of which he established during 1878 in Providence, Rhode Island . Life and career Born David Berlitzheimer of Jewish parents in Mühringen , Württemberg , Germany , he and his sister were soon orphaned, and he grew up in a family of educators in the Black Forest . Berlitz was required by law to serve as an apprentice; he chose to work for a watchmaker for three years. He later relocated to France and then to Providence, Rhode Island , United States during 1872. His first employment was as a teacher of French and German at Warner Polytechnic College, of which he assumed control during 1878 when the owner of the school, Mr. Warner, disappeared with all the prepaid tuition money. When Berlitz became ill, and was unable to teach a French class, he quickly hired Nicholas Joly to replace him and teach the class. Since he had always corresponded with Joly in French, ...more...

Kaiser-class battleship


The Kaiser class was a class of five battleships that were built in Germany prior to World War I and served in the Imperial German Navy during the war. They were the third class of German dreadnoughts , and the first to feature turbine engines and superfiring turrets. The five ships were Kaiser , Friedrich der Grosse , Kaiserin , Prinzregent Luitpold , and König Albert . As was usual for German battleships of the period, the Kaiser class mounted main guns that were smaller than those of their British rivals: 30.5 cm (12.0 in), compared to the 34.3 cm (13.5 in) guns of the British Orion class . All five ships saw action in the North Sea during the war; they served together as the VI Division of the III Battle Squadron. Four were present during the Battle of Jutland ; König Albert was in dock at the time. Of the four ships that took part in the battle, only Kaiser was damaged, being struck by two heavy-caliber shells. The ships also took part in Operation Albion in the Baltic Sea; during the operation they we ...more...

SMS Kaiser (1911)


SMS Kaiser was the lead ship of the Kaiser class of battleships of the Imperial German Navy . Kaiser was built by the Imperial Dockyard at Kiel , launched on 22 March 1911 and commissioned on 1 August 1912. The ship was equipped with ten 30.5-centimeter (12.0 in) guns in five twin turrets, and had a top speed of 23.4 knots (43.3 km/h; 26.9 mph). Kaiser was assigned to the III Squadron of the High Seas Fleet for the majority of World War I . In 1913, Kaiser and her sister König Albert conducted a cruise to South America and South Africa. The ship participated in most of the major fleet operations during the war. She fought at the Battle of Jutland on 31 May – 1 June 1916, during which she was hit twice and suffered negligible damage. The ship was also present during Operation Albion in the Baltic Sea in September and October 1917, and at the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight in November 1917. During peace negotiations after the end of the war in 1918, she was interned with other ships of the High Seas Fleet at ...more...

Christopher Clark


Sir Christopher Munro Clark , FBA (born 14 March 1960) is an Australian historian working in England. He is the twenty-second Regius Professor of History at the University of Cambridge . In 2015 he was knighted for his services to Anglo-German relations. Education and academic promotions He was educated at Sydney Grammar School between 1972 and 1978, the University of Sydney where he studied History, and between 1985 and 1987 the Freie Universität Berlin . He received his PhD at the University of Cambridge , having been a member of Pembroke College, Cambridge from 1987 to 1991. He is Professor in Modern European History at the University of Cambridge and since 1991 has been a Fellow of St Catharine's College where he is currently Director of Studies in History. In 2003 Clark was appointed University Lecturer in Modern European History, and in 2006 Reader in Modern European History. His Cambridge University professorship in history followed in 2008. In September 2014, he succeeded Richard J. Evans as Regius P ...more...



KWG may refer to: A piece of German law called Kreditwesengesetz which regulates financial transactions. Kaba Deme language; ISO 639-3 language code KWG Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft), Germany Kew Gardens station (London) , England; National Rail station code KWG Kite Wind Generator general wind power Kite Wind Generator Kitegen - wind power from high altitude winds Koolewong railway station , New South Wales, Australia; station code KWG Koninklijk Wiskundig Genootschap , the Royal Dutch Mathematical Society Kryvyi Rih International Airport , Ukraine; IATA airport code KWG KWG (AM) , a radio station (1230 AM) licensed to serve Stockton, California, United States KWG Property , a property developer in Guangzhou, China KWG may refer to: A piece of German law called Kreditwesengesetz which regulates financial transactions. Kaba Deme language; ISO 639-3 language code KWG Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft), Germany Kew Gardens station (London) , England; National Rail st ...more...

Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems


The Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (MPI-IS) exists since March 18, 2011. Its Stuttgart location (the former MPI for Metals Research) is in the process of scientific reorientation; a new institute location arises in Tübingen . The MPI for Intelligent Systems belongs to the Max Planck Society , a German research institution strong in basic research. Max Planck Institute - Stuttgart Research The Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems approaches intelligent systems from the viewpoint of learning in systems with perception-action loops while these systems interact with natural, complex environments. The institute focuses on establishing the scientific foundations of perception, action and learning through interdisciplinary and collaborative research across scales and systems. The focus is on constructing, modeling and analyzing synthetic and hybrid perception-action systems using learning and self-organization, both for handling sensory complexity and for building structural/physical complexity ...more...

Emperor William Shaft


The Emperor William Shaft ( German : Kaiser-Wilhelm-Schacht or Schacht Kaiser Wilhelm II.) was the central hoisting and man-riding shaft of the lead and zinc mine in Clausthal-Zellerfeld in the Upper Harz in central Germany. It was sited on the Burgstatt Lode (Burgstätter Gangzug). The surface installations were located in the borough of Clausthal on No. 24 Erzstraße, near the present-day mining institute of the University of Technology . See also Mining in the Upper Harz Literature Hermann Banniza (1895) (in German), Das Berg- und Hüttenwesen des Oberharzes, Stuttgart: Enke   Lutz Markworth (2002) (in German), Verschlossen und verriegelt: Bergbaurelikte der Königlich-Preußischen Berginspektion Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld: Oberharzer Geschichts- und Museumsverein, ISBN   3-9806619-6-2   Torsten Schröpfer (2000) (in German), Fundgrube: Wissenswertes über den Westharzer Bergbau und das Hüttenwesen (1. ed.), Clausthal-Zellerfeld: Pieper, ISBN   3-923605-08-0   Axel Funke (1984) (in German), Fördergerüste des ...more...

Richard Willstätter


Richard Martin Willstätter , ForMemRS (13 August 1872 – 3 August 1942) was a German organic chemist whose study of the structure of plant pigments, chlorophyll included, won him the 1915 Nobel Prize for Chemistry . Willstätter invented paper chromatography independently of Mikhail Tsvet . Biography Willstätter was born into a Jewish family in Karlsruhe . He was the son of Sophie (Ulmann) and Maxwell Willstätter, a textile merchant. He went to school there and, when his family moved, he attended the Technical School in Nuremberg . At age 18 he entered the University of Munich to study science and stayed for the next fifteen years. He was in the Department of Chemistry, first as a student of Alfred Einhorn —he received his doctorate in 1894 - then as a faculty member. His doctoral thesis was on the structure of cocaine . Willstätter continued his research into other alkaloids and synthesized several of them. In 1896 he was named Lecturer and in 1902 Professor extraordinarius (professor without a chair). In 190 ...more...

SMS Kaiser Barbarossa


SMS Kaiser Barbarossa (His Majesty's Ship Emperor Barbarossa ) was a German pre-dreadnought battleship of the Kaiser Friedrich III class . The ship was built for the Imperial Navy , which had begun a program of expansion at the direction of Kaiser Wilhelm II . Construction took place at Schichau , in Danzig . Kaiser Barbarossa was laid down in August 1898, launched on 21 April 1900, and commissioned in June 1901, at the cost of 20,301,000 marks . The ship was armed with a main battery of four 24-centimeter (9.4 in) guns inside of two twin gun turrets . Kaiser Barbarossa served with the German navy from her commissioning in 1901, though her active career was limited by two lengthy stays in dry dock. The first was for repairs following damage to her rudder in 1903, which lasted until early 1905, and the second for a major modernization, which began immediately after the conclusion of repair work in 1905 and lasted until late 1907. She returned to service for another two years, before being decommissioned in 19 ...more...

Wilhelm Valentiner


Wilhelm Reinhold Valentiner (May 2, 1880 – September 6, 1958) was a German art historian , art critic and museum official. He is especially known through his writings on Flemish and Dutch painting. Life Wilhelm Valentiner was born at Karlsruhe (Baden), and studied at Heidelberg under Henry Thode , and in the Netherlands with Cornelis Hofstede de Groot and with Abraham Bredius , whose assistant he was at the Gallery of The Hague . In 1905 he was called to Berlin by William Bode , under whom he worked at the Kaiser Friedrich Museum and the Kunstgewerbemuseum Berlin . In 1906 he published his dissertation on Rembrandt that he started in 1904: Rembrandt auf der Lateinschule. New York City In 1907 he was appointed the first curator of the department of decorative arts in the Metropolitan Museum in New York City , which under his supervision became one of the foremost in the world. World War I At the start of World War I he returned to Germany to serve in the army. After service at the front in 1916, he was appoint ...more...

Severo Ochoa


Severo Ochoa de Albornoz ( Spanish:  ; 24 September 1905 – 1 November 1993) was a Spanish -American physician and biochemist , and joint winner of the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Arthur Kornberg . Early life Severo Ochoa was born in Luarca ( Asturias ), Spain . His father was Severo Manuel Ochoa, a lawyer and businessman, and his mother was Carmen de Albornoz. Ochoa was the nephew of Álvaro de Albornoz (President of the Second Spanish Republic that was exiled, 1947–1951), and a cousin of the poet and literary poet and critic Aurora de Albornoz . His father died when Ochoa was seven, and he and his mother moved to Málaga , where he attended elementary school through high school. His interest in biology was stimulated by the publications of the Spanish neurologist and Nobel laureate Santiago Ramón y Cajal . In 1923, he went to the University of Madrid Medical School, where he hoped to work with Cajal, but Cajal retired. He studied with father Pedro Arrupe , and Juan Negrín was his teacher. N ...more...

Erich Fischer


Erich Horst Fischer (3 July 1910, Allenstein , East Prussia – 1969) was a German experimental physicist . He worked at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics (KWIP) and contributed to the German nuclear energy project, also known as the Uranium Club. After World War II, he helped rebuild the KWIP branch at Hechingen, was a professor at the University of Tübingen and Ankara University, and then a research scientist for the German firm GKSS. Education From 1929 to 1935, Fischer studied at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn , the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München , and the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität (today, the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin ). He received his doctorate at the University of Berlin under Walther Nernst and A. Deubner. Career After receipt of his doctorate, Fischer was a teaching assistant to W. Friedrich at the University of Berlin from 1935 to 1936. In 1937, he became an assistant under Peter Debye and Werner Heisenberg at the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut für Physik (KWIP, ...more...

Yellow Peril


The Yellow Terror in all His Glory (1899) is a rebellious Qing Dynasty Chinese man, armed to the teeth, who stands astride a fallen white woman representing Western European colonialism The Yellow Peril (also Yellow Terror and Yellow Spectre ) is a racist color-metaphor that is integral to the xenophobic theory of colonialism : that the peoples of East Asia are a danger to the Western world . As a psycho-cultural perception of menace from the East, fear of the Yellow Peril was more racial than national, a fear derived, not from concern with a specific source of danger, from any one country or people, but from a vaguely ominous, existential fear of the vast, faceless, nameless horde of yellow people opposite the Western world. As a form of xenophobia , the Yellow Terror is the fear of the rising tide of colored people from the Orient. The racist ideology of the Yellow Peril is a "core imagery of apes, lesser men, primitives, children, madmen, and beings who possessed special powers", which are cultural represe ...more...

Hans Hellmann


Hans Gustav Adolf Hellmann (14 October 1903 – 29 May 1938) was a German theoretical physicist . Hellmann was born in Wilhelmshaven , Prussian Hanover . He began studying electrical engineering in Stuttgart , but changed to engineering physics after a semester. Hellmann also studied at the University of Kiel . He received his diploma from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin under Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner . He received his Ph.D. at Stuttgart with Prof. Erich Regener , who was also the landlord of his future spouse Victoria Bernstein. In 1929 Hellmann became assistant professor at the University of Hanover . After the Nazi rise to power , Hellmann was dismissed on 24 December 1933 as ‘undesirable’ because of his Jewish wife. He immigrated to the Soviet Union , taking up a position in Moscow . However, he was later denounced during the Great Purge , imprisoned on 10 May 1938 and executed on 29 May. His son, Hans Hellmann, Jr., was only allowed to leave the former Soviet Union in 1991. In scienc ...more...

Friedrich Schmidt-Ott


Friedrich Schmidt-Ott (4 June 1860, in Potsdam – 28 April 1956, in Berlin ) was a German lawyer, scientific organizer, and science policymaker. He was the Prussian Minister of Culture, president of the Emergency Association of German Science, on the advisory boards of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and its institutes, and chairman of the Donor Federation of the Emergency Association of German Science. Education Schmidt-Ott had a degree in law. Career From 1888, Schmidt-Ott was at the Preußisches Kultusministerium (PrKM, Prussian Culture Ministry), officially the Preußisches Ministerium für Wissenschaft, Kunst und Volksbildung Prussuan Ministry of Science, Arts, and Culture. For many years, he was assistant to Friedrich Althoff. From 1903, Schmidt-Ott was head of the arts division, and from 1917, he was the Preußischen Kultusminister (Prussian Minister of Culture). From 1911 to 1919, Schmidt-Ott was on the boards of trustees of all the institutes of the Kaiser-Wilhelm Gesellschaft (KWG, Kaiser Wilhelm Society). Fr ...more...

Wilhelm Groth


Wilhelm Groth (9 January 1904 in Hamburg – 20 February 1977 in Bonn ) was a German physical chemist . During World War II , he worked on the German nuclear energy project, also known as the Uranium Club; his main activity was the development of centrifuges for the enrichment of uranium. After the war, he was a professor of physical chemistry at the University of Hamburg . In 1950, he became director of the Institute of Physical Chemistry at the University of Bonn . He was a principal in the 1956 shipment of three centrifuges for uranium enrichment to Brazil. Education From 1922 to 1927, Groth studied at the Technische Hochschule München (today, the Technical University of Munich (Technische Universität München), the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München), and the University of Tübingen (Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen). He received his doctorate in 1927 under Walther Gerlach at Tübingen. His thesis was on the determination of electromechanical equivalents. Career I ...more...

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