The Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science (German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften) was a German scientific institution established in the German Empire in 1911. Under the Third Reich it was involved in Nazi scientific operations, and after the Second World War concluded, its functions were taken over by the Max Planck Society. The Kaiser Wilhelm Society was an umbrella organisation for many institutes, testing stations, and research units created under its authority.
The Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft (KWG) was founded in 1911 in order to promote the natural sciences in Germany, by founding and maintaining research institutions formally independent from the state and its administrations. The institutions were to be under the guidance of prominent directors, which included luminaries such as Walther Bothe, Peter Debye, Albert Einstein, Fritz Haber and Otto Hahn; a board of trustees also provided guidance.
Funding was ultimately obtained from sources internal and external to Germany. Internally, money was raised from individuals, industry and the government, as well as through the Notgemeinschaft der Deutschen Wissenschaft (Emergency Association of German Science).
External to Germany, the Rockefeller Foundation granted students worldwide one-year study stipends, for whichever institute they chose, some studied in Germany.   In contrast to the German universities with their formal independence from state administrations, the institutions of the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft had no obligation to teach students.
The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute and its research facilities were involved in weapons research, experimentation and production in both the First World War and the Second World War.
By the end of the Second World War, the KWG and its institutes had lost their central location in Berlin and were operating in other locations. The KWG was operating out of its Aerodynamics Testing Station in Göttingen. Albert Vögler, the president of the KWG, committed suicide on 14 April 1945. Thereupon, Ernst Telschow assumed the duties until Max Planck could be brought from Magdeburg to Göttingen, which was in the British zone of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany. Planck assumed the duties on 16 May until a president could be elected. Otto Hahn was selected by directors to be president, but there were a number of difficulties to be overcome. Hahn, being related to nuclear research had been captured by the allied forces of Operation Alsos, and he was still interned at Farm Hall in Britain, under Operation Epsilon. At first, Hahn was reluctant to accept the post, but others prevailed upon him to accept it. Hahn took over the presidency three months after being released and returned to Germany. However, the Office of Military Government, United States (OMGUS) passed a resolution to dissolve the KWG on 11 July 1946.
Meanwhile, members of the British occupation forces, specifically in the Research Branch of the OMGUS, saw the society in a more favourable light and tried to dissuade the Americans from taking such action. The physicist Howard Percy Robertson was director of the department for science in the British Zone; he had a National Research Council Fellowship in the 1920s to study at the Georg-August University of Göttingen and the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich. Also, Colonel Bertie Blount was on the staff of the British Research Branch, and he had received his doctorate at Göttingen under Walther Borsche. Among other things, Bertie suggested to Hahn to write to Sir Henry Hallett Dale, who had been the president of the Royal Society, which he did. While in Britain, Bertie also spoke with Dale, who came up with a suggestion. Dale believed that it was only the name which conjured up a pejorative picture and suggested that the society be renamed the Max Planck Gesellschaft. On 11 September 1946, the Max Planck Gesellschaft was founded in the British Zone only. The second founding took place on 26 February 1948 for both the American and British occupation zones. The physicists Max von Laue and Walther Gerlach were also instrumental in establishing the society across the allied zones, including the French zone. 
Castle Reisicht, family home of Senden-Bibran ( Alexander Duncker collection). Gustav Freiherr (Baron) von Senden-Bibran (23 July 1847, Reisicht , Lower Silesia , Germany – 23 November 1909 in Berlin ) was an admiral of the German Imperial Navy . His father was a Silesian landowner who had served in the Austro-Hungarian Cavalry. He entered the Prussian Navy at age 15, never married, and dedicated his life to building a strong German Navy. After service in the Franco-Prussian War , from 1871 to 1874 Senden-Bibran attended the post-graduate Naval War College, the Marineakademie , along with the future admiral and colleague Otto von Diederichs . Senden-Bibran was stationed in China , Japan and the South Pacific , the Mediterranean and Constantinople . After a cruise around the world (1881–83) he was given more important commands at home. He became Naval Adjutant or aide to Kaiser Wilhelm II 1888, and, in 1889, Chief of the German Imperial Naval Cabinet . In both positions he was very valuable for his ability to
Geheimrat Leopold Koppel (20 October 1843 in Dresden – 29 August 1933 in Berlin ) was a German banker and entrepreneur . He founded the private banking house Koppel und Co., the industrial firms Auergesellschaft and OSRAM, and the philanthropic foundation the Koppel-Stiftung. He was a Senator in the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft . An endowment he made in 1911 resulted in the founding of the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut für physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie, and endowments from him led to the founding of and support of the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut für Physik. He was a target of the Third Reich’s policy of Arisierung – the Aryanization of German businesses, which began in 1933. Career Koppel was a Jewish banker and entrepreneur. In recognition of his contributions to German commerce, he was given the title Geheimer Kommerzienrat ( Privy Councillor of Commerce), or, in short, Geheimrat . In 1890, Koppel opened his private banking house Koppel und Co. In 1892, with the Austrian chemist and inventor Carl Auer von Wel
Carl Erich Correns (19 September 1864 – 14 February 1933) was a German botanist and geneticist , who is notable primarily for his independent discovery of the principles of heredity , and for his rediscovery of Gregor Mendel 's earlier paper on that subject, which he achieved simultaneously but independently of the botanists Erich Tschermak von Seysenegg and Hugo de Vries , and the agronomist William Jasper Spillman . Correns was a student of Karl Nägeli , a renowned botanist with whom Mendel corresponded about his work with peas, but who failed to understand how significant Mendel's work was. Early life and education Carl Correns was born September 1864 in Munich . Orphaned at an early age, he was raised by an aunt in Switzerland . He entered the University of Munich in 1885. While there, he was encouraged to study botany by Karl Nägeli , a botanist whom Mendel corresponded with on the subject of his pea plant experiments. After completing his thesis, Correns became a tutor at the University of Tübingen an
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering ; German: ; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945. A veteran World War I fighter pilot ace , he was a recipient of the Pour le Mérite . He was the last commander of Jagdgeschwader 1 , the fighter wing once led by Manfred von Richthofen . An early member of the Nazi Party, Göring was among those wounded in Adolf Hitler 's failed Beer Hall Putsch in 1923. While receiving treatment for his injuries, he developed an addiction to morphine which persisted until the end of his life. After Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in 1933, Göring was named as Minister Without Portfolio in the new government. One of his first acts as a cabinet minister was to oversee the creation of the Gestapo , which he ceded to Heinrich Himmler in 1934. Following the establishment of the Nazi state, Göring amassed power and political capital to become the sec
The Free University of Berlin ( German : Freie Universität Berlin , often abbreviated as FU Berlin or simply FU ) is a research university located in Berlin , Germany. One of Germany's most recognised universities, it is known for its research in the humanities and social sciences, as well as in the field of natural and life sciences. The Free University was founded in West Berlin in 1948 with American support during the early Cold War period as a de facto western continuation of the Frederick William University , which was located in East Berlin and faced strong communist repression; its name refers to West Berlin's status as part of the Western " free world ," in contrast to the "unfree" Communist world in general and the "unfree" communist-controlled university in East Berlin in particular. The Free University of Berlin is one of eleven German elite universities in the German Universities Excellence Initiative . History Free University of Berlin was established by students and scholars on 4 December 1948.
The Max Planck Institute for Chemistry ( Otto Hahn Institute ) ( German : Max Planck Institut für Chemie - Otto Hahn Institut ) is a non-university research institute under the auspices of the Max Planck Society (German: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft ). It is based in Mainz . In 2016 research at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz aims at an integral understanding of chemical processes in the Earth system, particularly in the atmosphere and biosphere. Investigations address a wide range of interactions between air, water, soil, life and climate in the course of Earth history up to today´s human-driven epoch, the Anthropocene . The Institute consists of five scientific departments (Atmospheric Chemistry, Climate Geochemistry, Biogeochemistry, Multiphase Chemistry, and Particle Chemistry) and additional research groups. The departments are independently led by their Directors. Research The Institute consists of five scientific departments and additional research groups. Atmospheric Chemistry Department: T
Hilde Levi (9 May 1909 – 26 July 2003) was a German-Danish physicist . She was a pioneer of the use of radioactive isotopes in biology and medicine , notably the techniques of radiocarbon dating and autoradiography . In later life she became a scientific historian, and published a biography of George de Hevesy . Born into a non-religious Jewish family in Frankfurt , Germany, Levi entered the University of Munich in 1929. She carried out her doctoral studies at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry at Berlin-Dahlem , writing her thesis on the spectra of alkali metal halides under the supervision of Peter Pringsheim and Fritz Haber . By the time she completed it in 1934, the Nazi Party had been elected to office in Germany, and Jews were no longer allowed to be hired for academic positions. She went to Denmark where she found a position at the Niels Bohr Institute of Theoretical Physics at the University of Copenhagen . Working with James Franck and George de Hevesy, she publi
SMS Kaiser Barbarossa (His Majesty's Ship Emperor Barbarossa ) was a German pre-dreadnought battleship of the Kaiser Friedrich III class . The ship was built for the Imperial Navy , which had begun a program of expansion at the direction of Kaiser Wilhelm II . Construction took place at Schichau , in Danzig . Kaiser Barbarossa was laid down in August 1898, launched on 21 April 1900, and commissioned in June 1901, at the cost of 20,301,000 marks . The ship was armed with a main battery of four 24-centimeter (9.4 in) guns inside of two twin gun turrets . Kaiser Barbarossa served with the German navy from her commissioning in 1901, though her active career was limited by two lengthy stays in dry dock. The first was for repairs following damage to her rudder in 1903, which lasted until early 1905, and the second for a major modernization, which began immediately after the conclusion of repair work in 1905 and lasted until late 1907. She returned to service for another two years, before being decommissioned in 19
The Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine ( German : Max-Planck-Institut für Experimentelle Medizin ) is located in Göttingen , Germany . It was founded as Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research in 1947, and was renamed in 1965. It is one of 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft). Prof. Dr. Klaus-Armin Nave is currently the acting director of the institute. Research The research focus of the institute is on neuroscience . Research activities cover a wide spectrum of topics, ranging from basic molecular analyses of neuronal processes to clinical studies on novel therapies of neurological and psychiatric disorders in patients. The central aim of all these studies is to understand basic molecular and cellular processes in brain function, to analyze their pathological dysfunction in psychiatric and neurological diseases, and ultimately to develop novel therapies for these disorders. Departments Neurogenetics The Department of Neurogenetics, led by Klaus-Armin Nave, uses t
The Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry ( German : Max-Planck-Institut für Psychiatrie ) is a scientific institute based in the city of Munich in Germany specializing in psychiatry . Currently directed by Elisabeth Binder, Alon Chen and Martin Keck, it is one of the 81 institutes in the Max Planck Society . History The Institute was founded as the German Institute for Psychiatric Research ( German : Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Psychiatrie ) by King Ludwig III of Bavaria in Munich on February 13, 1917. The main force behind the institute was the psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin . Substantial funding was received from the Jewish-American banker James Loeb , as well as from the Rockefeller Foundation , well into the 1930s. The Institute became affiliated with the K. W. Society for the Advancement of Science ( German : Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften ) in 1924. In 1928 a new building of the institute was opened at 2 Kraepelinstrasse. The building was financed primarily by a donation
SMS Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm ("His Majesty's Ship Elector Friedrich Wilhelm") was one of the first ocean-going battleships of the Imperial German Navy . The ship was named for Prince-elector (Kurfürst) Friedrich Wilhelm , 17th-century Duke of Prussia and Margrave of Brandenburg . She was the fourth pre-dreadnought of the Brandenburg class , along with her sister ships Brandenburg , Weissenburg , and Wörth . She was laid down in 1890 in the Imperial Dockyard in Wilhelmshaven , launched in 1891, and completed in 1893 at a cost of 11.23 million marks . The Brandenburg-class battleships carried six large-caliber guns in three twin turrets, as opposed to four guns in two turrets, as was the standard in other navies. Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm served as the flagship of the Imperial fleet from her commissioning in 1894 until 1900. She saw limited active duty during her service career with the German fleet due to the relatively peaceful nature of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. As a result, her career focu
Franz Joseph Emil Fischer (19 March 1877 in Freiburg im Breisgau – 1 December 1947 in Munich ) was a German chemist . He and Hans Tropsch discovered the Fischer-Tropsch process . With Hans Schrader he developed the Fischer Assay , a standardized laboratory test for determining the oil yield from oil shale to be expected from a conventional shale oil extraction . He also worked with Wilhelm Ostwald and Hermann Emil Fischer . In 1913 he became Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Coal Research in Mülheim. Awards Wilhelm Exner Medal , 1936 References Heistand, Robert N. (1976). "The Fischer Assay, standard method?" (PDF) . San Francisco: Symposium on oil shale, tar sands, and related materials — production and utilization of synfuels . Retrieved 2008-08-18 . Chemist biographies Franz Joseph Emil Fischer (19 March 1877 in Freiburg im Breisgau – 1 December 1947 in Munich ) was a German chemist . He and Hans Tropsch discovered the Fischer-Tropsch process . With Hans Schrader he developed the Fischer Assay
Eugen Fischer (5 July 1874 – 9 July 1967) was a German professor of medicine , anthropology , and eugenics , and a member of the Nazi Party . He served as director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics , and also served as rector of the Frederick William University of Berlin . Fischer's ideas informed the Nuremberg Laws of 1935 which served to justify the Nazi Party's belief in German racial superiority. Adolf Hitler read Fischer's work while he was imprisoned in 1923 and he used Fischer's eugenical notions to support the ideal of a pure Aryan society in his manifesto, Mein Kampf (My Struggle). Biography Fischer was born in Karlsruhe , Grand Duchy of Baden , in 1874. He studied medicine, folkloristics , history , anatomy , and anthropology in Berlin , Freiburg and Munich . In 1918, he joined the Anatomical Institute in Freiburg in 1918, part of the University of Freiburg . In 1927, Fischer became the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Here
The Kaiser class was a class of five battleships that were built in Germany prior to World War I and served in the Imperial German Navy during the war. They were the third class of German dreadnoughts , and the first to feature turbine engines and superfiring turrets. The five ships were Kaiser , Friedrich der Grosse , Kaiserin , Prinzregent Luitpold , and König Albert . As was usual for German battleships of the period, the Kaiser class mounted main guns that were smaller than those of their British rivals: 30.5 cm (12.0 in), compared to the 34.3 cm (13.5 in) guns of the British Orion class . All five ships saw action in the North Sea during the war; they served together as the VI Division of the III Battle Squadron. Four were present during the Battle of Jutland ; König Albert was in dock at the time. Of the four ships that took part in the battle, only Kaiser was damaged, being struck by two heavy-caliber shells. The ships also took part in Operation Albion in the Baltic Sea; during the operation they we
The Emperor William Shaft ( German : Kaiser-Wilhelm-Schacht or Schacht Kaiser Wilhelm II.) was the central hoisting and man-riding shaft of the lead and zinc mine in Clausthal-Zellerfeld in the Upper Harz in central Germany. It was sited on the Burgstatt Lode (Burgstätter Gangzug). The surface installations were located in the borough of Clausthal on No. 24 Erzstraße, near the present-day mining institute of the University of Technology . See also Mining in the Upper Harz Literature Hermann Banniza (1895) (in German), Das Berg- und Hüttenwesen des Oberharzes, Stuttgart: Enke Lutz Markworth (2002) (in German), Verschlossen und verriegelt: Bergbaurelikte der Königlich-Preußischen Berginspektion Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld: Oberharzer Geschichts- und Museumsverein, ISBN 3-9806619-6-2 Torsten Schröpfer (2000) (in German), Fundgrube: Wissenswertes über den Westharzer Bergbau und das Hüttenwesen (1. ed.), Clausthal-Zellerfeld: Pieper, ISBN 3-923605-08-0 Axel Funke (1984) (in German), Fördergerüste des Obe
Wilhelm Erben (3 December 1864, in Salzburg – 7 April 1933, in Graz ) was an Austrian historian, known for his work in the field of auxiliary sciences of history and his studies involving the history of medieval warfare . He studied history at the University of Vienna , and from 1885 studied with Theodor von Sickel at the Institut für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung (Institute for Austrian Historical Research) in Vienna. From 1888 to 1891 he was an employee of the Monumenta Germaniae historica , and afterwards, served as curator at the Imperial Army Museum in Vienna. In 1901 he qualified as a lecturer, and two years later was named professor of medieval history and historical auxiliary sciences at the University of Innsbruck . From 1917 up until his death in 1933, he taught classes as a professor at the University of Graz . In 1915 he became a member of the Vienna Academy of Sciences . Selected works Die Kaiser- und Königsurkunden des Mittelalters in Deutschland, Frankreich und Italien, 1907 – The imperia
Joseph Joshua Weiss ( J J Weiss ) (30 August 1905 – 9 April 1972) was a Jewish-Austrian chemist and Professor at the Newcastle University . He was a pioneer in the field of radiation and photochemistry Weiss was born in 1905 in Austria . He had obtained a Dipl.Ing. degree in the Technische Hochschule in Vienna . He entered the Textile Institute at Sorau in 1928 and was the head of the chemistry department there. He left his post two years later to become an assistant to the German chemist Fritz Haber at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Elektrochemistry in Berlin. Together they discovered the Haber–Weiss reaction . He fled with Haber (who was born Jewish) from Nazi Germany to Cambridge in 1933. He later moved to University College London , where he got his PhD in 1935 from Prof Frederick George Donnan . in 1937 he started teaching at the King's College in Durham, which later became the Newcastle University . In 1956 he was appointed a professor of Radiation Chemistry at the Newcastl
SMS Kaiser Karl der Grosse (His Majesty's Ship " Charlemagne ") was a German pre-dreadnought battleship of the Kaiser Friedrich III class , built around the turn of the 20th century for the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy). Kaiser Karl der Grosse was built in Hamburg , at the Blohm and Voss shipyard. She was laid down in September 1898 and launched in October 1899. A shipyard strike and an accidental grounding delayed her completion until February 1902; she was therefore the last member of her class to enter service. The ship was armed with four 24-centimeter (9.4 in) guns in two twin gun turrets and had a top speed of 17.5 knots (32.4 km/h; 20.1 mph). Kaiser Karl der Grosse served with the active fleet until 1908, participating in the normal peacetime routine of training cruises and fleet maneuvers. By 1908, the new "all-big-gun" dreadnought battleships were entering service. As she was completely obsolete, Kaiser Karl der Grosse was withdrawn from active service and placed in the Reserve Division. At the
The Max Planck Institute for Biology was located in Tübingen , Germany . It was created as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology in Berlin in 1912, and moved to Tübingen 1943. It was one of 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society (Max Planck Gesellschaft) and was closed in 2005. The Max Planck Institute for Biology was located in Tübingen , Germany . It was created as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology in Berlin in 1912, and moved to Tübingen 1943. It was one of 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society (Max Planck Gesellschaft) and was closed in 2005.
Richard Wagner in 1871 Wilhelm Richard Wagner ( ; German: ; 22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883), was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist , and conductor who is primarily known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas"). Unlike most opera composers, Wagner wrote both the libretto and the music for each of his stage works. Initially establishing his reputation as a composer of works in the romantic vein of Weber and Meyerbeer , Wagner revolutionised opera through his concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk ("total work of art"), by which he sought to synthesise the poetic, visual, musical and dramatic arts, with music subsidiary to drama. He described this vision in a series of essays published between 1849 and 1852. Wagner realised these ideas most fully in the first half of the four-opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung ). His compositions, particularly those of his later period, are notable for their complex textures , rich harmonies and orchestrat
Erich Horst Fischer (3 July 1910, Allenstein , East Prussia – 1969) was a German experimental physicist . He worked at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics (KWIP) and contributed to the German nuclear energy project, also known as the Uranium Club. After World War II, he helped rebuild the KWIP branch at Hechingen, was a professor at the University of Tübingen and Ankara University, and then a research scientist for the German firm GKSS. Education From 1929 to 1935, Fischer studied at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn , the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München , and the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität (today, the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin ). He received his doctorate at the University of Berlin under Walther Nernst and A. Deubner. Career After receipt of his doctorate, Fischer was a teaching assistant to W. Friedrich at the University of Berlin from 1935 to 1936. In 1937, he became an assistant under Peter Debye and Werner Heisenberg at the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut für Physik (KWIP,
Sovetskaya was a Soviet research station in Kaiser Wilhelm II Land in Antarctica that was established on 16 February 1958 and closed on 3 January 1959. The surface elevation was initially reported to be 3,570 metres (11,710 ft); however, it was later revised to 3,662 metres (12,014 ft). Reached on 16 February 1958 by the 3rd Soviet Antarctic Expedition for International Geophysical Year research work, it closed on 3 January 1959. Its WMO reporting ID was 89557. See also Sovetskaya (lake) Sources Victor E. Lagun (16 October 2008). "Catalogue of Russian Federation Antarctic Meteorology Data" . Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute . Retrieved 29 July 2010 . Sovetskaya was a Soviet research station in Kaiser Wilhelm II Land in Antarctica that was established on 16 February 1958 and closed on 3 January 1959. The surface elevation was initially reported to be 3,570 metres (11,710 ft); however, it was later revised to 3,662 metres (12,014 ft). Reached on 16 February 1958 by the 3rd Soviet Antarctic Expedition for
Wilhelm Hermann Julius Eitel (6 May 1891 – 20 July 1979) was born on 6 May 1891 (Frankfurt am Main) and became a prominent German-American scientist, dying in the United States in 1979. Education In Frankfurt am Main , Wilhelm Eitel completed his pre-academical training at the Wöhler-Gymnasium in 1909; after that he studied at the universities of Tübingen (1 semester) and Heidelberg (5 semesters), where, on 23 July 1912, he obtained his Ph.D. in "Mineralchemie" (mineralogical chemistry) from his promotor Professor Theodor Curtius . Research and Positions In 1920 and 1921 Wilhelm Eitel was assistant professor in mineralogy at the University of Leipzig ; from 1921 to 1926 professor at the University of Königsberg , and from 1926 to 1945 full professor in mineralogy at the Technical University of Berlin From 1926 to 1945 Professor Wilhelm Eitel also held the office of director of the "Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Silicatforschung" in Berlin (now: Fraunhofer-Institut für Silicatforschung). In this function Eitel i
Severo Ochoa de Albornoz ( Spanish: ; 24 September 1905 – 1 November 1993) was a Spanish physician and biochemist , and joint winner of the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Arthur Kornberg . Early life Severo Ochoa was born in Luarca ( Asturias ), Spain . His father was Severo Manuel Ochoa, a lawyer and businessman, and his mother was Carmen de Albornoz. Ochoa was the nephew of Álvaro de Albornoz (President of the Second Spanish Republic that was exiled, 1947–1951), and a cousin of the poet and literary poet and critic Aurora de Albornoz . His father died when Ochoa was seven, and he and his mother moved to Málaga , where he attended elementary school through high school. His interest in biology was stimulated by the publications of the Spanish neurologist and Nobel laureate Santiago Ramón y Cajal . In 1923, he went to the University of Madrid Medical School, where he hoped to work with Cajal, but Cajal retired. He studied with father Pedro Arrupe , and Juan Negrín was his teacher. Negrín enco
The Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (MPI-IS) exists since March 18, 2011. Its Stuttgart location (the former MPI for Metals Research) is in the process of scientific reorientation; a new institute location arises in Tübingen . The MPI for Intelligent Systems belongs to the Max Planck Society , a German research institution strong in basic research. Max Planck Institute - Stuttgart Research The Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems approaches intelligent systems from the viewpoint of learning in systems with perception-action loops while these systems interact with natural, complex environments. The institute focuses on establishing the scientific foundations of perception, action and learning through interdisciplinary and collaborative research across scales and systems. The focus is on constructing, modeling and analyzing synthetic and hybrid perception-action systems using learning and self-organization, both for handling sensory complexity and for building structural/physical complexity
Gerhart Jander (26 October 1892 – 8 December 1961) was a German inorganic chemist. His book, now normally only called "Jander-Blasius", on analytical chemistry is still used in German universities. His involvement in the chemical weapon research and close relation to the NSDAP have been unrecovered by recent research. Life and work Jander was born in Altdöbern , Oberspreewald-Lausitz . Jander studied in Technical University of Munich , and at University of Berlin where he received his Ph.D for work with Arthur Rosenheim in 1917. He joined Richard Zsigmondy at the University of Göttingen . He became professor in 1925 and after a two-year period being a temporary director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Elektrochemistry from 1933 till 1935 he became professor for inorganic chemistry at the University of Greifswald . In 1951 he changed to the Technical University of Berlin . Jander died in Berlin in 1961. Critical reviews The involvement of Jander in the research on chemical warfare an
Friedrich Wettstein, Ritter von Westersheim (24 June 1895 in Prague – 12 February 1945 in Trins , Tirol) was an Austrian botanist. Academic career Fritz Wettstein was the son of Richard Wettstein . From 1925 he was professor at Göttingen , in 1931 in Munich and in 1934 director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology in Berlin-Dahlem . Wettstein made a major contribution to botanical and genetical science. He worked especially on cytoplasmic inheritance in mosses and fireweed . Following Erwin Baur at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institut, Berlin-Dahlem, he investigated hybrids and polyploids of mosses, and advanced the understanding of the relationships and characteristics of polyploid forms. Political implications Wettstein has been criticised because at international scientific conferences before the war he defended National Socialist racial ideas. Works Morphologie und Physiologie des Formwechsels der Moose auf genetischer Grundlage (1924) Über plasmatische Vererbung sowie Plasma-und Genwirkung (1930) Genetik (
Ernst Heymann (April 6, 1870 - March 2, 1946) was a German jurist from Berlin .In 1889 he put on Breslauer Mary Magdalene School from the matriculation examination. He then studied until 1892 Law at the Silesian Friedrich-Wilhelm University in Breslau . Heymann 1899 professor at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Berlin . In 1902 he was appointed to the Chair of Law at the Albertus University of Königsberg appointed, two years later he moved to the University of Marburg . In 1914 he returned to Berlin at the Friedrich Wilhelm University. Since 1918 Heymann was a regular member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences . From 1926 to 1938 he was secretary of the Philosophical and Historical Class of the Academy, after initially until 1939. Acting Vice President and from 1939 to 1942 finally Vice President. Heymann was longtime chairman of the Academy commissions " German Law Dictionary ", "German Commission" and " Vocabularium Iurisprudentiae Romanae " and justice expert of the Academy. Since 1926, Heymann was sc
The Cockcroft–Walton (CW) generator , or multiplier , is an electric circuit that generates a high DC voltage from a low-voltage AC or pulsing DC input. It was named after the British and Irish physicists John Douglas Cockcroft and Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton , who in 1932 used this circuit design to power their particle accelerator , performing the first artificial nuclear disintegration in history. They used this voltage multiplier cascade for most of their research, which in 1951 won them the Nobel Prize in Physics for "Transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles". Less well known is the fact that the circuit was discovered much earlier, in 1919, by Heinrich Greinacher , a Swiss physicist . For this reason, this doubler cascade is sometimes also referred to as the Greinacher multiplier . Cockcroft–Walton circuits are still used in particle accelerators. They also are used in everyday electronic devices that require high voltages, such as X-ray machines , television sets , m
German Samoa ( German : Deutsch-Samoa ) was a German protectorate from 1900 to 1914, consisting of the islands of Upolu , Savai'i , Apolima and Manono , now wholly within the independent state Samoa , formerly Western Samoa. Samoa was the last German colonial acquisition in the Pacific basin , received following the Tripartite Convention signed at Washington on 2 December 1899 with ratifications exchanged on 16 February 1900. It was the only German colony in the Pacific, aside from the Kiautschou concession in China, that was administered separately from German New Guinea . Expansion of German influence In 1855 J.C. Godeffroy & Sohn expanded its trading business into the Pacific following negotiations by August Unshelm, Godeffroy’s agent in Valparaiso. He sailed out to the Samoan Islands , which were then known as the Navigator Islands. During the second half of the 19th century German influence in Samoa expanded with large scale plantation operations being introduced for coconut, cacao and hevea rubbe
KWG may refer to: A piece of German law called Kreditwesengesetz which regulates financial transactions. Kaba Deme language; ISO 639-3 language code KWG Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft), Germany Kew Gardens station (London) , England; National Rail station code KWG Kite Wind Generator general wind power Kite Wind Generator Kitegen - wind power from high altitude winds Koolewong railway station , New South Wales, Australia; station code KWG Koninklijk Wiskundig Genootschap , the Royal Dutch Mathematical Society Kryvyi Rih International Airport , Ukraine; IATA airport code KWG KWG (AM) , a radio station (1230 AM) licensed to serve Stockton, California, United States KWG Property , a property developer in Guangzhou, China KWG may refer to: A piece of German law called Kreditwesengesetz which regulates financial transactions. Kaba Deme language; ISO 639-3 language code KWG Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft), Germany Kew Gardens station (London) , England; National Rail st
Nikolaj Vladimirovich Timofeev-Resovskij ( Russian : Николай Владимирович Тимофеев-Ресовский ; 20 September [ O.S. 7 September] 1900 – 28 March 1981) was a Soviet biologist . He conducted research in radiation genetics , experimental population genetics , and microevolution . His work was of special importance to Soviet biology because it stood in direct opposition to the damage done by Lysenkoism , while his life was highlighted by scientific achievements in the face of severe personal hardship. His life was described by Daniil Granin in the novel Zubr. He was Director of the Genetics Division as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research in the 1930s, where he received direct funding for his research from the Third Reich , who praised him as one of the world's best geneticists and trusted him because he was an opponent of Communism. His department of genetics in Nazi Berlin was also described in a novel by Elly Welt , Berlin Wild; although fictional names were used, the characters are recognizable. E
The Gorgon as depicted on the western pediment from the Artemis Temple of Corfu, on display at the Archaeological Museum of Corfu . Khrysaor , son of the Gorgon. The Temple of Artemis is an Archaic Greek temple in Corfu , Greece , built in around 580 BC in the ancient city of Korkyra (or Corcyra), in what is known today as the suburb of Garitsa. The temple was dedicated to Artemis . It is known as the first Doric temple exclusively built with stone . It is also considered the first building to have incorporated all of the elements of the Doric architectural style . Very few Greek temple reliefs from the Archaic period have survived, and the large fragments of the group from the pediment are the earliest significant survivals. The temple was a peripteral –styled building with a pseudodipteral configuration. Its perimeter was rectangular, with width of 23.46 m (77.0 ft) and length 49 m (161 ft) with an eastward orientation so that light could enter the interior of the temple at sunrise. It was one of the lar
SMS Kaiser was the lead ship of the Kaiser class of battleships of the Imperial German Navy . Kaiser was built by the Imperial Dockyard at Kiel , launched on 22 March 1911 and commissioned on 1 August 1912. The ship was equipped with ten 30.5-centimeter (12.0 in) guns in five twin turrets, and had a top speed of 23.4 knots (43.3 km/h; 26.9 mph). Kaiser was assigned to the III Squadron of the High Seas Fleet for the majority of World War I . In 1913, Kaiser and her sister König Albert conducted a cruise to South America and South Africa. The ship participated in most of the major fleet operations during the war. She fought at the Battle of Jutland on 31 May – 1 June 1916, during which she was hit twice and suffered negligible damage. The ship was also present during Operation Albion in the Baltic Sea in September and October 1917, and at the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight in November 1917. During peace negotiations after the end of the war in 1918, she was interned with other ships of the High Seas Fleet at
Oskar Vogt (6 April 1870, Husum – 30 July 1959, Freiburg im Breisgau ) was a German physician and neurologist . He and his wife Cécile Vogt-Mugnier are known for their extensive cytoarchetectonic studies on the brain. Personal life He was born in Husum , Schleswig-Holstein , Germany. Vogt studied medicine at Kiel and Jena , obtaining his doctorate from Jena in 1894. The Vogts met in 1897 in Paris, and eventually married in 1899. The Vogts were close to the Krupp family. Friedrich Alfred Krupp financially supported them, and in 1898, Oskar and Cécile founded a private research institute called the Neurologische Zentralstation (Neurological Center) in Berlin, which was formally associated with the Physiological Institute of the Charité as the Neurobiological Laboratory of the Berlin University in 1902. This institute served as the basis for the 1914 formation of the Kaiser Institut für Hirnforschung ( Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research), of which Oskar was a director. There, he had students from
Horst Korsching (12 August 1912 – 21 March 1998) was a German physicist. He was arrested by the allied British and American Armed Forces and incarcerated at Farm Hall for six months in 1945 under Operation Epsilon . Education Korsching began his studies of physics at the Humboldt University of Berlin in 1932. In 1937, he joined the scientific staff at the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut für Physik (KWIP, Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics ), an institute under the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft (KWG, Kaiser Wilhelm Society) and located in Dahlem-Berlin . He received his doctorate under Hermann Schüler. Career At the KWIP, he was a colleague of Karl Wirtz , and his research was on determination of the nuclear moment and thermodiffusion. During the war years, he worked on isotope separation under Kurt Diebner and Werner Heisenberg . He went with the staff of the KWIP when it was moved to Hechingen in 1943 to avoid bombing casualties. In late spring 1945, Korsching was arrested by the allied British and American Armed Fo
To Hell with the Kaiser! is a lost 1918 American silent Great War propaganda comedy film produced by Screen Classics Productions and distributed by Metro Pictures . It was directed by George Irving and starred Lawrence Grant as the Kaiser . Made toward the close of World War I , this film falls in line with other films of this popular genre, the wartime propaganda film, made at the same time i.e. The Kaiser, Beast of Berlin , Yankee Doodle in Berlin , Hearts of the World , The Heart of Humanity , Over the Rhine , The False Faces and The Unpardonable Sin to name a few. Synopsis Lawrence Grant, who spent his lengthy career playing odious villains, appeared in the dual role of Kaiser Wilhelm II and his look-alike, German actor Robert Graubel. Terrified of being assassinated, the Kaiser hires Graubel to impersonate him at various political functions. In the film, the Kaiser achieves military success through an infernal pact with Satan. Once this is established, the film concentrates on the seemingly endless tally
The Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH (MPIE) is a research institute of the Max Planck Society located in Düsseldorf . Since 1971 it is legally independent and organized in the form of a GmbH , owned and financed equally by the Max Planck Society and the Steel Institute VDEh . It conducts basic research on advanced materials, specifically steels and related metallic alloys. History The institute was founded as Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Iron Research in Aachen 1917, with Fritz Wüst being the founding director. It moved 1921 to Düsseldorf and relocated from the "Rheinischen Metallwarenfabrik" to its current location in 1935. In 1943, it move temporarily to Claustahl and in 1946 back to Düsseldorf. The 50% institutional co-sponsoring by industry (by Steel Institute VDEh ) determines a unique example of a public private partnership both for the Max-Planck Society and for the European industry and should guarantee a close match between knowledge-oriented and pre-competitive basic research on the one h
The Rominten Hunting Lodge (German: Jagdschloss Rominten ) was the residence of Kaiser Wilhelm II in the Rominter Heath in East Prussia . History Rominten Hunting Lodge, the deer's bridge. The statue was moved to Sosnovka near Moscow after World War II Rominten Hunting Lodge. The bronze deer was moved to Smolensk after World War II Rominten Hunting Lodge, postcard. The Stave church is on the left The electoral Hunting Lodge of Rominten ("Kurfürstliche Jagdbude Rominten") was first mentioned in historical records in 1572. In 1674, a new lodge was built, as the old one had fallen into disrepair. By the late 19th century, neither lodge was in existence; all that remained was a small forestry workers' settlement, a tavern and a forester's office. Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia rediscovered the Rominter Heath as a potential hunting ground. Kaiser Wilhelm II first visited the Heath in 1890 and decided to build a Royal Hunting Lodge at Theerbude (lit: Tarhut). The building was constructed by Norwegian workers in
Kurt Diebner (13 May 1905 – 13 July 1964) was a German nuclear physicist who is well known for directing and administrating the German nuclear energy project , a secretive program aiming to build nuclear weapons for Nazi Germany during the course of World War II . Diebner was the administrative director of the German nuclear program after Adolf Hitler , Führer and Reich Chancellor , authorized this program. Diebner also served as the director of the Nuclear Research Council and a Reich Planning Officer for the German Army until its surrender to Allied Powers in 1945. After the war, Diebner was incarcerated in the United Kingdom and repatriated back to West-Germany in early 1946. Shortly after his return, Diebner became director and joint owner of DURAG-Apparatebau GmbH and he was a member of the supervisory board of the Gesellschaft zur Kernenergieverwertung in Schiffbau und Schiffahrt m.b.H Education Diebner was born in 1905 in Obernessa , Weißenfels in German Empire . From 1925, Diebner went on to study Phy
Wilhelm Groth (9 January 1904 in Hamburg – 20 February 1977 in Bonn ) was a German physical chemist . During World War II , he worked on the German nuclear energy project, also known as the Uranium Club; his main activity was the development of centrifuges for the enrichment of uranium. After the war, he was a professor of physical chemistry at the University of Hamburg . In 1950, he became director of the Institute of Physical Chemistry at the University of Bonn . He was a principal in the 1956 shipment of three centrifuges for uranium enrichment to Brazil. Education From 1922 to 1927, Groth studied at the Technische Hochschule München (today, the Technical University of Munich (Technische Universität München), the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München), and the University of Tübingen (Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen). He received his doctorate in 1927 under Walther Gerlach at Tübingen. His thesis was on the determination of electromechanical equivalents. Career I
Peter Joseph William Debye ForMemRS ( ; Dutch: ; March 24, 1884 – November 2, 1966) was a Dutch-American physicist and physical chemist , and Nobel laureate in Chemistry . Biography Early life Born Petrus Josephus Wilhelmus Debije in Maastricht , Netherlands, Debye enrolled in the Aachen University of Technology in 1901. In 1905, he completed his first degree in electrical engineering . He published his first paper, a mathematically elegant solution of a problem involving eddy currents , in 1907. At Aachen, he studied under the theoretical physicist Arnold Sommerfeld , who later claimed that his most important discovery was Peter Debye. In 1906, Sommerfeld received an appointment at Munich , Bavaria , and took Debye with him as his assistant. Debye got his Ph.D. with a dissertation on radiation pressure in 1908. In 1910, he derived the Planck radiation formula using a method which Max Planck agreed was simpler than his own. In 1911, when Albert Einstein took an appointment as a professor at Prague , Bohemia
The Yellow Terror in all His Glory (1899) is a rebellious Qing Dynasty Chinese man, armed to the teeth, who stands astride a fallen white woman representing Western European colonialism. The Yellow Peril (also Yellow Terror and Yellow Spectre ) is a racist color-metaphor that is integral to the xenophobic theory of colonialism : that the peoples of East Asia are a danger to the Western world . As a psycho-cultural perception of menace from the East, fear of the Yellow Peril was more racial than national, a fear derived, not from concern with a specific source of danger, from any one country or people, but from a vaguely ominous, existential fear of the vast, faceless, nameless horde of yellow people opposite the Western world. As a form of xenophobia , the Yellow Terror is the white race's fear of the rising tide of colored people from the Orient. The racist ideology of the Yellow Peril is a "core imagery of apes, lesser men, primitives, children, madmen, and beings who possessed special powers", which are cu
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck ( German: ), was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890. In the 1860s, he engineered a series of wars that unified the German states , deliberately excluding Austria , into a powerful German Empire under Prussian leadership. With that accomplished by 1871, he skillfully used balance of power diplomacy to maintain Germany's position in a Europe which, despite many disputes and war scares, remained at peace. For historian Eric Hobsbawm , it was Bismarck who "remained undisputed world champion at the game of multilateral diplomatic chess for almost twenty years after 1871, [and] devoted himself exclusively, and successfully, to maintaining peace between the powers". However, his annexation of Alsace-Lorraine gave new fuel to French nationalism and promoted Germanophobia in France. This helped set the stage for the First World War. In
Wolfgang Gentner (23 July 1906 in Frankfurt am Main – 4 September 1980 in Heidelberg ) was a German experimental nuclear physicist . Gentner received his doctorate in 1930 from the University of Frankfurt. From 1932 to 1935 he had a fellowship which allowed him to do postdoctoral research and study at Curie's Radium Institute at the University of Paris. From 1936 to 1945, he was a staff scientist at the Institute of Physics at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research, in Heidelberg. One of his areas of specialization was nuclear photoeffects. He was granted his Habilitation from the University of Frankfurt in 1937. At the end of 1938 and early 1939, he visited the Radiation Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley ; upon his return to Germany, he participated in the construction of a cyclotron at Heidelberg. During World War II, he participated in the German nuclear energy project, also called the Uranium Club. After World War II, Gentner became a professor at the University of Freiberg.
Wilhelm Reinhold Valentiner (May 2, 1880 – September 6, 1958) was a German art historian , art critic and museum official. He is especially known through his writings on Flemish and Dutch painting. Life Wilhelm Valentiner was born at Karlsruhe (Baden), and studied at Heidelberg under Henry Thode , and in the Netherlands with Cornelis Hofstede de Groot and with Abraham Bredius , whose assistant he was at the Gallery of The Hague . In 1905 he was called to Berlin by William Bode , under whom he worked at the Kaiser Friedrich Museum and the Kunstgewerbemuseum Berlin . In 1906 he published his dissertation on Rembrandt that he started in 1904: Rembrandt auf der Lateinschule. New York City In 1907 he was appointed the first curator of the department of decorative arts in the Metropolitan Museum in New York City , which under his supervision became one of the foremost in the world. World War I At the start of World War I he returned to Germany to serve in the army. After service at the front in 1916, he was appoint
Wilhelm Hanle (13 January 1901 – 29 April 1993, Gießen ) was a German experimental physicist. He is known for the Hanle effect . During World War II, he made contributions to the German nuclear energy project, also known as the Uranium Club. From 1941 until emeritus status in 1969, he was an ordinarius professor of experimental physics and held the chair of physics at the University of Giessen. Education Hanle was born in Mannheim . From 1919 to 1924, he studied at the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg and the Georg-August-Universität Göttingen . Philipp Lenard , Director of the Physikalische Institut (Physics Institute) at Heidelberg, had a dictatorial attitude towards his students and colleagues, and Hanle had a conflict with Lenard. Hanle transferred to Göttingen. In 1923, Hanle conducted an experiment which demonstrated the variation of polarization of the resonance fluorescent light from a mercury vapor in a weak magnetic field; this became known as the "Hanle effect". He received his doctorate
Fritz Haber ( German: ; 9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber–Bosch process , a method used in industry to synthesize ammonia from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas. This invention is of importance for the large-scale synthesis of fertilizers and explosives . The food production for half the world's current population depends on this method for producing nitrogen fertilizers. Haber, along with Max Born , proposed the Born–Haber cycle as a method for evaluating the lattice energy of an ionic solid. Haber is also considered the "father of chemical warfare " for his years of pioneering work developing and weaponizing chlorine and other poisonous gases during World War I , especially his actions during the Second Battle of Ypres . Early life and education Fritz Haber was born in Breslau, in Prussian Silesia (now Wrocław , in western Poland ), into a well-off Jewish family. The family name Haber was a common one in th
Herbert Max Finlay Freundlich ForMemRS (28 January 1880 in Charlottenburg – 30 March 1941 in Minneapolis ) was a German chemist . His father was Jewish descendable German, and his mother ( Finlay ) was from Scotland . His younger brother was Erwin Finlay Freundlich (1885–1964) He was director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry from 1919 until 1933, when the racial policies of the Nazi party demanded the dismissal of non-Aryans from senior posts. In 1934 he became foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences . Emigrating to England, Freundlich accepted a guest professorship at University College London. Five years later, he accepted a professorship at the University of Minnesota. He died in Minneapolis two years later. His most prominent student was Robert Havemann who became a well known colloid chemist of the German Democratic Republic . Freundlich's main works dealt with the coagulation and stability of colloidal solutions. His work is of cont
Hans Gustav Adolf Hellmann (14 October 1903 – 29 May 1938) was a German theoretical physicist . Hellmann was born in Wilhelmshaven , Prussian Hanover . He began studying electrical engineering in Stuttgart , but changed to engineering physics after a semester. Hellmann also studied at the University of Kiel . He received his diploma from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin under Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner . He received his Ph.D. at Stuttgart with Prof. Erich Regener , who was also the landlord of his future spouse Victoria Bernstein. In 1929 Hellmann became assistant professor at the University of Hanover . After the Nazi rise to power , Hellmann was dismissed on 24 December 1933 as ‘undesirable’ because of his Jewish wife. He immigrated to the Soviet Union , taking up a position in Moscow . However, he was later denounced during the Great Purge , imprisoned on 10 May 1938 and executed on 29 May. His son, Hans Hellmann, Jr., was only allowed to leave the former Soviet Union in 1991. In scienc