ISO 31-3

ISO 31-3 is the part of international standard ISO 31 that defines names and symbols for quantities and units related to mechanics. It is superseded by ISO 80000-4.

Its definitions include (note boldfaced symbols mean quantity is a vector):

Quantity Unit Remarks
Name Symbol Name Symbol Definition
Force F newton N 1 N = 1 kg·m/s2 Unit named after Isaac Newton
Moment of force, Torque M, τ {\displaystyle {\boldsymbol {\tau }}} N·m 1 N·m = 1 kg·m2/s2 The unit is dimensionally equivalent to the units of energy, the joule; but the joule should not be used as an alternate for the newton metre.
Linear momentum p kg·m/s or N·s
(Linear) impulse J N·s or kg·m/s
Angular momentum L kg·m2/s or N·m·s
Mechanical energy, Work E, W joule J 1 J = 1 kg·m2/s2 = 1 Pa·m3 = 1 W·s Unit named after James Joule. The joule is dimensionally equivalent to the units of torque and moment of force but should be used in preference to the newton metre (N·m).
Power P watt W 1 W = 1 J/s = 1 N·m/s = 1 kg·m2/s3 Unit named after James Watt.
Pressure p pascal Pa 1 Pa = 1 N / m2 = 1 kg/(m·s2) Named after Blaise Pascal.
Normal stress, Shear stress σ , τ {\displaystyle \sigma ,\tau } pascal Pa 1 Pa = 1 N / m2 = 1 kg/(m·s2) Named after Blaise Pascal.
...

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OHSAS 18001

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OHSAS 18001

Certificate of conformity to OHSAS 18001:2007 OHSAS 18001, Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series, (officially BS OHSAS 18001) is an internationally applied British Standard for occupational health and safety management systems. It exists to help all kinds of organisations put in place demonstrably sound occupational health and safety performance. It is a widely recognised and popular occupational health and safety management system.[1] ISO 45001, which is based in part on OHSAS 18001, was published in March 2018 and is anticipated by the International Organization for Standardization to replace OHSAS 18001 over three years.[2] BS ISO 45001 was adopted as a replacement for BS OHSAS 18001 in the United Kingdom in March 2018.[3] Origins Organizations worldwide recognize the need to control and improve health and safety performance and do so with occupational health and safety management systems (OHSMS). However, before 1999 there was an increase of national standards and proprietary certification ...more...

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ISO/IEC 2022

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ISO/IEC 2022

ISO/IEC 2022 Information technology—Character code structure and extension techniques, is an ISO standard (equivalent to the ECMA standard ECMA-35[1]) specifying a technique for including multiple character sets in a single character encoding system, and a technique for representing these character sets in both 7 and 8 bit systems using the same encoding. Many of the character sets included as ISO/IEC 2022 encodings are 'double byte' encodings where two bytes correspond to a single character. This makes ISO-2022 a variable width encoding. But a specific implementation does not have to implement all of the standard; the conformance level and the supported character sets are defined by the implementation. Introduction Many languages or language families not based on the Latin alphabet such as Greek, Cyrillic, Arabic, or Hebrew have historically been represented on computers with different 8-bit extended ASCII encodings. Written East Asian languages, specifically Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, use far mor ...more...

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International Standard Book Number

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International Standard Book Number

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero). ...more...

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De burge 1150

(Yelwap)

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gsadf

(rettrt)

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Eastern Lombard dialect

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Eastern Lombard dialect

Eastern Lombard is a group of closely related dialects of Lombard, a Gallo-Italic language spoken in Lombardy, mainly in the provinces of Bergamo, Brescia and Mantua, in the area around Crema and in parts of Trentino.[3] Its main variants are Bergamasque and Brescian.[4][5] In Italian-speaking contexts, Eastern Lombard is often generically called a "dialect". This is often incorrectly understood as to mean a dialect of Italian, which actually is not the case; it's not a dialect but a language. Eastern Lombard and Italian are different languages and have only limited mutual intelligibility. Eastern Lombard does not have any official status either in Lombardy or anywhere else: the only official language in Lombardy is Italian. Classification Eastern Lombard is a Romance language and belongs to the Gallo-Italic branch. Its position on the language family put in evidence that it is genetically closer to Occitan, Catalan, French, etc. than to Italian. Its substratum is Celtic. Geographic distribution Eastern ...more...

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Rusa language

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Rusa language

The Rusa (Rusha) language, also known as Arusha-Chini, is one of the Bantu languages of Tanzania spoken by the Chaga people. It is spoken in the Chaga area of the Kilimanjaro region, and forms a dialect continuum with other Chaga languages. References Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Arusha". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online ...more...

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IEC 60027

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IEC 60027

IEC 60027 (formerly IEC 27) is a technical international standard for letter symbols published by the International Electrotechnical Commission, comprising the following parts: IEC 60027-1: General IEC 60027-2: Telecommunications and electronics IEC 60027-3: Logarithmic and related quantities, and their units IEC 60027-4: Symbols for quantities to be used for rotating electrical machines IEC 60027-6: Control technology IEC 60027-7: Physiological quantities and units A closely related international standard on quantities and units is ISO 31. The ISO 31 and IEC 60027 Standards are being revised by the two standardization organizations in collaboration. The revised harmonized standard is known as ISO/IEC 80000, Quantities and units. It supersedes both ISO 31 and part of IEC 60027. IEC 60027-2 IEC 60027-2 Amendment 2, as published in January 1999, was the first international standard defining the binary prefixes, as proposed by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) since 1996 (kibi- (Ki), meb ...more...

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ISO basic Latin alphabet

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ISO basic Latin alphabet

The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet and consists of two sets of 26 letters, codified in[1] various national and international standards and used widely in international communication. The two sets contain the following 26 letters each:[1][2] ISO basic Latin alphabet Uppercase Latin alphabet A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Lowercase Latin alphabet a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z History By the 1960s it became apparent to the computer and telecommunications industries in the First World that a non-proprietary method of encoding characters was needed. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) encapsulated the Latin script in their (ISO/IEC 646) 7-bit character-encoding standard. To achieve widespread acceptance, this encapsulation was based on popular usage. The standard was based on the already published American Standard Code for Information Interchange, better known as ASCII, which included in the character set the 2 ...more...

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Hlubi language

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Hlubi language

Hlubi is a minor Bantu language of South Africa, traditionally considered a dialect of Swazi.[4] It is spoken in South Africa, near where the Xhosa, Sotho, and Phuthi languages meet at the Orange River and the southern point of Lesotho. The scattered Hlubi people speak several languages, including Swazi, and the Hlubi dialect of Xhosa in the former Bantustan of Ciskei.[3] References "Isizwe SamaHlubi: Submission to the Commission on Traditional Leadership Disputes and Claims: Draft 1" (PDF). July 2004. Retrieved 28 July 2011. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hlubi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online Swazi at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009) ...more...

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ISO 15924

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ISO 15924

ISO 15924, Codes for the representation of names of scripts, defines two sets of codes for a number of writing systems (scripts). Each script is given both a four-letter code and a numeric one.[1] Script is defined as "set of graphic characters used for the written form of one or more languages".[1] Where possible the codes are derived from ISO 639-2 where the name of a script and the name of a language using the script are identical (example: Gujarātī ISO 639 guj, ISO 15924 Gujr). Preference is given to the 639-2 Bibliographical codes, which is different from the otherwise often preferred use of the Terminological codes.[1] 4-letter ISO 15924 codes are incorporated into the Language Subtag Registry for IETF language tags and so can be used in file formats that make use of such language tags. For example, they can be used in HTML and XML to help Web browsers determine which typeface to use for foreign text. This way one could differentiate, for example, between Serbian written in the Cyrillic (sr-Cyrl) or L ...more...

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ISO/IEC 646

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ISO/IEC 646

ISO/IEC 646 is the name of a set of ISO standards, described as Information technology — ISO 7-bit coded character set for information interchange and developed in cooperation with ASCII at least since 1964.[1][2] Since its first edition in 1967[3] it has specified a 7-bit character code from which several national standards are derived. ISO/IEC 646 was also ratified by ECMA as ECMA-6. The first version of ECMA-6 had been published in 1965,[4] based on work the ECMA's Technical Committee TC1 had carried out since December 1960.[4] Characters in the ISO/IEC 646 Basic Character Set are invariant characters.[5] Since that portion of ISO/IEC 646, that is the invariant character set shared by all countries, specified only those letters used in the ISO basic Latin alphabet, countries using additional letters needed to create national variants of ISO 646 to be able to use their native scripts. Since transmission and storage of 8-bit codes was not standard at the time, the national characters had to be made to fit ...more...

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ISO 5426

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ISO 5426

ISO 5426 is character set developed by ISO.[1] It was first published in 1983.[2] Character set ISO 5426[1] _0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F   0_   NUL00000 SOH00011 STX00022 ETX00033 EOT00044 ENQ00055 ACK00066 BEL00077 BS00088 HT00099 LF000A10 VT000B11 FF000C12 CR000D13 SO000E14 SI000F15   1_   DLE001016 DC1001117 DC2001218 DC3001319 DC4001420 NAK001521 SYN001622 ETB001723 CAN001824 EM001925 SUB001A26 ESC001B27 FS001C28 GS001D29 RS001E30 US001F31   2_   SP002032 ¡00A133 „201E34 £00A335 $002436 ¥00A537 †202038 §00A739 ʹ02BE40 ‘201841 “201C42 «00AB43 ♭266D44 ©00A945 ℗211746 ®00AE47   3_   ʿ02BF48 ʾ02BE49 ‚201A50 51 52 53 ‡202154 ·00B755 ʺ02BA56 ’201957 ”201D58 »00BB59 ♯266F60 ′02B961 ʺ02BA62 ¿00BF63   4_   ̉030964 ̀030065 ́030166 ̂030267 ̃030368 ̄030469 ̆030670 ̇030771 ̈030872 ̈030873 ̊030A74 ̕031575 ̒031276 ̋030B77 ̛031B78 ̌030C7 ...more...

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ISO 3166-2:BS

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ISO 3166-2:BS

ISO 3166-2:BS is the entry for the Bahamas in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1. Currently for the Bahamas, ISO 3166-2 codes are defined for 31 districts. New Providence, the most populated island which contains the capital Nassau and is directly governed by the central government, had its code deleted in Newsletter II-2. Green Turtle Cay had its code deleted in Newsletter II-3. Each code consists of two parts, separated by a hyphen. The first part is BS, the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code of the Bahamas. The second part is two letters. Current codes Subdivision names are listed as in the ISO 3166-2 standard published by the ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency (ISO 3166/MA). Click on the button in the header to sort each column. Code Subdivision name (en) BS-AK Acklins BS-BY Berry Islands BS-BI ...more...

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MPEG-21

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MPEG-21

The MPEG-21 standard, from the Moving Picture Experts Group, aims at defining an open framework for multimedia applications. MPEG-21 is ratified in the standards ISO/IEC 21000 - Multimedia framework (MPEG-21).[1][2][3][4][5][6] MPEG-21 is based on two essential concepts: definition of a Digital Item (a fundamental unit of distribution and transaction) users interacting with Digital Items Digital Items can be considered the kernel of the Multimedia Framework and the users can be considered as who interacts with them inside the Multimedia Framework. At its most basic level, MPEG-21 provides a framework in which one user interacts with another one, and the object of that interaction is a Digital Item. Due to that, we could say that the main objective of the MPEG-21 is to define the technology needed to support users to exchange, access, consume, trade or manipulate Digital Items in an efficient and transparent way. MPEG-21 Part 9: File Format defined the storage of an MPEG-21 Digital Item in a file format ...more...

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ISO 9

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ISO 9

The ISO international standard ISO 9 establishes a system for the transliteration into Latin characters of Cyrillic characters constituting the alphabets of many Slavic and non-Slavic languages.[1] The major advantage ISO 9 has over other competing systems is its univocal system of one character for one character equivalents (by the use of diacritics), which faithfully represents the original spelling and allows for reverse transliteration, even if the language is unknown. Earlier versions of the standard, ISO/R 9:1954, ISO/R 9:1968 and ISO 9:1986, were more closely based on the international scholarly system for linguistics (scientific transliteration), but have diverged in favour of unambiguous transliteration over phonemic representation. The edition of 1995 supersedes the edition of 1986.[1] ISO 9:1995, or GOST 7.79 System A [2] The standard features three mapping tables: the first covers contemporary Slavic languages, the second older Slavic orthographies (excluding letters from the first), and the t ...more...

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Office Open XML

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Office Open XML

Office Open XML (also informally known as OOXML or Microsoft Open XML (MOX)[3]) is a zipped, XML-based file format developed by Microsoft[4] for representing spreadsheets, charts, presentations and word processing documents. The format was initially standardized by Ecma (as ECMA-376), and by the ISO and IEC (as ISO/IEC 29500) in later versions. Microsoft Office 2010 provides read support for ECMA-376, read/write support for ISO/IEC 29500 Transitional, and read support for ISO/IEC 29500 Strict.[5] Microsoft Office 2013 and Microsoft Office 2016 additionally support both reading and writing of ISO/IEC 29500 Strict.[6] Microsoft has not yet implemented the non-transitional, or original standard, as the default file format after more than a decade.[7] Background In 2000, Microsoft released an initial version of an XML-based format for Microsoft Excel, which was incorporated in Office XP. In 2002, a new file format for Microsoft Word followed.[8] The Excel and Word formats—known as the Microsoft Office XML form ...more...

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Tracking number

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Tracking number

Tracking numbers are numbers given to packages when they are shipped. Tracking numbers are useful for knowing the location of time sensitive deliveries. In the United States, some of the companies and organizations that use tracking numbers are UPS,[1] FedEx,[2] and the United States Postal Service.[3] Most Postal Services use the international S10 (UPU standard), including the United States Postal Service[4] and most European Postal Services. Formats FedEx Ground and Express tracking numbers can be between 12 and 14 digits. Prior to January 2013, Ground tracking numbers were up to 15 digits and Express numbers were up to 12 digits.[5] A UPS tracking number, for domestic packages within the United States, will usually start with "1Z" followed by a 6 character shipper number (numbers and letters), a 2 digit service level indicator, and finally 8 digits identifying the package (the last digit being a check digit), for a total of 18 characters. DHL Express supports the carrier-independent ISO standard 15459- ...more...

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3GP and 3G2

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3GP and 3G2

3GP (3GPP file format) is a multimedia container format defined by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for 3G UMTS multimedia services. It is used on 3G mobile phones but can also be played on some 2G and 4G phones. 3G2 (3GPP2 file format) is a multimedia container format defined by the 3GPP2 for 3G CDMA2000 multimedia services. It is very similar to the 3GP file format but consumes less space & bandwidth also has some extensions and limitations in comparison to 3GP. Specifications 3GP is defined in the ETSI 3GPP technical specification.[1] 3GP is a required file format for video and associated speech/audio media types and timed text in ETSI 3GPP technical specifications for IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS), Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS) and Transparent end-to-end Packet-switched Streaming Service (PSS).[2][3][4][5] 3G2 is defined in the 3GPP2 technical specification.[6] Technical details Relations between ISO Base Media File Format, MP ...more...

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ISO 37001

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ISO 37001

ISO 37001 Anti-bribery management systems -- Requirements with guidance for use [1] identifies a management standard to help organizations in the fight against corruption, by establishing a culture of integrity, transparency and compliance. The anti-bribery management system can be a stand-alone system or integrated into an already implemented management system such as the Quality Management System ISO 9001. An organization can choose to implement the anti-bribery management system in conjunction with or as part of other systems, such as those relating to quality, environment and safety. Background The standard was developed by ISO technical committee ISO/TC 309, chaired by lawyer Neill Stansbury, and published for the first time on October 15, 2016. The standard was based upon existing guidance from the International Chamber of Commerce, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Transparency International, and other organizations.[2] The standard also incorporated guidance issued by leading i ...more...

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ISO 20400

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ISO 20400

ISO 20400 Sustainable procurement -- Guidance [1] provides guidance to organizations, independent of their activity or size, on integrating sustainability within procurement. It is intended for stakeholders involved in, or impacted by, procurement decisions and processes. This standard was developed by ISO project committee ISO/PC 277. History The standard was developed by project committee ISO/PC 277, which started work in the year 2013. The first edition of ISO 20400 was published on 21 April 2017.[2] Main requirements of the standard The ISO 20400:2017 adopts the structure in the following breakdown: 1 Scope 2 Normative references 3 Terms and definitions 4 Understanding the fundamentals 5 Integrating sustainability into the organization's procurement policy and strategy 6 Organizing the procurement function toward sustainability 7 Integrating sustainability into the procurement process See also Quality management system List of ISO standards Conformity assessment International Organizat ...more...

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Standards in the Petroleum Industry

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Saanich dialect

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Saanich dialect

Saanich (also Sənčaθən, written as SENĆOŦEN in Saanich orthography) is the language of the First Nations Saanich people. Saanich is a member of a dialect continuum called Northern Straits which is a Coast Salishan language. North Straits varieties are closely related to the Klallam language. Language revitalization efforts "The W̱SÁNEĆ School Board, together with the FirstVoices program for revitalizing Aboriginal languages, is working to teach a new generation to speak SENĆOŦEN" at the ȽÁU, WELṈEW̱ Tribal School.[3][4] SENĆOŦEN texting, mobile app and portal A Saanich texting app was released in 2012.[5] A SENĆOŦEN iPhone app was released in October 2011.[6] An online dictionary, phrasebook, and language learning portal is available at the First Voices SENĆOŦEN Community Portal.[7] Sounds Vowels Saanich has no rounded vowels in native vocabulary. As in many languages, vowels are strongly affected by post-velar consonants.   Front Central Back High   Mid   Low     The rou ...more...

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Slavic languages

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Slavic languages

The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic spoken during the Early Middle Ages, which in turn is thought to have descended from the earlier Proto-Balto-Slavic language, linking the Slavic languages to the Baltic languages in a Balto-Slavic group within the Indo-European family. The Slavic languages are divided intro three subgroups: East, West, and South, which together constitute more than twenty languages. Of these, ten have at least one million speakers and official status as the national languages of the countries in which they are predominantly spoken: Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian (of the East group), Polish, Czech and Slovak (of the West group) and Slovene, Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian and Bulgarian (of the South group). The current geographic distribution of natively spoken Slavic languages covers Eastern Europe, the Balkans, Central Europe and all of the t ...more...

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Isetta

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Isetta

The Isetta is an Italian-designed microcar built under license in a number of different countries, including Argentina,[1] Spain,[2] Belgium,[3] France,[4] Brazil,[5] Germany,[6] and the United Kingdom.[7] Because of its egg shape and bubble-like windows, it became known as a bubble car, a name also given to other similar vehicles.[8] In 1955, the BMW Isetta became the world's first mass-production car to achieve a fuel consumption of 3 L/100 km (94 mpg; 78 mpg).[a] It was the top-selling single-cylinder car in the world, with 161,728 units sold.[9] Initially manufactured by the Italian firm Iso SpA, the name Isetta is the Italian diminutive form of Iso, meaning "little Iso".[10] Iso Isetta (Italy) The car originated with the Italian firm of Iso SpA. In the early 1950s the company was building refrigerators, motor scooters and small three-wheeled trucks. Iso's owner, Renzo Rivolta, decided to build a small car for mass distribution.[10] By 1952 the engineers Ermenegildo Preti[11] and Pierluigi Raggi had ...more...

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C

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C

C in copyright symbol C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet. It is also the third letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is named cee (pronounced ) in English.[1] HistoryEdit Phoenician gaml Arabic ǧīm Hebrew gimel Greek Gamma Etruscan C Old Latin C (G) "C" comes from the same letter as "G". The Semites named it gimel. The sign is possibly adapted from an Egyptian hieroglyph for a staff sling, which may have been the meaning of the name gimel. Another possibility is that it depicted a camel, the Semitic name for which was gamal. Barry B. Powell, a specialist in the history of writing, states "It is hard to imagine how gimel = "camel" can be derived from the picture of a camel (it may show his hump, or his head and neck!)".[2] In the Etruscan language, plosive consonants had no contrastive voicing, so the Greek 'Γ' (Gamma) was adopted into the Etruscan alphabet t ...more...

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MPEG-1

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MPEG-1

MPEG-1 is a standard for lossy compression of video and audio. It is designed to compress VHS-quality raw digital video and CD audio down to 1.5 Mbit/s (26:1 and 6:1 compression ratios respectively)[1] without excessive quality loss, making video CDs, digital cable/satellite TV and digital audio broadcasting (DAB) possible.[2][3] Today, MPEG-1 has become the most widely compatible lossy audio/video format in the world, and is used in a large number of products and technologies. Perhaps the best-known part of the MPEG-1 standard is the MP3 audio format it introduced. The MPEG-1 standard is published as ISO/IEC 11172 – Information technology—Coding of moving pictures and associated audio for digital storage media at up to about 1.5 Mbit/s. The standard consists of the following five Parts:[4][5][6][7][8] Systems (storage and synchronization of video, audio, and other data together) Video (compressed video content) Audio (compressed audio content) Conformance testing (testing the correctness of implementa ...more...

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Kagoshima dialect

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Kagoshima dialect

The Satsugū dialect (薩隅方言 Satsugū Hōgen), often referred to as the Kagoshima dialect (鹿児島弁 Kagoshima-ben, Kagomma-ben, Kago'ma-ben, Kagoima-ben), is a group of dialects or dialect continuum of the Japanese language spoken mainly within the area of the former Ōsumi and Satsuma provinces now incorporated into the southwestern prefecture of Kagoshima. It may also be collectively referred to as the Satsuma dialect (薩摩方言 Satsuma Hōgen or 薩摩弁 Satsuma-ben), owing to both the prominence of the Satsuma Province and the region of the Satsuma Domain which spanned the former Japanese provinces of Satsuma, Ōsumi and the southwestern part of Hyūga. Although not classified as a separate language, the Satsugū dialect is commonly cited for its mutual unintelligibility to even its neighbouring Kyūshū variants.[3] It shares over three-quarters of the Standard Japanese vocabulary corpus[4][5][6] and some areal features of Kyūshū. Distribution and subdialects Traditional division:■ Satsuma, ■ Ōsumi, ■ Morokata ■ Other(Region ...more...

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OpenDocument

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OpenDocument

The Open Document Format for Office Applications (ODF), also known as OpenDocument, is a ZIP-compressed[6] XML-based file format for spreadsheets, charts, presentations and word processing documents. It was developed with the aim of providing an open, XML-based file format specification for office applications.[7] The standard was developed by a technical committee in the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) consortium.[8] It was based on the Sun Microsystems specification for OpenOffice.org XML, the default format for OpenOffice.org, which had been specifically intended "to provide an open standard for office documents."[9] In addition to being an OASIS standard, it was published as an ISO/IEC international standard ISO/IEC 26300 – Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument).[2][3][4][5][10][11] Specifications The most common filename extensions used for OpenDocument documents are:[12][13] .odt and .fodt for word processing (text) documents .od ...more...

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Leonese dialect

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Leonese dialect

Leonese is a set of vernacular Romance dialects spoken in the northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (the modern provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca) and a few adjoining areas in Portugal. In this narrow sense, Leonese is distinct from the dialects grouped under Asturian,[9] although there is no clear linguistic division. The current number of Leonese speakers is estimated at 20,000 to 50,000.[6][7][10] The westernmost fringes of the provinces of León and Zamora are in the territory of the Galician language, although there is dialectal continuity between the linguistic areas. The Leonese and Asturian dialects have long been recognized as a single language, currently known as Astur-Leonese or Asturian-Leonese and formerly known as Leonese. For most of the 20th century, linguists (including Ramón Menéndez Pidal in his landmark 1906 study of the language)[11] discussed a Leonese language (or historical dialect) descending from Latin and encompassing two groups: the Asturian ...more...

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Zargari Romani

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Zargari Romani

Zargari (or Romano) is a dialect of Balkan Romany, spoken in Zargar region (Abyek district) of the Qazvin Province of in Iran by the ethnic Zargari. The language can be found in surrounding regions as well. The UCLA Language Materials Project describes Zargari (or Morghuli) as a Persian-based "secret language of artistans",[2] whereas the Ethnologue describes it as a dialect used by goldsmiths.[3] Vocabulary Three= Derin Eighteen= Oxdu for me= Miri for you= Diri Fish= maču Bed= Rom Dress= God Fox= Jӕqqӕlis Donkey= Xerny Night= Radi [4] See also Domari language Romani language References Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Zargari". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Project, UCLA Language Materials (31 December 1600). "Profile of". Lmp.ucla.edu. Retrieved 23 December 2017. "Farsi, Western". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2012-04-11. Proceedings of the First National Conference on Iranian Studies (Volume ...more...

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Languages of Pakistan

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Phuthi language

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Phuthi language

Phuthi (Síphùthì)[4] is a Nguni Bantu language spoken in southern Lesotho and areas in South Africa adjacent to the same border.[5] The closest substantial living relative of Phuthi is Swati (or Siswati), spoken in Swaziland and the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. Although there is no contemporary sociocultural or political contact, Phuthi is linguistically part of a historic dialect continuum with Swati. Phuthi is heavily influenced by the surrounding Sesotho and Xhosa languages, but retains a distinct core of lexicon and grammar not found in either Xhosa or Sesotho, and found only partly in Swati to the north. The documentary origins of Phuthi can be traced to Bourquin (1927), but in other oblique references nearly 200 years from the present (Ellenberger 1912). Until recently, the language has been very poorly documented with respect to its linguistic properties. The only significant earlier study (but with very uneven data, and limited coherent linguistic assumptions) is Godfrey Mzamane (1949). Geog ...more...

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Calendar date

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Calendar date

A calendar date is a reference to a particular day represented within a calendar system. The calendar date allows the specific day to be identified. The number of days between two dates may be calculated. For example, "24 July 2018" is ten days after "14 July 2018" in the Gregorian calendar. The date of a particular event depends on the observed time zone. For example, the air attack on Pearl Harbor that began at 7:48 a.m. Hawaiian time on December 7, 1941, took place at 3:18 a.m. December 8 in Japan (Japan Standard Time). A particular day may be represented by a different date in another calendar as in the Gregorian calendar and the Julian calendar, which have been used simultaneously in different places. In most calendar systems, the date consists of three parts: the day of month, month, and the year. There may also be additional parts, such as the day of week. Years are usually counted from a particular starting point, usually called the epoch, with era referring to the particular period of time (Note the ...more...

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Digital Data Storage

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Digital Data Storage

Digital Data Storage (DDS) is a computer data storage technology that is based upon the digital audio tape (DAT) format that was developed during the 1980s. DDS is primarily intended for use as off-line storage, especially for generating backup copies of working data. A DDS cartridge uses tape with a width of 3.81mm, with the exception of the latest formats, DAT-160 and DAT-320, both which use 8mm wide tape. Initially, the tape was 60 meters (197 feet) or 90 meters (295 ft.) in length. Advancements in materials technology have allowed the length to be increased significantly in successive versions. A DDS tape drive uses helical scan recording, the same process used by a video cassette recorder (VCR). Backward compatibility between newer drives and older cartridges is not assured; the compatibility matrices provided by manufacturers will need to be consulted.[1] Typically drives can read and write tapes in the prior generation format, with most (but not all) also able to read and write tapes from two generat ...more...

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ISO 3166-2:FR

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ISO 3166-2:FR

ISO 3166-2:FR is the entry for France in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1. Currently for France, ISO 3166-2 codes are defined for the following subdivisions: Metropolitan France (two levels): 22 metropolitan regions (still as they were before 1 January 2016, when metropolitan regions merged to a new total of 13 regions, still not encoded by ISO 3166-2) 96 metropolitan departments (still as they were before 1 January 2015 when one department was split in two parts, one of them being a metropole and not a department: the two new entities are still not encoded in ISO 3166-2) Overseas France: 5 overseas departments, 1 dependency, and 7 overseas territorial collectivities[1] Each code consists of two parts, separated by a hyphen. The first part is FR, the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code of France. The ...more...

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Griko dialect

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Griko dialect

Griko, sometimes spelled Grico in Salento is the dialect of Italiot Greek spoken by Griko people in Salento and (sometimes spelled Grecanic[3][4][5][6][7] )in Calabria. Some Greek linguists consider it to be a Modern Greek dialect and often call it Katoitaliótika (Greek: Κατωιταλιώτικα, "Southern Italian") or Grekanika (Γρεκάνικα), whereas its own speakers call it Greko (Γκραίκο, in Calabria) or Griko (Γκρίκο, in Salento). Griko and Standard Modern Greek are partially mutually intelligible.[8] Classification The most popular hypothesis on the origin of Griko is the one by Gerhard Rohlfs[9] and Georgios Hatzidakis, that Griko's roots go as far back in history as the time of the ancient Greek colonies in Southern Italy and Sicily in the eighth century BC. The Southern Italian dialect is thus considered to be the last living trace of the Greek elements that once formed Magna Graecia. There are, however, competing hypotheses according to which Griko may have preserved some Doric elements, but its structure is ...more...

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Advanced Audio Coding

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Advanced Audio Coding

Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is a proprietary audio coding standard for lossy digital audio compression. Designed to be the successor of the MP3 format, AAC generally achieves better sound quality than MP3 at the same bit rate.[2] The confusingly named AAC+ (HE-AAC) does so only at low bit rates and less so at high ones. AAC has been standardized by ISO and IEC, as part of the MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 specifications.[3][4] Part of AAC, HE-AAC (AAC+), is part of MPEG-4 Audio and also adopted into digital radio standards DAB+ and Digital Radio Mondiale, as well as mobile television standards DVB-H and ATSC-M/H. AAC supports inclusion of 48 full-bandwidth (up to 96 kHz) audio channels in one stream plus 16 low frequency effects (LFE, limited to 120 Hz) channels, up to 16 "coupling" or dialog channels, and up to 16 data streams. The quality for stereo is satisfactory to modest requirements at 96 kbit/s in joint stereo mode; however, hi-fi transparency demands data rates of at least 128 kbit/s (VBR). Tests of MPEG-4 aud ...more...

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Jianyang dialect

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Jianyang dialect

Jianyang (Northern Min: Gṳ̿ing-iô̤ng-dī / 建陽事) is a dialect of Northern Min Chinese spoken in Jianyang in the north of Fujian province. Phonology Jianyang dialect has 18 initials, 34 rimes and 8 tones. Initials Rimes Tones No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Tone name dark level陰平 light level A陽平甲 light level B陽平乙 rising上聲 dark departing陰去 light departing陽去 dark entering陰入 light entering陽入 Tone contour (53) (334) (41) (21) (332) (43) (214) (4) The entering tones in Jianyang dialect don't have any entering tone coda (入聲韻尾) such as , , and . It's quite different from many other Chinese dialects. References Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Jianyang". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Chen, Matthew (2000). Tone Sandhi: Patter ...more...

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Beijing dialect

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Beijing dialect

The Beijing dialect (simplified Chinese: 北京话; traditional Chinese: 北京話; pinyin: Běijīnghuà), also known as Pekingese, is the prestige dialect of Mandarin spoken in the urban area of Beijing, China. It is the phonological basis of Standard Chinese, which is the official language in the People's Republic of China and Republic of China and one of the official languages in Singapore. Although the Beijing dialect and Standard Chinese are similar, various differences generally make clear to Chinese speakers whether an individual is a native of Beijing speaking the local Beijing variant or is an individual speaking Standard Chinese. Mutual intelligibility with other Mandarin dialects Dungan language speakers like Iasyr Shivaza and others have reported that Chinese who speak Beijing dialect can understand Dungan, but Dungans could not understand the Beijing Mandarin.[3] Phonology In fundamental structure, the phonology of the Beijing dialect and Standard Chinese are almost identical. In part, this is because the ...more...

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ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29

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ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29

ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 Coding of audio, picture, multimedia and hypermedia information is a standardization subcommittee of the Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), that develops and facilitates international standards, technical reports, and technical specifications within the field of audio, picture, multimedia, and hypermedia information coding. The international secretariat of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 is the Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (JISC) located in Japan.[1] History ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 was established in 1991, when the subcommittee took over the tasks of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2/WG 8. Its original title was “Coded Representation of Audio, Picture, Multimedia and Hypermedia Information.” Within its first year, ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 established four working groups, appointed its chairperson, secretariat, and working group conveners, and held its first plenary in Tokyo, Japan. ISO/IEC JT ...more...

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International Bank Account Number

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International Bank Account Number

A typical British bank statement header (from a fictitious bank), showing the location of the account's IBAN The International Bank Account Number (IBAN) is an internationally agreed system of identifying bank accounts across national borders to facilitate the communication and processing of cross border transactions with a reduced risk of transcription errors. It was originally adopted by the European Committee for Banking Standards (ECBS), and later as an international standard under ISO 13616:1997. The current standard is ISO 13616:2007, which indicates SWIFT as the formal registrar. Initially developed to facilitate payments within the European Union, it has been implemented by most European countries and numerous countries in the other parts of the world, mainly in the Middle East and in the Caribbean. As of February 2016, 69 countries were using the IBAN numbering system.[1] The IBAN consists of up to 34 alphanumeric characters comprising: a country code; two check digits; and a number that includes t ...more...

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List of Wikipedias

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List of Wikipedias

Screenshot of Wikipedia's portal showing the different language editions sorted by article count This is the list of the different language editions of Wikipedia; as of July 2018 there are 301 Wikipedias of which 291 are active and 10 are not. Wikipedia edition codes Distribution of the 48,342,424 articles in different language editions (as of 19 July 2018);[1] the majority of the articles in Swedish, Cebuano, and Waray were created by Lsjbot.   English (11.8%)   Cebuano (11.1%)   Swedish (7.8%)   German (4.6%)   French (4.1%)   Dutch (4%)   Russian (3.1%)   Italian (3%)   Spanish (3%)   Polish (2.7%)   Waray (2.6%)   Vietnamese (2.4%)   Japanese (2.3%)   Chinese (2.1%)   Other (35.4%) Each Wikipedia has a code, which is used as a subdomain below wikipedia.org. Interlanguage links are sorted by that code. The codes represent the language codes defined by ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-3, and the decision of which language code to use is usually determined by the IETF ...more...

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Wikipedias by language

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Duala language

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Duala language

Duala (also spelt Douala, Diwala, Dwela, Dualla and Dwala) is a dialect cluster spoken by the Duala and Mungo peoples of Cameroon. Douala belongs to the Bantu language family, in a subgroup called Sawabantu. Maho (2009) treats Douala as a cluster of five languages: Douala proper, Bodiman, Oli (Ewodi, Wuri), Pongo and Mongo. He also notes a Douala-based pidgin named Jo. Popular culture The song "Soul Makossa", as well as pop songs that repeated its lyrics, internationally popularised the Duala word for "(I) dance", "makossa".[4] The song Alane by artist Wes Madiko is sung in Duala and reached #1 position in over 9 European countries. Dictionaries E. Dinkelacker, Wörterbuch der Duala-Sprache, Hamburg, 1914. Paul Helmlinger, Dictionnaire duala-français, suivi d'un lexique français-duala. Editions Klincksieck, Paris, 1972. Johannes Ittmann, edited by E. Kähler-Meyer, Wörterbuch der Duala-Sprache, Dictionnaire de la langue duala, Dictionary of the Duala Language, Dietrich Reimer, Berlin, 1976. The preface ...more...

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List of common physics notations

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List of common physics notations

This is a list of common physical constants and variables, and their notations. Note that bold text indicates that the quantity is a vector. Latin characters Symbol Meaning SI unit of measure A {\displaystyle A} area meter squared (m2) magnetic vector potential amplitude meter atomic mass number a {\displaystyle \mathbf {a} } acceleration meters per second squared (m/s2) B {\displaystyle \mathbf {B} } magnetic flux density also called the magnetic field density or magnetic induction tesla (T), or equivalently,weber per square meter (Wb/m2) C {\displaystyle C} capacitance farad (F) heat capacity joule per kelvin (J K−1), or equivalently, joule per degree Celsius (J °C−1) constant of integration varied depending on context c {\displaystyle c} speed of light (in vacuum) 299,792,458 meter per second (m/s) speed of sound 340.29 meter per second (m/s) specific heat capacity joule per kilogram per kelvin (J kg−1 K−1), or equivalently, joule ...more...

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International vehicle registration code

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International vehicle registration code

Example of the white oval plate or sticker; this one represents Switzerland Example of the yellow oval diplomatic and consular corps plate or sticker A 1960 Borgward Isabella showing the international vehicle code NL (Netherlands) Estonian registration plate in EU standard format with international code EST The country in which a motor vehicle's vehicle registration plate was issued may be indicated by an international licence plate country code, formerly known as an International Registration Letter[1] or International Circulation Mark.[2] The distinguishing sign of the country of registration must be displayed on the rear of the vehicle. The sign may either be placed separately from the registration plate, or may be incorporated into the vehicle registration plate. This is different from the way vehicles belonging to the diplomats of foreign countries with license plate from the host country are marked. That standard is host country-specific and varies largely from country to country. For exampl ...more...

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Yi-Liu dialect

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Yi-Liu dialect

Yi-Liu, sometimes called Yichun dialect (simplified Chinese: 宜春话; traditional Chinese: 宜春話) after its principal variety, is a dialect of Gan Chinese. It is spoken in Yichun in Jiangxi province and in Liuyang in Hunan, after which it is named, as well as inShanggao, Qingjiang, Xingan, Xinyu City, Fen yi, Pingxiang City, Fengcheng, Wanzai in Jiangxi and in Liling in Hunan. Sounds The Yichun variety will be taken as representative. Consonants Tones Sonograph produced tone contour graph[2] Tone chart of Yichun Gan[2] Tone number Tone name Tone contour Examples 1 yin ping (阴平) (25) 多家彪都姑波编邦 2 yang ping (阳平) (44) 婆爬钱磨驴朋肥扶 3 shang sheng (上声) (31) 左努改讨巧草拐苦 4 yang qu (去声) (213) 大树害饭谢用望漏 5 ru sheng (入声) (55) 月六黑割发白湿毒 References Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yi-Liu". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 马晓勤. "宜春话声调系统的实验研究." 天津中医药大学, 2006. ...more...

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Dental notation

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Dental notation

Dental professionals, in writing or speech, use several different dental notation systems for associating information with a specific tooth. The three most common systems are the ISO System (ISO 3950, the FDI World Dental Federation notation), Universal Numbering System, and Palmer notation method. The ISO system is used worldwide, and the Universal is used widely in the United States. The ISO System can be easily adapted to computerized charting. Another system is used by paleoanthropologists. History A committee of the American Dental Association (ADA) recommended the use of the Palmer notation method in 1947. Since this method required the use of symbols, its use was difficult on keyboards. As a result, the association officially supported the Universal system in 1968. The World Health Organization and the Fédération Dentaire Internationale officially uses the two-digit numbering system of the FDI system. However, in 1996, the ADA adopted the ISO System as an alternative to the Universal System. ISO Sy ...more...

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ISO 3166-2:CZ

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ISO 3166-2:CZ

ISO 3166-2:CZ is the entry for Czechia in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1. Currently for Czechia, ISO 3166-2 codes are defined for two levels of subdivisions: 14 regions 91 districts (including 15 districts of Prague) Each code consists of two parts, separated by a hyphen. The first part is CZ, the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code of Czechia. The second part is either of the following: two letters: regions three characters (two digits followed by a digit or a letter): districts For the districts, the first two digits indicate the region that the district is in (based on the original NUTS code of the region): 10: Prague 20: Central Bohemian Region 31: South Bohemian Region 32: Plzeň Region 41: Karlovy Vary Region 42: Ústí nad Labem Region 51: Liberec Region 52: Hradec Králové Region ...more...

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Vallader dialect (Romansh)

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Vallader dialect (Romansh)

Sgraffito in Guarda. Translation: We build such pretty houses and know that we not stay forever. But about the place we will go to forever, we think only rarely. Historical distribution of the dialects of Romansh, German, and Italian in Grisons:   Sursilvan   Tuatschin   Sutsilvan   Surmiran   Putèr   Vallader   Jauer The newspaper Engadiner Post / Posta Ladina although published in the Upper Engadine, uses Vallader in most of its Romansh-language articles Vallader ( [vɐˈlaːdɛr] ) is a variety of the Romansh language spoken in the Lower Engadine valley (Engiadina Bassa) of southeast Switzerland, between Martina and Zernez. It is also used as a written language in the nearby community of Val Müstair, where Jauer is spoken. In 2008, schools in the Val Müstair switched from Vallader to Rumantsch Grischun as their written language, but switched back to Vallader in 2012, following a referendum. The name of the dialect is derived from val 'valley'. It is the second most commonly spoken variety of Ro ...more...

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Year zero

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Year zero

Year zero does not exist in the Anno Domini system usually used to number years in the Gregorian calendar and in its predecessor, the Julian calendar. In this system, the year 1 BC is followed by AD 1. However, there is a year zero in astronomical year numbering (where it coincides with the Julian year 1 BC) and in ISO 8601:2004 (where it coincides with the Gregorian year 1 BC) as well as in all Buddhist and Hindu calendars. Historical, astronomical and ISO year numbering systems Historians The Anno Domini era was introduced in 525 by Scythian monk Dionysius Exiguus (c. 470–c. 544), who used it to identify the years on his Easter table. He introduced the new era to avoid using the Diocletian era, based on the accession of Roman Emperor Diocletian, as he did not wish to continue the memory of a persecutor of Christians. In the preface to his Easter table, Dionysius stated that the "present year" was "the consulship of Probus Junior [Flavius Anicius Probus Iunior]" which was also 525 years "since the incarnat ...more...

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.NET Framework

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.NET Framework

.NET Framework (pronounced dot net) is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows. It includes a large class library named Framework Class Library (FCL) and provides language interoperability (each language can use code written in other languages) across several programming languages. Programs written for .NET Framework execute in a software environment (in contrast to a hardware environment) named Common Language Runtime (CLR), an application virtual machine that provides services such as security, memory management, and exception handling. (As such, computer code written using .NET Framework is called "managed code".) FCL and CLR together constitute .NET Framework. FCL provides user interface, data access, database connectivity, cryptography, web application development, numeric algorithms, and network communications. Programmers produce software by combining their source code with .NET Framework and other libraries. The framework is intended to be used by most new ...more...

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Southwestern Mandarin

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Southwestern Mandarin

Southwestern Mandarin (simplified Chinese: 西南官话; traditional Chinese: 西南官話; pinyin: Xīnán Guānhuà), also known as Upper Yangtze Mandarin (simplified Chinese: 上江官话; traditional Chinese: 上江官話; pinyin: Shàngjiāng Guānhuà), is a primary branch of Mandarin Chinese spoken in much of central and southwestern China, including in Sichuan, Yunnan, Chongqing, Guizhou, most parts of Hubei, the northwestern part of Hunan, the northern part of Guangxi, and some southern parts of Shaanxi and Gansu. Some forms of Southwest Mandarin are not entirely mutually intelligible with Standard Chinese or other forms of Mandarin.[3] Varieties of Southwestern Mandarin are spoken by roughly 260 million people.[1] If considered a language distinct from Mandarin, it would have the eighth-most native speakers in the world, behind Mandarin itself, Spanish, English, Hindi, Portuguese, Arabic and Bengali. Overview Two speakers of the Guiyang variant of Southwestern Mandarin speak in the dialect Modern Southwestern Mandarin was formed by ...more...

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Vehicle identification number

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Vehicle identification number

VIN on a Chinese moped VIN on a 1996 Porsche 993 GT2 VIN visible in the windshield VIN is recorded in Vehicle License of China. A vehicle identification number (VIN) is a unique code, including a serial number, used by the automotive industry to identify individual motor vehicles, towed vehicles, motorcycles, scooters and mopeds, as defined in ISO 3779:2009. VINs were first used in 1954 in the United States.[1] From 1954 to 1981, there was no accepted standard for these numbers, so different manufacturers used different formats. In 1981, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration of the United States standardized the format.[1] It required all on-road vehicles sold to contain a 17-character VIN, which does not include the letters I (i), O (o), and Q (q) (to avoid confusion with numerals 1 and 0). There are vehicle history services in several countries that help potential car owners use VINs to find vehicles that are defective or have been written off. See the Used car article for a list ...more...

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