ISO/IEC 8859-2

ISO/IEC 8859-2:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 2: Latin alphabet No. 2, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1987. It is informally referred to as "Latin-2". It is generally intended for Central[1] or "Eastern European" languages that are written in the Latin script. Note that ISO/IEC 8859-2 is very different from code page 852 (MS-DOS Latin 2, PC Latin 2) which is also referred to as "Latin-2" in Czech and Slovak regions.[2]

ISO-8859-2 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. 0.2% of all web pages use ISO 8859-2 in June 2016.[3] Microsoft has assigned code page 28592 a.k.a. Windows-28592 to ISO-8859-2 in Windows. IBM assigned Code page 1111 to ISO 8859-2.

Codepage 1250 a.k.a. Windows-1250 has many of the same characters but in a different arrangement.

These code values can be used for the following languages:

It can also be used for Romanian, but it is not well suited for that language, due to lacking letters s and t with commas below, although it provides s and t with similar-looking cedillas. These letters were unified in the first versions of the Unicode standard, meaning that the appearance with cedilla or with a comma was treated as a glyph choice rather than as separate characters; fonts intended for use with Romanian should therefore, in theory, have characters with a comma below at those code points.

Microsoft did not really provide such fonts for computers sold in Romania. Still, ISO/IEC 8859-2 and Windows-1250 (with the same problem) have been heavily used for Romanian. Unicode subsequently disunified the comma variants from the cedilla variants, and has since taken the lead for web pages, which however often have s and t with cedilla anyway. Unicode notes as of 2014 that disunifying the letters with comma below was a mistake, causing corruptions of Romanian data: pre-existing data and input methods would still contain the older cedilla codepoints, complicating text searching.

Code page layout

In the following table characters are shown together with their corresponding Unicode code points. Note that code values 00-1F, 7F, and 80-9F are not assigned to characters by ISO/IEC 8859-2. Code 20 is the regular SPACE character, and A0 is the NON-BREAKING SPACE. Code AD is a SOFT HYPHEN, which even in isolation may not appear at all in compliant web browsers.

Legend:

ISO/IEC 8859-2 (Latin-2)
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
  0_                                  
  1_                                  
  2_   SP002032 !002133 "002234 #002335 $002436 %002537 &002638 '002739 (002840 )002941 *002A42 +002B43 ,002C44 -002D45 .002E46 /002F47
  3_   0003048 1003149 2003250 3003351 4003452 5003553 6003654 7003755 8003856 9003957 :003A58 ;003B59 003C60 =003D61 >003E62 ?003F63
  4_   @004064 A004165 B004266 C004367 D004468 E004569 F004670 G004771 H004872 I004973 J004A74 K004B75 L004C76 M004D77 N004E78 O004F79
  5_   P005080 Q005181 R005282 S005383 T005484 U005585 V005686 W005787 X005888 Y005989 Z005A90 [005B91 \005C92 ]005D93 ^005E94 _005F95
  6_   `006096 a006197 b006298 c006399 d0064100 e0065101 f0066102 g0067103 h0068104 i0069105 j006A106 k006B107 l006C108 m006D109 n006E110 o006F111
  7_   p0070112 q0071113 r0072114 s0073115 t0074116 u0075117 v0076118 w0077119 x0078120 y0079121 z007A122 {007B123 |007C124 }007D125 ~007E126  
  8_                                  
  9_                                  
  A_   NBSP00A0160 Ą0104161 ˘02D8162 Ł0141163 ¤00A4164 Ľ013D165 Ś015A166 §00A7167 ¨00A8168 Š0160169 Ş015E170 Ť0164171 Ź0179172 SHY00AD173 Ž017D174 Ż017B175
  B_   °00B0176 ą0105177 ˛02DB178 ł0142179 ´00B4180 ľ013E181 ś015B182 ˇ02C7183 ¸00B8184 š0161185 ş015F186 ť0165187 ź017A188 ˝02DD189 ž017E190 ż017C191
  C_   Ŕ0154192 Á00C1193 Â00C2194 Ă0102195 Ä00C4196 Ĺ0139197 Ć0106198 Ç00C7199 Č010C200 É00C9201 Ę0118202 Ë00CB203 Ě011A204 Í00CD205 Î00CE206 Ď010E207
  D_   Đ0110208 Ń0143209 Ň0147210 Ó00D3211 Ô00D4212 Ő0150213 Ö00D6214 ×00D7215 Ř0158216 Ů016E217 Ú00DA218 Ű0170219 Ü00DC220 Ý00DD221 Ţ0162222 ß00DF223
  E_   ŕ0155224 á00E1225 â00E2226 ă0103227 ä00E4228 ĺ013A229 ć0107230 ç00E7231 č010D232 é00E9233 ę0119234 ë00EB235 ě011B236 í00ED237 î00EE238 ď010F239
  F_   đ0111240 ń0144241 ň0148242 ó00F3243 ô00F4244 ő0151245 ö00F6246 ÷00F7247 ř0159248 ů016F249 ú00FA250 ű0171251 ü00FC252 ý00FD253 ţ0163254 ˙02D9255
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
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Slovak orthography

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Slovak orthography

The first Slovak orthography was proposed by Anton Bernolák (1762–1813) in his Dissertatio philologico-critica de litteris Slavorum, used in the six-volume Slovak-Czech-Latin-German-Hungarian Dictionary (1825–1927) and used pmarily by Slovak Catholics. The standard orthography of the Slovak language is immediately based on the standard developed by Ľudovít Štúr in 1844 and reformed by Martin Hattala in 1851 with the agreement of Štúr. The then-current (1840s) form of the central Slovak dialect was chosen as the standard. It uses the Latin script with small modifications that include the four diacritics (ˇ, ´, ¨, ˆ) placed above certain letters. After Hattala's reform, the Slovak language remained mostly unchanged. Alphabet Slovak alphabet is an extension of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Slovak language. It has 46 letters which makes it the longest Slavic and European alphabet. The 46 letters of the Slovak alphabet are: Majuscule forms (also called uppercase or capital letters) A Á Ä B C Č ...more...

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Graphic character

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Graphic character

In ISO/IEC 646 (commonly known as ASCII) and related standards including ISO 8859 and Unicode, a graphic character is any character intended to be written, printed, or otherwise displayed in a form that can be read by humans. In other words, it is any encoded character that is associated with one or more glyphs. ISO/IEC 646 In ISO 646, graphic characters are contained in rows 2 through 7 of the code table. However, two of the characters in these rows, namely the space character SP at row 2 column 0 and the delete character DEL (also called the rubout character) at row 7 column 15, require special mention. The space is considered to be both a graphic character and a control character in ISO 646. It can have a visible form, and also a control function (moving the print head).[1] The delete character is strictly a control character, not a graphic character. This is true not only in ISO 646, but also in all related standards including Unicode. However, many modern character sets deviate from ISO 646, and as a ...more...

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Ï

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Ï

Ï, lowercase ï, is a symbol used in various languages written with the Latin alphabet; it can be read as the letter I with diaeresis or I-umlaut. In Afrikaans, Catalan, Dutch, French, Galician, Welsh, Southern Sami, and occasionally English, ⟨ï⟩ is used when ⟨i⟩ follows another vowel and indicates hiatus (diaeresis) in the pronunciation of such a word. It indicates that the two vowels are pronounced in separate syllables, rather than together as a diphthong or digraph. For example, French maïs (IPA: , maize); without the diaeresis, the ⟨i⟩ is part of the digraph ⟨ai⟩: mais (IPA: , but). The letter is also in Dutch Oekraïne (pronounced , Ukraine), and English naïve ( or ). In scholarly writing on Turkic languages, ⟨ï⟩ is sometimes used to write the close back unrounded vowel , which, in the standard modern Turkish alphabet, is written as the dotless i ⟨ı⟩.[1] The back neutral vowel reconstructed in Proto-Mongolic is sometimes written ⟨ï⟩.[2] In the transcription of Amazonian languages, ï is used to represen ...more...

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Double acute accent

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Double acute accent

The double acute accent ( ˝ ) is a diacritic mark of the Latin script. It is used primarily in written Hungarian, and consequently is sometimes referred to by typographers as Hungarumlaut.[1] The signs formed with the umlaut are letters in their own right in the Hungarian alphabet—for instance, they are separate letters for the purpose of collation—but letters with the double acute are considered variants of their equivalents with the plain umlaut. Uses Vowel length History Length marks first appeared in Hungarian orthography in the 15th-century Hussite Bible. Initially, only á and é were marked, since they are different in quality as well as length. Later í, ó, ú were marked as well. In the 18th century, before Hungarian orthography became fixed, u and o with umlaut + acute (ǘ, ö́) were used in some printed documents.[2] 19th century typographers introduced the double acute as a more aesthetic solution. Hungarian In Hungarian, the double acute is thought of as the letter having both an umlaut and an acu ...more...

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ISO/IEC 6937

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ISO/IEC 6937

ISO/IEC 6937:2001, Information technology — Coded graphic character set for text communication — Latin alphabet, is a multibyte extension of ASCII, or rather of ISO/IEC 646-IRV. It was developed in common with ITU-T (then CCITT) for telematic services under the name of T.51, and first became an ISO standard in 1983. Certain byte codes are used as lead bytes for letters with diacritics (accents). The value of the lead byte often indicates which diacritic that the letter has, and the follow byte then has the ASCII-value for the letter that the diacritic is on. Only certain combinations of lead byte and follow byte are allowed, and there are some exceptions to the lead byte interpretation for some follow bytes. However, that no combining characters at all are encoded in ISO/IEC 6937. But one can represent some free-standing diacritics, often by letting the follow byte have the code for ASCII space. ISO/IEC 6937's architects were Hugh McGregor Ross, Peter Fenwick, Bernard Marti and Loek Zeckendorf. ISO6937/2 de ...more...

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ASCII

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ASCII

ASCII ( ( listen) ASS-kee),[1]:6 abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication. ASCII codes represent text in computers, telecommunications equipment, and other devices. Most modern character-encoding schemes are based on ASCII, although they support many additional characters. ASCII is the traditional name for the encoding system; the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) prefers the updated name US-ASCII, which clarifies that this system was developed in the US and based on the typographical symbols predominantly in use there.[2] ASCII is one of a 1963 List of IEEE milestones. ASCII chart from an earlier-than 1972 printer manual (b1 is the least significant bit.) Overview ASCII was developed from telegraph code. Its first commercial use was as a seven-bit teleprinter code promoted by Bell data services. Work on the ASCII standard began on October 6, 1960, with the first meeting of the American Standards Associat ...more...

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Romanization of Armenian

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Romanization of Armenian

There are various systems of romanization of the Armenian alphabet. Transliteration systems Hübschmann-Meillet (1913) In linguistic literature on Classical Armenian, the commonly used transliteration is that of Hübschmann-Meillet (1913). It uses a combining dot above mark U+0307 to express the aspirates, ṫ, cḣ, č̇, ṗ, k̇. Some documents were also published using a similar Latin dasia diacritic U+0314, a mirrored comma-apostrophe combining above the letter, which is easier to distinguish visually in t̔, ch̔, č̔, p̔, k̔. However, the correct support of these combining diacritics has been poor for long in the past and was not very common on many usual applications and computer fonts or rendering systems., so some documents have been published using, as possible fallbacks, their spacing variants such as the modifier letter dot above ˙ U+02D9 written after the letter instead of above it, or the mirrored comma-apostrophe ‛ U+201B written after the letter instead of above it — or sometimes the spacing Greek spiri ...more...

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Euro sign

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Euro sign

The euro sign; logotype and handwritten The euro sign (€) is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the European Union (EU) and other non-EU countries (Kosovo, Montenegro and Zimbabwe). The design was presented to the public by the European Commission on 12 December 1996. The international three-letter code (according to ISO standard ISO 4217) for the euro is EUR. In Unicode it is encoded at U+20AC € euro sign (HTML € · €). In English, the sign precedes the value (for instance, €10, not 10 €, unlike most other European languages). In some style guides, but not others, the euro sign is unspaced. The first letter of the word Europe is crossed by two parallel lines. Design Official graphic construction of the euro logo The euro design featured in the Windows font Comic Sans originally had a cartoon eye inside a serif. This was later removed after fears of legal action from the EU.[1] Euro symbol - minimalism art The euro currency sign was designed to be similar in s ...more...

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Semantic service-oriented architecture

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Semantic service-oriented architecture

A Semantic Service Oriented Architecture (SSOA) is an architecture that allows for scalable and controlled Enterprise Application Integration solutions.[1] SSOA describes a sophisticated approach to enterprise-scale IT infrastructure. It leverages rich, machine-interpretable descriptions of data, services, and processes to enable software agents to autonomously interact to perform critical mission functions. SSOA is technically founded on three notions: The principles of Service-oriented architecture (SOA); Standards Based Design (SBD); and Semantics-based computing. SSOA combines and implements these computer science concepts into a robust, extensible architecture capable of enabling complex, powerful functions.[2] Applications In the health care industry, SSOA of HL7 has long been implemented. Other protocols include LOINC, PHIN, and HIPAA related standards. There is a series of SSOA-related ISO standards published for financial services, which can be found at the ISO's website[3],[4],.[5] Some fi ...more...

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Unicode

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Unicode

Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The standard is maintained by the Unicode Consortium, and as of June 2018 the most recent version, Unicode 11.0, contains a repertoire of 137,439 characters covering 146 modern and historic scripts, as well as multiple symbol sets and emoji. The character repertoire of the Unicode Standard is synchronized with ISO/IEC 10646, and both are code-for-code identical. The Unicode Standard consists of a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding method and set of standard character encodings, a set of reference data files, and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for normalization, decomposition, collation, rendering, and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic and Hebrew, and left-to-right scripts).[1] Unicode's success at unifying character sets has ...more...

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Ä

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Ä

Ä ä Ä (lower case ä) is a character that represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter A with an umlaut mark or diaeresis. Usage Independent letter Glyphs Ä and ä in Doulos SIL Sign of Jyväskylä, city in Finland. The letter Ä occurs as an independent letter in the Swedish, Finnish, Skolt Sami, Karelian, Estonian, Luxembourgish, North Frisian, Saterlandic, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Rotuman, Slovak, Tatar, Gagauz, and Turkmen alphabets, where it represents a vowel sound. In Finnish and Turkmen this is always ; in Swedish and Estonian, regional variation, as well as the letter's position in a word, allows for either and . In German and Slovak Ä stands for (or a bit archaic but still correct ). The sign at the bus station of the Finnish town Mynämäki, illustrating an artistic variation of the letter Ä. In the Nordic countries, the vowel sound was originally written as "Æ" when Christianisation caused the former Vikings to start using the Latin alphabet around A.D. 1100. ...more...

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Western Latin character sets (computing)

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Western Latin character sets (computing)

Several binary representations of character sets for common Western European languages are compared in this article. These encodings were designed for representation of Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, German, Dutch, English, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, and Icelandic, which use the Latin alphabet, a few additional letters and ones with precomposed diacritics, some punctuation, and various symbols (including some Greek letters). Although they're called "Western European" many of these languages are spoken all over the world. Also, these character sets happen to support many other languages such as Malay, Swahili, and Classical Latin. This material is technically obsolete, having been functionally replaced by Unicode. However it continues to have historical interest. Summary The ISO-8859 series of 8-bit character sets encodes all Latin character sets used in Europe, albeit that the same code points have multiple uses that caused some difficulty. The arrival of Unicode, with a unique code point for every ...more...

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Character sets

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Code page

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Code page

In computing, a code page is a table of values that describes the character set used for encoding a particular set of characters, usually combined with a number of control characters. The term "code page" originated from IBM's EBCDIC-based mainframe systems,[1] but Microsoft, SAP,[2] and Oracle Corporation[3] are among the few vendors which use this term. The majority of vendors identify their own character sets by a name. In the case when there is a plethora of character sets (like in IBM), identifying character sets through a number is a convenient way to distinguish them. Originally, the code page numbers referred to the page numbers in the IBM standard character set manual,[4][5][6] a condition which has not held for a long time. Vendors that use a code page system allocate their own code page number to a character encoding, even if it is better known by another name; for example, UTF-8 has been assigned page numbers 1208 at IBM, 65001 at Microsoft, and 4110 at SAP. Hewlett-Packard uses a similar concep ...more...

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American National Standards Institute

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American National Standards Institute

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI AN-see) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States.[3] The organization also coordinates U.S. standards with international standards so that American products can be used worldwide. ANSI accredits standards that are developed by representatives of other standards organizations, government agencies, consumer groups, companies, and others. These standards ensure that the characteristics and performance of products are consistent, that people use the same definitions and terms, and that products are tested the same way. ANSI also accredits organizations that carry out product or personnel certification in accordance with requirements defined in international standards.[4] The organization's headquarters are in Washington, D.C. ANSI's operations office is located in New York City. The ANSI annual operating budget is funded by the ...more...

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Started in 1918 in the United States

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Chinese National Standards

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Chinese National Standards

The national standards of the Republic of China administering Taiwan, Penghu, Quemoy and Matsu are titled National Standards of the Republic of China (CNS) (中華民國國家標準). They are administered by the Bureau of Standards, Metrology and Inspection of the Ministry of Economic Affairs. These standards are divided into 26 numbered categories. Applying the National Standards is voluntary unless authorities in charge cite any parts of the standards as laws and regulations. By the end of 2003, more than 15000 national standards have been issued. Although the Republic of China was removed in 1950 from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for failure to pay membership dues accordingly, there are still many National Standards translated from ISO standards into Chinese. A few standards also have English versions, but in case of any divergence of interpretation, the Chinese text shall prevail. Each standard has a general number and may be prefixed "CNS", such as CNS 11296. The general numbers, English na ...more...

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UTF-8

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UTF-8

UTF-8 is a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064[1] valid code points in Unicode using one to four 8-bit bytes.[2] The encoding is defined by the Unicode standard, and was originally designed by Ken Thompson and Rob Pike.[3][4] The name is derived from Unicode (or Universal Coded Character Set) Transformation Format – 8-bit.[5] It was designed for backward compatibility with ASCII. Code points with lower numerical values, which tend to occur more frequently, are encoded using fewer bytes. The first 128 characters of Unicode, which correspond one-to-one with ASCII, are encoded using a single octet with the same binary value as ASCII, so that valid ASCII text is valid UTF-8-encoded Unicode as well. Since ASCII bytes do not occur when encoding non-ASCII code points into UTF-8, UTF-8 is safe to use within most programming and document languages that interpret certain ASCII characters in a special way, such as "/" in filenames, "\" in escape sequences, and "%" in printf. Shows the ...more...

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List of information system character sets

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List of information system character sets

This list provides an inventory of character coding standards mainly before modern standards like ISO/IEC 646 etc. Some of these standards have been deeply involved in historic events that still have consequences. One notable example of this is the ITA2 coding used during the World War II (1939-1945). The nature of these standards is not as common knowledge like it is for ASCII or EBCDIC or their slang names. While 8-bit is the de facto standard as of 2016, in the past 5-bit and 6-bit were more prevalent or their multiple. Code Introduction Width Usage Morse code c. 1837–1840 varies Electrical telegraphs Baudot code / ITA1 1870 5 bits Piano-like telegraph operation, SIGCUM cipher operation Chinese telegraph code 1881 4 digits Chinese telegraph communications Murray code 1901 5 bits Machine run telegraph operation using punched paper, moved optimization from minimal operator fatigue to minimal machinery wear ITA2 1924[1] 5 bits Teletypewrite, Telecommunications devices for the deaf (TDD), Telex ...more...

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UTF-16

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UTF-16

UTF-16 (16-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points of Unicode. The encoding is variable-length, as code points are encoded with one or two 16-bit code units (also see Comparison of Unicode encodings for a comparison of UTF-8, -16 & -32). UTF-16 arose from an earlier fixed-width 16-bit encoding known as UCS-2 (for 2-byte Universal Character Set) once it became clear that more than 216 code points were needed.[1] UTF-16 is used internally by systems such as Windows and Java and by JavaScript, and often for plain text and for word-processing data files on Windows. It is rarely used for files on Unix/Linux or macOS. It never gained popularity on the web, where UTF-8 is dominant: UTF-16 is used by under 0.01% of web pages themselves.[2] WHATWG recommends that for security reasons browser apps should not use UTF-16.[3] History In the late 1980s, work began on developing a uniform encoding for a "Universal Character Set" (UCS) that would ...more...

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Thai Industrial Standard 620-2533

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Thai Industrial Standard 620-2533

Thai Industrial Standard 620-2533, commonly referred to as TIS-620, is the most common character set and character encoding for the Thai language. The standard is published by the Thai Industrial Standards Institute (TISI), an organ of the Ministry of Industry under the Royal Thai Government, and is the sole official standard for encoding Thai in Thailand. The descriptive name of the standard is "Standard for Thai Character Codes for Computers" (Thai: รหัสสำหรับอักขระไทยที่ใช้กับคอมพิวเตอร์). "2533" refers to year 2533 of the Buddhist Era (1990), the year the present version of the standard was published; a previous revision, TIS 620-2529 (1986), is now obsolete. TIS-620 is the IANA preferred charset name for TIS-620, and that charset name is used also for ISO/IEC 8859-11 (which adds a no-break space character at 0xA0, which is unassigned in TIS-620). When the IANA name is used the codes are supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. Structure TIS-620 is a conventionally structured Ex ...more...

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Computer-related introductions in 1986

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Ogonek

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Ogonek

The ogonek (Polish: , "little tail", the diminutive of ogon; Lithuanian: nosinė, "nasal") is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in several European languages, and directly under a vowel in several Native American languages. An ogonek can also be attached to the top of a vowel in Old Norse-Icelandic to show length or vowel affection.[1] For example, o᷎ represents i-mutated ø. Ogonek Use Polish (letters ą, ę) Kashubian (ą) scholarly transcriptions of Old Church Slavonic and Proto-Slavic (ę, ǫ) scholarly transcriptions of Vulgar Latin and Proto-Romance (ę, ǫ) Lithuanian (ą, ę, į, ų) Cayuga (letters ę, ǫ) Creek (ą, ąą, ę, ęę, į, įį, ǫ, ǫǫ) Navajo and Western Apache language (ą, ąą, ę, ęę, į, įį, ǫ, ǫǫ, ą́ ,ę́, į́, ǫ́) Mescalero-Chiricahua (ą, ąą, ę, ęę, į, įį, ų, ųų), Tutchone (ą, ę, į, ų, y̨) Gwich’in (ą, ąą, ę, ęę, į, įį, ǫ, ǫǫ, ų, ųų)[2] Dogrib (ą, ąą, ę, ęę, į, įį, ǫ, ǫǫ) Ho-Chunk (ą, ąą, į, įį, ų, ųų)[3] Elfdalian (ą, ę ...more...

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Hoocak

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Zero-width non-joiner

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Zero-width non-joiner

ISO keyboard symbol for ZWNJ The zero-width non-joiner (ZWNJ) is a non-printing character used in the computerization of writing systems that make use of ligatures. When placed between two characters that would otherwise be connected into a ligature, a ZWNJ causes them to be printed in their final and initial forms, respectively. This is also an effect of a space character, but a ZWNJ is used when it is desirable to keep the words closer together or to connect a word with its morpheme. The ZWNJ is encoded in Unicode as U+200C ZERO WIDTH NON-JOINER (HTML ‌ · ‌). Use of ZWNJ and unit separator for correct typography In certain languages, the ZWNJ is necessary for unambiguously specifying the correct typographic form of a character sequence. The ASCII control code unit separator was formerly used. Correct (with ZWNJ) Incorrect Meaning Display* Picture Code Display* Picture Code می‌خواهم‬ می‌خواهم(rendered from right to left):می‌خواهم میخواهم‬ میخواه ...more...

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Unicode input

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Unicode input

The Unicode logo Unicode input is the insertion of a specific Unicode character on a computer by a user; it is a common way to input characters not directly supported by a physical keyboard. Unicode characters can be inserted in three ways: from the screen by means of an applet from which one can select the character, by pasting from the operating system's clipboard, or by typing a certain sequence of keys on a physical keyboard. Unicode is similar to ASCII, but provides many more options and can store more signs.[1] A Unicode input system needs to provide a large repertoire of characters, ideally all valid Unicode code points. This is different from a keyboard layout which defines keys and their combinations only for a limited number of characters appropriate for a certain locale. KCharSelect picks some of Unicode Mathematical Operators Unicode numbers Unicode characters are distinguished by code points, which are conventionally represented by "U+" followed by four or five hexadecimal digits, for ex ...more...

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Ø

topic

Ø

Ø in Helvetica and Bodoni Ø (or minuscule: ø) is a vowel and a letter used in the Danish, Norwegian, Faroese, and Southern Sami languages. It is mostly used as a representation of mid front rounded vowels, such as [ø] and [œ], except for Southern Sami where it is used as an [oe] diphthong. The name of this letter is the same as the sound it represents (see usage). Though not its native name, among English-speaking typographers the symbol may be called a "slashed o"[1] or "o with stroke". Although these names suggest it is a ligature or a diacritical variant of the letter o, it is considered a separate letter in Norwegian and Danish, and it is alphabetized after "z"—thus z, æ, ø, and å. In other languages that do not have the letter as part of the regular alphabet, or in limited character sets such as ASCII, ø is frequently replaced with the digraph "oe". ø (lower case) is also used in the International Phonetic Alphabet to represent a close-mid front rounded vowel. Language usage Title page of the Chr ...more...

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Articles containing French-language text

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Greek alphabet

topic

Greek alphabet

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.[3][4] It was derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet,[5] and was the first alphabetic script to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. It is the ancestor of the Latin and Cyrillic scripts.[6] Apart from its use in writing the Greek language, in both its ancient and its modern forms, the Greek alphabet today also serves as a source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics, science and other fields. In its classical and modern forms, the alphabet has 24 letters, ordered from alpha to omega. Like Latin and Cyrillic, Greek originally had only a single form of each letter; it developed the letter case distinction between uppercase and lowercase forms in parallel with Latin during the modern era. Sound values and conventional transcriptions for some of the letters differ between Ancient Greek and Modern Greek usage, because the pronunciation of Greek has changed sign ...more...

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Scripts encoded in Unicode 1.0

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P

topic

P

P (named pee [1] ) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. History Phoenician P Archaic Greek Pi Greek Pi Cyrillic Pe Etruscan P Latin P Use in writing systems In English orthography and most other European languages, ⟨p⟩ represents the sound . A common digraph in English is ⟨ph⟩, which represents the sound , and can be used to transliterate ⟨φ⟩ phi in loanwords from Greek. In German, the digraph ⟨pf⟩ is common, representing a labial affricate . Most English words beginning with ⟨p⟩ are of foreign origin, primarily French, Latin, Greek, and Slavic; these languages preserve Proto-Indo-European initial *p. Native English cognates of such words often start with ⟨f⟩, since English is a Germanic language and thus has undergone Grimm's law; a native English word with initial would reflect Proto-Indo-European initial *b, which is so rare that its existence as a phoneme is disputed. However, native English words with non-initial ⟨p⟩ are q ...more...

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Everson Mono

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Everson Mono

Everson Mono is a monospaced humanist sans serif Unicode font whose development by Michael Everson began in 1995. At first, Everson Mono was a collection of 8-bit fonts containing glyphs for tables in ISO/IEC 10646; at that time, it was not easy to edit cmaps to have true Unicode indices, and there were very few applications which could do anything with a font so encoded in any case. The original "Everson Mono" had a MacRoman character set, and other versions were named with suffixes: "Everson Mono Latin B", "Everson Mono Currency", "Everson Mono Armenian" and so on. A range of fonts with the character set of the ISO/IEC 8859 series were also made. A large font distributed in 2003 was named "Everson Mono Unicode", but since 2008 the font has been named simply "Everson Mono". At present, there are regular, italic, bold, and bold-italic styles. Range, Characters, Version Everson Mono version 7.0.0, dated 2014-12-04, contains 9,632 characters (9,659 glyphs). Previous major releases contained fewer characters: ...more...

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Numeric character reference

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Numeric character reference

A numeric character reference (NCR) is a common markup construct used in SGML and SGML-derived markup languages such as HTML and XML. It consists of a short sequence of characters that, in turn, represents a single character. Since WebSgml, XML and HTML 4, the code points of the Universal Character Set (UCS) of Unicode are used. NCRs are typically used in order to represent characters that are not directly encodable in a particular document (for example, because they are international characters that don't fit in the 8-bit character set being used, or because they have special syntactic meaning in the language). When the document is interpreted by a markup-aware reader, each NCR is treated as if it were the character it represents. Examples In SGML, HTML, and XML, the following are all valid numeric character references for the Greek capital letter Sigma Numerical character reference of U+03A3 Σ GREEK CAPITAL LETTER SIGMA(3A3 = 931) Unicode character Numerical base Numerical reference in markup Eff ...more...

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CD-Text

topic

CD-Text

Compact Disc Text CD-Text is an extension of the Red Book Compact Disc specifications standard for audio CDs. It allows for storage of additional information (e.g. album name, song name, and artist name) on a standards-compliant audio CD. The specification for CD-Text was included in the Multi-Media Commands Set 3 R01 (MMC-3) standard, released in September 1996 and backed by Sony.[1] It was also added to new revisions of the Red Book.[2] The actual text is stored in a format compatible with Interactive Text Transmission System (ITTS), defined in the IEC 61866 standard.[3] The ITTS standard is also applied in the MiniDisc format, as well as in Digital Audio Broadcasting technology. Storage The CD-Text information is stored in the subchannels R to W on the disc. This information is usually stored in the subchannels in the lead-in area of the disc, where there is roughly five kilobytes of space available. It can also be stored on the main program area of the disc (where the audio tracks are), which can stor ...more...

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List of Ecma standards

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List of Ecma standards

This is a list of standards published by Ecma International, formerly the European Computer Manufacturers Association. ECMA-1 – ECMA-99 ECMA-1 – Standard for a 6-bit Input/Output character code (withdrawn) ECMA-6 – 7-bit coded character set (same as ISO/IEC 646/ITU-T T.50) (successive editions in 1965, 1967, 1970, 1973, and 1984) ECMA-10 – Data Interchange on punched tape (Nov 1965) (withdrawn) ECMA-13 – File Structure and Labelling of Magnetic Tapes (later ISO 1001) ECMA-17 – Graphic Representation of Control Characters of the ECMA 7-bit Coded Character Set for Information Interchange (Nov 1968) (withdrawn) ECMA-35 – Character Code Structure and Extension Techniques (ISO/IEC 2022) ECMA-43 – 8-bit coded character set (same as ISO/IEC 4873) ECMA-48 – ANSI escape codes (same as ISO/IEC 6429) ECMA-55 – Minimal BASIC (January 1978) (withdrawn) ECMA-58 – 8-inch floppy disk (withdrawn) ECMA-59 – 8-inch floppy disk (withdrawn) ECMA-66 – 5¼-inch floppy disk (withdrawn) ECMA-69 – 8-inch flo ...more...

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Õ

topic

Õ

Not to be confused with Ő, O with double acute. Õ õ "Õ", or "õ" is a composition of the Latin letter O with the diacritic mark tilde. The HTML entity is Õ for Õ and õ for õ. Emilian-Romagnol In Emilian-Romagnol, õ is used to represent [õː], e.g. savõ [saˈvõː] "soap". Estonian In Estonian, Õ is the 27th letter of the alphabet (between W and Ä), used to represent a vowel characteristic of Estonian, the unrounded back vowel , which may be close-mid back, close back, or close-mid central.[1] The vowel was previously written with the letter Ö, but in the early 19th century, Otto Wilhelm Masing adopted the letter Õ, ending the confusion between several homographs and clearly showing how to pronounce a word. In informal writing, e.g., emails, instant messaging and when using foreign keyboard layouts where the letter Õ is not available, some Estonians use the characters O or 6 to approximate this letter. In most of Saaremaa Island, Õ is pronounced the same as Ö. Samogitian In Samogiti ...more...

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XML

topic

XML

In computing, Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. The W3C's XML 1.0 Specification[2] and several other related specifications[3]—all of them free open standards—define XML.[4] The design goals of XML emphasize simplicity, generality, and usability across the Internet.[5] It is a textual data format with strong support via Unicode for different human languages. Although the design of XML focuses on documents, the language is widely used for the representation of arbitrary data structures[6] such as those used in web services. Several schema systems exist to aid in the definition of XML-based languages, while programmers have developed many application programming interfaces (APIs) to aid the processing of XML data. Applications of XML The essence of why extensible markup languages are necessary is explained at Markup language (for example, see Markup language § XML) and at Stan ...more...

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Yen sign

topic

Yen sign

Look up ¥ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. The yen sign (¥) or the yuan sign (¥/元) is a currency sign used by the Chinese yuan (CNY) and the Japanese yen (JPY) currencies. This monetary symbol resembles a Latin letter Y with a single or double horizontal stroke. The base unit of both currencies shared the same Chinese character/Kanji (traditional Chinese: 圓; simplified Chinese: 圆; Japanese Kyūjitai: 圓; Japanese Shinjitai: 円) that means "circle". It is pronounced yuán in Chinese and en in Japanese. In mainland of China, the Chinese character is more frequently written in everyday situations using the simpler character 元, which has the same pronunciation as the formal financial character 圓 in Standard Chinese[1] (but not in Japanese and in some Chinese varieties).[a] The symbol is usually placed before the value it represents, for example RMB¥20 in China, and JP¥1500 in Japan. However it is also more commonly represented as 20元 in China and 1500円 in Japan. ¥9 An example of a price sticker from China Co ...more...

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Specials (Unicode block)

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Specials (Unicode block)

Specials is a short Unicode block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode 11.0: U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document. U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character U+FFFE not a character. U+FFFF not a character. FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode character at all. They can be used to guess a text's encoding scheme, since any text containing these is by definition not a correctly encoded Unicode text. Unicode's U+FEFF Byte order mark character can be inserted at the beginning of a Unicod ...more...

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UTF-32

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UTF-32

UTF-32 stands for Unicode Transformation Format in 32 bits. It is a protocol to encode Unicode code points that uses exactly 32 bits per Unicode code point (but a number of leading bits must be zero as there are fewer than 221 Unicode code points). UTF-32 is a fixed-length encoding, in contrast to all other Unicode transformation formats, which are variable-length encodings. Each 32-bit value in UTF-32 represents one Unicode code point and is exactly equal to that code point's numerical value. The main advantage of UTF-32 is that the Unicode code points are directly indexed. Finding the Nth code point in a sequence of code points is a constant time operation. In contrast, a variable-length code requires sequential access to find the Nth code point in a sequence. This makes UTF-32 a simple replacement in code that uses integers that are incremented by one to examine each location in a string, as was commonly done for ASCII. The main disadvantage of UTF-32 is that it is space-inefficient, using four bytes per ...more...

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Iskra-1030

topic

Iskra-1030

Искра 1030.11 The Iskra 1030 (Russian: Искра 1030) was an Intel 8086 compatible personal computer produced in the USSR. It was designed by Elektronmash (Russian: ЛНПО «Электронмаш») in Leningrad. The main manufacturers were the Iskra factory (Russian: Искра) in Smolensk and the Shchyotmash factory (Russian: Счётмаш) in Kursk. The model line consisted of Iskra 1030.11 (basic), Iskra 1030М (modified), Iskra 1031, and Iskra 3104. Искра 1030М Искра 1031 Specification The Iskra 1030M produced from 1989 comprised: CPU: K1810VM86 (Russian: КР1810ВМ86, Intel 8086 clone), 4.77 MHz RAM: 640 KB Display: color CGA compatible Floppy disk drive: 1×720 KB Hard disk drive: 20 MB Operating system: ADOS (Russian: АДОС; Russian DOS, compatible with MS-DOS/PC-DOS 2.x and 3.x), MS-DOS, CP/M-86 Release Date: 1989 Software The computer was shipped with ADOS, a Russian version of MS-DOS/PC-DOS 2.x and 3.x, a BASIC interpreter, the special language and interpreter for accounting calculations YAMB (R ...more...

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Œ

topic

Œ

Œ (minuscule: œ) is a Latin alphabet grapheme, a ligature of o and e. In medieval and early modern Latin, it was used to represent the Greek diphthong οι and in a few non-Greek words, usages that continue in English and French. In French, it is also used in some non-learned words, representing then mid-front rounded vowel-sounds, rather than sounding the same as é or è, those being its traditional French values in the words borrowed from or via Latin. It is used in the modern orthography for Old West Norse and is used in the International Phonetic Alphabet to represent the open-mid front rounded vowel. In English runology, œ is used to transliterate the Runic letter odal ᛟ (Old English ēðel "estate, ancestral home").[1] The word onomatopoeia with the œ ligature. Latin Classical Latin wrote the o and e separately (as has today again become the general practice), but the ligature was used by medieval and early modern writings, in part because the diphthongal sound had, by Late Latin, merged into the soun ...more...

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ISO-IR-153

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ISO-IR-153

ISO-IR-153[1] (ST SEV 358-88) is an 8-bit character set that covers the Russian and Bulgarian alphabets. Unlike the KOI encodings, this encoding lists the Cyrillic letters in their correct traditional order. This has become the basis for ISO/IEC 8859-5 and the Cyrillic Unicode block. Standards ISO-IR-153 is a subset of ISO/IEC 8859-5 (synchronised with ECMA-113 since 1988).[2] Whilst the ISO-IR-153 documentation cites the earlier GOST 19768-74[1] (which defines KOI-8 and was conformed to by the first version of ECMA-113, i.e. ISO-IR-111),[2] it does not follow the KOI-8 layout so this appears to be in error. It also cites ST SEV 358-88.[1] Character set The following table shows the ISO-IR-153 encoding. Each character is shown with its equivalent Unicode code point and its decimal code point. Legend:   Alphabetic   Control character   Numeric digit   Punctuation   Extended punctuation   Graphic character   International   Undefined ISO-IR-153[1] _0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 ...more...

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Non-breaking space

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Non-breaking space

In word processing and digital typesetting, a non-breaking space (" "), also called no-break space, non-breakable space (NBSP), hard space, or fixed space,[1] is a space character that prevents an automatic line break at its position. In some formats, including HTML, it also prevents consecutive whitespace characters from collapsing into a single space. In HTML, the common non-breaking space, which is the same width as the ordinary space character, is encoded as   or  . In Unicode, it is encoded as U+00A0. Non-breaking space characters with other widths also exist. Uses and variations Despite having layout and uses similar to those of whitespace, it differs in contextual behavior.[2][3] Non-breaking behavior Text-processing software typically assumes that an automatic line break may be inserted anywhere a space character occurs; a non-breaking space prevents this from happening (provided the software recognizes the character). For example, if the text "100 km" will not quite fit at the end of ...more...

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Mu (letter)

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Mu (letter)

Mu (uppercase Μ, lowercase μ; Ancient Greek μῦ , Greek: μι or μυ—both ) or my[1] is the 12th letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 40.[2] Mu was derived from the Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol for water (𓈖), which had been simplified by the Phoenicians and named after their word for water, to become 𐤌img (mem). Letters that arose from mu include the Roman M and the Cyrillic М. Names Ancient Greek In Ancient Greek, the name of the letter was written μῦ and pronounced [mŷː]. Modern Greek In Modern Greek, the letter is spelled μι and pronounced . In monotonic orthography, the ancient version is written with an acute accent instead of a circumflex: μύ. Use as symbol The lowercase letter mu (μ) is used as a special symbol in many academic fields. The uppercase mu is not used, because it is normally identical to Latin M. Measurement the SI prefix micro-, which represents one millionth, or 10−6 the micron, an old unit that corresponds to the micrometre (which is now ...more...

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ArmSCII

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ArmSCII

ArmSCII ArmSCII or ARMSCII is a set of obsolete single-byte character encodings for the Armenian alphabet defined by Armenian national standard 166-9. ArmSCII is an acronym for Armenian Standard Code for Information Interchange, similar to ASCII for the American standard. It has been superseded by the Unicode standard. However, these encodings are not widely used because the standard was published one year after the publication of international standard ISO 10585 that defined another 7-bit encoding, from which the encoding and mapping to the UCS (Universal Coded Character Set (ISO/IEC 10646) and Unicode standards) were also derived a few years after, and there was a lack of support in the computer industry for adding ArmSCII. Encodings defined in the ArmSCII standard Very few systems support these encodings. Microsoft Windows does not support them, for example. It is usually better to use Unicode for proper interchange of Armenian text for web browsers and email, since most modern computers do not support ...more...

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Text file

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Text file

A text file (sometimes spelled "textfile"; an old alternative name is "flatfile") is a kind of computer file that is structured as a sequence of lines of electronic text. A text file exists stored as data within a computer file system. The end of a text file is often denoted by placing one or more special characters, known as an end-of-file marker, after the last line in a text file. Such markers were required under the CP/M and MS-DOS operating systems. On modern operating systems such as Windows and Unix-like systems, text files do not contain any special EOF character. "Text file" refers to a type of container, while plain text refers to a type of content. Text files can contain plain text, but they are not limited to such. At a generic level of description, there are two kinds of computer files: text files and binary files.[1] Data storage A stylized iconic depiction of a CSV-formatted text file. Because of their simplicity, text files are commonly used for storage of information. They avoid some o ...more...

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All about bots!!

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É

topic

É

É, é (e-acute) is a letter of the Latin alphabet. It is found in Afrikaans, Catalan, Czech, Danish, Emilian-Romagnol, French, English, Galician, Hungarian, Icelandic, Irish, Italian, Kashubian, Luxembourgish, Occitan, Norwegian, Portuguese, Slovak, Spanish, Swedish, Vietnamese, and Welsh languages, as a variant of the letter "e". In English, it may be observed as a pronunciation aid in loanwords (e.g., résumé from French) or romanizations (e.g., Pokémon from Japanese). This is also used in Dutch and Navajo. É or é is also used for with a rising tone ([ɤ̌]) in Pinyin, a romanization system for Standard Chinese. It is also used in Indonesian dictionaries to denote , in contrast with E, e . Usage in various languages Czech and Slovak É is the 9th letter of the Czech alphabet and Slovak alphabet and represents . Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish In Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish, the letter "é" is used to indicate that a terminal syllable with the vowel e is stressed, and it is often used only when it changes t ...more...

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RISC OS character set

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RISC OS character set

The Acorn RISC OS character set[1] was used in the Acorn Archimedes series and subsequent computers from 1987 onwards. It is an extension of ISO/IEC 8859-1. Character set Characters at 0x83, 0x84, 0x87, 0x88, 0x89, 0x8A, and 0x8B are specific to the Acorn RISC OS and therefore, are not in Unicode. At 0x83 is a box with another box inside it on the top left-hand corner, meaning "resize window". At 0x84 is a A 'bubble-writing' X, meaning "close window". At 0x87 is a very strange character that is an 7-segment-styled 8 with an 7-segment-styled 7 to the top right of it. At 0x88, 0x89, 0x8A, and 0x8B are left, right, up, and down bubble arrows for window scrollbars. The Homerton font does not have these characters. EFF, a third-party supplier of RISC OS outline fonts, has a different, but similar character set.[1] Legend:   Alphabetic   Control character   Numeric digit   Punctuation   Extended punctuation   Graphic character   International   Undefined   Differences from ISO/IEC 8859-1 RISC ...more...

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Universal Disk Format

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Universal Disk Format

Universal Disk Format (UDF) is a profile of the specification known as ISO/IEC 13346 and ECMA-167[5] and is an open vendor-neutral file system for computer data storage for a broad range of media. In practice, it has been most widely used for DVDs and newer optical disc formats, supplanting ISO 9660. Due to its design, it is very well suited to incremental updates on both recordable and (re)writable optical media. UDF is developed and maintained by the Optical Storage Technology Association (OSTA). Normally, authoring software will master a UDF file system in a batch process and write it to optical media in a single pass. But when packet writing to rewritable media, such as CD-RW, UDF allows files to be created, deleted and changed on-disc just as a general-purpose filesystem would on removable media like floppy disks and flash drives. This is also possible on write-once media, such as CD-R, but in that case the space occupied by the deleted files cannot be reclaimed (and instead becomes inaccessible). Mult ...more...

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D

topic

D

D (named dee [1]) is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. History Egyptian hieroglyph door, fish Phoenician daleth Greek Delta Etruscan D Roman D The Semitic letter Dāleth may have developed from the logogram for a fish or a door. There are many different Egyptian hieroglyphs that might have inspired this. In Semitic, Ancient Greek and Latin, the letter represented ; in the Etruscan alphabet the letter was superfluous but still retained (see letter B). The equivalent Greek letter is Delta, Δ. The minuscule (lower-case) form of 'd' consists of a loop and a tall vertical stroke. It developed by gradual variations on the majuscule (capital) form. In handwriting, it was common to start the arc to the left of the vertical stroke, resulting in a serif at the top of the arc. This serif was extended while the rest of the letter was reduced, resulting in an angled stroke and loop. The angled stroke slowly developed into a vertical ...more...

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SI 960

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SI 960

The Israeli Standards Institute's Standard SI 960 defines a 7-bit Hebrew code page derived from but not related to ISO/IEC 646. It is also known as DEC Hebrew (7-bit), because DEC standardized this character set before it became an international standard.[1] Kermit named it hebrew-7 and HEBREW-7.[2][3] The Hebrew alphabet is mapped to positions 0x60–0x7A, on top of the lowercase Latin letters (and grave accent for aleph). 7-bit Hebrew is stored in visual order. This mapping with the high bit set, i.e. with the Hebrew letters in 0xE0–0xFA, is also reflected in ISO 8859-8. Code page layout SI 960[4] _0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F   0_   NUL00000 SOH00011 STX00022 ETX00033 EOT00044 ENQ00055 ACK00066 BEL00077 BS00088 HT00099 LF000A10 VT000B11 FF000C12 CR000D13 SO000E14 SI000F15   1_   DLE001016 DC1001117 DC2001218 DC3001319 DC4001420 NAK001521 SYN001622 ETB001723 CAN001824 EM001925 SUB001A26 ESC001B27 FS001C28 GS001D29 RS001 ...more...

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Multinational Character Set

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Multinational Character Set

The Multinational Character Set (DMCS or MCS) is a character encoding created in 1983 by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) for use in the popular VT220 terminal. It was an 8-bit extension of ASCII that added accented characters, currency symbols, and other character glyphs missing from 7-bit ASCII. It is only one of the code pages implemented for the VT220 National Replacement Character Set (NRCS).[1][2] MCS is registered as IBM code page 1100 (Multinational Emulation) since 1992.[3] Depending on associated sorting Oracle calls it WE8DEC, N8DEC, DK8DEC, S8DEC, or SF8DEC.[4][5] Such "extended ASCII" sets were common (the National Replacement Character Set provided sets for more than a dozen European languages), but MCS has the distinction of being the ancestor of ECMA-94 in 1985[6] and ISO 8859-1 in 1987.[7] The code chart of MCS with ECMA-94, ISO 8859-1 and the first 256 code points of Unicode have many more similarities than differences. In addition to unused code points, differences from ISO 8859-1 are: ...more...

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Ü

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Ü

Ü ü Ü, or ü, is a character that typically represents a close front rounded vowel . It is classified as a separate letter in several extended Latin alphabets (including Azeri, Estonian, Hungarian and Turkish), but as the letter U with an umlaut/diaeresis in others such as Catalan, French, Galician, German, Occitan and Spanish. Although not a part of their alphabet, it also appears in languages such as Swedish when retained in foreign names and words. U-umlaut Johann Martin Schleyer proposed an alternate form for Ü in Volapük but it was rarely used. A glyph, U with umlaut, appears in the German alphabet. It represents the umlauted form of u, which results in the same sound as the . It can also represent [ʏ]. The letter is collated together with U, or as UE. In languages that have adopted German names or spellings, such as Swedish, the letter also occurs. It is however not a part of these languages' alphabets. In Swedish the letter is called tyskt y which means German y. In other languages that do not ...more...

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PostScript Latin 1 Encoding

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PostScript Latin 1 Encoding

The PostScript Latin 1 Encoding (often spelled ISOLatin1Encoding) is one of the character sets (or encoding vectors) used by Adobe Systems' PostScript (PS) since 1984 (1982). In 1995, IBM assigned code page 1277 to this character set.[1] It is a superset of ISO/IEC 8859-1. Code page layout Legend:   Alphabetic   Control character   Numeric digit   Punctuation   Extended punctuation   Graphic character   International   Undefined Code page 1277 _0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F  0_                                   1_                                   2_  SP002032 !002133 "002234 #002335 $002436 %002537 &002638 '002739 (002840 )002941 *002A42 +002B43 ,002C44 -002D45 .002E46 /002F47  3_  0003048 1003149 2003250 3003351 4003452 5003553 6003654 7003755 8003856 9003957 :003A58 ;003B59 003E62 ?003F63  4_  @004064 A004165 B004266 C004367 D004468 ...more...

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Code page 915

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Code page 915

Code page 915 (also known as CP 915, IBM 00915) is a code page used under IBM AIX and DOS[1] to write the Bulgarian, Belarusian, Russian, Serbian and Macedonian but was never widely used. It would also have been usable for Ukrainian in the Soviet Union from 1933–1990, but it is missing the Ukrainian letter ge, ґ, which is required in Ukrainian orthography before and since, and during that period outside Soviet Ukraine. As a result, IBM created Code page 1124. It is an extension of ISO/IEC 8859-5. Code page layout In the following table characters are shown together with their corresponding Unicode code points. Code A0 is the NON-BREAKING SPACE. Code AD is a SOFT HYPHEN, which even in isolation may not appear at all in compliant web browsers. Code Page 915 _0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F   8_   ░2591128 ▒2592129 ▓2593130 │2502131 ┤2524132 ┘2518133 ┌250C134 █2588135 ©00A9136 ╣2563137 ║2551138 ╗2557139 ╝255D140 ¢00A2141 ¥00A5142 ┐2510143   9_   └2514144 ...more...

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DOS code pages

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