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Joint Terrorism Task Force

A Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF) is a partnership between various federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies, as well as private organizations, that are charged with taking action against terrorism which includes the investigation of crimes such as wire fraud and identity theft.

The agencies that a JTTF comprises generally include federal law enforcement agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), U.S. Secret Service (USSS), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), U.S. Postal Inspection Service (USPIS), U.S. Marshals Service (USMS), Federal Air Marshal Service (FAMS), U.S. Diplomatic Security Service (DSS), Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS), U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command (CID), U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations (OSI), U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), and state and local law enforcement agencies.[2]

JTTFs engage in surveillance, electronic monitoring, source development and interviews in their pursuits. FBI task forces obtain written memoranda of understanding (MOUs) between participating law enforcement agencies. The FBI provides funds to pay for participating agencies' expenses, such as officer overtime, vehicles, fuel, cell phones, and related office costs.

The Australian Federal Police's Joint Counter Terrorism Teams, Canada's Integrated National Security Enforcement Teams, and the United Kingdom's National Counter Terrorism Policing Network can be seen as analogous to the Joint Terrorism Task Force model.

National JTTF
Naval Station Anacostia, Washington, D.C. (Sept. 13, 1999) -- Members of the U.S. Park Police (USPP) "SWAT" team take down "terrorists" who were holding hostages at Naval Support Facility Anacostia. The anti-terrorist exercise pitted police against the chemical biological warfare terrorists. Taking part in the day-long exercise were the FBI Joint Terrorism Task Force, the Naval district Washington Police, Naval District Washington Fire and Hazmat, the U.S. Capitol Police (USCP), U.S. Army Technical Escort Unit (TEU), and the Washington Metropolitan Fire and Hazmat unit.

The many regional JTTFs coordinate their efforts through the interagency National Joint Terrorism Task Force. NJTTF is headquartered in Washington, D.C., and is composed of representatives from 35 federal agencies.[3] The FBI's involvement with the JTTF falls under the Operational Support Branch of the FBI Counterterrorism Division.[4]

History

The first JTTF was established in 1980 in New York City, with ten FBI special agents and ten New York City Police Department (NYPD) detectives.[5] Prior to the attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States had 35 JTTFs. Shortly after the attacks, FBI Director Robert Mueller instructed all FBI field offices to establish formal terrorism task forces. There are now 100 Joint Terrorism Task Forces nationwide, including at least one at each of the FBI Field Offices, except in Portland, Oregon.

Investigations

The JTTF assisted in the investigation of the plot on Fort Dix.[6] However critics such as David Cole, a law professor at Georgetown University questioned the use of paid informants enabling aspiring terrorists. "It makes sense in general—but when you're pressing people to undertake conduct they would have never undertaken without an informant pushing them along, there is a real question if you're creating crime, not preventing crime." [7]

In the 2009 Little Rock recruiting office shooting, suspect Abdulhakim Mujahid Muhammad was warned while he was in a Yemen jail by the FBI that he would be monitored by the U.S. government, and he was investigated by the JTTF upon his return to the United States after he was deported by the Yemen government. Months after his return, he was arrested for shooting Army soldiers at a recruiting office, killing one, telling authorities after his arrest that his motive was that he was a Muslim angry about the killing of Muslims by American troops in Afghanistan and Iraq. He has since changed his plea to guilty of participating in a jihadi attack on behalf of Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula

On October 2009, Tarek Mehanna was charged in a complaint with conspiracy to provide material support to terrorists. the complaint affidavit alleges that Mehanna and coconspirators discussed their desire to participate in violent jihad against American interests and that they would talk about fighting jihad and their desire to die on the battlefield. The case was investigated by the FBI’s Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF) members: U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, the Massachusetts State Police, and the Lowell Police Department, in addition to other members.[8]

In the Fort Hood shooting, suspect Nidal Malik Hasan was first brought to the attention of the FBI by internet postings which justified suicide bombings as military operations, but they were not judged to be a threat. Then in December 2008, the National Security Agency intercepted communications from an Army officer with a suspected terrorist, Anwar al-Awlaki. After examination by a JTTF, the e-mails which asked if Islam permitted the killing of soldiers who were to be sent to combat against Muslims, and how to send money to support Awlaki's causes could be sent without reporting to the government were judged to be consistent with research he had presented in a presentation which had warned of "adverse events" if Muslims were forced to fight other Muslims.[9]

The FBI was also notified of large amounts of money that Hasan had wired to charities in Pakistan, but the FBI determined that the money "went to people not related to terrorism,"[10] On November 9, 2009, the FBI said that investigators believed Hasan had apparently acted alone. They disclosed that they had reviewed evidence which included the 2008 e-mail conversations but said they did not find any evidence that Hasan had direct help or outside orders in the shootings.[11] According to a November 11 press release, after preliminary examination of Hasan's computers and internet activity, they had found no information to indicate he had any co-conspirators or was part of a broader terrorist plot "at this point".[12] Although this was what they stressed were the "early stages" of the review, no contrary conclusions had been reached even after reports that the US government believed that Awlaki had been the target of airstrikes in Yemen, and that on December 26, 2009, investigators said that the suspect of the Northwest Airlines Flight 253 bombing admitted that he had attended camps in Yemen where al-Qaeda members including Anwar al-Awlaki had instructed him, blessed the attack, and provided the bomb.

On the morning of September 24, 2010, several homes of people active in campaigns against U.S. military intervention and Palestine and Columbia Solidarity were raided by FBI agents part of JTTFs. Four houses in Minneapolis were raided (including people involved with the 2008 Republican National Convention protests in Saint Paul), along with houses in Michigan, North Carolina, and Chicago. The search warrants focused on obtaining information from computers and other sources of alleged "facilitation of other individuals in the United States to travel to Colombia, Palestine and any other foreign location in support of foreign terrorist organizations including but not limited to FARC, PFLP and Hezbollah." No arrests were made, but agents subpoenaed activists to testify before a grand jury in Chicago in October, with reference to "material aid to terrorist organizations."[13] [14]

Criticism

According to the ACLU, documents obtained through the Freedom of Information Act indicate that officers from the Colorado JTTF collected personal information on what the FBI termed "criminal extremists" but that the ACLU maintained were "peaceful protesters who have no connection to terrorism or any other criminal activity."[15] [16]

A detective with the Fresno County Sheriff's Department and member of the JTTF, attended public meetings of Peace Fresno in 2003. The Sheriff's Department issued the following statement, "For the purpose of detecting or preventing terrorist activities, the Fresno County Sheriff’s Department may visit any place and attend any event that is open to the public, on the same terms and conditions as members of the public generally."[17]

On April 28, 2005, Portland became the only city in the nation to withdraw from a JTTF.[18] [19] As of February 19, 2015, the Portland city council approved permanently staffing the JTTF with two of its city's police officers.[20]

In June 2008, according to City Pages the JTTF based in Minneapolis approached a source to infiltrate vegan potlucks and eventually report back to authorities on organized protesting activities in preparation for the 2008 Republican National Convention in nearby Saint Paul.[21]

In the wake of the FBI's consistent performance in handling red flags of possible terrorist threats after the 2009 Fort Hood shooting case, Clarice Feldman of American Thinker asked "Aside from racing to the scene of the massacre and declaring that this was not an act of terrorism, what is the FBI's role in counter-intelligence? Isn't it time we stripped them of a task they regularly perform so poorly?"[22] The New York Post headline stated "FBI blew off killer e-mail to al Qaeda Officials admit shrugging off gunman's e-mails to Qaeda".[23] The article wrote "The clueless G-men said that at the time, they simply chalked up the chilling e-mails between Hasan and a radical imam and other terror-tied Islamic figures to his 'research' as an Army shrink... red-faced agency vowed to get to the bottom of things itself."

References
  1. "Frequently Asked Questions". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved 2016-09-02.
  2. Feldstein, Dan (June 27, 2004). "Identity thieves stealing attention / Horror stories help crime gain notoriety". Houston Chronicle.
  3. "FBI Congressional Testimony". FBI. September 4, 2003.
  4. "Counterterroism Division Organizational Chart". Office of the Inspector General. December 2003.
  5. "Protecting America Against Terrorist Attack – A Closer Look at the FBI's Joint Terrorism Task Forces". FBI. December 1, 2004.
  6. [1] Archived May 31, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  7. Rolling Stone | Political News, Matt Taibbi, Politics, Issues and More Archived April 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  8. "Federal Bureau of Investigation – The Boston Division: Department of Justice Press Release". Boston.fbi.gov. 2009-10-21. Retrieved 2012-01-14.
  9. Shane, Scott and Dao, James; Tangle of Clues About Suspect at Fort Hood, New York Times, November 14, 2009, retrieved November 14, 2009.
  10. Memmott, Mark (2009-11-24). "Report: Hasan's Money Transfers To Pakistan Not Tied To Terrorism : The Two-Way". NPR. Retrieved 2012-01-14.
  11. "Investigators say Fort Hood suspect acted alone". Associated Press. November 9, 2009."a separate investigation revealed Hasan's communications with another individual they declined to identify. Separately, another U.S. official said the person Hasan was communicating with was Anwar al-Awlaki"
  12. "Investigation Continues Into Fort Hood Shooting". FBI. November 11, 2009. Archived from the original on November 17, 2009. Retrieved November 12, 2009.
  13. "At least four houses in Minneapolis raided, other houses in Michigan, NC, Chicago targeted Twin Cities". IndyMedia. 2010-09-24.
  14. "Protest FBI raids of homes of peace activists". Keep Left US blog. 2010-09-27.
  15. "Press Release from ACLU of Colorado". ACLU. December 8, 2005.
  16. "Are things any different in Denver?". Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved 2015-09-07.
  17. "Peace Group Infiltrated by Government Agent". Democracy Now!. October 9, 2003.
  18. "FBI's Joint Terrorism Task Force". ACLU Oregon. April 28, 2005.
  19. Byron York (Nov 28, 2010). "Politically correct Portland rejected feds who saved city from terrorist attack". Washington Examiner.
  20. "After 10-year hiatus, Portland OKs cops for FBI's Joint Terrorism Task Force". Retrieved 2015-09-07.
  21. Matt Snyder (June 3, 2008). "Whack a Mole". City Pages.
  22. Feldman, Clarice (2011-07-28). "The FBI in peace and war". American Thinker. Retrieved 2012-01-14.
  23. Doyle, John (November 10, 2009). "FBI blew off killer e-mail to Al Qaeda Officials admit shrugging off gunman's e-mails to Qaeda". New York Post.
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Joint Terrorism Task Force

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A Joint Terrorism Task Force ( JTTF ) is a partnership between various federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies, as well as private organizations, that are charged with taking action against terrorism which includes the investigation of crimes such as wire fraud and identity theft . The agencies that a JTTF comprises generally include federal law enforcement agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), U.S. Secret Service (USSS), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), U.S. Postal Inspection Service (USPIS), U.S. Marshals Service (USMS), Federal Air Marshal Service (FAMS), U.S. Diplomatic Security Service (DSS), Naval Criminal Investigative Service (NCIS), U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command (CID), U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations (OSI), U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), and state and local law enforcement agencies . JTTFs engage in surveillance, electr ...more...



Joint Task Force 2

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Joint Task Force North

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JTF North emblem Joint Task Force North (JTF North) , formerly Joint Task Force Six (JTF-6), is a multi-service operation by the United States Department of Defense for counterdrug and anti-terrorist operations. JTF-North is headquartered at Biggs Army Airfield , Fort Bliss , Texas. United States Northern Command is the controlling Unified Combatant Command . History The JTF was originally activated as Joint Task Force Six (JTF-6) in November 1989 with a purely counter-drug mission. In 2004 it was renamed JTF North and added counter-terrorism to its mission, due in part to the efforts of Major M. W. Robinson, who, in his spare time, wrote the threat assessments for the Gulf Coast ports and access points available to terror elements worldwide. However, he was unable to get senior military officials to adopt changes to the JTF-6 mission. He reasoned the prime threat to port security is the continued storage of foreign containers at port facilities that U.S. Customs and Border Protection is unable to search and ...more...



Joint Task Force Bravo

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Multinational Joint Task Force

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Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve ( CJTF–OIR ) is the Joint Task Force established by the US-led international coalition against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), set up by the US Central Command to coordinate military efforts against ISIL (Da'esh), and is composed of US military forces and personnel from over 30 countries. The stated aim of CJTF–OIR is to "degrade and destroy" ISIL. Its establishment by US Central Command was announced in December 2014, after it was set up to replace the ad hoc arrangements that had previously been established to coordinate operations following the rapid gains made by ISIL in Iraq in June. Formed in October 2014, its first "coalition integration conference" was held the first week of December 2014. Current operations are named Operation Inherent Resolve by the United States Department of Defense . The current coalition commander has expressed his intent to root out ISIL from the major cities of Syria by the end of his rotation as com ...more...



Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa

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Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa ( CJTF-HOA ) is a joint task force of United States Africa Command (AFRICOM). It originated under Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa (OEF-HOA) as part of the United States response to the September 11, 2001 attacks . Overview Live-fire exercise for marksmanship and weapons handling in March 2003, part of the CJTF-HOA. The mission of the CJTF-HOA is to conduct operations in the Combined Joint Operations Area to enhance partner nation capacity, promote regional security and stability, dissuade conflict, and protect U.S. and coalition interests. CJTF-HOA consists of about 2,000 servicemen and women from the United States military and allied countries. Currently, the task force has an assigned area of interest that includes Sudan , Somalia , Djibouti , Ethiopia , Eritrea , Seychelles and Kenya . Outside this Combined Joint Operating Area, the CJTF-HOA has operations in Mauritius , Comoros , Liberia , Rwanda , Uganda and Tanzania . CJTF-HOA operations are encomp ...more...



Civilian Joint Task Force

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The Civilian Joint Task Force (CJTF) is a loose group of militants that was formed in Maiduguri , Nigeria to help oust Boko Haram Islamist fighters from their city. The group possesses basic weapons and has female members. The vigilante group numbers over 26,000 in Borno State , of which only 1,800 receive a salary ($50 per month). The CJTF has lost approximately 600 of its members in the conflict. The CJTF has been accused of abuses, including slaughtering men beside a mass grave, diverting food destined for starving families and beating men and subjecting women and girls to systematic sexual violence in camps. References "Civilian JTF women emerge in Borno - Search for female insurgents" . Retrieved 9 December 2013 . "Women join civilian JTF in hunt for Boko Haram" . Retrieved 9 December 2013 . "The volunteers who helped beat back Boko Haram are becoming a problem" . The Economist . 1 October 2016 . Retrieved 1 October 2016 . The Civilian Joint Task Force (CJTF) is a loose group of militants that was for ...more...



Combined Joint Task Force Paladin

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Combined Joint Task Force Paladin (‘’’CJTF Paladin’’’) was the International Security Assistance Force command responsible for Counter-IED efforts and Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) during the War in Afghanistan (2001–present) . With military and civilian personnel spread across the entire country, CJTF Paladin provided EOD Technicians, Counter-IED trainers, intelligence personnel, and forensics labs to the ISAF Regional Commands. CJTF Paladin was established in 2005 to focus Counter-IED efforts due to the rising trend of improvised explosive devices during the conflict. During the draw down of troops and the end of the combat mission for NATO forces, CJTF Paladin was deactivated in December 2013, passing responsibility for all Counter-IED tasks to the 242nd Ordnance Battalion (EOD) , a significantly smaller unit. Its counterpart in the Iraq War was Task Force Troy. See also Participants in Operation Enduring Freedom Bomb disposal Improvised explosive device Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organi ...more...



Joint Task Force Gold

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Joint Task Force (JTF) Gold was the Australian Defence Force unit formed to provide security and general support for the 2000 Summer Olympics which was held in Sydney, Australia . JTF Gold had a strength of over 4000 personnel drawn from all three services and was commanded by Brigadier Gary Byles . The JTF consisted of several unit sized elements, each responsible for specific security or general support. Notes The counter-terrorism aspect of JTF Gold was referred to as JTF 643, and was handled (in part) by the Special Air Service Regiment . The work of JTF Gold was referred to as Operation Gold - not to be confused with the US/UK Cold War intelligence gathering Operation Gold . References Joint Task Force Gold , Specialoperations.com Joint Task Force (JTF) Gold was the Australian Defence Force unit formed to provide security and general support for the 2000 Summer Olympics which was held in Sydney, Australia . JTF Gold had a strength of over 4000 personnel drawn from all three services and was commanded by ...more...



Combined Joint Task Force 180

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Combined Joint Task Force 180 was a provisional multinational land formation , primarily made up of units from the United States Army , that fought in the Afghanistan War (2001-present) , especially in the initial invasion phase of 2001-2002. It was active from May 2002 to 2003/05. It was the senior headquarters in country reporting to United States Central Command . Previously Joint Task Force 180 had served as the headquarters leading the U.S. intervention in Haiti in 1994 (" Operation Uphold Democracy "). Again, it was built around the XVIII Corps. From May 2002 to March 2003 the U.S. formation that directed all Enduring Freedom operations in Afghanistan was led by Lieutenant General Dan K. McNeill . It was initially a three-star headquarters designated Combined Joint Task Force 180 (CJTF-180), a corps level headquarters whose staff members were provided by the headquarters of the XVIII Airborne Corps and other formations. Arrival When the 10th Mountain Division headquarters arrived in Afghanistan in late ...more...



Joint Interagency Task Force West

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Joint Interagency Task Force West (JIATF-W, or JIATF West) is a standing United States military joint task force with the mission of combating drug-related transnational organized crime in the Indo-Asia-Pacific . JIATF West's area of responsibility (AOR) is that of United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) . JIATF West is one of two Joint Interagency Task Forces with a counter-narcotics mission. The other is Joint Interagency Task Force South . The task force is run as USPACOM's "executive agent" for counterdrug activities providing support to partner nation law enforcement. Approximately 166 active duty and reserve U.S. military forces; Department of Defense civilian employees; contractors; and U.S. and foreign law enforcement agency personnel are members of the task force. The Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs of the United States Department of State describes the task force's mission as to "in cooperation with U.S. interagency and foreign partners, conduct activities to detect, d ...more...



Joint Task Force-Alaska

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Joint Task Force Alaska ( JTF-AK ), headquartered at Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson , Alaska , is a multi-service command composed of approximately 80 Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, Coast Guardsmen and Department of Defense civilian specialists. The task force is a homeland defense component of U.S. Northern Command that coordinates the land defense of Alaska and coordinates military assistance to civil authorities. The JFK-AK's goals are stated to, "detect, deter, prevent and defeat terrorist threats within the Alaska JOA. The task force also states that is conducts civil support as directed. JTF-AK plans and integrates the full spectrum of DoD support to homeland defense and civil support to lead federal agencies, such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) . Prevention, crisis response and consequence management are capabilities included within the spectrum of support. In coordination with other federal, state and local agencies, JTF-AK constantly evaluates events and locations throughout the state ...more...



Emergency Task Force (TPS)

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The Emergency Task Force (ETF) is the tactical unit of the Toronto Police Services. It is mandated to deal with high risk situations like hostage taking, emotionally disturbed persons, high risk arrests, warrant service and protection details. The unit was created in 1965. An earlier non- SWAT Riot and Emergency Squad emerged in 1961. Part of its role is now undertaken by the ETF, Public Safety and Emergency Management and the Mounted Unit. The ETF is a fully manned 24 hours a day tactical response team. Unlike most SWAT teams, the ETF is not a pure paramilitary unit. The ETF mission profile includes terrorism and counter-terrorism threats in some extreme cases. The Emergency Task Force currently comprises 82 officers from all units who are tactically trained. There are seven Special Weapons Teams consisting of 10 officers each. The teams are on-call 24 hours a day, every day of the week. Each tactical team has a team leader, assaulters, snipers, bomb technicians, and a negotiator. All team members are train ...more...



Joint Special Operations Command Task Force in the Iraq War

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Joint Special Operations Command Task Force in the Iraq War is an American special operations unit, of which little is publicly known. It was formed in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks with support from elements from United Kingdom Special Forces . It is described as a "hunter-killer team" with its core made up of Delta Force , 75th Ranger Regiment Rangers, members of the USAF 24th Special Tactics Squadron , and Navy DEVGRU operators. The unit was reported to be responsible for the cross border raid into Syria from Iraq in October 2008 that resulted in eight deaths including Abu Ghadiya , along with several US operations in the Horn of Africa targeting al Qaeda . Etymology of Task Force designations Since the invasion of Iraq, the unit went through a number of changes of designation. Task Force 20 was amalgamated with Task Force 5 (formerly Task Force 11/Task Force Sword) in Afghanistan in July 2003, and became Task Force 21. It was then redesignated Task Force 121 , and later as Task Force 626 , ...more...



Joint Task Force Lebanon

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Emblem of Joint Task Force Lebanon (JTF-L) Joint Task Force Lebanon ( JTF-L ) is a U.S. European Command (EUCOM) operational unit established in 2006 and assigned responsibility for U.S. military support to the American Embassy in Beirut and to help U.S. Department of State led humanitarian assistance efforts that are providing aid to the people of Lebanon. Led by Commander, U.S. Sixth Fleet Navy Vice Admiral John "Boomer" Stufflebeem , JTF Lebanon officially accepted the mission on August 23, 2006 from U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) units, which had been operating in the region since mid-July 2006 shortly after hostilities began between Israel and Hezbollah militants based in Lebanon. Its area of responsibility focuses on a "joint operation area" (JOA) around the country of Lebanon to include a wide portion of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. JTF-L includes numerous ships and air assets, and more than 2,400 Air Force, Army, Marine Corps and Navy active and reserve personnel. Most command element personnel are ...more...



Task Force 76

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Expeditionary Strike Group SEVEN/Task Force 76 (Amphibious Force U.S. SEVENTH Fleet) is a United States Navy task force . It is at one and the same time operationally a Task Force of the United States Seventh Fleet and administratively, the USN's only permanently forward-deployed Expeditionary Strike Group. It is based at the White Beach Naval Facility at the end of the Katsuren Peninsula in Uruma City , Okinawa , Japan. CTF 76 conducts operations throughout the U.S. Seventh Fleet area of operations, which includes the Western Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. History 10 January 1943 – Southwest Pacific Amphibious Forces – later called the Seventh Amphibious Force is formed in Brisbane, Australia. Participated in Operation Chronicle , the landing at Lae , the landing at Scarlet Beach at Finschhafen , Battle of Arawe and Battle of Cape Gloucester on the island of New Britain , 1944 – Participated in the landing at Saidor and Admiralty Islands campaign . 1950 – Supported UN during Korean War by stationing shi ...more...



Special Operations Command Central

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The Special Operations Command Central ( SOCCENT ) is a sub-unified command of the U.S. Central Command (USCENTCOM). It is responsible for planning special operations throughout the USCENTCOM area of responsibility (AOR), planning and conducting peacetime joint/combined special operations training exercises, and orchestrating command and control of peacetime and wartime special operations as directed. The command is headquartered at MacDill Air Force Base in Tampa , Florida. SOCCENT FWD (formerly known as Combined Forces Special Operations Component Command) is located at Al Udeid in Qatar . The Command's motto is Molon labe ( Greek for "Come and take them", reportedly said by King Leonidas I of Sparta before the Battle of Thermopylae in response to the Persian demand to surrender their weapons.) In the initial stages of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan, the formation's commander was Rear Admiral Albert Calland . SOCCENT stood up Joint Special Operations Task Forces (JSOTFs). Beginning on 5 October ...more...



AFP Joint Task Force-National Capital Region

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The AFP Joint Task Force - National Capital Region , known officially as the JTF-NCR or Task Force NCR , is one the Armed Forces of the Philippines ' Joint Task Forces assigned to combating Terrorism-Insurgency and act as support units to the Philippine National Police-National Capital Region in maintaining peace and order within Metro Manila . History A Kia KM-450 Truck assigned to the defunct NCR Command during one of its MEDCAP Missions in Bgy Sto. Domingo, Quezon City. AFP NCR Command was formally deactivated on 12 July 2012 following the retirement of its Commanding General, Lieutenant General Tristan M Kison AFP. Joint Task Force National Capital Region was formally activated that same day to assume the roles handed over by the former command, including providing assistance to the Presidential Security Group in securing the seat of power in Malacañan . Organization The following are the units operating under or attached with the AFP JTF-NCR: Base Units Headquarters & Headquarters Service Support C ...more...



Joint Task Force Aztec Silence

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Joint Task Force Aztec Silence is a United States Department of Defense task force conducting anti-terrorism operations. In testimony before the Senate Armed Services Committee on 1 March 2005, then- United States European Command commander General James L. Jones said: The 'assets' at Sigonella are a rotational squadron of United States Navy P-3 Orions . "In March 2004, P-3 aircraft from this squadron and reportedly operating from the southern Algerian base at Tamanrasset were deployed to monitor and gather intelligence on the movements of Algerian Salafist guerrillas [the GSPC , now known as the Al-Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb operating in Chad and to provide this intelligence to Chadian forces engaged in combat against the guerrillas." Aztec Silence has also involved Special Operations Command, Europe personnel deploying to Algiers . See also Operation Enduring Freedom - Trans Sahara Sources and references U.S. European Command Senate testimony, 1 March 2005 "Africom: the new US military comma ...more...



Task Force 11

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Task Force 11 (TF 11 or alternately Commander Task Force 11, CTF 11) is a designation that has been used by the United States armed forces for two separate units. World War II During World War II , Task Force 11 was a United States Navy aircraft carrier task force in the Pacific theater . After the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, Destroyer Squadron 1 was attached to the Task Force under Vice Admiral Wilson Brown , made up of USS Lexington (CV-2) with cruisers USS Indianapolis (CA-35) , USS Chicago (CA-29) and USS Portland (CA-33) . On 14 December 1941, after delays due to bad weather, the task force cleared Pearl Harbor as a diversion for an expedition under Rear Admiral Frank J. Fletcher in Saratoga (CV 3) to relieve Wake Island. TF 11 was originally formed around Lexington , then her sister ship Saratoga until she was disabled by a Japanese torpedo in January 1942, then Lexington again for the Battle of the Coral Sea , then Saratoga after her repairs were completed. TF 11 – as part of Task Force 6 ...more...



Joint Anti-Terrorist Task Force of Uganda

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The Joint Anti-Terrorist Task Force ( JATF ) is a security agency of the Government of Uganda . The Museveni administration created the JATF through the Anti-Terrorism Act of 2002. The Task Force's main focus is fighting the Lord's Resistance Army , a militant cult operating in northern Uganda which the United States government designated a terrorist organization in 2001. Along with the Internal Security Organization (ISO) and the Chieftaincy of Military Intelligence (CMI), from which the JATF draws many of its members, the JATF has drawn international criticism with claims of torture and illegal detention of suspects – charges which the government has denied. See also Human rights in Uganda Uganda People's Defence Force External links Security Force Executions Reported (Human Rights Watch, October 3, 2003) The Joint Anti-Terrorist Task Force ( JATF ) is a security agency of the Government of Uganda . The Museveni administration created the JATF through the Anti-Terrorism Act of 2002. The Task Force's main fo ...more...



Criminal Investigation Task Force

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The Criminal Investigation Task Force ( CITF ) is an organization created in early 2002 by the United States Department of Defense to conduct investigations of detainees captured in the War on Terrorism . It was envisioned that certain captured individuals would be tried by a military tribunal for war crimes and/or acts of terrorism . CITF was initially activated in February 2002 under a mandate from the Secretary of Defense addressed to the Secretary of the Army. The Secretary of the Army formally tasked the US Army Criminal Investigation Command (CID), and CID activated the Criminal Investigation Task Force solely for the purpose of conducting criminal investigations against suspected terrorists detained by US forces. Under the Secretary of Defense directive, the Army was directed to maximize the capabilities of all the Services, and therefore coordinated with the US Air Force and US Navy to assist. The CITF included members from four of five of the branches of the U.S. armed forces ; Army Criminal Investig ...more...



Counter-terrorism

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Counter-terrorism (also spelled counterterrorism ) incorporates the practice, military tactics , techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and intelligence agencies use to combat or prevent terrorism. Counter-terrorism strategies include attempts to counter financing of terrorism. If terrorism is part of a broader insurgency , counter-terrorism may employ counter-insurgency measures. The United States Armed Forces use the term foreign internal defense for programs that support other countries in attempts to suppress insurgency, lawlessness, or subversion or to reduce the conditions under which these threats to security may develop. History Special Branch detectives on an undercover operation at the London Docks , 1911. In response to the escalating terror campaign in Britain carried out by the militant Irish Fenians in the 1880s, the Home Secretary , Sir William Harcourt , established the first counter-terrorism unit ever. The Special Irish Branch was initially formed as a ...more...



Iraqi Special Operations Forces

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Iraqi Special Operations Forces ( ISOF ) ( Arabic : قوات العمليات الخاصة العراقية ‎), commonly known as the Golden Division , are Iraqi special forces unit created by coalition forces after the 2003 invasion . The forces, directed by the Iraqi Counter Terrorism Service, consist of the Iraqi Counter Terrorism Command, which has three brigades subordinate to it. The Counter Terrorism Service (Jihaz Mukafahat al-Irhab, originally translated as Counter Terrorism Bureau) is funded by the Iraq Ministry of Defence . History Special operations troops in the old Iraqi army were first established when Colonel Khaleel Jassim Al-Dabbagh built the first royal special units in the name of "Queen Alia Forces" in the mid 1950s. It consisted of Sunni and Shia Arabs, as well as other components of the Iraqi population. They were mainly used on an emergency basis to carry out special missions inside of Iraq and outside when the country was in war. After the 2003 Invasion of Iraq , Iraqi forces were made redundant by the Invasi ...more...



Joint Special Operations Command

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U.S. Joint Special Operations Command The Joint Special Operations Command ( JSOC ) is a component command of the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) and is charged to study special operations requirements and techniques to ensure interoperability and equipment standardization; plan and conduct special operations exercises and training; develop joint special operations tactics; and execute special operations missions worldwide. It was established in 1980 on recommendation of Colonel Charlie Beckwith , in the aftermath of the failure of Operation Eagle Claw . It is located at Pope Field ( Fort Bragg, North Carolina ). Overview The JSOC is the "joint headquarters designed to study special operations requirements and techniques; ensure interoperability and equipment standardization; plan and conduct joint special operations exercises and training; and develop joint special operations tactics". For this task, the Joint Communications Unit is tasked to ensure compatibility of communications system ...more...



Combined Task Force 150

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Combined Task Force 150 ( CTF-150 ) is a multinational coalition naval task force working under the 25-nation coalition of Combined Maritime Forces and is based in Bahrain established to monitor, board, inspect, and stop suspect shipping to pursue the " Global War on Terrorism " and in the Horn of Africa region (HOA) (includes operations in the North Arabia Sea to support operations in the Indian Ocean. These activities are referred to as Maritime Security Operations (MSO). Countries presently contributing to CTF-150 include Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Pakistan, Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States. Other nations who have participated include Italy, India, Malaysia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, Singapore, Spain, Thailand and Turkey. The command of the task force rotates among the different participating navies, with commands usually lasting between four and six months. The task force usually comprises 14 or 15 ships. CTF-150 is coordinated by the Combined Maritime Forces ( ...more...



Delta Force

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The 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta ( 1st SFOD-D ), commonly referred to as Delta Force , Combat Applications Group ( CAG ), "The Unit" , Army Compartmented Element ( ACE ), or within JSOC as Task Force Green , is an elite special mission unit of the United States Army , under operational control of the Joint Special Operations Command . The unit is tasked with specialized missions primarily involving hostage rescue and counterterrorism , as well as direct action and special reconnaissance against high-value targets . Delta Force and its maritime counterpart, the U.S. Navy 's SEAL Team Six (also known as DEVGRU), are the U.S. military's primary counterterrorism units. Delta Force and DEVGRU perform the most highly complex, classified, and dangerous missions in the U.S. military, as directed by the U.S. National Command Authority . Most Delta Force operators come from the United States Army Special Operations Command 's elite 75th Ranger Regiment and Special Forces Groups , as well as from oth ...more...



United States Sixth Fleet

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The Sixth Fleet is the United States Navy 's operational fleet and staff of United States Naval Forces Europe . The Sixth Fleet is headquartered at Naval Support Activity Naples , Italy. The officially stated mission of the Sixth Fleet in 2011 is that it "conducts the full range of Maritime Operations and Theater Security Cooperation missions, in concert with coalition, joint, interagency, and other parties, in order to advance security and stability in Europe and Africa." The commander of the Sixth Fleet is Vice Admiral Christopher W. Grady . The Sixth Fleet was established in February 1950 by redesignation of the former Sixth Task Fleet. Since that time, it has been continually engaged in world affairs around the Mediterranean, and, on occasion, further afield. It was involved in numerous NATO maritime exercises, the U.S. Lebanese intervention of 1958, confrontation with the Soviets during the Yom Kippur War (also known as the October War) of 1973, clearance of the Suez Canal after 1973, several confronta ...more...



United States Southern Command

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SOUTHCOM Area Of Responsibility The United States Southern Command ( USSOUTHCOM ), located in Doral , Florida in Greater Miami , is one of nine Unified Combatant Commands (CCMDs) in the United States Department of Defense . It is responsible for providing contingency planning, operations, and security cooperation for Central and South America , the Caribbean (except US commonwealths, territories, and possessions), their territorial waters, and for the force protection of US military resources at these locations. USSOUTHCOM is also responsible for ensuring the defense of the Panama Canal and the canal area. Under the leadership of a four-star Commander, USSOUTHCOM is organized into a headquarters with six main directorates, component commands and military groups that represent SOUTHCOM in the region. The current commander is Admiral Kurt W. Tidd , USN . USSOUTHCOM is a joint command of more than 1,201 military and civilian personnel representing the United States Army , Navy , Air Force , Marine Corps , Coast ...more...



Task Force Kandahar

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Task Force Kandahar (TFK) was the formation conducting the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Kandahar Province under ISAF Regional Command South . When it concluded its mission in summer 2011, the formation included a Canadian Forces battle group , three U.S. Army battalions (two of infantry and one of military police), an engineer regiment, a signal squadron, Operational Mentor and Liaison Teams (OMLTs), and contributions to Operational Mentor and Advisory Teams (OMATs) and the Police Operational Mentor and Liaison Team (P-OMLT). Origin Move from Kabul On 29 November 2005, the Canadian base Camp Julien in southwest Kabul officially closed. Canadian Forces (CF) components that were in Kabul under Operation Athena were relocated to Kandahar as part of the U.S.-led campaign against terrorism known as Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). The Canadian component was initially designated Operation Archer . The Canadian Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) had already been at Camp Nathan Smith i ...more...



Task Force Viking

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Combined Joint Special Operations Task Force – North (CJSOTF–N), also known as Task Force Viking, was the U.S. joint task force responsible for the northern front during the initial period of the 2003 invasion of Iraq (OIF Rotation I). It secured Kirkuk , Mosul , and the northern oil fields ; prevented 13 Iraqi Army divisions from defending Baghdad or reinforcing defensive operations against American and British troops advancing in the south, and thwarted Turkish efforts to subvert Kurdistan . Task Force Viking conducted artillery observer , direct action , special reconnaissance , and unconventional warfare missions in order to disrupt and fix Iraqi forces arrayed along the "Green Line", the nominal 1991 demarcation line between the Kurdish northern provinces of Iraq and the remainder controlled by Saddam Hussein . CJSOTF–N was composed of the U.S. Army 's Special Forces units, 173rd Airborne Brigade , 10th Mountain Division , A Company, 9th PSYOP Battalion , elements and the 96th and 404th Civil Affairs Bat ...more...



United States Army Africa

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United States Army Africa (USARAF) , also known as the Southern European Task Force (SETAF) , is the United States Army service component command of United States Africa Command (USAFRICOM or AFRICOM). USARAF's headquarters are located on Caserma Ederle and Caserma Del Din, Vicenza , Italy. SETAF, now known as USARAF/SETAF has been stationed in Italy since 1955 and has a long history of operating on the African continent and partnering with African nations. During the past 15 years, SETAF has provided crisis response, disaster relief and humanitarian assistance on the continent. On December 3, 2008 in Rome, Italy, an official announcement by the U.S. and Italian governments stated that SETAF would become USARAF, and one week later on December 9, 2008 USARAF was established as the Army Service Component Command of AFRICOM. According to the Army Times, this marked the end of the airborne chapter of the unit’s history and the beginning of its new role as the Army component of AFRICOM. The vision for U.S. Army Af ...more...



Canadian Special Operations Forces Command

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Canadian Special Operations Forces Command ( CANSOFCOM ; French : Commandement des Forces d'opérations spéciales du Canada; COMFOSCAN ). About the Special Operations Forces Canada’s current Special Operations Forces are generated and commanded by the Canadian Special Operations Forces Command (CANSOFCOM). CANSOFCOM is a high-readiness organization, ready to deploy Special Operations Forces on very short notice to protect Canada and Canadians from threats to the national interest at home and abroad. CANSOFCOM is capable of contributing to Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) operations across the full spectrum of conflict, from peace through to war; therefore, CANSOFCOM provides special operations support to CAF operations abroad when required. CANSOFCOM’s primary mission is counter-terrorism, which involves conducting rigorous and specialized training and working with local law enforcement agencies, as required, to protect Canadians from the threat of terrorism. Commander CANSOFCOM reports directly to the Chief of the ...more...



United States Navy SEALs

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The United States Navy's "Sea, Air, and Land" Teams , commonly abbreviated as the Navy SEALs , are the U.S. Navy's primary special operations force and a component of the Naval Special Warfare Command . Among the SEALs' main functions are conducting small-unit maritime military operations that originate from, and return to, a river, ocean, swamp, delta, or coastline. The SEALs are trained to operate in all environments (sea, air, and land) for which they are named. As of August 2017, all active SEALs are currently male and members of the U.S. Navy. The CIA 's highly secretive and elite Special Operations Group (SOG) recruits operators from SEAL Teams, with joint operations going back to the MACV-SOG during the Vietnam War . This cooperation still exists today, as evidenced by military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. History Origins The modern day U.S. Navy SEALs can trace their roots to World War II . The United States Navy recognized the need for the covert reconnaissance of landing beaches and ...more...



Marine air-ground task force

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The Marine Air-Ground Task Force ( MAGTF , pronounced MAG-TAF ) is a term used by the United States Marine Corps to describe the principal organization for all missions across the range of military operations. MAGTFs are a balanced air-ground, combined arms task organization of Marine Corps forces under a single commander that is structured to accomplish a specific mission. The MAGTF was formalized by the publishing of Marine Corps Order 3120.3 in December 1963 "The Marine Corps in the National Defense, MCDP 1-0". It stated: Since World War II in many crises the United States Marine Corps has deployed projection forces, with the ability to move ashore with sufficient sustainability for prolonged operations. MAGTFs have long provided the United States with a broad spectrum of response options when U.S. and allied interests have been threatened and in non-combat situations which require critical response. Selective, timely and credible commitment of air-ground units has, on many occasions, helped bring stabilit ...more...



Omega Special Task Force

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The Special Task Force "Omega" ( Georgian : განსაკუთრებული დანიშნულების ქვედანაყოფი "ომეგა" ) was a Georgian élite Special Forces unit, one of the first such formations in the country, created in 1993. History The Omega unit was formed 1993 under the supervision of Georgia's Information-Analytical and Reconnaissance Bureau, a successor to the Georgian branch of the former Soviet KGB (Committee for State Security), chaired by Irakli Batiashvili . The unit was specialized primarily in counter-terrorism and covert operations, also oriented to counter organized crime and illicit trade. Its operatives cooperated with United States and British Special Forces which also provide the group's special armaments. The Omega force was subordinated to the Georgian Ministry of State Security and was responsible for numerous successful special operations. After the major reshuffle in Georgia's military leadership following the Georgian civil war and the government’s temporary reorientation to Russia , the Omega group fell in ...more...



Harry B. Harris Jr.

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Harry Binkley Harris Jr. (born August 4, 1956) is an Admiral in the United States Navy who currently serves as the 24th Commander, United States Pacific Command (USPACOM). He is the first Asian-American to achieve the rank of Admiral in the U.S. Navy, and the highest-ranking Japanese American. He is also the first 4-star admiral to have participated in the Navy Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps (NJROTC) and the first officer from the U.S. Navy's P-3 Orion maritime patrol aviation community to achieve 4-star rank. He was Commander, U.S. Pacific Fleet in Hawaii from 2013–2015. While a Vice Admiral , he served as the Assistant to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff . Harris' prior operational command was in 2011, when he was commander of the U.S. Sixth Fleet and Naval Striking and Support Forces NATO . He is a 1978 graduate of the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis . Harris is the U.S. Navy's current "Old Goat" – the longest-serving Naval Academy graduate on active duty. He is also the Na ...more...



Standing Royal Navy deployments

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Standing Royal Navy deployments is a list of operations and commitments undertaken by the United Kingdom 's Royal Navy on a worldwide basis. The following list details these commitments and deployments sorted by region and in alphabetical order. Routine deployments made by the Navy's nuclear-powered submarines and their location of operations is classified. Atlantic Antarctic Patrol Protector on Antarctic Patrol Antarctic Patrol is undertaken by the Royal Navy's Icebreaker and survey ship, HMS Protector , in the South Atlantic Ocean . Its primary mission is "surveying and gathering data on the seas around Antarctica" while also providing support to the British Antarctic Survey operation stationed in and around the British Antarctic Territory . Two Royal Research Ships of the Merchant Navy are also stationed in the region; RRS James Clark Ross and RRS Ernest Shackleton . Atlantic Patrol Tasking North Formerly known as the West Indies Guard Ship . This is the Royal Navy's commitment to secure and protect the ...more...



SEAL Team Six

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The United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group ( NSWDG ), commonly known as DEVGRU or SEAL Team Six , is the U.S. Navy component of the Joint Special Operations Command . It is often referred to within JSOC as Task Force Blue. DEVGRU is administratively supported by Naval Special Warfare Command and operationally commanded by the Joint Special Operations Command. Most information concerning DEVGRU is classified, and details of its activities are not usually commented on by either the Department of Defense or the White House . Despite the official name changes, "SEAL Team Six" remains the unit's widely recognized moniker. It is sometimes referred to in the U.S. media as a Special Mission Unit . DEVGRU and its Army counterpart Delta Force , are the United States military's primary counter-terrorism units. Although DEVGRU was created as a maritime counter-terrorism unit targeting high-value targets , it has become a multi-functional special operations unit with several roles that include hostage r ...more...



Special Operations Force (Singapore)

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The Special Operations Force ( SOF ) is the Republic's Army Special Forces composed of highly trained elite soldiers within the Singapore Armed Forces Commando Formation and an essential component of the joint special forces unit Special Operations Task Force (SOTF). According to the Principles of Special Forces, the Republic's special forces thrive on their exceptional qualities and advanced skills, consisting highly adaptive individuals who are independent and can operate independently, and the Republic's special forces soldiers cannot be mass-produced and must be managed carefully. Other than their Commando duties and specializations as cross-trained Signalers, Medics, Weapons Specialists, Demolitions Experts, Snipers and Boatmen, the Republic's Army special forces soldiers also specialize in operations such as direct action , counter-terrorism , hostage rescue , special reconnaissance as well as special operations . It is also one of the few units in the Singapore Armed Forces to be trained in high-altit ...more...



List of military special forces units

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This is a list of active military special forces units . Definition The units are trained to conduct special operations being referred to as either special forces or special operations forces. The current NATO definition of special operations is:- special operations military activities conducted by specially designated, organized, trained, and equipped forces, manned with selected personnel, using unconventional tactics, techniques, and modes of employment. In 2001, NATO agreed definitions with Russia defining special operations and special operations forces:- special operations military activities conducted by specially designated, organized, trained and equipped forces using operational techniques and modes of employment not standard to conventional forces. These activities are conducted across the full range of military operations independently or in coordination with operations of conventional forces to achieve political, military, psychological and economic objectives. Politico-military considerations ma ...more...



Stephen J. Townsend

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Stephen J. Townsend is a United States Army officer who currently commands Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve and the XVIII Airborne Corps . Townsend served with the 82nd Airborne Division , the 7th Infantry Division , the 75th Ranger Regiment , the 78th Infantry Division , and the 10th Mountain Division . He fought in Operation Urgent Fury , Operation Just Cause , and Operation Uphold Democracy . With the 10th Mountain Division, he served in the War in Afghanistan , leading a task force in Operation Anaconda . Townsend became commander of the 3rd Stryker Brigade Combat Team , leading it in the Battle of Baqubah in the Iraq War . Townsend became commander of the 10th Mountain Division in the War in Afghanistan. In May 2015 he became commander of XVIII Airborne Corps, and in late August 2016 took command of the Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve . Early life and education Townsend was born in Scheinfeld in 1959 to a German art student mother and an Afghan medical studen ...more...



Joint Force Headquarters National Capital Region

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Joint Force Headquarters National Capital Region ( JFHQ-NCR ) is directly responsible for the homeland security and defense of the Washington D.C. area as well as surrounding counties in Virginia and Maryland . Primarily made up of joint military units within the National Capital Region , the JFHQ-NCR assists federal and local civilian agencies and disaster response teams in the event that the capital area's security is or possibly could be breached by acts of terrorism. Officially activated on September 22, 2004, JFHQ-NCR is part of United States Northern Command . History U.S. Army Soldiers from Company A, 3rd Infantry Regiment,"The Old Guard," present the Military District of Washington Commander Major General Jim Jackson with the American flag that draped next to the Pentagon's impact site on October 11, 2001. After the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and The Pentagon on September 11, 2001 , military and civilian leaders recognized a need for strong cooperation and communication between agenci ...more...



National Special Operations Force (Malaysia)

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The National Special Operations Force (NSOF) ( Malay : Pasukan Operasi Khusus Nasional ) is Malaysia 's main security force which serves as the first responder to any terror threats on the country's sovereignty. The force covers elements from the Malaysian Armed Forces , Royal Malaysia Police and the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency . NSOF is the third Task Force attached to the National Security Council (NSC) ( Malay : Majlis Keselamatan Negara Malaysia; MKN ) after the Federal Special Task Force (PPKPS/L) and Special Malaysia Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team (SMART). History / Roles Formed on 27 October 2016 by Prime Minister Najib Razak , the NSOF will serve as the nation's security forces first responders against all threats, including the Islamic State terror group. The NSOF personnel will be seconded from the three agencies in the initial stage. Designated posts will be made once the unit is fully operational, which reports directly to the National Security Council (NSC). This is to prevent an ...more...



Special Forces (United States Army)

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The United States Army Special Forces , colloquially known as the Green Berets due to their distinctive service headgear, are a special operations force tasked with five primary missions: unconventional warfare (the original and most important mission of Special Forces), foreign internal defense , special reconnaissance , direct action , and counter-terrorism . The first two emphasize language, cultural, and training skills in working with foreign troops. Other duties include combat search and rescue (CSAR), counter-narcotics , counter-proliferation , hostage rescue , humanitarian assistance , humanitarian demining , information operations , peacekeeping , psychological operations , security assistance, and manhunts ; other components of the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) or other U.S. government activities may also specialize in these secondary areas. Many of their operational techniques are classified , but some nonfiction works and doctrinal manuals are available. As special operation ...more...



Operation Okra

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Operation Okra is the Australian Defence Force (ADF) contribution to the military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). The force is part of Joint Task Force 633 in the Middle East. The operation commenced on 31 August 2014, and its initial stated aim was to combat ISIL threats in Iraq. In September 2015, the Australian airstrikes were extended to Syria. In June 2017, flights in Syria were temporarily halted in response to American forces shooting down a Syrian Air Force jet, before later being resumed. Development of the Australian contribution Airstrikes against ISIL in Iraq The Australian government announced on 14 September 2014 that an Air Task Group (ATG) of up to eight F/A-18F Super Hornets , an E-7A Wedgetail AEW&C aircraft, and a KC-30A air-to-air refuelling tanker, along with a Special Operations Task Force, would be deployed to the Middle East in preparation for possible operations against ISIL forces. The ATG commenced operations on 1 October, and on 3 Octob ...more...



Definitions of terrorism

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There is no universal agreement on the definition of terrorism . Various legal systems and government agencies use different definitions. Moreover, governments have been reluctant to formulate an agreed upon and legally binding definition. These difficulties arise from the fact that the term is politically and emotionally charged. In the United States of America , for example, Terrorism is defined in Title 22 Chapter 38 U.S. Code § 2656f as "premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents." According to Matusitz (2013), terrorism includes the following: It is the use of violence or threat of violence in the pursuit of political aims, religious, or ideological change. It can be committed by governments, non-state actors , or undercover personnel serving on the behalf of their respective governments. It reaches more than the immediate target victims and is also directed at targets consisting of a larger spectrum of society. It ...more...



III Marine Expeditionary Force

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III Marine Expeditionary Force (III MEF) is a formation of the Marine Air-Ground Task Force of the United States Marine Corps . It is forward-deployed and able to rapidly conduct operations across the spectrum from humanitarian assistance and disaster relief (HA/DR) to amphibious assault and high-intensity combat. It maintains a forward presence in Japan and Asia to support the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the United States and Japan (1960) and other alliance relationships of the United States. III MEF also conducts combined operations and training throughout the region in support of the National Security Strategy for Theater Security Cooperation. The Marines and sailors of III MEF engage in more than 65 combined, bilateral and multi-lateral training exercises annually throughout the Asia-Pacific region, in countries including treaty allies Japan , Thailand , South Korea , The Philippines , and Australia . These exercises build partner capacity, develop and maintain strong regional allian ...more...




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