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Kaiser Wilhelm Society

Former Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut for Biology, Berlin

The Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science (German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften) was a German scientific institution established in the German Empire in 1911. Under the Third Reich it was involved in Nazi scientific operations, and after the Second World War concluded, its functions were taken over by the Max Planck Society. The Kaiser Wilhelm Society was an umbrella organisation for many institutes, testing stations, and research units created under its authority.

Opening of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut in Berlin-Dahlem, 1913. From right: Adolf von Harnack, Friedrich von Ilberg, Kaiser Wilhelm II, Carl Neuberg, August von Trott zu Solz

The Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft (KWG) was founded in 1911 in order to promote the natural sciences in Germany, by founding and maintaining research institutions formally independent from the state and its administrations. The institutions were to be under the guidance of prominent directors, which included luminaries such as Walther Bothe, Peter Debye, Albert Einstein, Fritz Haber and Otto Hahn; a board of trustees also provided guidance.

Funding was ultimately obtained from sources internal and external to Germany. Internally, money was raised from individuals, industry and the government, as well as through the Notgemeinschaft der Deutschen Wissenschaft (Emergency Association of German Science).

External to Germany, the Rockefeller Foundation granted students worldwide one-year study stipends, for whichever institute they chose, some studied in Germany.[1] [2] [3] In contrast to the German universities with their formal independence from state administrations, the institutions of the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft had no obligation to teach students.

The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute and its research facilities were involved in weapons research, experimentation and production in both the First World War and the Second World War.

After the Second World War

By the end of the Second World War, the KWG and its institutes had lost their central location in Berlin and were operating in other locations. The KWG was operating out of its Aerodynamics Testing Station in Göttingen. Albert Vögler, the president of the KWG, committed suicide on 14 April 1945. Thereupon, Ernst Telschow assumed the duties until Max Planck could be brought from Magdeburg to Göttingen, which was in the British zone of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany. Planck assumed the duties on 16 May until a president could be elected. Otto Hahn was selected by directors to be president, but there were a number of difficulties to be overcome. Hahn, being related to nuclear research had been captured by the allied forces of Operation Alsos, and he was still interned at Farm Hall in Britain, under Operation Epsilon. At first, Hahn was reluctant to accept the post, but others prevailed upon him to accept it. Hahn took over the presidency three months after being released and returned to Germany. However, the Office of Military Government, United States (OMGUS) passed a resolution to dissolve the KWG on 11 July 1946.

Meanwhile, members of the British occupation forces, specifically in the Research Branch of the OMGUS, saw the society in a more favourable light and tried to dissuade the Americans from taking such action. The physicist Howard Percy Robertson was director of the department for science in the British Zone; he had a National Research Council Fellowship in the 1920s to study at the Georg-August University of Göttingen and the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich. Also, Colonel Bertie Blount was on the staff of the British Research Branch, and he had received his doctorate at Göttingen under Walther Borsche. Among other things, Bertie suggested to Hahn to write to Sir Henry Hallett Dale, who had been the president of the Royal Society, which he did. While in Britain, Bertie also spoke with Dale, who came up with a suggestion. Dale believed that it was only the name which conjured up a pejorative picture and suggested that the society be renamed the Max Planck Gesellschaft. On 11 September 1946, the Max Planck Gesellschaft was founded in the British Zone only. The second founding took place on 26 February 1948 for both the American and British occupation zones. The physicists Max von Laue and Walther Gerlach were also instrumental in establishing the society across the allied zones, including the French zone.[4] [5]

Institutes, testing stations and units
Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes
Kaiser Wilhelm Society organisations
  • Aerodynamic Testing Station (Göttingen e. V.) of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. The testing unit Aerodynamische Versuchsanstalt (AVA) was formed in 1925 along with the KWI of Flow (Fluid Dynamics) Research. In 1937, it became the testing station of the KWG.
  • Biological Station Lunz of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • German Entomological Institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • Hydrobiological Station of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • Institute for Agricultural Work Studies in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • Research Unit "D" in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • Rossitten Bird Station of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, founded 1901 in Rossitten and integrated into the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in 1921. The ornithological station was ceased at the end of the Second World War, but work continues at the ornithological station Radolfzell which is part of the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology.
  • Silesian Coal Research Institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, in Breslau.
Institutions outside Germany
  • Bibliotheca Hertziana, founded 1913 in Rome. It is now the Bibliotheca Hertziana - Max Planck Institute of Art History in Rome.
  • German-Bulgarian Institute for Agricultural Science founded in 1940 in Sofia.
  • German-Greek Institute for Biology in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society founded in 1940 in Athens.
  • German-Italian Institute for Marine Biology at Rovigno, Italy.
  • Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Cultivated Plant Research founded in 1940 in Vienna, Austria.
  • Institute for the Science of Agricultural Work—founded in 1940 in Breslau.
  • Research Unit for Virus Research of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biochemistry and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology
  • Institute for Theoretical Physics
See also
  1. Macrakis, 1993, 11-28 and 273-274.
  2. Hentschel, 1996, Appendix A; see the entries for the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Dynamics Research.
  3. List of Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes Archived 2013-09-09 at the Wayback Machine. in summary of holdings, Section I (Bestandsübersicht, I. Abteilung), on the website of the Max Planck Gesellschaft Archives (in German). Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  4. Macrakis, 1993, 187-198.
  5. Hentschel, 1996, Appendix A; see the entries for the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Dynamics Research.
  6. Kunze, Rolf-Ulrich (2004). Ernst Rabel und das Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für ausländisches und internationales Privatrecht 1926-1945. Göttingen: Wallstein. p. 13.
  7. Kunze (2004), p. 47-48.
  • Hans-Walter Schmuhl: Grenzüberschreitungen. Das Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Anthropologie, Menschliche Erblehre und Eugenik 1927–1945. Reihe: Geschichte der Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft im Nationalsozialismus, 9. Wallstein, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-89244-799-3
  • Hentschel, Klaus (ed.) (1996). Physics and National Socialism: An Anthology of Primary Sources. Basel, Boston: Birkhäuser Verlag. ISBN 0-8176-5312-0.
  • Macrakis, Kristie (1993). Surviving the swastika: Scientific research in Nazi Germany. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 0-19-507010-0.
External links
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Lise Meitner


Lise Meitner ( English: ; 7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics . Meitner and Otto Hahn led the small group of scientists who first discovered nuclear fission of uranium when it absorbed an extra neutron ; the results were published in early 1939. Meitner and Otto Frisch understood that the fission process, which splits the atomic nucleus of uranium into two smaller nuclei, must be accompanied by an enormous release of energy. Nuclear fission is the process exploited by nuclear reactors to generate heat and, subsequently, electricity. This process is also the basis of the nuclear weapons that were developed in the U.S. during World War II and used against Japan in 1945. Meitner spent most of her scientific career in Berlin, Germany, where she was a physics professor and a department head at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute ; she was the first woman to become a full professor of physics in Germany. She lost these positions in the 193 ...more...

Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics


The Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics (MPA) is a research institute located in Garching , just north of Munich , Bavaria , Germany . It is one of many scientific research institutes belonging to the Max Planck Society. The MPA is widely considered to be one of the leading institutions in the world for theoretical astrophysics research. According to Thomson Reuters , from 1999-2009 the Max Planck Society as a whole published more papers and accumulated more citations in the fields of physics and space science than any other research organization in the world. History The Max Planck Society was founded on 26 February 1948. It effectively replaced the Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science, which was dissolved after World War II . The society is named after Max Planck , one of the founders of the quantum theory . The MPA was founded as Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics in 1958 and split into the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics and the Max Planck Institute for Physics in 1 ...more...

Julius Hallervorden


Julius Hallervorden (21 October 1882 – 29 May 1965) was a German physician and neuroscientist . In 1938, he became the head of the Neuropathology Department of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research . He was a member of the Nazi Party , and admitted to knowingly performing much of his research on the brains of executed prisoners. Along with Hugo Spatz , he is credited with the discovery of Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome (now, in light of revelations of his Nazi past, more commonly referred to as Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration ). See also List of medical eponyms with Nazi associations References Strous, Rael D.; Morris C. Edelman (March 2007). "Eponyms and the Nazi Era: Time to Remember and Time For Change" (PDF) . Israel Medical Association Journal . 9 (3): 207–214 . Retrieved 2010-11-01 . Shevell, Michael; Jüergen Peiffer (August 2001). "Julius Hallervorden's wartime activities: implications for science under dictatorship". Pediatr Neurol. 25 (2): 162–165. PMID   11551747 . Julius Hal ...more...

SMS Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm


SMS Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm ("His Majesty's Ship Prince-elector Friedrich Wilhelm") was one of the first ocean-going battleships of the Imperial German Navy . The ship was named for Prince-elector (Kurfürst) Friedrich Wilhelm , 17th-century Duke of Prussia and Margrave of Brandenburg . She was the fourth pre-dreadnought of the Brandenburg class , along with her sister ships Brandenburg , Weissenburg , and Wörth . She was laid down in 1890 in the Imperial Dockyard in Wilhelmshaven , launched in 1891, and completed in 1893 at a cost of 11.23 million marks . The Brandenburg-class battleships carried six large-caliber guns in three twin turrets, as opposed to four guns in two turrets, as was the standard in other navies. Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm served as the flagship of the Imperial fleet from her commissioning in 1894 until 1900. She saw limited active duty during her service career with the German fleet due to the relatively peaceful nature of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. As a result, her care ...more...

To Hell with the Kaiser!


To Hell with the Kaiser! is a lost 1918 American silent Great War propaganda comedy film produced by Screen Classics Productions and distributed by Metro Pictures . It was directed by George Irving and starred Lawrence Grant as the Kaiser . Made toward the close of World War I , this film falls in line with other films of this popular genre, the wartime propaganda film, made at the same time i.e. The Kaiser, Beast of Berlin , Yankee Doodle in Berlin , Hearts of the World , The Heart of Humanity , Over the Rhine , The False Faces and The Unpardonable Sin to name a few. Plot Lawrence Grant, who spent his lengthy career playing odious villains, appeared in the dual role of Kaiser Wilhelm II and his look-alike, German actor Robert Graubel. Terrified of being assassinated, the Kaiser hires Graubel to impersonate him at various political functions. In the film, the Kaiser achieves military success through an infernal pact with Satan. Once this is established, the film concentrates on the seemingly endless tally of ...more...

August von Wassermann


August Paul von Wassermann (21 February 1866 – 16 March 1925) was a German bacteriologist and hygienist . Born in Bamberg , with Jewish origins, he studied at several universities throughout Germany, receiving his medical doctorate in 1888 from the University of Strassburg . In 1890 began work under Robert Koch at the Institute for Infectious Diseases in Berlin . In 1906 he became director of the division for experimental therapy and serum research at the institute, followed by a directorship of the department of experimental therapy at the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft for the Advancement of Science in Berlin-Dahlem (1913). Wassermann developed a complement fixation test for the diagnosis of syphilis in 1906, just one year after the causative organism, Spirochaeta pallida , had been identified by Fritz Schaudinn and Erich Hoffmann . The so-called " Wassermann test " allowed for early detection of the disease (despite its nonspecific symptoms ), and thus prevention of transmission. He attributed the developmen ...more...

Horst Korsching


Horst Korsching (12 August 1912 – 21 March 1998) was a German physicist. He was arrested by the allied British and American Armed Forces and incarcerated at Farm Hall for six months in 1945 under Operation Epsilon . Education Korsching began his studies of physics at the Humboldt University of Berlin in 1932. In 1937, he joined the scientific staff at the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut für Physik (KWIP, Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics ), an institute under the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft (KWG, Kaiser Wilhelm Society) and located in Dahlem-Berlin . He received his doctorate under Hermann Schüler. Career At the KWIP, he was a colleague of Karl Wirtz , and his research was on determination of the nuclear moment and thermodiffusion. During the war years, he worked on isotope separation under Kurt Diebner and Werner Heisenberg . He went with the staff of the KWIP when it was moved to Hechingen in 1943 to avoid bombing casualties. In late spring 1945, Korsching was arrested by the allied British and American Armed Fo ...more...

Otto von Bismarck


Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck (German:  ( listen)), was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890. In 1862, King Wilhelm I appointed Bismarck as Minister President of Prussia, a position he would hold until 1890, with the exception of a short break in 1873. He provoked three short, decisive wars against Denmark, Austria, and France. Following the win against Austria, he abolished the supranational German Confederation and instead formed the North German Confederation as the first German national state in 1867, leading it as Federal Chancellor. This aligned the smaller North German states behind Prussia. Later receiving the support of the independent South German states in the Confederation's defeat of France, he formed the German Empire in 1871, unifying Germany with himself as Imperial Chan ...more...

Eugen Fischer


Eugen Fischer (5 July 1874 – 9 July 1967) was a German professor of medicine, anthropology, and eugenics, and a member of the Nazi Party. He served as director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics, and also served as rector of the Frederick William University of Berlin. Fischer's ideas informed the Nuremberg Laws of 1935 which served to justify the Nazi Party's belief in German racial superiority. Adolf Hitler read Fischer's work while he was imprisoned in 1923 and he used Fischer's eugenical notions to support the ideal of a pure Aryan society in his manifesto, Mein Kampf (My Struggle). Biography Fischer was born in Karlsruhe, Grand Duchy of Baden, in 1874. He studied medicine, folkloristics, history, anatomy, and anthropology in Berlin, Freiburg and Munich. In 1918, he joined the Anatomical Institute in Freiburg in 1918, part of the University of Freiburg. In 1927, Fischer became the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and ...more...

Bibliotheca Hertziana – Max Planck Institute for Art History


The Bibliotheca Hertziana – Max Planck Institute for Art History is a German research institute located in Rome , Italy . It was founded by a donation of Henriette Hertz in 1912 as a Kaiser Wilhelm Institute . Of the 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society (Max Planck Gesellschaft), it is one of the few not located in Germany. The institute is situated in the historical centre of Rome near Trinità dei Monti in a cluster of four buildings along the Via Gregoriana: the 16th-century Palazzo Zuccari , the adjacent Palazzo Stroganoff, the Villino Stroganoff across the road and the new library building (completed in 2012) designed by the Spanish architect Juan Navarro Baldeweg . Purpose/Activities The Bibliotheca Hertziana was founded in 1913 in Rome as an institute of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Society for research on Italian art from the period immediately following antiquity, and in particular the Renaissance and the Baroque periods. These two epochs take centre stage in the research to date and soon will be joined by a ...more...

Karl Wirtz


Karl Eugen Julius Wirtz (24 April 1910 – 12 February 1994) was a German nuclear physicist , born in Cologne . He was arrested by the allied British and American Armed Forces and incarcerated at Farm Hall for six months in 1945 under Operation Epsilon . Education From 1929 to 1934, Wirtz studied physics , chemistry , and mathematics at the University of Bonn , the Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg , and the University of Breslau . He received his doctorate in 1934 under C. Schäfer. From 1935 to 1937, he was a teaching assistant to Carl-Friedrich Bonhoeffer at the University of Leipzig . During this period, he became a member of the Nationalsozialistischer Lehrerbund (NSLB, National Socialist Teachers League), but not the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP, National Socialist German Workers Party). Some of the more established scientists, such as Max von Laue , could demonstrate more autonomy than the younger and less established scientists. This was, in part, due to political organizati ...more...

Jes Wilhelm Schlaikjer


Jes Wilhelm Schlaikjer (1897–1982) was an American artist, most known for his recruitment and war bonds posters during World War II . Early life Schlaikjer was born during a storm at sea on the maiden voyage of the SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse . His parents, Erich Hansen Schlaikjer and Clara Ryser, were emigrating from Germany to New York . Supposedly they, at first, named their son, Wilhelm Parker Schlaikjer, after the ship and the ship's American pilot, William Parker. His father was a successful salesman of drug remedies. Erich and Clara were married in Germany in 1896. The Schlaikjer family lived in Ohio and Johnstown City, Kentucky before settling down on a farm in Carter township, Tripp County, South Dakota in 1907. Jes Wilhelm was the firstborn of five children: Arthur, Oscar, Hugo, and Erich. From an early age, Schlaikjer enjoyed drawing and was known for his talent in school. At first, he enjoyed painting the horses he saw roaming the plains. His cartoons were featured in a local newspaper in ...more...

SMS Prinzess Wilhelm


SMS Prinzess Wilhelm ("His Majesty's Ship Princess Wilhelm") was a protected cruiser of the German Imperial Navy (Kaiserliche Marine). She was the second Irene-class cruiser ; her only sister ship was SMS Irene . Prinzess Wilhelm was laid down in 1886 at the Germaniawerft shipyard in Kiel , launched in September 1887, and commissioned into the fleet in November 1889. As built, the ship was armed with a main battery of fourteen 15 cm (5.9 in) guns and had a top speed of 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph). In 1895, Prinzess Wilhelm was deployed to East Asian waters, where she frequently served as the flagship of the East Asia Cruiser Division. She was one of the three ships that participated in the seizure of Kiaochou Bay under the command of Rear Admiral Otto von Diederichs . She subsequently was present in the Philippines in the immediate aftermath of the Battle of Manila Bay between American and Spanish squadrons during the Spanish–American War in 1898. Prinzess Wilhelm returned to Germany in 1899 and was moderniz ...more...

Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems


The Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (MPI-IS) exists since March 18, 2011. Its Stuttgart location (the former MPI for Metals Research) is in the process of scientific reorientation; a new institute location arises in Tübingen . The MPI for Intelligent Systems belongs to the Max Planck Society , a German research institution strong in basic research. Max Planck Institute - Stuttgart Research The Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems approaches intelligent systems from the viewpoint of learning in systems with perception-action loops while these systems interact with natural, complex environments. The institute focuses on establishing the scientific foundations of perception, action and learning through interdisciplinary and collaborative research across scales and systems. The focus is on constructing, modeling and analyzing synthetic and hybrid perception-action systems using learning and self-organization, both for handling sensory complexity and for building structural/physical complexity ...more...

Franz Joseph Emil Fischer


Franz Joseph Emil Fischer (19 March 1877 in Freiburg im Breisgau – 1 December 1947 in Munich) was a German chemist. Career The first barbiturate drug, barbital, was synthesized in 1902 by Emil Fischer and Joseph von Mering. In 1925 He and Hans Tropsch discovered the Fischer-Tropsch process, that allow to produce liquid hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen with metal catalyst at temperatures of 150–300 °C (302–572 °F). In 1930 He and Hans Schrader developed the Fischer Assay, a standardized laboratory test for determining the oil yield from oil shale to be expected from a conventional shale oil extraction. He also worked with Wilhelm Ostwald and Hermann Emil Fischer. In 1913 he became Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Coal Research in Mülheim. Awards Wilhelm Exner Medal, 1936 References Heistand, Robert N. (1976). "The Fischer Assay, standard method?" (PDF). San Francisco: Symposium on oil shale, tar sands, and related materials — production and utilization of synfuels. Re ...more...

Wang Pu (physicist)


Wang Pu ( Chinese : 王 普 , English/German name Paul Wang, September 9, 1902 – January 15, 1969) was a Chinese nuclear physicist. He was one of two Chinese PhD students working with Lise Meitner at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry . He founded the School of Physics at Shandong University . Wang Pu was born in Yishui County to the west of Qingdao then a part of the German Kiautschou Bay concession . He was the son of a Chinese highschool teacher. He studied first in Beijing and worked from September 1935 to July 1938 in Lise Meitner's group at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry. See also Wang Ganchang (first Chinese PhD student of Lise Meitner) References Horst Kant: Forschungen über Radioaktivität am Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Chemie: Die Abteilung(en) Hahn/Meitner und ihre internationalen Kontakte, 2005 Wang Pu ( Chinese : 王 普 , English/German name Paul Wang, September 9, 1902 – January 15, 1969) was a Chinese nuclear physicist. He was one of two Chinese PhD students working with Lise Meitn ...more...

Rominten Hunting Lodge


The Rominten Hunting Lodge (German: Jagdschloss Rominten ) was the residence of Kaiser Wilhelm II in the Rominter Heath in East Prussia . History The electoral Hunting Lodge of Rominten ("Kurfürstliche Jagdbude Rominten") was first mentioned in historical records in 1572. In 1674, a new lodge was built, as the old one had fallen into disrepair. By the late 19th century, neither lodge was in existence; all that remained was a small forestry workers' settlement, a tavern and a forester's office. Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia rediscovered the Rominter Heath as a potential hunting ground. Kaiser Wilhelm II first visited the Heath in 1890 and decided to build a Royal Hunting Lodge at Theerbude (lit: Tarhut). The building was constructed by Norwegian workers in an uncommon Norwegian Dragestil style, according to plans drawn up by Holm Hansen Munthe and Ole Sverre . The materials were also imported from Norway. The Kaiser first stayed at the new lodge in autumn 1891. A small Norwegian Stave Church -style chapel ...more...

Isolde Hausser


Isolde Hausser (née Ganswindt, 7 December 1889 – 5 October 1951) was a German physicist . She became the head of a department of the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research (then Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research ) in Heidelberg in 1935. Life and work Ganswindt was the daughter of Hermann Ganswindt and his first wife Anna Minna (née Fritsche, 1866-1911). After graduating from the Chamisso School in Berlin-Schöneberg in 1909, she began studying physics , mathematics , and philosophy at the University of Berlin . In 1914, she received a doctorate degree in physics with a dissertation titled Erzeugung und Empfang kurzer elektrischer Wellen ("Production and reception of short electrical waves"). From 1914 to 1929 she worked as a staff member in the research department of Telefunken in Berlin under the direction of Hans Rukop (1883-1958), with whom she also published several research papers. She married the physicist Karl Wilhelm Hausser (1887-1933) in 1918, with whom she had a son, Karl Hermann Haus ...more...



The Wilhelm-Orden (English "William-Order") was instituted on 18 January 1896 by the German Emperor and King of Prussia Willhelm II as a high civilian award, and was dedicated to the memory of his grandfather Emperor William I "the Great". Insignia The insignia of the Order consisted of a golden medal with the portrait of William I, surrounded by a golden wreath and suspended from a heavy golden collar. This collar with a weight of 222 grams bore the words WIRKE IM ANDENKEN AN KAISER WILHELM DEN GROSSEN (English: "Work in the memory of Emperor William the Great") and was designed by the jewellers Emil Weigand en Otto Schultz. List of recipients The order was very exclusive. One of the first to be decorated was Otto von Bismarck . Also among the recipients were: Heinrich von Stephan , General Post Director - 1896. Count Arthur von Posadowsky-Wehner , politician - 27 January 1900 - on the occasion of the Emperor´s birthday. Princess Marie Elisabeth of Saxe-Meiningen , musician and composer - 28 August 1913 - th ...more...

SS Kronprinz Wilhelm


A colorful poster advertising Norddeutscher Lloyd's four express sisters SS Kronprinz Wilhelm was a German passenger liner built for the Norddeutscher Lloyd, a former shipping company now part of Hapag-Lloyd, by the AG Vulcan shipyard in Stettin, in 1901. She took her name from Crown Prince Wilhelm, son of the German Emperor Wilhelm II, and was a sister ship of SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse. She had a varied career, starting off as a world-record-holding passenger liner, then becoming an auxiliary warship from 1914–1915 for the Imperial German Navy, sailing as a commerce raider for a year, and then interned in the United States when she ran out of supplies. When the U.S. entered World War I, she was seized and served as a United States Navy troop transport until she was decommissioned and turned over to the United States Shipping Board, where she remained in service until she was scrapped in 1923. German passenger liner (1901–1914) Deck plans from 1908 Kronprinz Wilhelm was launched on 30 March ...more...

Erich Fischer


Erich Horst Fischer (3 July 1910, Allenstein, East Prussia – 1969) was a German experimental physicist. He worked at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics (KWIP) and contributed to the German nuclear energy project, also known as the Uranium Club. After World War II, he helped rebuild the KWIP branch at Hechingen, was a professor at the University of Tübingen and Ankara University, and then a research scientist for the German firm GKSS. Education From 1929 to 1935, Fischer studied at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, and the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität (today, the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin). He received his doctorate at the University of Berlin under Walther Nernst and A. Deubner. Career After receipt of his doctorate, Fischer was a teaching assistant to W. Friedrich at the University of Berlin from 1935 to 1936. In 1937, he became an assistant under Peter Debye and Werner Heisenberg at the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institut für Physik (KWIP ...more...

Gustav von Senden-Bibran


Castle Reisicht, family home of Senden-Bibran ( Alexander Duncker collection). Gustav Freiherr (Baron) von Senden-Bibran (23 July 1847, Reisicht , Lower Silesia , Germany – 23 November 1909 in Berlin ) was an admiral of the German Imperial Navy . His father was a Silesian landowner who had served in the Austro-Hungarian Cavalry. He entered the Prussian Navy at age 15, never married, and dedicated his life to building a strong German Navy. After service in the Franco-Prussian War , from 1871 to 1874 Senden-Bibran attended the post-graduate Naval War College, the Marineakademie , along with the future admiral and colleague Otto von Diederichs . Senden-Bibran was stationed in China , Japan and the South Pacific , the Mediterranean and Constantinople . After a cruise around the world (1881–83) he was given more important commands at home. He became Naval Adjutant or aide to Kaiser Wilhelm II 1888, and, in 1889, Chief of the German Imperial Naval Cabinet . In both positions he was very valuable for his ability to ...more...

Max Planck Institute for Iron Research


The Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH (MPIE) is a research institute of the Max Planck Society located in Düsseldorf. Since 1971 it is legally independent and organized in the form of a GmbH, owned and financed equally by the Max Planck Society and the Steel Institute VDEh. It conducts basic research on advanced materials, specifically steels and related metallic alloys. History The institute was founded as Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Iron Research in Aachen 1917, with Fritz Wüst being the founding director. It moved 1921 to Düsseldorf and relocated from the "Rheinischen Metallwarenfabrik" to its current location in 1935. In 1943, it move temporarily to Claustahl and in 1946 back to Düsseldorf. The 50% institutional co-sponsoring by industry (by Steel Institute VDEh) determines a unique example of a public private partnership both for the Max-Planck Society and for the European industry and should guarantee a close match between knowledge-oriented and pre-competitive basic research on the one h ...more...

Fritz von Wettstein


Friedrich Wettstein, Ritter von Westersheim (24 June 1895 in Prague – 12 February 1945 in Trins , Tirol) was an Austrian botanist. Academic career Fritz Wettstein was the son of Richard Wettstein . From 1925 he was professor at Göttingen , in 1931 in Munich and in 1934 director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology in Berlin-Dahlem . Wettstein made a major contribution to botanical and genetical science. He worked especially on cytoplasmic inheritance in mosses and fireweed . Following Erwin Baur at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institut, Berlin-Dahlem, he investigated hybrids and polyploids of mosses, and advanced the understanding of the relationships and characteristics of polyploid forms. Political implications Wettstein has been criticised because at international scientific conferences before the war he defended National Socialist racial ideas. Works Morphologie und Physiologie des Formwechsels der Moose auf genetischer Grundlage (1924) Über plasmatische Vererbung sowie Plasma-und Genwirkung (1930) Genetik ( ...more...

Wilhelm Valentiner


Wilhelm Reinhold Valentiner (May 2, 1880 – September 6, 1958) was a German art historian , art critic and museum official. He is especially known through his writings on Flemish and Dutch painting. Life Wilhelm Valentiner was born at Karlsruhe (Baden), and studied at Heidelberg under Henry Thode , and in the Netherlands with Cornelis Hofstede de Groot and with Abraham Bredius , whose assistant he was at the Gallery of The Hague . In 1905 he was called to Berlin by William Bode , under whom he worked at the Kaiser Friedrich Museum and the Kunstgewerbemuseum Berlin . In 1906 he published his dissertation on Rembrandt that he started in 1904: Rembrandt auf der Lateinschule. New York City In 1907 he was appointed the first curator of the department of decorative arts in the Metropolitan Museum in New York City , which under his supervision became one of the foremost in the world. World War I At the start of World War I he returned to Germany to serve in the army. After service at the front in 1916, he was appoint ...more...

Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine


The Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine ( German : Max-Planck-Institut für Experimentelle Medizin ) is located in Göttingen , Germany . It was founded as Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research in 1947, and was renamed in 1965. It is one of 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft). Prof. Dr. Klaus-Armin Nave is currently the acting director of the institute. Research The research focus of the institute is on neuroscience . Research activities cover a wide spectrum of topics, ranging from basic molecular analyses of neuronal processes to clinical studies on novel therapies of neurological and psychiatric disorders in patients. The central aim of all these studies is to understand basic molecular and cellular processes in brain function, to analyze their pathological dysfunction in psychiatric and neurological diseases, and ultimately to develop novel therapies for these disorders. Departments Neurogenetics The Department of Neurogenetics, led by Klaus-Armin Nave, uses t ...more...



KWG may refer to: A piece of German law called Kreditwesengesetz which regulates financial transactions. Kaba Deme language; ISO 639-3 language code KWG Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft), Germany Kew Gardens station (London) , England; National Rail station code KWG Kite Wind Generator general wind power Kite Wind Generator Kitegen - wind power from high altitude winds Koolewong railway station , New South Wales, Australia; station code KWG Koninklijk Wiskundig Genootschap , the Royal Dutch Mathematical Society Kryvyi Rih International Airport , Ukraine; IATA airport code KWG KWG (AM) , a radio station (1230 AM) licensed to serve Stockton, California, United States KWG Property , a property developer in Guangzhou, China KWG may refer to: A piece of German law called Kreditwesengesetz which regulates financial transactions. Kaba Deme language; ISO 639-3 language code KWG Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft), Germany Kew Gardens station (London) , England; National Rail st ...more...

Joseph Joshua Weiss


Joseph Joshua Weiss ( J J Weiss ) (30 August 1905 – 9 April 1972) was a Jewish-Austrian chemist and Professor at the Newcastle University . He was a pioneer in the field of radiation and photochemistry Weiss was born in 1905 in Austria . He had obtained a Dipl.Ing. degree in the Technische Hochschule in Vienna . He entered the Textile Institute at Sorau in 1928 and was the head of the chemistry department there. He left his post two years later to become an assistant to the German chemist Fritz Haber at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Elektrochemistry in Berlin. Together they discovered the Haber–Weiss reaction . He fled with Haber (who was born Jewish) from Nazi Germany to Cambridge in 1933. He later moved to University College London , where he got his PhD in 1935 from Prof Frederick George Donnan . in 1937 he started teaching at the King's College in Durham, which later became the Newcastle University . In 1956 he was appointed a professor of Radiation Chemistry at the Newcastl ...more...

Werner Heisenberg


Werner Karl Heisenberg (; German: ; 5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics. He published his work in 1925 in a breakthrough paper. In the subsequent series of papers with Max Born and Pascual Jordan, during the same year, this matrix formulation of quantum mechanics was substantially elaborated. He is known for the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which he published in 1927. Heisenberg was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1932 "for the creation of quantum mechanics". He also made important contributions to the theories of the hydrodynamics of turbulent flows, the atomic nucleus, ferromagnetism, cosmic rays, and subatomic particles, and he was instrumental in planning the first West German nuclear reactor at Karlsruhe, together with a research reactor in Munich, in 1957. He was a principal scientist in the Nazi German nuclear weapon project during World War II. He travelled to occupied Copenhagen where he met and discussed ...more...

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SMS Kaiser (1911)


SMS Kaiser was the lead ship of the Kaiser class of battleships of the Imperial German Navy . Kaiser was built by the Imperial Dockyard at Kiel , launched on 22 March 1911 and commissioned on 1 August 1912. The ship was equipped with ten 30.5-centimeter (12.0 in) guns in five twin turrets, and had a top speed of 23.4 knots (43.3 km/h; 26.9 mph). Kaiser was assigned to the III Squadron of the High Seas Fleet for the majority of World War I . In 1913, Kaiser and her sister König Albert conducted a cruise to South America and South Africa. The ship participated in most of the major fleet operations during the war. She fought at the Battle of Jutland on 31 May – 1 June 1916, during which she was hit twice and suffered negligible damage. The ship was also present during Operation Albion in the Baltic Sea in September and October 1917, and at the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight in November 1917. During peace negotiations after the end of the war in 1918, she was interned with other ships of the High Seas Fleet at ...more...

Cockcroft–Walton generator


The Cockcroft–Walton (CW) generator , or multiplier , is an electric circuit that generates a high DC voltage from a low-voltage AC or pulsing DC input. It was named after the British and Irish physicists John Douglas Cockcroft and Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton , who in 1932 used this circuit design to power their particle accelerator , performing the first artificial nuclear disintegration in history. They used this voltage multiplier cascade for most of their research, which in 1951 won them the Nobel Prize in Physics for "Transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles". Less well known is the fact that the circuit was discovered much earlier, in 1919, by Heinrich Greinacher , a Swiss physicist . For this reason, this doubler cascade is sometimes also referred to as the Greinacher multiplier . Cockcroft–Walton circuits are still used in particle accelerators. They also are used in everyday electronic devices that require high voltages, such as X-ray machines , television sets , m ...more...

Maximilian Berlitz


Maximilian (Maximilien) Delphinius Berlitz (April 14, 1852 – April 6, 1921) was a linguist and the founder of the Berlitz Language Schools , the first of which he established during 1878 in Providence, Rhode Island . Life and career Born David Berlitzheimer of Jewish parents in Mühringen , Württemberg , Germany , he and his sister were soon orphaned, and he grew up in a family of educators in the Black Forest . Berlitz was required by law to serve as an apprentice; he chose to work for a watchmaker for three years. He later relocated to France and then to Providence, Rhode Island , United States during 1872. His first employment was as a teacher of French and German at Warner Polytechnic College, of which he assumed control during 1878 when the owner of the school, Mr. Warner, disappeared with all the prepaid tuition money. When Berlitz became ill, and was unable to teach a French class, he quickly hired Nicholas Joly to replace him and teach the class. Since he had always corresponded with Joly in French, ...more...

SMS Kaiser Barbarossa


SMS Kaiser Barbarossa (His Majesty's Ship Emperor Barbarossa ) was a German pre-dreadnought battleship of the Kaiser Friedrich III class . The ship was built for the Imperial Navy , which had begun a program of expansion at the direction of Kaiser Wilhelm II . Construction took place at Schichau , in Danzig . Kaiser Barbarossa was laid down in August 1898, launched on 21 April 1900, and commissioned in June 1901, at the cost of 20,301,000 marks . The ship was armed with a main battery of four 24-centimeter (9.4 in) guns inside of two twin gun turrets . Kaiser Barbarossa served with the German navy from her commissioning in 1901, though her active career was limited by two lengthy stays in dry dock. The first was for repairs following damage to her rudder in 1903, which lasted until early 1905, and the second for a major modernization, which began immediately after the conclusion of repair work in 1905 and lasted until late 1907. She returned to service for another two years, before being decommissioned in 19 ...more...

Carl Correns


Carl Erich Correns (19 September 1864 – 14 February 1933) was a German botanist and geneticist , who is notable primarily for his independent discovery of the principles of heredity , and for his rediscovery of Gregor Mendel 's earlier paper on that subject, which he achieved simultaneously but independently of the botanists Erich Tschermak von Seysenegg and Hugo de Vries , and the agronomist William Jasper Spillman . Correns was a student of Karl Nägeli , a renowned botanist with whom Mendel corresponded about his work with peas, but who failed to understand how significant Mendel's work was. Early life and education Carl Correns was born September 1864 in Munich . Orphaned at an early age, he was raised by an aunt in Switzerland . He entered the University of Munich in 1885. While there, he was encouraged to study botany by Karl Nägeli , a botanist whom Mendel corresponded with on the subject of his pea plant experiments. After completing his thesis, Correns became a tutor at the University of Tübingen an ...more...

Gerhart Jander


Gerhart Jander (26 October 1892 – 8 December 1961) was a German inorganic chemist. His book, now normally only called "Jander-Blasius", on analytical chemistry is still used in German universities. His involvement in the chemical weapon research and close relation to the NSDAP have been unrecovered by recent research. Life and work Jander was born in Altdöbern , Oberspreewald-Lausitz . Jander studied in Technical University of Munich , and at University of Berlin where he received his Ph.D for work with Arthur Rosenheim in 1917. He joined Richard Zsigmondy at the University of Göttingen . He became professor in 1925 and after a two-year period being a temporary director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Elektrochemistry from 1933 till 1935 he became professor for inorganic chemistry at the University of Greifswald . In 1951 he changed to the Technical University of Berlin . Jander died in Berlin in 1961. Critical reviews The involvement of Jander in the research on chemical warfare an ...more...

Ernst Heymann


Ernst Heymann (April 6, 1870 - March 2, 1946) was a German jurist from Berlin .In 1889 he put on Breslauer Mary Magdalene School from the matriculation examination. He then studied until 1892 Law at the Silesian Friedrich-Wilhelm University in Breslau . Heymann 1899 professor at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Berlin . In 1902 he was appointed to the Chair of Law at the Albertus University of Königsberg appointed, two years later he moved to the University of Marburg . In 1914 he returned to Berlin at the Friedrich Wilhelm University. Since 1918 Heymann was a regular member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences . From 1926 to 1938 he was secretary of the Philosophical and Historical Class of the Academy, after initially until 1939. Acting Vice President and from 1939 to 1942 finally Vice President. Heymann was longtime chairman of the Academy commissions " German Law Dictionary ", "German Commission" and " Vocabularium Iurisprudentiae Romanae " and justice expert of the Academy. Since 1926, Heymann was sc ...more...

Ernest Everett Just


Ernest Everett Just (August 14, 1883 – October 27, 1941) was a pioneering African-American biologist , academic and science writer. Just's primary legacy is his recognition of the fundamental role of the cell surface in the development of organisms. In his work within marine biology , cytology and parthenogenesis , he advocated the study of whole cells under normal conditions, rather than simply breaking them apart in a laboratory setting. Early life Ernest Everett Just was born in South Carolina to Charles Frazier Just Jr. and Mary Matthews Just on August 14, 1883. His father and grandfather, Charles Sr., were dock builders. When Ernest was four years old, both his father and grandfather died. Ernest's father died of alcoholism. Just’s mother became the sole supporter of Just, his younger brother, and his younger sister. Mary Matthews Just taught at an African-American school in Charleston to support her family. During the summer, she worked in the phosphate mines on James Island . Noticing that there was m ...more...

Yellow Peril


The Yellow Terror in all His Glory (1899) is a rebellious Qing Dynasty Chinese man, armed to the teeth, who stands astride a fallen white woman representing Western European colonialism. The Yellow Peril (also Yellow Terror and Yellow Spectre) is a racist color-metaphor that is integral to the xenophobic theory of colonialism: that the peoples of East Asia are a danger to the Western world. As a psycho-cultural perception of menace from the East, fear of the Yellow Peril was more racial than national, a fear derived, not from concern with a specific source of danger, from any one country or people, but from a vaguely ominous, existential fear of the vast, faceless, nameless horde of yellow people opposite the Western world. As a form of xenophobia, the Yellow Terror is the fear of the rising tide of colored people from the Orient. The racist ideology of the Yellow Peril is a "core imagery of apes, lesser men, primitives, children, madmen, and beings who possessed special powers", which are cultural re ...more...

Richard Willstätter


Richard Martin Willstätter , ForMemRS (13 August 1872 – 3 August 1942) was a German organic chemist whose study of the structure of plant pigments, chlorophyll included, won him the 1915 Nobel Prize for Chemistry . Willstätter invented paper chromatography independently of Mikhail Tsvet . Biography Willstätter was born into a Jewish family in Karlsruhe . He was the son of Sophie (Ulmann) and Maxwell Willstätter, a textile merchant. He went to school there and, when his family moved, he attended the Technical School in Nuremberg . At age 18 he entered the University of Munich to study science and stayed for the next fifteen years. He was in the Department of Chemistry, first as a student of Alfred Einhorn —he received his doctorate in 1894 - then as a faculty member. His doctoral thesis was on the structure of cocaine . Willstätter continued his research into other alkaloids and synthesized several of them. In 1896 he was named Lecturer and in 1902 Professor extraordinarius (professor without a chair). In 190 ...more...

Severo Ochoa


Severo Ochoa de Albornoz ( Spanish:  ; 24 September 1905 – 1 November 1993) was a Spanish -American physician and biochemist , and joint winner of the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Arthur Kornberg . Early life Severo Ochoa was born in Luarca ( Asturias ), Spain . His father was Severo Manuel Ochoa, a lawyer and businessman, and his mother was Carmen de Albornoz. Ochoa was the nephew of Álvaro de Albornoz (President of the Second Spanish Republic that was exiled, 1947–1951), and a cousin of the poet and literary poet and critic Aurora de Albornoz . His father died when Ochoa was seven, and he and his mother moved to Málaga , where he attended elementary school through high school. His interest in biology was stimulated by the publications of the Spanish neurologist and Nobel laureate Santiago Ramón y Cajal . In 1923, he went to the University of Madrid Medical School, where he hoped to work with Cajal, but Cajal retired. He studied with father Pedro Arrupe , and Juan Negrín was his teacher. N ...more...

Christopher Clark


Sir Christopher Munro Clark, FBA (born 14 March 1960) is an Australian historian working in England. He is the twenty-second Regius Professor of History at the University of Cambridge. In 2015 he was knighted for his services to Anglo-German relations. Education and academic promotions He was educated at Sydney Grammar School between 1972 and 1978, the University of Sydney where he studied History, and between 1985 and 1987 the Freie Universität Berlin. He received his PhD at the University of Cambridge, having been a member of Pembroke College, Cambridge from 1987 to 1991. He is Professor in Modern European History at the University of Cambridge and since 1991 has been a Fellow of St Catharine's College where he is currently Director of Studies in History. In 2003 Clark was appointed University Lecturer in Modern European History, and in 2006 Reader in Modern European History. His Cambridge University professorship in history followed in 2008. In September 2014, he succeeded Richard J. Evans as Regius ...more...

East Asia Squadron


The German East Asia Squadron (Ger Kreuzergeschwader or Ostasiengeschwader) was an Imperial German Navy cruiser squadron which operated mainly in the Pacific Ocean between the mid-1890s and 1914. It was Germany's only major "blue water" or overseas naval formation independent of home ports in Germany. Historical background The Treaty of Peking of September 1861 between the Kingdom of Prussia and China allowed Prussian warships to operate in Chinese waters. As the Far East grew in economic and political importance to the recently united Germany, in 1881 a flying squadron was formed for the area under the command of a flag officer. Since African colonies were then seen as of greater value, an African Cruiser Squadron was established in 1885 with permanent status, and shortly thereafter the Imperial German Navy reduced the East Asia presence to two small gunboats. The African Cruiser Squadron itself returned to Germany for deactivation at Kiel in 1893. Operations in China With the outbreak of the First ...more...

Kaiser-class battleship


The Kaiser class was a class of five battleships that were built in Germany prior to World War I and served in the Imperial German Navy during the war. They were the third class of German dreadnoughts , and the first to feature turbine engines and superfiring turrets. The five ships were Kaiser , Friedrich der Grosse , Kaiserin , Prinzregent Luitpold , and König Albert . As was usual for German battleships of the period, the Kaiser class mounted main guns that were smaller than those of their British rivals: 30.5 cm (12.0 in), compared to the 34.3 cm (13.5 in) guns of the British Orion class . All five ships saw action in the North Sea during the war; they served together as the VI Division of the III Battle Squadron. Four were present during the Battle of Jutland ; König Albert was in dock at the time. Of the four ships that took part in the battle, only Kaiser was damaged, being struck by two heavy-caliber shells. The ships also took part in Operation Albion in the Baltic Sea; during the operation they we ...more...

Fritz Haber


Fritz Haber (German: ; 9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber–Bosch process, a method used in industry to synthesize ammonia from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas. This invention is of importance for the large-scale synthesis of fertilizers and explosives. The food production for half the world's current population depends on this method for producing nitrogen fertilizers. Haber, along with Max Born, proposed the Born–Haber cycle as a method for evaluating the lattice energy of an ionic solid. Haber is also considered the "father of chemical warfare" for his years of pioneering work developing and weaponizing chlorine and other poisonous gases during World War I, especially his actions during the Second Battle of Ypres. Early life and education Fritz Haber was born in Breslau, in Prussian Silesia (now Wrocław, in western Poland), into a well-off Jewish family. The family name Haber was a common one in the area, ...more...

Max Planck Institute for Biology


The Max Planck Institute for Biology was located in Tübingen , Germany . It was created as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology in Berlin in 1912, and moved to Tübingen 1943. It was one of 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society (Max Planck Gesellschaft) and was closed in 2005. The Max Planck Institute for Biology was located in Tübingen , Germany . It was created as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology in Berlin in 1912, and moved to Tübingen 1943. It was one of 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society (Max Planck Gesellschaft) and was closed in 2005. ...more...

Hans Hellmann


Hans Gustav Adolf Hellmann (14 October 1903 – 29 May 1938) was a German theoretical physicist. Hellmann was born in Wilhelmshaven, Prussian Hanover. He began studying electrical engineering in Stuttgart, but changed to engineering physics after a semester. Hellmann also studied at the University of Kiel. He received his diploma from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin under Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner. He received his Ph.D. at Stuttgart with Prof. Erich Regener, who was also the landlord of his future spouse Victoria Bernstein. In 1929 Hellmann became assistant professor at the University of Hanover. After the Nazi rise to power, Hellmann was dismissed on 24 December 1933 as ‘undesirable’ because of his Jewish wife. He immigrated to the Soviet Union, taking up a position in Moscow. However, he was later denounced during the Great Purge, imprisoned on 10 May 1938 and executed on 29 May. His son, Hans Hellmann, Jr., was only allowed to leave the former Soviet Union in 1991. In science, his ...more...

Wilhelm Eitel


Wilhelm Hermann Julius Eitel (6 May 1891 – 20 July 1979) was born on 6 May 1891 (Frankfurt am Main) and became a prominent German-American scientist, dying in the United States in 1979. Education In Frankfurt am Main, Wilhelm Eitel completed his pre-academical training at the Wöhler-Gymnasium in 1909; after that he studied at the universities of Tübingen (1 semester) and Heidelberg (5 semesters), where, on 23 July 1912, he obtained his Ph.D. in "Mineralchemie" (mineralogical chemistry) from his promotor Professor Theodor Curtius. Research and Positions In 1920 and 1921 Wilhelm Eitel was assistant professor in mineralogy at the University of Leipzig; from 1921 to 1926 professor at the University of Königsberg, and from 1926 to 1945 full professor in mineralogy at the Technical University of Berlin From 1926 to 1945 Professor Wilhelm Eitel also held the office of director of the "Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Silicatforschung" in Berlin (now: Fraunhofer-Institut für Silicatforschung). In this function Eitel ...more...

Kurt Diebner


Kurt Diebner (13 May 1905 – 13 July 1964) was a German nuclear physicist who is well known for directing and administrating the German nuclear energy project , a secretive program aiming to build nuclear weapons for Nazi Germany during the course of World War II . Diebner was the administrative director of the German nuclear program after Adolf Hitler , Führer and Reich Chancellor , authorized this program. Diebner also served as the director of the Nuclear Research Council and a Reich Planning Officer for the German Army until its surrender to Allied Powers in 1945. After the war, Diebner was incarcerated in the United Kingdom and repatriated back to West-Germany in early 1946. Shortly after his return, Diebner became director and joint owner of DURAG-Apparatebau GmbH and he was a member of the supervisory board of the Gesellschaft zur Kernenergieverwertung in Schiffbau und Schiffahrt m.b.H Education Diebner was born in 1905 in Obernessa , Weißenfels in German Empire . From 1925, Diebner went on to study Phy ...more...

Wilhelm Erben


Wilhelm Erben (3 December 1864, in Salzburg – 7 April 1933, in Graz ) was an Austrian historian, known for his work in the field of auxiliary sciences of history and his studies involving the history of medieval warfare . He studied history at the University of Vienna , and from 1885 studied with Theodor von Sickel at the Institut für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung (Institute for Austrian Historical Research) in Vienna. From 1888 to 1891 he was an employee of the Monumenta Germaniae historica , and afterwards, served as curator at the Imperial Army Museum in Vienna. In 1901 he qualified as a lecturer, and two years later was named professor of medieval history and historical auxiliary sciences at the University of Innsbruck . From 1917 up until his death in 1933, he taught classes as a professor at the University of Graz . In 1915 he became a member of the Vienna Academy of Sciences . Selected works Die Kaiser- und Königsurkunden des Mittelalters in Deutschland, Frankreich und Italien, 1907 – The imperia ...more...

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