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Kaiser Wilhelm Institute
Former Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut for Biology, Berlin

The Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science (German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften) was a German scientific institution established in the German Empire in 1911. Under the Third Reich it was involved in Nazi scientific operations, and after the Second World War concluded, its functions were taken over by the Max Planck Society. The Kaiser Wilhelm Society was an umbrella organisation for many institutes, testing stations, and research units created under its authority.

Constitution
Opening of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut in Berlin-Dahlem, 1913. From right: Adolf von Harnack, Friedrich von Ilberg, Kaiser Wilhelm II, Carl Neuberg, August von Trott zu Solz

The Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft (KWG) was founded in 1911 in order to promote the natural sciences in Germany, by founding and maintaining research institutions formally independent from the state and its administrations. The institutions were to be under the guidance of prominent directors, which included luminaries such as Walther Bothe, Peter Debye, Albert Einstein, Fritz Haber and Otto Hahn; a board of trustees also provided guidance.

Funding was ultimately obtained from sources internal and external to Germany. Internally, money was raised from individuals, industry and the government, as well as through the Notgemeinschaft der Deutschen Wissenschaft (Emergency Association of German Science).

External to Germany, the Rockefeller Foundation granted students worldwide one-year study stipends, for whichever institute they chose, some studied in Germany.[1] [2] [3] In contrast to the German universities with their formal independence from state administrations, the institutions of the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft had no obligation to teach students.

The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute and its research facilities were involved in weapons research, experimentation and production in both the First World War and the Second World War.

After the Second World War

By the end of the Second World War, the KWG and its institutes had lost their central location in Berlin and were operating in other locations. The KWG was operating out of its Aerodynamics Testing Station in Göttingen. Albert Vögler, the president of the KWG, committed suicide on 14 April 1945. Thereupon, Ernst Telschow assumed the duties until Max Planck could be brought from Magdeburg to Göttingen, which was in the British zone of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany. Planck assumed the duties on 16 May until a president could be elected. Otto Hahn was selected by directors to be president, but there were a number of difficulties to be overcome. Hahn, being related to nuclear research had been captured by the allied forces of Operation Alsos, and he was still interned at Farm Hall in Britain, under Operation Epsilon. At first, Hahn was reluctant to accept the post, but others prevailed upon him to accept it. Hahn took over the presidency three months after being released and returned to Germany. However, the Office of Military Government, United States (OMGUS) passed a resolution to dissolve the KWG on 11 July 1946.

Meanwhile, members of the British occupation forces, specifically in the Research Branch of the OMGUS, saw the society in a more favourable light and tried to dissuade the Americans from taking such action. The physicist Howard Percy Robertson was director of the department for science in the British Zone; he had a National Research Council Fellowship in the 1920s to study at the Georg-August University of Göttingen and the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich. Also, Colonel Bertie Blount was on the staff of the British Research Branch, and he had received his doctorate at Göttingen under Walther Borsche. Among other things, Bertie suggested to Hahn to write to Sir Henry Hallett Dale, who had been the president of the Royal Society, which he did. While in Britain, Bertie also spoke with Dale, who came up with a suggestion. Dale believed that it was only the name which conjured up a pejorative picture and suggested that the society be renamed the Max Planck Gesellschaft. On 11 September 1946, the Max Planck Gesellschaft was founded in the British Zone only. The second founding took place on 26 February 1948 for both the American and British occupation zones. The physicists Max von Laue and Walther Gerlach were also instrumental in establishing the society across the allied zones, including the French zone.[4] [5]

Presidents
Institutes, testing stations and units
Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes
Kaiser Wilhelm Society organisations
  • Aerodynamic Testing Station (Göttingen e. V.) of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. The testing unit Aerodynamische Versuchsanstalt (AVA) was formed in 1925 along with the KWI of Flow (Fluid Dynamics) Research. In 1937, it became the testing station of the KWG.
  • Biological Station Lunz of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • German Entomological Institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • Hydrobiological Station of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • Institute for Agricultural Work Studies in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • Research Unit "D" in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society
  • Rossitten Bird Station of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, founded 1901 in Rossitten and integrated into the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in 1921. The ornithological station was ceased at the end of the Second World War, but work continues at the ornithological station Radolfzell which is part of the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology.
  • Silesian Coal Research Institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, in Breslau.
Institutions outside Germany
  • Bibliotheca Hertziana, founded 1913 in Rome. It is now the Bibliotheca Hertziana - Max Planck Institute of Art History in Rome.
  • German-Bulgarian Institute for Agricultural Science founded in 1940 in Sofia.
  • German-Greek Institute for Biology in the Kaiser Wilhelm Society founded in 1940 in Athens.
  • German-Italian Institute for Marine Biology at Rovigno, Italy.
  • Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Cultivated Plant Research founded in 1940 in Vienna, Austria.
Other
  • Institute for the Science of Agricultural Work—founded in 1940 in Breslau.
  • Research Unit for Virus Research of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biochemistry and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology
  • Institute for Theoretical Physics
See also
Notes
  1. Macrakis, 1993, 11-28 and 273-274.
  2. Hentschel, 1996, Appendix A; see the entries for the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Dynamics Research.
  3. List of Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes in summary of holdings, Section I (Bestandsübersicht, I. Abteilung), on the website of the Max Planck Gesellschaft Archives (in German). Retrieved 2015-08-29.
  4. Macrakis, 1993, 187-198.
  5. Hentschel, 1996, Appendix A; see the entries for the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Fluid Dynamics Research.
  6. Kunze, Rolf-Ulrich (2004). Ernst Rabel und das Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für ausländisches und internationales Privatrecht 1926-1945. Göttingen: Wallstein. p. 13.
  7. Kunze (2004), p. 47-48.
Bibliography
  • Hans-Walter Schmuhl: Grenzüberschreitungen. Das Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Anthropologie, Menschliche Erblehre und Eugenik 1927–1945. Reihe: Geschichte der Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft im Nationalsozialismus, 9. Wallstein, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-89244-799-3
  • Hentschel, Klaus (ed.) (1996). Physics and National Socialism: An Anthology of Primary Sources. Basel, Boston: Birkhäuser Verlag. ISBN 0-8176-5312-0.
  • Macrakis, Kristie (1993). Surviving the swastika: Scientific research in Nazi Germany. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 0-19-507010-0.
External links
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Kaiser Wilhelm Society

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Former Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut for Biology, Berlin The Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science ( German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften) was a German scientific institution established in the German Empire in 1911. Under the Third Reich it was involved in Nazi scientific operations, and after the Second World War concluded, its functions were taken over by the Max Planck Society . The Kaiser Wilhelm Society was an umbrella organisation for many institutes, testing stations, and research units created under its authority. Constitution Opening of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut in Berlin-Dahlem , 1913. From right: Adolf von Harnack , Friedrich von Ilberg, Kaiser Wilhelm II , Carl Neuberg , August von Trott zu Solz The Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft (KWG) was founded in 1911 in order to promote the natural sciences in Germany, by founding and maintaining research institutions formally independent from the state and its administrations. The institutions were to be under the gui



Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics

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Former Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Racial Hygiene, at the Free University of Berlin Eugen Fischer during a ceremony at the University of Berlin 1934 The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics was founded in 1927 in Berlin, Germany. The Rockefeller Foundation supported both the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Psychiatry and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics. The Rockefeller Foundation partially funded the actual building of the Institute and helped keep the Institute afloat during the Depression. Eugenics Josef Mengele in 1956 In its early years, and during the Nazi era, it was strongly associated with theories of Nazi eugenics and racial hygiene advocated by its leading theorists Fritz Lenz , (first director) Eugen Fischer , and by its second director Otmar von Verschuer . In the years of 1937–1938, Fischer and his colleagues analysed 600 children in Nazi Germany descending from French-African soldiers who occupied western areas of Germany a



Wilhelm II, German Emperor

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Wilhelm II or William II ( German : Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Preußen, English : Frederick William Victor Albert of Prussia; 27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia , ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. He was the eldest grandchild of the British Queen Victoria and related to many monarchs and princes of Europe. Acceding to the throne in 1888, he dismissed the Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck , in 1890 and launched Germany on a bellicose "New Course" in foreign affairs that culminated in his support for Austria-Hungary in the crisis of July 1914 that led in a matter of days to the First World War . Bombastic and impetuous, he sometimes made tactless pronouncements on sensitive topics without consulting his ministers, culminating in a disastrous Daily Telegraph interview in 1908 that cost him most of his influence. His leading generals, Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff , dictated policy during



SMS Kaiser Wilhelm II

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SMS Kaiser Wilhelm II ("His Majesty's Ship Emperor William II") was the second ship of the Kaiser Friedrich III class of pre-dreadnought battleships . She was built at the Imperial Dockyard in Wilhelmshaven and launched on 14 September 1897. The ship was commissioned into the fleet as its flagship on 13 February 1900. Kaiser Wilhelm II was armed with a main battery of four 24-centimeter (9.45 in) guns in two twin turrets. She was powered by triple expansion engines that delivered a top speed of 17.5 knots (32.4 km/h; 20.1 mph). Kaiser Wilhelm II served as the flagship of the Active Battle Fleet until 1906, participating in numerous fleet training exercises and visits to foreign ports. She was replaced as flagship by the new battleship SMS Deutschland . After the new dreadnought battleships began entering service in 1908, Kaiser Wilhelm II was decommissioned and put into reserve. She was reactivated in 1910 for training ship duties in the Baltic, but was again taken out of service in 1912. With the outbreak o



SMS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse

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SMS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse ("HMS Emperor William the Great ") was a German pre-dreadnought battleship of the Kaiser Friedrich III class , built around the turn of the 20th century. The ship was one of the first battleships built by the German Imperial Navy (Kaiserliche Marine) as part of a program of naval expansion under Kaiser Wilhelm II . Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse was built in Kiel at the Germaniawerft shipyard. She was laid down in January 1898, launched in June 1899, and completed in May 1901. The ship was armed with a main battery of four 24-centimeter (9.4 in) guns in two twin gun turrets . Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse served in the main fleet—the Heimatflotte (Home Fleet) and later the Hochseeflotte (High Seas Fleet)—for the first seven years of her career. She participated in several of the fleet's training cruises and maneuvers, primarily in the North and Baltic Seas . Her peacetime career was relatively uneventful and she suffered no accidents. She was decommissioned for a major reconstruction in



Max Planck Institute for Physics

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Aerial view of the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics with assembly hall (left) and lecture hall (right) The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is a physics institute in Munich , Germany that specializes in high energy physics and astroparticle physics . It is part of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft and is also known as the Werner Heisenberg Institute, after its first director in its current location. The founding of the institute traces back to 1914, as an idea from Fritz Haber , Walther Nernst , Max Planck , Emil Warburg , Heinrich Rubens . On October 1, 1917, the institute was officially founded in Berlin as Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Physik (KWIP, Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics) with Albert Einstein as the first head director. In October 1922, Max von Laue succeeded Einstein as managing director. Einstein gave up his position as a director of the institute in April 1933. In June 1942, Werner Heisenberg took over as managing director. The Institute took part in the German nuclear weapon project from



Kaiser Friedrich III-class battleship

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Kaiser Friedrich III-class battleships were a class of pre– World War I , pre-dreadnought battleships of the German Kaiserliche Marine . The class was made up of five ships, all of which were named for German emperors. The Kaiser Friedrich III class saw the introduction of the traditional armament layout for German battleships—four large-caliber guns, but of comparatively smaller caliber compared to contemporary battleships, in two gun turrets—prior to the advent of the dreadnought type of battleship in the early 1900s. They also standardized the use of three screws for battleships. Kaiser Friedrich III was laid down at Wilhelmshaven Navy Dockyard in March, 1895, followed by Kaiser Wilhelm II in October, 1896, also in Wilhelmshaven. Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse was laid down at Germania, Kiel in January, 1898, followed by Kaiser Barbarossa at Schichau, Danzig in August of that year, and Kaiser Karl der Grosse , a month later in September, at Blohm & Voss , Hamburg . Work on all five vessels was completed by



Wilhelm Steinkopf

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Georg Wilhelm Steinkopf (28 June 1879 – 12 March 1949) was a German chemist . Today he is mostly remembered for his work on the production of mustard gas during World War I . Life Georg Wilhelm Steinkopf was born on 28 June 1879 in Staßfurt , in the Prussian Province of Saxony in the German Empire , the son of Gustav Friedrich Steinkopf, a merchant, and his wife Elise Steinkopf (née Heine). In 1898 he began studying chemistry and physics at the University of Heidelberg . In 1899 he moved to the Technische Hochschule Karlsruhe (today the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology), where he finished his studies with a degree as Diplomingenieur in 1905. In Karlsruhe, he also met his future colleagues Fritz Haber and Roland Scholl . After receiving his Doctor of Science and eventually his Habilitation in 1909, he worked as an associate professor at the TU Karlsruhe until 1914, when he volunteered for service in World War I. In 1916 Fritz Haber, who was now the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemist



Emperor William monuments

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Emperor William monument in Dortmund- Hohensyburg Statue of Emperor William, seated, in Dortmund's Westfalenpark A large number of monuments were erected in Germany in honour of Emperor William I (known in German as Kaiser-Wilhelm-Denkmal). As early as 1867 the Berlin sculptor, Friedrich Drake , had created the first equestrian statue , that portrayed William I as the King of Prussia . To date the Prussian Monument Institute (Preußische Denkmal-Institut) has recorded: 63 equestrian statues 231 standing statues 5 seated statues and 126 busts that were created and erected between 1888 and 1918 in the German-speaking region. In addition there are numerous William I monuments on which the emperor is portrayed in a relief medallion or which commemorates the emperor in a dedicatory inscription. During the " imperial era " 28 Emperor William I towers were also built. They are most commonly known in English sources as Emperor William monuments or Kaiser Wilhelm monuments . History A distinction must be made between t



Fritz Albert Lipmann

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Fritz Albert Lipmann , ForMemRS (June 12, 1899 – July 24, 1986) was a German-American biochemist and a co-discoverer in 1945 of coenzyme A . For this, together with other research on coenzyme A, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1953 (shared with Hans Adolf Krebs ). Life and career Lipmann was born in Königsberg , Germany, to a Jewish family. His parents were Gertrud (Lachmanski) and Leopold Lipmann, an attorney. Lipmann studied medicine at the University of Königsberg , Berlin , and Munich , graduating in Berlin in 1924. He returned to Königsberg to study chemistry under Professor Hans Meerwein . In 1926 he joined Otto Meyerhof at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute , Berlin, for his Ph.D. thesis. After that he followed Meyerhof to Heidelberg to the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research . From 1939 on, he lived and worked in the United States. He was a Research Associate in the Department of Biochemistry, Cornell University Medical College , New York from 1939 to 1941. He joined th



Max Planck Institute for Coal Research

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The Max Planck Institute for Coal Research ( German : Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung ) is an institute located in Mülheim an der Ruhr , Germany specializing in chemical research on catalysis . It is one of the 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft). Founded in 1912 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Coal Research (Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Kohlenforschung) in Mülheim an der Ruhr to study the chemistry and uses of coal, it became an independent Max Planck Institute in 1949. Research The Institute carries out basic research in organic and organometallic chemistry , in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis as well as in theoretical chemistry . The principal aim is to develop new methods for the selective and environmentally benign preparation of new compounds and materials. The MPI KoFo has been at the forefront of research in chemistry since its formation. One of these is the development of the Fischer–Tropsch process through the efforts of Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsc



Walther Bothe

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Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe (8 January 1891 – 8 February 1957) was a German nuclear physicist, who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1954 with Max Born . In 1913, he joined the newly created Laboratory for Radioactivity at the Reich Physical and Technical Institute (PTR), where he remained until 1930, the latter few years as the director of the laboratory. He served in the military during World War I from 1914, and he was a prisoner of war of the Russians, returning to Germany in 1920. Upon his return to the laboratory, he developed and applied coincidence methods to the study of nuclear reactions, the Compton effect , cosmic rays , and the wave–particle duality of radiation, for which he would receive the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1954. In 1930 he became a full professor and director of the physics department at the University of Giessen . In 1932, he became director of the Physical and Radiological Institute at the University of Heidelberg . He was driven out of this position by elements of the deutsche



Max Planck Society

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Max Planck, for whom the society is named The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science ( German : Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V. ; abbreviated MPG ) is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes founded in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and renamed the Max Planck Society in 1948 in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist Max Planck . The society is funded by the federal and state governments of Germany as well as other sources. According to its primary goal, the Max Planck Society supports fundamental research in the natural , life and social sciences, the arts and humanities in its 83 (as of January 2014) Max Planck Institutes. The society has a total staff of approximately 17,000 permanent employees, including 5,470 scientists, plus around 4,600 non-tenured scientists and guests. Society budget for 2015 was about € 1.7 billion. The Max Planck Institutes focus on excellence in research. The Max



Otto Heinrich Warburg

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Otto Heinrich Warburg ( ; 8 October 1883 – 1 August 1970), son of physicist Emil Warburg , was a German physiologist , medical doctor , and Nobel laureate . He served as an officer in the elite Uhlan (cavalry regiment) during the First World War, and was awarded the Iron Cross (1st Class) for bravery. He was the sole recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1931. In total, he was nominated for the award 47 times over the course of his career. Biography Otto Heinrich Warburg was born in Freiburg im Breisgau in 1883, close to the Swiss border. Otto's mother was the daughter of a Protestant family of bankers and civil servants from Baden . His father, Emil Warburg , had converted to Protestantism as an adult, although Emil’s parents were Orthodox Jews. Emil was a member of the illustrious Warburg family of Altona , and had converted to Christianity reportedly after a disagreement with his Conservative Jewish parents. Emil was also president of the Physikalische Reichsanstalt, Wirklicher Gehei



Firedamp whistle

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A firedamp whistle (German: Schlagwetterpfeife) is an instrument for the prophylactic indication of firedamp  — flammable gases often present in coal mines. History Opening of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry with German Emperor Wilhelm II The German Emperor Wilhelm II asked Fritz Haber in 1912, shortly after the opening of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry in Berlin , for the construction of a warning system for the presence of firedamp. Within a year Haber developed the methane whistle and presented it to the emperor in a lecture on October 28, 1913. Haber tried hard to market the device and eventually signed a contract with the Auergesellschaft . Unfortunately, the device did not prevail, since the calibration of the pipes under working conditions in a colliery was not practical. Mode of operation The simultaneous use of two equally-tuned pipes, of which one is blown with atmospheric air and the second with another gas, results



Carl Neuberg

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Carl Alexander Neuberg (29 July 1877 – 30 May 1956) was an early pioneer in biochemistry , and he is often referred to as the "father of modern biochemistry". His notable contribution to science includes the discovery of the carboxylase and the elucidation of alcoholic fermentation which he showed to be a process of successive enzymatic steps, an understanding that became crucial as to how metabolic pathways would be investigated by later researchers. Personal life Carl Sandel Neuberg was born on 29 July 1877 to a Jewish family in Hanover as the first child of Julius and Alma Neuberg. He was educated in the classical language gymnasium Lyceum I of the Ratsgymnasium until he was 15. In 1892 he moved with his parents to Berlin where he attended Friedrich-Werdersches Gymnasium. After graduating school in 1896, he studied astronomy, but soon switched to chemistry to comply with his father's wishes for him to become a master of brewery. He studied at the University of Würzburg and University of Berlin as well



Adolf Butenandt

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Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (24 March 1903 – 18 January 1995) was a German biochemist . He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1939 for his "work on sex hormones ." He initially rejected the award in accordance with government policy, but accepted it in 1949 after World War II . He was President of the Max Planck Society from 1960 to 1972. Biography Born in Lehe, near Bremerhaven , he started his studies at the University of Marburg . For his Ph.D he joined the working group of the Nobel laureate Adolf Windaus at the University of Göttingen and he finished his studies with a Ph.D. in chemistry in 1927. Estrone Adolf Windaus and Walter Schöller of Schering gave him the advice to work on hormones extracted from ovaries . This research lead to the discovery of estrone and other primary female sex hormones , which were extracted from several thousand liters of urine . While working as professor in Gdańsk at the Chemisches Institut he was continuing his works over hormones extracting progestero



Hans Tropsch

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Hans Tropsch (October 7, 1889 – October 8, 1935) was a chemist responsible, along with Franz Fischer , for the development of the Fischer-Tropsch process . Life Tropsch was born in Plan bei Marienbad , Sudet-German Bohemia at that time part of Austria–Hungary now Czech Republic . He studied at the German Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague and the German Technical University in Prague from 1907 until 1913. He received his Ph.D for work with Hans Meyer . Tropsch worked in a dye factory in Mülheim in 1916–1917, then for a few months at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Coal Research . From 1917 to 1920 Tropsch worked in a tar distillery of the Rütgers company in Niederau , but returned to the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Coal Research in 1920, staying until 1928. There he worked with both Franz Fischer and Otto Roelen . It was during this time that the ground-breaking inventions of the Fischer-Tropsch process were patented. In 1928 Tropsch became professor at the new Institute for Coal Research in Prague . He



Max Planck Institute of Biophysics

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Max Planck Institute for Biophysics The Max Planck Institute of Biophysics ( German : Max-Planck-Institut für Biophysik ) is located in Frankfurt am Main , Germany . It was founded as Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biophysics in 1937, and moved into a new building in 2003. It is one of 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society (Max Planck Gesellschaft). A prerequisite for the understanding of the fundamental processes of life is the knowledge of the structure of the participating macromolecules. Two of the four departments are devoted to the challenging task of determining the structure of membrane proteins . Under the direction of Hartmut Michel ( Nobel Prize in Chemistry of 1988 for the first structure determination of a membrane protein), the Department of Molecular Membrane Biology approaches this problem primarily by x-ray crystallography , whereas the Department of Structural Biology, headed by Werner Kühlbrandt , uses the complementary technique of electron microscopy . The Department of Biophysical Chemis



Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer

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Otmar von Verschuer (rear) supervises the measurement of two men's head circumference as part of an anthropometric study of heredity . Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer (16 July 1896, Wildeck , Hesse-Nassau – 8 August 1969, Münster , West Germany ) was a German human biologist and geneticist , who was most recently Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Münster until his 1965 retirement. A member of the Dutch noble Verschuer family, his title Freiherr is often translated as baron . He was regarded as a pioneer in the twin methodology in genetics research and in the study of the inheritance of diseases and anomalies , and was a prominent eugenicist with an interest in racial hygiene and an advocate of compulsory sterilization programs in the first half of the 20th century. Among his many students were Josef Mengele . He successfully redefined himself as a geneticist in the postwar era. During the 1950s and 1960s he was noted for research on the effects of nuclear radiation on humans and for his warning



German nuclear weapon project

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The German nuclear weapon project ( German : Uranprojekt ; informally known as the Uranverein; English: Uranium Society or Uranium Club) was a scientific effort led by Germany to develop and produce nuclear weapons during World War II . The first effort started in April 1939, just months after the discovery of nuclear fission in December 1938, but ended only months later due to the German invasion of Poland , after many notable physicists were drafted into the Wehrmacht . A second effort began under the administrative purview of the Wehrmacht's Heereswaffenamt on 1 September 1939, the day of the Invasion of Poland. The program eventually expanded into three main efforts: the Uranmaschine ( nuclear reactor ), uranium and heavy water production, and uranium isotope separation . Eventually it was assessed that nuclear fission would not contribute significantly to ending the war, and in January 1942, the Heereswaffenamt turned the program over to the Reich Research Council (Reichsforschungsrat) while continuing t



Max Planck Institute for Brain Research

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New building of the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research in Frankfurt The Max Planck Institute for Brain Research is located in Frankfurt , Germany . It was founded as Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research in Berlin 1914, moved to Frankfurt-Niederrad in 1962 and more recently in a new building in Frankfurt-Riedberg. It is one of 83 institutes in the Max Planck Society (Max Planck Gesellschaft). Research Research at the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research focuses on the operation of networks of neurons in the brain. The institute hosts three scientific departments (with directors Moritz Helmstaedter of the Helmstaedter Department, Gilles Laurent of the Laurent Department, and Erin Schuman of the Schuman Department), the Singer Emeritus Group, two Max Planck Research Groups, namely Johannes Letzkus' Neocortical Circuits Group and Tatjana Tchumatchenko's Theory of Neural Dynamics Group, as well as several additional research units. The common research goal of the Institute is a mechanistic understan



Karin Magnussen

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Karin Magnussen (9 February 1908 – 19 February 1997) was a German biologist, teacher and researcher at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics during the Third Reich . She is known for her 1936 publication "Race and Population Policy Tools", and her studies of heterochromia iridis (different-colored eyes) using iris specimens, supplied by Josef Mengele , from Auschwitz concentration camp victims. Early life and education Karin Magnussen, daughter of the landscape painter and ceramist Walter Magnussen, grew up with her sister in a middle-class home. She completed her schooling in Bremen, graduating with a degree. She then studied biology, geology, chemistry and physics at the University of Göttingen. Magnussen joined the National Socialist German Students' League (NSDStB) while she was still an undergraduate in college. By 1931, at the age of 23 years, she was a member of the National Socialist German Workers Party . Later, she became a leader of the League of German Girls (B



Karl Friedrich Bonhoeffer

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Karl Friedrich Bonhoeffer (13 January 1899 – 15 May 1957) was a German chemist. Life Born in Breslau , he was an older brother of martyred theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer . Bonhoeffer studied from 1918 in Tübingen and Berlin , finishing his PhD in 1922 in Berlin with Walther Nernst . From 1923 to 1930 he was an assistant with Fritz Haber at Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Elektrochemistry in Berlin Dahlem . After the Habilitation in 1927, he became full professor at the University of Berlin . In 1930, Bonhoeffer was appointed a professor of Physical Chemistry at the University of Frankfurt . Four years later, he was appointed a professor of Physical Chemistry at the University of Leipzig . He became a professor for physical chemistry at the University of Berlin in 1947 Bonhoeffer was also director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for physical and electrochemistry (now the Fritz Haber Institute of the MPG). In 1949, he was appointed director of the Max Planck Institute for Physical Chemistry



Fritz Lenz

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Fritz A Lenz (9 March 1887 in Pflugrade , Pomerania – 6 July 1976 in Göttingen , Lower Saxony ) was a German geneticist , member of the Nazi Party, and influential specialist in eugenics in Nazi Germany . Biography The pupil of Alfred Ploetz , Lenz took over the publication of the magazine "Archives for Racial and Social Biology" from 1913 to 1933 and received in 1923 the first chair in eugenics in Munich. In 1933 he came to Berlin where he established the first specific department devoted to eugenics, at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics . Lenz specialised in the field of the transmission of hereditary human diseases and "racial health". The results of his research were published in 1921 and 1932 in collaboration with Erwin Baur and Eugen Fischer in two volumes that were later combined under the title Human Heredity Theory and Racial Hygiene (1936). This work and his theory of "race as a value principle" placed Lenz and his two colleagues in the position of Germany's



SMS Kaiser (1874)

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SMS Kaiser   was the lead ship of the Kaiser-class ironclads ; SMS Deutschland was her sister ship. Named for the title " Kaiser " ( German : Emperor ), held by the leader of the then newly created German Empire , the ship was laid down in the Samuda Brothers shipyard in London in 1871. The ship was launched in March 1874 and commissioned into the German fleet in February 1875. Kaiser mounted a main battery of eight 26 cm (10 in) guns in a central battery amidships . Kaiser served with the fleet from her commissioning until 1896, though she was frequently placed in reserve throughout her career. The ship was a regular participant in the annual fleet training maneuvers conducted with the exception of the mid-1880s, when she was temporarily replaced by newer vessels. She participated in several cruises in the Baltic and Mediterranean, often escorting Kaiser Wilhelm II on official state visits. Kaiser was rebuilt in the early 1890s as an armored cruiser , though she was too slow to perform satisfactorily in thi



SMS Kaiser Friedrich III

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SMS Kaiser Friedrich III ("His Majesty's Ship Emperor Frederick III") was the lead ship of the Kaiser Friedrich III class of pre-dreadnought battleships . She was laid down at the Kaiserliche Werft in Wilhelmshaven in March 1895, launched in July 1896, and finished in October 1898. The ship was armed with a main battery of four 24-centimeter (9.4 in) guns in two twin gun turrets supported by a secondary battery of eighteen 15 cm (5.9 in) guns. Sea trials and modifications lasted more than a year, and once she entered active service in October 1899, the ship became the flagship of Prince Heinrich in the I Squadron of the German Heimatflotte (Home Fleet). The I Squadron was primarily occupied with training exercises throughout each year, and also made numerous trips to other European countries, particularly Great Britain and Sweden–Norway . In 1901, the ship was severely damaged after striking submerged rocks in the Baltic; the incident contributed to design changes in later German battleships to make them mor



Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society

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The Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society ( FHI ) is a science research institute located at the heart of the academic district of Dahlem , in Berlin , Germany . The original Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry , founded in 1911, was incorporated in the Max Planck Society and simultaneously renamed for its first director, Fritz Haber , in 1953. The research topics covered throughout the history of the institute include chemical kinetics and reaction dynamics , colloid chemistry , atomic physics , spectroscopy , surface chemistry and surface physics , chemical physics and molecular physics , theoretical chemistry , and materials science . During World War I and World War II , the research of the institute was directed more or less towards Germany's military needs. To the illustrious past members of the Institute belong Herbert Freundlich , James Franck , Paul Friedlander , Rudolf Ladenburg , Michael Polanyi , Eugene Wigner , Ladislaus Farkas , Hartmut Kallmann , Otto



Prince August Wilhelm of Prussia

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Prince August Wilhelm Heinrich Günther Viktor of Prussia (29 January 1887 in Potsdam , Germany – 25 March 1949 in Stuttgart , Germany), called "Auwi", was the fourth son of Emperor Wilhelm II, German Emperor by his first wife, Augusta Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein . Early life He was born in the Potsdamer Stadtschloss when his grandfather was still the Crown Prince of Prussia. He spent his youth with his siblings at the New Palace , also in Potsdam, and his school days at the Prinzenhaus in Plön . Later, he studied at the universities of Bonn , Berlin and Strasbourg . He received his doctorate in political science in 1907 "in an exceedingly dubious manner", as one author describes it. Prince August Wilhelm married his cousin Princess Alexandra Victoria of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (21 April 1887 Germany – 15 April 1957 France ) on 22 October 1908 at the Berliner Stadtschloss . The couple had planned to take up residence in Schönhausen Palace in Berlin, but changed their mind when August Wilhel



SMS Prinzess Wilhelm

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SMS Prinzess Wilhelm ("His Majesty's Ship Princess Wilhelm") was a protected cruiser of the German Imperial Navy (Kaiserliche Marine). She was the second Irene-class cruiser ; her only sister ship was SMS Irene . Prinzess Wilhelm was laid down in 1886 at the Germaniawerft shipyard in Kiel , launched in September 1887, and commissioned into the fleet in November 1889. As built, the ship was armed with a main battery of fourteen 15 cm (5.9 in) guns and had a top speed of 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph). In 1895, Prinzess Wilhelm was deployed to East Asian waters, where she frequently served as the flagship of the East Asia Cruiser Division. She was one of the three ships that participated in the seizure of Kiaochou Bay under the command of Rear Admiral Otto von Diederichs . She subsequently was present in the Philippines in the immediate aftermath of the Battle of Manila Bay between American and Spanish squadrons during the Spanish–American War in 1898. Prinzess Wilhelm returned to Germany in 1899 and was moderniz



Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization

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The Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization in Göttingen , Germany , is a research institute for investigations of complex non-equilibrium systems, particularly in physics and biology. Its founding history goes back to Ludwig Prandtl who in 1911 requested a Kaiser Wilhelm Institute to be founded for the investigation of aerodynamics and hydrodynamics. As a first step the Aeronautische Versuchsanstalt (now the DLR ) was established in 1915 and then finally the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Flow Research was established in 1924. In 1948 it became part of the Max Planck Society . The Max Planck Society was founded in this institute. In 2003 it was renamed to Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization. It is one of 80 institutes in the Max Planck Society (Max Planck Gesellschaft). History The early history of the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization is closely linked to the work of the famous physicist Ludwig Prandtl . Prandtl is regarded as the founder of fluid dyna



Wolfgang Abel

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Wolfgang Abel (13 May 1905 – 1 November 1997) was an Austrian anthropologist and one of Nazi Germany 's racial biologists. He was the son of the Austrian paleontologist Othenio Abel . From 1931 Wolfgang Abel was engaged at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics . In 1933 he became a member of the NSDAP . He was involved in compulsory sterilization of children, who resulted from relationships between German women and dark-skinned French soldiers. In 1934 he wrote an article, which was published in the German newspaper " Neues Volk ", with the title "Bastarde am Rhein" ( Rhineland Bastards ). In 1935 he joined the SS . In 1942 Abel was successor to Eugen Fischer for the professorship of racial biology at the University of Berlin . Wolfgang Abel delivered in 1938 a speech at the "Congres International des Sciences Anthropologiques et Ethnologiques, Deuxieme Session, Copenhague 1938. The topic was: Die Rasse der rumänischen Zigeuner. Meaning, On the Race of the Rumanian Gypsie



Mount Kilimanjaro

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Kilimanjaro from space, showing its diverse vegetation zones. Mount Kilimanjaro ( ), with its three volcanic cones , "Kibo", "Mawenzi", and "Shira", is a dormant volcano in Tanzania . It is the highest mountain in Africa, and rises approximately 4,900 metres (16,100 ft) from its base to 5,895 metres (19,341 ft) above sea level. The first persons known to have reached the summit of the mountain were Hans Meyer and Ludwig Purtscheller in 1889. The mountain is part of the Kilimanjaro National Park and is a major climbing destination. The mountain has been the subject of many scientific studies because of its shrinking glaciers and disappearing ice fields. Geology and physical features Kilimanjaro is the highest dormant volcano in Africa. . Kilimanjaro is a large stratovolcano and is composed of three distinct volcanic cones: Kibo, the highest; Mawenzi at 5,149 metres (16,893 ft); and Shira, the shortest at 4,005 metres (13,140 ft). Mawenzi and Shira are extinct , while Kibo is dormant and could erupt again. U



Lise Meitner

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Lise Meitner ( English: ; 7 November 1878 – 27 October 1968) was an Austrian-Swedish physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics . Otto Hahn and Meitner led the small group of scientists who first discovered nuclear fission of uranium when it absorbed an extra neutron ; the results were published in early 1939. Meitner and Otto Frisch understood that the fission process, which splits the atomic nucleus of uranium into two smaller nuclei, must be accompanied by an enormous release of energy. This process is the basis of the nuclear weapons that were developed in the U.S. during World War II and used against Japan in 1945. Nuclear fission is also the process exploited by nuclear reactors to generate electricity. Meitner spent most of her scientific career in Berlin, Germany, where she was a physics professor and a department head at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute ; she was the first woman to become a full professor of physics in Germany. She lost these positions in the 1930s because of the anti-Je



The Kaiser, the Beast of Berlin

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The Kaiser, the Beast of Berlin (also known as The Beast of Berlin and The Kaiser ) was a 1918 American silent war propaganda melodrama film written by, directed by, and starring Rupert Julian . The film's supporting cast included Elmo Lincoln , Nigel De Brulier , and Lon Chaney . The germanophobic film contains a propagandist view of the First World War , showing the political greed of the German Kaiser Wilhelm II , the resistance of some of his own soldiers, and fanciful prediction of the nature of the war's end. The film is now considered lost . Synopsis Half-page newspaper ad for the film. Tells viewers to call police if people around them are doing things out of the ordinary. Kaiser Wilhelm II of Hohenzollern (Rupert Julian) is a vain and arrogant tyrant eager for conquest. When Belgium is invaded by the German army during World War I , Marcas, the blacksmith (Elmo Lincoln), although wounded, is able to save his daughter from the clutches of a German soldier. Soon after this, the RMS Lusitania is sunk b



Peter Emil Becker

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Peter Emil Becker (23 November 1908 – 7 October 2000) was a German neurologist, psychiatrist and geneticist. He is remembered for his studies of muscular dystrophies. Becker's muscular dystrophy (OMIM 300376) and Becker myotonia (OMIM 255700) are named after him. Since 1998, the Gesellschaft für Neuropädiatrie (GNP) grants Peter-Emil-Becker-Preis for special achievements in the field of child neurology . He studied medicine in Marburg, Berlin, Munich, Vienna and Hamburg, graduating in 1933. Afterwards he trained in neurology and psychiatry in Hamburg and Freiburg. Between 1934 and 1936 he was attached to the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics , working under the guidance of Eugen Fischer . Becker was a member of the SA (Sturmabteilung) since 1934, and in 1940 he joined the Nazi Party . After the war he was dismissed from the University of Freiburg because of the membership in these organisations; however, in 1947 he was formally de-Nazified and has obtained venia legendi



Imperial German Navy

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The Imperial German Navy (German: Kaiserliche Marine , "Imperial Navy") was the navy created at the time of the formation of the German Empire . It existed between 1871 and 1919, growing out of the small Prussian Navy (from 1867 the North German Federal Navy ), which primarily had the mission of coastal defence. Kaiser Wilhelm II greatly expanded the navy, and enlarged its mission. The key leader was Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz , who greatly expanded the size and quality of the navy, while adopting the sea power theories of American strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan . The result was a naval arms race with Britain as the German navy grew to become one of the greatest maritime forces in the world, second only to the Royal Navy . The German surface navy proved ineffective during World War I; its only major engagement, the Battle of Jutland , was indecisive. However, the submarine fleet was greatly expanded and posed a major threat to the British supply system. The Imperial Navy's main ships were turned over to the A



John C. G. Röhl

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John C. G. Röhl (born 31 May 1938) is a British historian . Early life John Charles Gerald Röhl was born in the German Hospital in Dalston , east London, on 31 May 1938 to a German father, Dr. Hans-Gerhard Röhl, and an English mother, Freda Kingsford Woulfe-Brenan. She was the daughter of Captain Frederick Woulfe-Brenan, the Labour candidate standing against Lady Astor in the Plymouth Sutton constituency in the general elections of 1922, 1923 and 1924, and of Saffie Beechey Kingsford, great granddaughter of the Georgian portrait painter Sir William Beechey . At the outbreak of war in 1939, John Röhl was taken by his parents first to Forst on the River Neisse in eastern Germany and then to Pécs in southern Hungary. His first languages were Hungarian and German. After the arrest of his father by the SS in late July 1944 the family moved to the relative safety of the remote Hungarian countryside, but in January 1945 with the imminent approach of the Red Army , Freda Röhl and her by then three children joined the



Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law

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The Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law (Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches und internationales Privatrecht, MPIPRIV ) is a legal research institute located in Hamburg , Germany . It is operated by the Max Planck Society . Founded in 1949, it is the successor institution of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Foreign and International Private Law, which was founded in 1926. Since 1956 it is based in Hamburg's district of Rotherbaum . See also Max Planck Society University of Hamburg References " Academic Body ." Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law. Retrieved 5 July 2015. " Academic History ." Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law. Retrieved 15 September 2015. The Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law (Max-Planck-Institut für ausländisches und internationales Privatrecht, MPIPRIV ) is a legal research institute located in Hamburg , Germany . It is operated by the Max Planck Society . Founded



List of battleships of Germany

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The German navies—specifically the Kaiserliche Marine and Kriegsmarine of Imperial and Nazi Germany , respectively—built a series of battleships between the 1890s and 1940s. To defend its North and Baltic Sea coasts in wartime, Germany had previously built a series of smaller ironclad warships , including coastal defense ships , and armored frigates . With the accession to the throne of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1888, the Kaiserliche Marine began a program of naval expansion befitting a Great Power . The navy immediately pushed for the construction of the four Brandenburg-class battleships, after which soon followed five Kaiser Friedrich III-class ships. The appointment of Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz to the post of State Secretary of the Navy in 1897 accelerated naval construction. Tirpitz's "risk theory" planned a fleet that would be sufficiently powerful so that Great Britain, then the world's preeminent naval power, would avoid risking war with Germany in order to preserve its superiority. Admiral von Tirpit



Joachim Hämmerling

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Dr. Joachim Hämmerling ForMemRS (March 9, 1901 - August 5, 1980) was a pioneering Danish-German biologist funded by Nazi Germany who determined that the nucleus of a cell controls the development of organisms. His experimentation with the green algae Acetabularia provided a model subject for modern cell biological research, and proved the existence of morphogenetic substances, or mRNP . Early life and professions Joachim August Wilhelm Hämmerling was born March 9, 1901 in Berlin . He was educated at the University of Berlin and University of Marburg . He received his doctorate in 1924. From 1924 to 1931 he was a research assistant at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology, and from 1931 to 1940 a lecturer. In 1940 he became Director of the German-Italian Institute of Marine Biology. In 1942 he became an associate professor of marine biology at the University of Berlin, before becoming the head of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology in Langenargen am Bodensee in 1946. From 1949-1970 he served as the Dir



Robert Havemann

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Robert Havemann (11 March 1910 – 9 April 1982) was a chemist , and an East German dissident . Life and career He studied chemistry in Berlin and Munich from 1929 to 1933, and then later received a doctorate in physical chemistry from the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute . Havemann joined the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) in 1932 and was one of the founders of the resistance group, European Union . It was in connection with this group that he was arrested by the Gestapo in 1943. He received a death sentence , but his execution was continually postponed because of the intervention of former colleagues, who insisted that Havemann was as important as his work on chemical weapons had been and that he was still needed to explain the research. His execution was postponed so many times, he was able to survive until the Brandenburg-Görden Prison was liberated by the Red Army . After the war, he became head of administration in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry in Berlin, but in 1948 h



Kaiser's Finish

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Kaiser's Finish is a 1918 American silent World War I drama film, directed by John Joseph Harvey . It stars Earl Schenck , Claire Whitney , and Percy Standing . The film contained newsreel footage of Kaiser Wilhelm and the Crown Prince Wilhelm as well as actual warfare scenes. Plot In pre-World War I Germany, Kaiser Wilhelm ( Louis Dean ) fathers a number of illegitimate children and sends them to various parts of the world to be reared by his loyal agents. Under the guardianship of Dr. Carl Von Strumpf (Fred G. Hearn), one of these children, Robert Busch Earl Schenck ), grows up believing that he is the son of wealthy German-American Richard Busch ( Percy Standing ), but in reality, Strumpf and Busch are servants of the Kaiser. When the United States declares war on Germany, Robert expresses his earnest desire to enlist in the American army, much to the delight of his patriotic sister Emily { Claire Whitney ). Before he can do so, however, Strumpf tells Robert the secret of his parentage, believing that the



Wilhelm-Orden

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The Wilhelm-Orden (English "William-Order") was instituted on 18 January 1896 by the German Emperor and King of Prussia Willhelm II as a high civilian award, and was dedicated to the memory of his grandfather Emperor William I "the Great". Insignia The insignia of the Order consisted of a golden medal with the portrait of William I, surrounded by a golden wreath and suspended from a heavy golden collar. This collar with a weight of 222 grams bore the words WIRKE IM ANDENKEN AN KAISER WILHELM DEN GROSSEN (English: "Work in the memory of Emperor William the Great") and was designed by the jewellers Emil Weigand en Otto Schultz. List of recipients The order was very exclusive. One of the first to be decorated was Otto von Bismarck . Also among the recipients were: Heinrich von Stephan , General Post Director - 1896. Count Arthur von Posadowsky-Wehner , politician - 27 January 1900 - on the occasion of the Emperor´s birthday. Princess Marie Elisabeth of Saxe-Meiningen , musician and composer - 28 August 1913 - th



Grand Cross of the Iron Cross

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The Grand Cross of the Iron Cross was a decoration intended for victorious generals of the Prussian Army and its allies . It was the highest (normally awarded) class of the Iron Cross . Along with the Iron Cross 1st and 2nd Class, the Grand Cross was founded on March 10, 1813, during the Napoleonic Wars . It was renewed in 1870 for the Franco-Prussian War and again in 1914 for World War I . In 1939, when Adolf Hitler renewed the Iron Cross as a German (rather than strictly Prussian) decoration, he also renewed the Grand Cross. The Grand Cross of the Iron Cross was twice the size of the Iron Cross and was worn from a ribbon around the neck. The later Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross , instituted in 1939, was also worn from the neck; it was smaller than the Grand Cross but larger than the Iron Cross. 1813 Grand Cross 1813 Grand Cross of the Iron Cross. Crown Prince Charles John of Sweden, wearing the 1813 Grand Cross of the Iron Cross. Five men received the 1813 Grand Cross of the Iron Cross for actions during



Werner Heisenberg

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Werner Karl Heisenberg ( ; German: ; 5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics . He published his work in 1925 in a breakthrough paper . In the subsequent series of papers with Max Born and Pascual Jordan , during the same year, this matrix formulation of quantum mechanics was substantially elaborated. He is known for the Heisenberg uncertainty principle , which he published in 1927. Heisenberg was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1932 "for the creation of quantum mechanics ". He also made important contributions to the theories of the hydrodynamics of turbulent flows , the atomic nucleus, ferromagnetism , cosmic rays , and subatomic particles , and he was instrumental in planning the first West German nuclear reactor at Karlsruhe , together with a research reactor in Munich , in 1957. He was a principal scientist in the Nazi German nuclear weapon project during World War II . He travelled to occupied Copenhagen where he met an

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SS Kronprinz Wilhelm

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A colorful poster advertising Norddeutscher Lloyd's four express sisters SS Kronprinz Wilhelm was a German passenger liner built for the Norddeutscher Lloyd , a former shipping company now part of Hapag-Lloyd , by the AG Vulcan shipyard in Stettin , in 1901. She took her name from Crown Prince Wilhelm , son of the German Emperor Wilhelm II , and was a sister ship of SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse . She had a varied career, starting off as a world-record-holding passenger liner, then becoming an auxiliary warship from 1914–1915 for the Imperial German Navy , sailing as a commerce raider for a year, and then interned in the United States when she ran out of supplies. When the U.S. entered World War I, she was seized and served as a United States Navy troop transport until she was decommissioned and turned over to the United States Shipping Board , where she remained in service until she was scrapped in 1923. German passenger liner (1901–1914) Deck plans from 1908 Kronprinz Wilhelm was launched on 30 March 1901 an



Fritz Strassmann

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Friedrich Wilhelm "Fritz" Strassmann ( German : Straßmann ; 22 February 1902 – 22 April 1980) was a German chemist who, with Otto Hahn in early 1939, identified barium in the residue after bombarding uranium with neutrons , results which, when confirmed, demonstrated the previously unknown phenomenon of nuclear fission . Life and career Born in Boppard , he began his chemistry studies in 1920 at the Technical University of Hannover and earned his Ph.D. in 1929. He did his Ph.D. work on the solubility of iodine gaseous carbonic acid. Strassmann started an academic career because the employment situation in the chemical industry was much worse than at the universities at that time. Strassmann worked at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin -Dahlem, from 1929. In 1933 he resigned from the Society of German Chemists when it became part of a Nazi-controlled public corporation. He was blacklisted. Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner found an assistantship for him at half pay. Strassmann considered himself for



Wang Pu (physicist)

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Wang Pu ( Chinese : 王 普 , English/German name Paul Wang, September 9, 1902 – January 15, 1969) was a Chinese nuclear physicist. He was one of two Chinese PhD students working with Lise Meitner at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry . He founded the School of Physics at Shandong University . Wang Pu was born in Yishui County to the west of Qingdao then a part of the German Kiautschou Bay concession . He was the son of a Chinese highschool teacher. He studied first in Beijing and worked from September 1935 to July 1938 in Lise Meitner's group at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry. See also Wang Ganchang (first Chinese PhD student of Lise Meitner) References Horst Kant: Forschungen über Radioaktivität am Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Chemie: Die Abteilung(en) Hahn/Meitner und ihre internationalen Kontakte, 2005 Wang Pu ( Chinese : 王 普 , English/German name Paul Wang, September 9, 1902 – January 15, 1969) was a Chinese nuclear physicist. He was one of two Chinese PhD students working with Lise Meitn



Isolde Hausser

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Isolde Hausser (née Ganswindt, December 7, 1889 – October 5, 1951) was a German physicist . She became the head of a department of the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research (then Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research ) in Heidelberg in 1935. Life and work Ganswindt was the daughter of Hermann Ganswindt and his first wife Anna Minna (née Fritsche, 1866-1911). After graduating from the Chamisso School in Berlin-Schöneberg in 1909, she began studying physics , mathematics , and philosophy at the University of Berlin . In 1914, she received a doctorate degree in physics with a dissertation titled Erzeugung und Empfang kurzer elektrischer Wellen ("Production and reception of short electrical waves"). From 1914 to 1929 she worked as a staff member in the research department of Telefunken in Berlin under the direction of Hans Rukop (1883-1958), with whom she also published several research papers. She married the physicist Karl Wilhelm Hausser (1887-1933) in 1918, with whom she had a son, Karl Hermann Ha




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