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Johann Christoph Glaubitz
Basilian Gate of the Holy Trinity monastery in Vilnius

Johann Christoph Glaubitz (c. 1700 – 30 March 1767) was an architect of German descent who is generally considered to be the most prominent Baroque architect in the lands of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

Glaubitz was born in Schweidnitz (Świdnica), Duchies of Silesia, and spent the first 37 years of his life there. After a devastating fires occurred in 1737 in Vilnius, he was called to rebuild Lutheran St. Johns' Church, which in 1555 had been funded by German merchants.

Glaubitz, who was among the leaders of the Lutheran community[1] of Vilnius, is credited for developing a distinct Lithuanian school of Baroque architecture, known as Vilnian Baroque, which is best reflected in the cityscape of the Old Town of Vilnius. This has contributed to the widespread naming of Old Vilnius as the "City of Baroque".

There are at least four churches in Vilnius reconstructed by Glaubitz, namely the Church of St. Catherine (1743),[2] the Church of the Ascension (1750), the Church of St. John, the monastery gate and the towers of the Church of the Holy Trinity. The magnificent and dynamic Baroque facade of the formerly Gothic Church of St. Johns (1749) is mentioned among his best works. Many church interiors including the one of the Great Synagogue of Vilna were reconstructed by Glaubitz as well as the Town Hall in 1769.

A notable building by Glaubitz was the former Carmelite church of Hlybokaye, Belarus, which he reconstructed in 1735; it is now the Orthodox Church of the Birth of Theotokos. Other towns with architecture by Glaubitz include Mahilyow, Lida, and the Cathedral of Saint Sophia in Polatsk in Belarus and Daugavpils in Latvia. The Church of St. Peter and St. Paul in Berezovichi, now part of Hlybokaye, was built in 1776 and demolished in the 1960s and 1970s. Its replica was constructed in Białystok in the 1990s.

See also
Primary sources
  1. Wilfried Schlau: Tausend Jahre Nachbarschaft. Die Völker des baltischen Raumes und die Deutschen, Seite 281, Stiftung Ostdeutscher Kulturrat (Hg.), Verlag Bruckmann, 1995, ISBN 3-7654-2404-8 bzw. ISBN 978-3-7654-2404-5 (Auszug)
  2. Christiane Bauermeister: Litauen, 2007, Seite 70 (Digitalisat)
  • S. Lorentz, Jan Krzysztof Glaubitz - architekt wileński XVIII wieku, Warszawa 1937
External links

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Johann Christoph Glaubitz

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Basilian Gate of the Holy Trinity monastery in Vilnius Johann Christoph Glaubitz ( c.  1700 – 30 March 1767) was an architect of German descent who is generally considered to be the most prominent Baroque architect in the lands of the former Grand Duchy of Lithuania . Glaubitz was born in Schweidnitz (Świdnica) , Duchies of Silesia , and spent the first 37 years of his life there. After a devastating fires occurred in 1737 in Vilnius , he was called to rebuild Lutheran St. Johns' Church, which in 1555 had been funded by German merchants. Glaubitz, who was among the leaders of the Lutheran community of Vilnius, is credited for developing a distinct Lithuanian school of Baroque architecture, known as Vilnian Baroque, which is best reflected in the cityscape of the Old Town of Vilnius . This has contributed to the widespread naming of Old Vilnius as the "City of Baroque". There are at least four churches in Vilnius reconstructed by Glaubitz, namely the Church of St. Catherine (1743), the Church of the Ascensio



Orthodox Church of the Holy Spirit, Vilnius

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The Orthodox Church of the Holy Spirit is a Russian Orthodox church in Vilnius , capital of Lithuania , rebuilt 1749–1753 in the Vilnian Baroque style. It should not be confused with the Roman Catholic Church of the Holy Spirit in Vilnius. History The site of the present church used to be occupied by a wooden church, following the form a Latin cross, erected in 1638, when Vilnius was part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and was known as Wilno . Associated with the church was a convent, opened in 1567. After a fire gutted the wooden church in the 18th century, a stone church was erected in 1749–1753 in the Baroque style, with details of the interior in Roccoco style. It was designed by Johann Christoph Glaubitz , an architect of German descent who was noted for developing a Lithuanian school of Baroque architecture , known as Vilnian Baroque. Architecture In the 19th century, when Vilnius was part of the Russian Empire , several Byzantine Revival architectural elements were added to the church, but it ne



Lopacinskiai Palace (Bernardinai st.)

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Lopacinskiai Palace is a building in Vilnius Old Town , Bernardinai st. Currently it is hotel "Šekspyras". History In the first half of the 18th century Mikołaj Tadeusz Łopaciński purchased the building and converted it into Palace with Johann Christoph Glaubitz project. In 1801, the Palace was sold to Kossakowski . In 1808, minor reconstruction was made to adapt the Palace with city road contour. In 1819-1828, earl Olizaras family owned the Palace. After them it was owned by printers Zavadskai, who used it as printing house. In 1967-1975, main hull was partly reconstructed with architect Aldona Svabauskienė project. Currently it is hotel "Šekspyras". References Then and now: Lapacinskiai (Olizarai) Palace (in Lithuanian) External links Hotel "Šekspyras" Lopacinskiai Palace is a building in Vilnius Old Town , Bernardinai st. Currently it is hotel "Šekspyras". History In the first half of the 18th century Mikołaj Tadeusz Łopaciński purchased the building and converted it into Palace with Johann Christoph Glaub



Church of St. Anne, Vilnius

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St. Anne's Church ( Lithuanian : Šv. Onos bažnyčia ) is a Roman Catholic church in Vilnius ' Old Town , on the right bank of the Vilnia River . It is a prominent example of both Flamboyant Gothic and Brick Gothic styles. St. Anne's is a prominent landmark in the Old Town of Vilnius that enabled the district to be included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage sites. And it is one of the most interesting examples of Gothic architecture in Lithuania . History Interior, looking to the main altar The first church at this site, constructed of wood, was built for Anna, Grand Duchess of Lithuania , the first wife of Vytautas the Great . Originally intended for the use of Catholic Germans and other visiting Catholics, it was destroyed by a fire in 1419. The present brick church was constructed on the initiative of the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Alexander I Jagiellon in 1495–1500; the exterior of the church has remained almost unchanged since then. A reconstruction of the church, funded by Mikołaj "the



Church of St. Johns, Vilnius

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The Tower of St John's Church The Church of St. Johns , St. John the Baptist and St. John the Apostle and Evangelist ( Lithuanian : Vilniaus Šv. Jono Krikštytojo ir Šv. Jono apaštalo ir evangelisto bažnyčia ) is located at the Old Town of Vilnius , Lithuania and dominates the university ( Vilnius University ) ensemble. Since the times of the Jesuit Academy professors and students used to pray here, and Vilnius theologians gave sermons. It was a place for performances and disputes, where theses were defended and kings greeted. History The church was built in 1388–1426, reconstructed in the 16th and 17th centuries. The tower, separate from the church itself, was built in the 16th century. After the fire in 1737, from 1738–1748, architect Johann Christoph Glaubitz completely reconstructed the church in style of late Baroque. During the 1827-28 reconstruction, architect Karol Podczaszynski destroyed the bulk of the sumptuous Baroque interior - nearly 3000 carts with splinters of altars, sculptures and stucco work



Saint Sophia Cathedral in Polotsk

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The Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Polotsk ( Belarusian : Полацкі Сафійскі сабор ; Russian : Собор Святой Софии в Полоцке ) was built by Prince Vseslav Briacheslavich (r.1044–1101) between 1044 (it is first mentioned in the Voskresenskaia Chronicle under the year 1056) and 1066. It stands at the confluence of the Polota and Western Dvina Rivers on the eastern side of the city and is probably the oldest church in Belarus. The Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Polotsk as depicted on a 2005 20 ruble silver commemorative coin. Vseslav of Polotsk, the cathedral's patron, is shown on the reverse. The cathedral is, like the Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev and Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod , named after the Holy Wisdom of God. After building his own cathedral, Vseslav, who was an izgoi prince, tried to seize the Kievan throne. Failing in that attempt, he raided the surrounding principalities; in 1067, he raided Novgorod the Great and looted the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom there, bringing a bell and other loot back to decorat



Polotsk

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Polotsk or Polatsk ( Belarusian : По́лацк, Połack , Russian : По́лоцк, Polotsk , Polish : Połock , Lithuanian : Polockas ) is a historical city in Belarus , situated on the Dvina River. It is the center of the Polatsk Raion in Vitebsk Voblast . Its population is more than 80,000 people. It is served by Polotsk Airport and during the Cold War was home to Borovitsy air base. Nomenclature The Old East Slavic name, Polotesk, derives from the Polota River, which flows into the Western Dvina nearby. The Vikings rendered that name as Palteskja. Paluota (luotas means dugout canoe in Lithuanian, and pa- means "by/beside") is the Lithuanian name of the river from which a Lithuanian name for today's Belorussian city Polotsk originates. History Polotsk in the 16th century. Polotsk is one of the most ancient cities of the Eastern Slavs . The Primary Chronicle (a history of Kievan Rus' from about 850 to 1110, compiled in Kiev about 1113) listed Polotsk in 862 (as Полотескъ, /poloteskŭ/), together with Murom and Belooz



Great Synagogue of Vilna

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The Great Synagogue of Vilna , which once stood at the end of Jewish Street (I-2), Vilnius , Lithuania , was built between 1630 and 1633 after permission was granted to construct a synagogue from stone. Standing on the spot of an existing synagogue built in 1572, the site had first been used to house a Jewish house of prayer in 1440. Structure According to legend it was so magnificent and impressive, Napoleon who stood on the threshold of this synagogue in 1812 and gazed at the interior was speechless with admiration. The synagogue had a number of entrances. One, at street level, consisted of a pair of iron gates that had been donated by a tailors' society in 1640. The other entrance on the western side, added in 1800, was a bit more imposing: it had an elevated two-tiered wooden gable with a portal and wrought iron posts. There was a heavy iron door with an original Hebrew inscription indicating it was a gift of a "society of Psalm reciters" in 1642. At the time of its building, ecclesiastical regulations al



Baroque architecture

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Cupola frescoes of the Gesù by Gaulli Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era , begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church . It was characterized by new explorations of form, light and shadow, and dramatic intensity. Whereas the Renaissance drew on the wealth and power of the Italian courts and was a blend of secular and religious forces, the Baroque was, initially at least, directly linked to the Counter-Reformation, a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself in response to the Protestant Reformation . Baroque architecture and its embellishments were on the one hand more accessible to the emotions and on the other hand, a visible statement of the wealth and power of the Catholic Church. The new style manifested itself in particular in the context of the new religious orders, like the Theatines and the Jesuits who aimed



Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

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The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth , formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania , after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland , was a dualistic state , a bi- confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania . It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th- and 17th-century Europe. At its peak in the early 17th century, the Commonwealth spanned some 450,000 square miles (1,200,000 km ) and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million. The Commonwealth was established by the Union of Lublin in July 1569, but the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were in a de facto personal union since 1386 with the marriage of the Polish queen Hedwig and Lithuania's Grand Duke Jogaila , who was crowned King jure uxoris Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland. The First Partition of Poland in 1772 and the Second Partition of Poland in 1793 greatly reduced the nation's size and t



Culture of Lithuania

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The culture of Lithuania combines an indigenous heritage, represented by the unique Lithuanian language , with Nordic cultural aspects and Christian traditions resulting from historical ties with Poland. Although linguistic resemblances represent strong cultural ties with Latvia in various historical moments Lithuania was influenced by Nordic , Germanic and Slavic cultures. Various cultural changes occurred throughout Lithuania's transformation from a former country of the Soviet Union to an independent Baltic state . Ethnicity and nationality Yellow, green, and red horizontally shape the flag of Lithuania Lithuania has the most homogeneous population in the Baltic states . In the 2001 census, 83.45% of the population identified themselves as ethnic Lithuanians, 6.74% as Poles , 6.31% as Russians , 1.23% as Belarusians , and 2.27% as members of other ethnic groups. Poles in Lithuania are concentrated in the Vilnius Region , allowing Electoral Action of Poles in Lithuania , their ethnically-based party, to exe





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