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ISO 31-3

ISO 31-3 is the part of international standard ISO 31 that defines names and symbols for quantities and units related to mechanics. It is superseded by ISO 80000-4.

Its definitions include (note boldfaced symbols mean quantity is a vector):

Quantity Unit Remarks
Name Symbol Name Symbol Definition
Force F newton N 1 N = 1 kg·m/s2 Unit named after Isaac Newton
Moment of force, Torque M, τ {\displaystyle {\boldsymbol {\tau }}} N·m 1 N·m = 1 kg·m2 /s2 The unit is dimensionally equivalent to the units of energy, the joule; but the joule should not be used as an alternate for the newton metre.
Linear momentum p kg·m/s or N·s
(Linear) impulse J N·s or kg·m/s
Angular momentum L kg·m2 /s or N·m·s
Mechanical energy, Work E, W joule J 1 J = 1 kg·m2 /s2 = 1 Pa·m3 = 1 W·s Unit named after James Joule. The joule is dimensionally equivalent to the units of torque and moment of force but should be used in preference to the newton metre (N·m).
Power P watt W 1 W = 1 J/s = 1 N·m/s = 1 kg·m2 /s3 Unit named after James Watt.
Pressure p pascal Pa 1 Pa = 1 N / m2 = 1 kg/(m·s2 ) Named after Blaise Pascal.
Normal stress, Shear stress σ , τ {\displaystyle \sigma ,\tau } pascal Pa 1 Pa = 1 N / m2 = 1 kg/(m·s2 ) Named after Blaise Pascal.
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MP3

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MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III ) is an audio coding format for digital audio . Originally defined as the third audio format of the MPEG-1 standard, it was retained and further extended—defining additional bit rates and support for more audio channels —as the third audio format of the subsequent MPEG-2 standard. A third version, known as MPEG 2.5—extended to better support lower bit rates—is commonly implemented, but is not a recognized standard. MP3 (or mp3 ) as a file format commonly designates files containing an elementary stream of MPEG-1 audio and video encoded data, without other complexities of the MP3 standard. In the aspects of MP3 pertaining to audio compression —the aspect of the standard most apparent to end users (and for which is it best known)—MP3 uses lossy data compression to encode data using inexact approximations and the partial discarding of data. This allows a large reduction in file size when compared to uncompressed audio. The combination of small size ...more...



Slavic languages

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The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages ) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples , originally from Eastern Europe . They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic spoken during the Early Middle Ages , which in turn is thought to have descended from the earlier Proto-Balto-Slavic language , linking the Slavic languages to the Baltic languages in a Balto-Slavic group within the Indo-European family. The Slavic languages are divided intro three subgroups: East , West , and South , which together constitute more than twenty languages. Of these, ten have at least one million speakers and official status as the national languages of the countries in which they are predominantly spoken: Russian , Belarusian and Ukrainian (of the East group), Polish , Czech and Slovak (of the West group) and Slovene , Serbo-Croatian , Macedonian and Bulgarian (of the South group). The current geographic distribution of natively spoken Slavic languages covers Eastern Europe , t ...more...



International Securities Identification Number

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An International Securities Identification Number ( ISIN ) uniquely identifies a security . Its structure is defined in ISO 6166 . The ISIN code is a 12-character alpha-numerical code that serves for uniform identification of a security through normalization of the assigned National Number, where one exists, at trading and settlement . History ISINs were first used in 1981, but didn't reach wide acceptance until 1989, when the G30 countries recommended adoption. The ISIN was endorsed a year later by ISO with the ISO 6166 standard. Initially information was distributed via CD-ROMs and this was later replaced by distribution over the internet. In 2004 the European Union mandated the use of instrument identifiers in some of its regulatory reporting, which included ISIN as one of the valid identifiers. Description ISO 6166 (or ISO6166:2013 as of the 2013 revision) defines the structure of an International Securities Identification Number (ISIN). An ISIN uniquely identifies a fungible security . Securities with w ...more...



ISO 3166-2:ID

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ISO 3166-2:ID is the entry for Indonesia in ISO 3166-2 , part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states ) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1 . Currently for Indonesia, ISO 3166-2 codes are defined for two levels of subdivisions: 7 geographical units (which are major islands or island groups) 31 provinces, 1 autonomous province, 1 special district, and 1 special region Each code consists of two parts, separated by a hyphen. The first part is ID , the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code of Indonesia. The second part is two letters. Current codes Subdivision names are listed as in the ISO 3166-2 standard published by the ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency (ISO 3166/MA). Geographical units Code Subdivision name ID-JW Jawa ID-KA Kalimantan ID-ML Maluku ID-NU Nusa Tenggara ID-PP Papua ID-SL Sulawesi ID-SM Sumatera Autonomous province, provinces, special district, and special region Code Su ...more...



MPEG-21

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The MPEG-21 standard, from the Moving Picture Experts Group , aims at defining an open framework for multimedia applications. MPEG-21 is ratified in the standards ISO/IEC 21000 - Multimedia framework (MPEG-21). MPEG-21 is based on two essential concepts: definition of a Digital Item (a fundamental unit of distribution and transaction) users interacting with Digital Items Digital Items can be considered the kernel of the Multimedia Framework and the users can be considered as who interacts with them inside the Multimedia Framework. At its most basic level, MPEG-21 provides a framework in which one user interacts with another one, and the object of that interaction is a Digital Item. Due to that, we could say that the main objective of the MPEG-21 is to define the technology needed to support users to exchange, access, consume, trade or manipulate Digital Items in an efficient and transparent way. MPEG-21 Part 9: File Format defined the storage of an MPEG-21 Digital Item in a file format based on the ISO base m ...more...



ISO/IEC 8859-9

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ISO/IEC 8859-9:1999 , Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 9: Latin alphabet No. 5, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings , first edition published in 1989. It is informally referred to as Latin-5 or Turkish. It was designed to cover the Turkish language , designed as being of more use than the ISO/IEC 8859-3 encoding. It is identical to ISO/IEC 8859-1 except for these six replacements of Icelandic characters with characters unique to the Turkish alphabet: Position 0xD0 0xDD 0xDE 0xF0 0xFD 0xFE 8859-9 Ğ İ Ş ğ ı ş 8859-1 Ð Ý Þ ð ý þ ISO-8859-9 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429 . In modern applications Unicode and UTF-8 are preferred. 0.1% of all web pages use ISO-8859-9 in February 2016. Microsoft has assigned code page 28599 a.k.a. Windows-28599 to ISO-8859-9 in Windows. IBM has assigned Code page 920 to ISO-8859-9. Codepage layout Legend:   ...more...



OpenDocument

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The Open Document Format for Office Applications ( ODF ), also known as OpenDocument , is an XML -based file format for spreadsheets , charts , presentations and word processing documents. It was developed with the aim of providing an open, XML-based file format specification for office applications. The standard was developed by a technical committee in the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) consortium. It was based on the Sun Microsystems specification for OpenOffice.org XML , the default format for OpenOffice.org , which had been specifically intended "to provide an open standard for office documents." In addition to being an OASIS standard, it was published as an ISO / IEC international standard ISO/IEC 26300 – Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument). Specifications The most common filename extensions used for OpenDocument documents are: .odt and .fodt for word processing (text) documents .ods and .fods for spreadsheets .odp and .fodp for pre ...more...



ASCII

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ASCII (  (   listen ) ASS -kee ), abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange , is a character encoding standard for electronic communication. ASCII codes represent text in computers, telecommunications equipment , and other devices. Most modern character-encoding schemes are based on ASCII, although they support many additional characters. ASCII is the traditional name for the encoding system; the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) prefers the updated name US-ASCII , which clarifies that this system was developed in the US and based on the typographical symbols predominantly in use there. ASCII is one of a 1963 List of IEEE milestones ASCII chart from a 1972 printer manual (b1 is the least significant bit). Overview ASCII was developed from telegraph code . Its first commercial use was as a seven- bit teleprinter code promoted by Bell data services. Work on the ASCII standard began on October 6, 1960, with the first meeting of the American Standards Association 's (ASA) (now ...more...



Iso-Naakkima

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Iso-Naakkima is a lake in Southern Savonia , Finland , about 10 km south of the town of Pieksämäki . It is notable for having an eroded impact crater under the northwestern part of the lake. It is one of the oldest known, about 1200 million years old (900–1200 Ma, Mesoproterozoic ). Of the known craters older than a billion years old, it is also one of the smallest being only 3 km in diameter. At the time of the impact event, the continent of Baltica (modern northeastern Europe ) was located near the equator . The crater is filled by recent ( Quaternary ) sediments and is not visible to the surface. Its existence was revealed by strikingly circular geophysical anomalies which are concentrated in a region 3 km in diameter; the actual remnant is about 2 km wide and 160 m deep. Its existence was later confirmed by drilling results. The discovery was made in 1989 and therefore Iso-Naakkima is the fourth known impact structure in Finland. References www.ymparisto.fi - Iso-Naakkima Citizen´s MapSite "Iso-Naakkima" ...more...



Digital Data Storage

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Digital Data Storage ( DDS ) is a computer data storage technology that is based upon the digital audio tape (DAT) format that was developed during the 1980s. DDS is primarily intended for use as off-line storage, especially for generating backup copies of working data. A DDS cartridge uses tape with a width of 3.81mm, with the exception of the latest formats, DAT-160 and DAT-320, both which use 8mm wide tape. Initially, the tape was 60 meters (197 feet) or 90 meters (295 ft.) in length. Advancements in materials technology have allowed the length to be increased significantly in successive versions. A DDS tape drive uses helical scan recording, the same process used by a video cassette recorder (VCR). Backward compatibility between newer drives and older cartridges is not assured; the compatibility matrices provided by manufacturers will need to be consulted. Typically drives can read and write tapes in the prior generation format, with most (but not all) also able to read and write tapes from two generatio ...more...



Intermodal container

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In 2012 there were over 20 million intermodal containers in the world. Extra long 53 ft (16.15 m) × 9 ft 6 in (2.9 m) "High-Cube" container with an internal height of 110 in (2,794 mm) Freight train carrying containers through West Kingman Canyon, Arizona Making containers stackable made loading and transport on large ships feasible and efficient An intermodal container is a large standardized shipping container , designed and built for intermodal freight transport , meaning these containers can be used across different modes of transport – from ship to rail to truck – without unloading and reloading their cargo. Intermodal containers are primarily used to store and transport materials and products efficiently and securely in the global containerized intermodal freight transport system, but smaller numbers are in regional use as well. These containers are known under a number of names, such as simply container , cargo or freight container, ISO container, shipping, sea or ocean container, container van or ( C ...more...



ISO/IEC 646

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ISO/IEC 646 is the name of a set of ISO standards, described as Information technology — ISO 7-bit coded character set for information interchange and developed in cooperation with ASCII at least since 1964. Since its first edition in 1967 it has specified a 7- bit character code from which several national standards are derived. ISO/IEC 646 was also ratified by ECMA as ECMA-6 . The first version of ECMA-6 had been published in 1965, based on work the ECMA's Technical Committee TC1 had carried out since December 1960. Characters in the ISO/IEC 646 Basic Character Set are invariant characters. Since that portion of ISO/IEC 646, that is the invariant character set shared by all countries, specified only those letters used in the ISO basic Latin alphabet , countries using additional letters needed to create national variants of ISO 646 to be able to use their native scripts. Since universal acceptance of the 8-bit byte did not exist at that time, the national characters had to be made to fit within the cons ...more...



Linux Standard Base

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The Linux Standard Base ( LSB ) is a joint project by several Linux distributions under the organizational structure of the Linux Foundation to standardize the software system structure, including the filesystem hierarchy used in the Linux operating system . The LSB is based on the POSIX specification, the Single UNIX Specification (SUS), and several other open standards, but extends them in certain areas. According to the LSB: The goal of the LSB is to develop and promote a set of open standards that will increase compatibility among Linux distributions and enable software applications to run on any compliant system even in binary form . In addition, the LSB will help coordinate efforts to recruit software vendors to port and write products for Linux Operating Systems. The LSB compliance may be certified for a product by a certification procedure. The LSB specifies for example: standard libraries , a number of commands and utilities that extend the POSIX standard, the layout of the file system hierarchy , ru ...more...



International Bank Account Number

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The International Bank Account Number ( IBAN ) is an internationally agreed system of identifying bank accounts across national borders to facilitate the communication and processing of cross border transactions with a reduced risk of transcription errors . It was originally adopted by the European Committee for Banking Standards (ECBS), and later as an international standard under ISO 13616:1997. The current standard is ISO 13616:2007, which indicates SWIFT as the formal registrar. Initially developed to facilitate payments within the European Union , it has been implemented by most European countries and numerous countries in the other parts of the world, mainly in the Middle East and in the Caribbean . As of February 2016, 69 countries were using the IBAN numbering system. The IBAN consists of up to 34 alphanumeric characters comprising: a country code; two check digits ; and a number that includes the domestic bank account number, branch identifier, and potential routing information. The check digits enab ...more...



ISO 3166-2:BS

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ISO 3166-2:BS is the entry for the Bahamas in ISO 3166-2 , part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states ) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1 . Currently for the Bahamas, ISO 3166-2 codes are defined for 31 districts . New Providence , the most populated island which contains the capital Nassau and is directly governed by the central government, had its code deleted in Newsletter II-2 . Green Turtle Cay had its code deleted in Newsletter II-3 . Each code consists of two parts, separated by a hyphen. The first part is BS , the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code of the Bahamas. The second part is two letters. Current codes Subdivision names are listed as in the ISO 3166-2 standard published by the ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency (ISO 3166/MA). Click on the button in the header to sort each column. Code Subdivision name ( en ) BS-AK Acklins BS-BY Berry Islands BS-BI Bimini BS-BP Bl ...more...



Office Open XML

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Office Open XML (also informally known as OOXML or Microsoft Open XML (MOX) ) is a zipped , XML -based file format developed by Microsoft for representing spreadsheets , charts , presentations and word processing documents. The format was initially standardized by Ecma (as ECMA-376), and by the ISO and IEC (as ISO/IEC 29500) in later versions. Starting with Microsoft Office 2007 , the Office Open XML file formats have become the default target file format of Microsoft Office . Microsoft Office 2010 provides read support for ECMA-376, read/write support for ISO/IEC 29500 Transitional, and read support for ISO/IEC 29500 Strict. Microsoft Office 2013 and Microsoft Office 2016 additionally support both reading and writing of ISO/IEC 29500 Strict. Background In 2000, Microsoft released an initial version of an XML -based format for Microsoft Excel, which was incorporated in Office XP. In 2002, a new file format for Microsoft Word followed. The Excel and Word formats—known as the Microsoft Office XML formats —wer ...more...



ISO basic Latin alphabet

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The ISO basic Latin alphabet is a Latin-script alphabet and consists of two sets of 26 letters, codified in various national and international standards and used widely in international communication. The two sets contain the following 26 letters each: ISO basic Latin alphabet Uppercase Latin alphabet A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Lowercase Latin alphabet a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z History By the 1960s it became apparent to the computer and telecommunications industries in the First World that a non-proprietary method of encoding characters was needed. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) encapsulated the Latin script in their ( ISO/IEC 646 ) 7-bit character-encoding standard. To achieve widespread acceptance, this encapsulation was based on popular usage. The standard was based on the already published American Standard Code for Information Interchange, better known as ASCII , which included in the character set the 26 × 2 letters of the Eng ...more...



ISO 13567

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ISO 13567 is an international Computer-aided design (CAD) layer standard. Standard parts The standard is divided into three parts: ISO 13567-1:2017 Technical product documentation — Organization and naming of layers for CAD — Part 1: Overview and principles ISO 13567-2:2017 Technical product documentation — Organization and naming of layers for CAD — Part 2: Concepts, format and codes used in construction documentation ISO/TR 13567-3:1999 (withdrawn September 2015) Technical product documentation — Organization and naming of layers for CAD — Part 3: Application of ISO 13567-1 and ISO 13567-2 Standard has been developed by Technical Committee TC 10 (Technical product documentation) Subcommittee SC 8 (Construction documentation); Refer. ICS: 01.110; 35.240.10. Structure of layer names CAD layer names are structured as a series of mandatory and optional fixed length fields, composed as a continuous alpha-numerical text string. Mandatory fields Agent responsible (2 characters, indicating the person or organisatio ...more...



C++

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C++ (pronounced "cee plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language . It has imperative , object-oriented and generic programming features, while also providing facilities for low-level memory manipulation. It was designed with a bias toward system programming and embedded , resource-constrained and large systems, with performance , efficiency and flexibility of use as its design highlights. C++ has also been found useful in many other contexts, with key strengths being software infrastructure and resource-constrained applications, including desktop applications , servers (e.g. e-commerce , web search or SQL servers), and performance-critical applications (e.g. telephone switches or space probes ). C++ is a compiled language , with implementations of it available on many platforms. Many vendors provide C++ compilers , including the Free Software Foundation , Microsoft , Intel , and IBM . C++ is standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), with the latest standard version ...more...



ISO 3166-2:CZ

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ISO 3166-2:CZ is the entry for Czechia in ISO 3166-2 , part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states ) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1 . Currently for Czechia, ISO 3166-2 codes are defined for two levels of subdivisions: 14 regions 91 districts (including 15 districts of Prague ) Each code consists of two parts, separated by a hyphen. The first part is CZ , the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code of Czechia. The second part is either of the following: two letters: regions three characters (two digits followed by a digit or a letter): districts For the districts, the first two digits indicate the region that the district is in (based on the original NUTS code of the region ): 10: Prague 20: Central Bohemian Region 31: South Bohemian Region 32: Plzeň Region 41: Karlovy Vary Region 42: Ústí nad Labem Region 51: Liberec Region 52: Hradec Králové Region 53: Pardubice Region 63: ...more...



MPEG-2

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MPEG-2 is used in Digital Video Broadcast and DVDs. The MPEG transport stream , TS, and MPEG program stream , PS, are container formats . MPEG-2 (a.k.a. H.222/H.262 as defined by the ITU ) is a standard for "the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information". It describes a combination of lossy video compression and lossy audio data compression methods, which permit storage and transmission of movies using currently available storage media and transmission bandwidth. While MPEG-2 is not as efficient as newer standards such as H.264/AVC and H.265/HEVC , backwards compatibility with existing hardware and software means it is still widely used, for example in over-the-air digital television broadcasting and in the DVD-Video standard. Main characteristics MPEG-2 is widely used as the format of digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable , and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. It also specifies the format of movies and other programs that are distri ...more...



QR code

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QR code for the URL of the English Wikipedia Mobile main page QR code (abbreviated from Quick Response Code ) is the trademark for a type of matrix barcode (or two-dimensional barcode ) first designed for the automotive industry in Japan . A barcode is a machine-readable optical label that contains information about the item to which it is attached. A QR code uses four standardized encoding modes (numeric, alphanumeric, byte/binary, and kanji ) to efficiently store data; extensions may also be used. The QR code system became popular outside the automotive industry due to its fast readability and greater storage capacity compared to standard UPC barcodes . Applications include product tracking, item identification, time tracking, document management, and general marketing. A QR code consists of black squares arranged in a square grid on a white background, which can be read by an imaging device such as a camera, and processed using Reed–Solomon error correction until the image can be appropriately interpreted. ...more...



MPEG-4 Part 2

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MPEG-4 Part 2 , MPEG-4 Visual (formally ISO / IEC 14496-2 ) is a video compression format developed by MPEG . It belongs to the MPEG-4 ISO/IEC standards. It is a discrete cosine transform compression standard, similar to previous standards such as MPEG-1 Part 2 and H.262/MPEG-2 Part 2 . Several popular codecs including DivX , Xvid and Nero Digital implement this standard. Note that MPEG-4 Part 10 defines a different format from MPEG-4 Part 2 and should not be confused with it. MPEG-4 Part 10 is commonly referred to as H.264 or AVC, and was jointly developed by ITU-T and MPEG. MPEG-4 Part 2 is H.263 compatible in the sense that a basic H.263 bitstream is correctly decoded by an MPEG-4 Video decoder. (MPEG-4 Video decoder is natively capable of decoding a basic form of H.263.) In MPEG-4 Visual, there are two types of video object layers: the video object layer that provides full MPEG-4 functionality, and a reduced functionality video object layer, the video object layer with short headers (which provides bit ...more...



Calendar date

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A calendar date is a reference to a particular day represented within a calendar system. The calendar date allows the specific day to be identified. The number of days between two dates may be calculated. For example, "24 January 2018" is ten days after "14 January 2018" in the Gregorian calendar . The date of a particular event depends on the observed time zone . For example, the air attack on Pearl Harbor that began at 7:48 a.m. Hawaiian time on December 7, 1941, took place at 3:18 a.m. December 8 in Japan ( Japan Standard Time ). A particular day may be represented by a different date in another calendar as in the Gregorian calendar and the Julian calendar , which have been used simultaneously in different places. In most calendar systems, the date consists of three parts: the day of month, month, and the year. There may also be additional parts, such as the day of week. Years are usually counted from a particular starting point, usually called the epoch , with era referring to the particular period of tim ...more...



ISO 9

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The ISO international standard ISO 9 establishes a system for the transliteration into Latin characters of Cyrillic characters constituting the alphabets of many Slavic and non-Slavic languages. The major advantage ISO 9 has over other competing systems is its univocal system of one character for one character equivalents (by the use of diacritics), which faithfully represents the original spelling and allows for reverse transliteration, even if the language is unknown. Earlier versions of the standard, ISO/R 9:1954, ISO/R 9:1968 and ISO 9:1986, were more closely based on the international scholarly system for linguistics ( scientific transliteration ), but have diverged in favour of unambiguous transliteration over phonemic representation. The edition of 1995 supersedes the edition of 1986. ISO 9:1995, or GOST 7.79 System A The standard features three mapping tables: the first covers contemporary Slavic languages, the second older Slavic orthographies (excluding letters from the first), and the third non-Sla ...more...



MPEG-2 Part 3

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Part 3 of the MPEG-2 standard (formally known as ISO/IEC 13818-3 , also known as MPEG-2 Audio or MPEG-2 BC ) defines audio coding: MPEG Multichannel - It enhances MPEG-1 's audio by allowing the coding of audio programs with more than two channels , up to 5.1 multichannel. This method is backwards-compatible (also known as MPEG-2 BC ), allowing MPEG-1 audio decoders to decode the two main stereo components of the presentation. MPEG-2 Part 3 also defined additional bit rates and sample rates for MPEG-1 Audio Layer I , MPEG-1 Audio Layer II and MPEG-1 Audio Layer III (a.k.a. MP3). The MPEG-2 Part 3 should not be confused with MPEG-2 Part 7: AAC a.k.a. MPEG-2 NBC (Non-Backward Compatible) - the MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding with support for multichannel encoding (up to 48 channels). Overview MPEG-2 Part 3 introduced new audio encoding methods compared to MPEG-1 Part 3: MPEG-2 BC (backward compatible with MPEG-1 audio formats) low bitrate encoding with halved sampling rate (MPEG-1 Layer 1 / 2 / 3 LSF - "Low Sa ...more...



ISO 13849

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ISO 13849 is a safety standard which deals with safety-related design principles of employed control systems to establish different safety Performance Levels (PL). It replaced EN 954-1 in December 2011. Part 1 defines the general principles for design. Part 2 describes the validation . References "Safety of machinery -- Safety-related parts of control systems -- Part 1: General principles for design" . ISO . Retrieved 31 October 2013 . "Safety and risk minimization in the operator control of plant machinery" . Plant Engineering. October 21, 2013 . Retrieved 31 October 2013 . ISO 13849 is a safety standard which deals with safety-related design principles of employed control systems to establish different safety Performance Levels (PL). It replaced EN 954-1 in December 2011. Part 1 defines the general principles for design. Part 2 describes the validation . References "Safety of machinery -- Safety-related parts of control systems -- Part 1: General principles for design" . ISO . Retrieved 31 October 2013 . ...more...



Tracking number

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Tracking numbers are numbers given to packages when they are shipped. Tracking numbers are useful for knowing the location of time sensitive deliveries. In the United States , some of the companies and organizations that use tracking numbers are UPS , FedEx , and the United States Postal Service . Most Postal Services use the international S10 (UPU standard) , including the United States Postal Service and most European Postal Services. Formats FedEx Ground and Express tracking numbers can be between 12 and 14 digits. Prior to January 2013, Ground tracking numbers were up to 15 digits and Express numbers were up to 12 digits. A UPS tracking number, for domestic packages within the United States, will usually start with "1Z" followed by a 6 character shipper number (numbers and letters), a 2 digit service level indicator (e.g., 03 for GROUND, see UPS Service Codes below), and finally 8 digits identifying the package, for a total of 18 characters. DHL Express supports the carrier-independent ISO standard 154 ...more...



Calendar year

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Generally speaking, a calendar year begins on the New Year's Day of the given calendar system and ends on the day before the following New Year's Day, and thus consists of a whole number of days. A year can also be measured by starting on any other named day of the calendar, and ending on the day before this named day in the following year. This may be termed a "year's time", but not a "calendar year". To reconcile the calendar year with the astronomical cycle (which has a fractional number of days) certain years contain extra days ("leap days" or "intercalary days"). The Gregorian year, which is in use in most of the world, begins on January 1 and ends on December 31. It has a length of 365 days in an ordinary year , with 8,760 hours, 525,600 minutes, or 31,536,000 seconds; but 366 days in a leap year , with 8,784 hours, 527,040 minutes, or 31,622,400 seconds. With 97 leap years every 400 years, the year has an average length of 365.2425 days. Other formula-based calendars can have lengths which are further ...more...



Polyphony

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A bar from J.S. Bach 's " Fugue No.17 in A flat", BWV 862, from Das Wohltemperierte Clavier (Part I), a famous example of contrapuntal polyphony .   Play   In music , polyphony is one type of musical texture , where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work. In particular, polyphony consists of two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody, as opposed to a musical texture with just one voice, monophony , or a texture with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords , which is called homophony . Within the context of the Western musical tradition, the term polyphony is usually used to refer to music of the late Middle Ages and Renaissance . Baroque forms such as fugue , which might be called polyphonic, are usually described instead as contrapuntal . Also, as opposed to the species terminology of counterpoint, polyphony was generally either "pitch-against-pitch" / "p ...more...



List of Wikipedias

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This is the list of the different language editions of Wikipedia ; as of December 2017 there are 299 Wikipedias of which 288 are active and 11 are not. Wikipedia edition codes Distribution of the 47,013,153 articles in different language editions (as of 3 January 2018) ; the majority of the articles in Swedish, Cebuano, and Waray were created by Lsjbot .     English (11.8%)     Cebuano (11.5%)     Swedish (8.1%)     German (4.5%)     French (4.1%)     Dutch (4.1%)     Russian (3.1%)     Italian (3%)     Spanish (2.9%)     Waray (2.7%)     Polish (2.7%)     Vietnamese (2.5%)     Japanese (2.3%)     Portuguese (2.1%)    Other (34.6%) Each Wikipedia has a code, which is used as a subdomain below wikipedia.org. Interlanguage links are sorted by that code. The codes represent the language codes defined by ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-3 , and the decision of which language code to use is usually determined by the IETF language tag policy. Wikipedias also vary by how thinly they slice dialects and variants; for example, t ...more...



ISO/IEC 8859-11

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ISO/IEC 8859-11:2001 , Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 11: Latin/Thai alphabet, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings , first edition published in 2001. It is informally referred to as Latin/Thai . It is nearly identical to the national Thai standard TIS-620 (1990). The sole difference is that ISO/IEC 8859-11 allocates non-breaking space to code 0xA0, while TIS-620 leaves it undefined. (In practice, this small distinction is usually ignored.) ISO-8859-11 is not a registered IANA charset name despite following the normal pattern for IANA charsets based on the ISO 8859 series. However, the close equivalent TIS-620 (which lacks the non-breaking space) is registered with IANA, and can without problems be used for ISO/IEC 8859-11, since the no-break space has a code which was unallocated in TIS-620. Microsoft has assigned code page 28601 a.k.a. Windows-28601 to ISO-8859-11 in Windows. A draft had the Thai letters in different s ...more...



Brinell scale

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The Brinell scale characterizes the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. It is one of several definitions of hardness in materials science . Proposed by Swedish engineer Johan August Brinell in 1900, it was the first widely used and standardised hardness test in engineering and metallurgy . The large size of indentation and possible damage to test-piece limits its usefulness. However it also had the useful feature that the hardness value divided by two gave the approximate UTS in ksi for steels. This feature contributed to its early adoption over competing hardness tests. The typical test uses a 10 millimetres (0.39 in) diameter steel ball as an indenter with a 3,000  kgf (29.42  kN ; 6,614  lbf ) force. For softer materials, a smaller force is used; for harder materials, a tungsten carbide ball is substituted for the steel ball. The indentation is measured and hardness calculated as: where: P = applied load in kilogram-force (kgf) ...more...



MPEG-D

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MPEG-D is a group of standards for audio coding formally known as ISO / IEC 23003 - MPEG audio technologies, published since 2007. MPEG-D consists of four parts: MPEG-D Part 1: MPEG Surround (a.k.a. Spatial Audio Coding ) MPEG-D Part 2: Spatial Audio Object Coding (SAOC) MPEG-D Part 3: Unified speech and audio coding MPEG-D Part 4: Dynamic Range Control See also ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 References MPEG. "MPEG standards - Full list of standards developed or under development" . chiariglione.org. Archived from the original on 2010-04-20 . Retrieved 2010-02-09 . MPEG. "Terms of Reference" . chiariglione.org. Archived from the original on 2010-02-21 . Retrieved 2010-02-09 . "Working documents, MPEG-D (MPEG Audio Technologies)" . MPEG. Archived from the original on 2010-02-21 . Retrieved 2010-02-09 . ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29 (2009-12-30). "Programme of Work (Allocated to SC 29/WG 11) - MPEG-D" . Archived from the original on 2013-12-31 . Retrieved 2009-12-30 . ISO (2007-01-29). "ISO/IEC 23003-1:2007 - Information technology ...more...



Advanced Audio Coding

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Advanced Audio Coding ( AAC ) is a proprietary audio coding standard for lossy digital audio compression . Designed to be the successor of the MP3 format, AAC generally achieves better sound quality than MP3 at the same bit rate . The confusingly named AAC+ ( HE-AAC ) does so only at low bit rates and less so at high ones. AAC has been standardized by ISO and IEC , as part of the MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 specifications. Part of AAC, HE-AAC ( AAC+ ), is part of MPEG-4 Audio and also adopted into digital radio standards DAB+ and Digital Radio Mondiale , as well as mobile television standards DVB-H and ATSC-M/H . AAC supports inclusion of 48 full- bandwidth (up to 96 kHz) audio channels in one stream plus 16 low frequency effects ( LFE , limited to 120 Hz) channels, up to 16 "coupling" or dialog channels, and up to 16 data streams. The quality for stereo is satisfactory to modest requirements at 96 kbit/s in joint stereo mode; however, hi-fi transparency demands data rates of at least 128 kbit/s ( VBR ). Tests of MP ...more...



List of discontinued photographic films

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All the films on this page have either just been discontinued, have been updated or the company making the film no longer exists. Often films will be updated and older versions discontinued without any change in the name. Adox Adox was a German camera and film brand active in the 1950s and 1960s. Products included a black-and-white film KB 14 with a sensitivity of 14° DIN (20 ASA), KB 17 with a sensitivity of 17° DIN (40 ASA) and the colour reversal films C 15 (15° DIN, 25 ASA) and C 18 (18° DIN, 50 ASA). Agfa Leverkusen After the war, Agfa was split into two companies: Agfa Leverkusen (after the city of Leverkusen ) in West Germany, and Agfa Wolfen (after the town of Wolfen ) in East Germany. For some time they produced films with the same names, such as Isopan F. To distinguish them, the marginal markings were L IF for Agfa Leverkusen, and W IF for Agfa Wolfen. Later films from Wolfen were designated ORWO. Black and white film Agfapan AP 100 (Discontinued) Agfapan AP 400 (Discontinued) Agfapan APX 25 (Disco ...more...



ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Automatic identification and data capture techniques

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ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Automatic identification and data capture techniques is a standardization subcommittee of the joint subcommittee ISO/IEC JTC 1 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), that develops and facilitates international standards, technical reports, and technical specifications in the field of automatic identification and data capture techniques. The subcommittee had its first plenary in 1996, where it established its original three working groups. Additional working groups were established at subsequent plenaries such as ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 WG 4 RFID, which was established at the third plenary in January 1998. The international national secretariat of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 is the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) located in the United States. Scope The scope of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 is “Standardization of data formats, data syntax, data structures, data encoding, and technologies for the process of automatic ident ...more...



Joint Photographic Experts Group

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The Joint Photographic Experts Group is the joint committee founded by Jim Judkins between ISO/IEC JTC1 and ITU-T (formerly CCITT) that created the JPEG , JPEG 2000 , and JPEG XR standards. It is one of two sub-groups of ISO / IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 29, Working Group 1 (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1) – titled as Coding of still pictures. In the ITU-T , its work falls in the domain of the ITU-T Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG) . ISO/IEC JTC1 SC29 Working Group 1 (working together with ITU-T Study Group 16 – SG16 and previously also with Study Group 8 – SG8 ) is responsible for the JPEG and JBIG standards. The scope of the organization includes the work of both the Joint Photographic Experts Group and Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group . In April 1983, ISO started to work to add photo quality graphics to text terminals . In the mid-1980s, both CCITT (now ITU-T) and ISO had standardization groups for image coding: CCITT Study Group VIII (SG8) – Telematic Services and ISO TC97 SC2 WG8 – ...more...



ISO 20400

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ISO 20400 Sustainable procurement -- Guidance provides guidance to organizations, independent of their activity or size, on integrating sustainability within procurement . It is intended for stakeholders involved in, or impacted by, procurement decisions and processes. This standard was developed by ISO project committee ISO/PC 277. History The standard was developed by project committee ISO/PC 277, which started work in the year 2013. The first edition of ISO 20400 was published on 21 April 2017. Main requirements of the standard The ISO 20400:2017 adopts the structure in the following breakdown: 1 Scope 2 Normative references 3 Terms and definitions 4 Understanding the fundamentals 5 Integrating sustainability into the organization's procurement policy and strategy 6 Organizing the procurement function toward sustainability 7 Integrating sustainability into the procurement process See also Quality management system List of ISO standards Conformity assessment International Organization for Standardization ...more...



Radio-frequency identification

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Small RFID chips, here compared to a grain of rice, are incorporated in consumer products, and implanted in pets , for identification purposes Radio-frequency identification ( RFID ) uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. The tags contain electronically stored information. Passive tags collect energy from a nearby RFID reader's interrogating radio waves . Active tags have a local power source (such as a battery) and may operate hundreds of meters from the RFID reader. Unlike a barcode , the tag need not be within the line of sight of the reader, so it may be embedded in the tracked object. RFID is one method for Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC). RFID tags are used in many industries, for example, an RFID tag attached to an automobile during production can be used to track its progress through the assembly line; RFID-tagged pharmaceuticals can be tracked through warehouses; and implanting RFID microchips in livestock and pets allows for positiv ...more...



ISO 16610

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ISO 16610: Geometrical product specifications (GPS) – Filtration is a standard series on filters for surface texture , and provides guidance on the use of these filters in various applications. Filters are used in surface texture in order reduce the bandwidth of analysis in order to obtain functional correlation with physical phenomena such as friction, wear, adhesion, etc. For example, filters are used to separate roughness and waviness from the primary profile, or to create a multiscale decomposition in order to identify the scale at which a phenomenon occurs. Historically, the first roughness measuring instruments - stylus profilometer - used to have electronic filters made of capacitors and resistors that filtered out low frequencies in order to retain frequencies that represent roughness. Later, digital filters replaced analog filters and international standards such as ISO 11562 for the Gaussian filter were published. Filter toolbox for surface texture Today, a full set of filters is described in the IS ...more...



Merchant category code

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A Merchant Category Code (MCC) is a four-digit number listed in ISO 18245 for retail financial services. MCC is used to classify the business by the type of goods or services it provides. MCCs are assigned by merchant type (e.g. one for hotels, one for office supply stores, etc.) or by merchant name (e.g. 3000 for United Airlines). A MCC is assigned to a merchant by the card company when the business first starts accepting cards as a form of payment. The code reflects the primary category in which the merchant does business and may be used : by credit card companies to offer cash back rewards or reward points, for spending in specific categories. by card networks to defined rules and restrictions with card transactions (by example, Automated Fuel Dispenser (MCC 5542) have specific rules for authorization and clearing messages). In the United States , it can be used to determine whether or not a payment needs to be reported to the Internal Revenue Service for tax purposes. See also ISO 8583 ISO 18245 NAICS Co ...more...



List of languages by number of native speakers

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Current distribution of human language families This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers . However, all such rankings should be used with caution. It is difficult to define the difference between a language and a dialect , or between a language and a macrolanguage ; for example, Chinese is sometimes considered a single language and sometimes a macrolanguage whose many varieties are all independent languages. Any division of speakers among languages is the result of the classification of these speakers. Often such classifications are based on political or cultural factors. Although such classifications are not entirely arbitrary, it is not possible to devise a coherent linguistic set of criteria for the boundaries between languages. For a list of languages with the smallest numbers of native speakers, see lists of endangered languages . Top languages by population The following table contains the top 100 languages by estimated number of native speakers in the 2007 edition of Natio ...more...



Ash (analytical chemistry)

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In analytical chemistry , ashing or ash content determination is the process of mineralization for preconcentration of trace substances prior to a chemical analysis, such as chromatography , or optical analysis, such as spectroscopy . Overview A crucible and tongs, on a green mat. The residues after a sample is completely burnt - in contrast to the ash remaining after incomplete combustion - consist mostly of metal oxides . Ash is one of the components in the proximate analysis of biological materials, consisting mainly of salty, inorganic constituents. It includes metal salts which are important for processes requiring ions such as Na (Sodium), K (Potassium), and Ca (Calcium). It also includes trace minerals which are required for unique molecules, such as chlorophyll and hemoglobin . A crucible can be used to determine the percentage of ash contained in an otherwise burnable sample of material such as coal , wood , oil , rubber or plastics. The ISO mandates ash content determination for most foodstuffs. ...more...



Eastern Lombard dialect

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Eastern Lombard is a group of closely related dialects of Lombard , a Gallo-Italic language spoken in Lombardy , mainly in the provinces of Bergamo , Brescia and Mantua , in the area around Crema and in parts of Trentino . Its main variants are Bergamasque and Brescian. In Italian-speaking contexts, Eastern Lombard is often generically called a " dialect ". This is often incorrectly understood as to mean a dialect of Italian, which actually is not the case; it's not a dialect but a language. Eastern Lombard and Italian are different languages and have only limited mutual intelligibility . Eastern Lombard does not have any official status either in Lombardy or anywhere else: the only official language in Lombardy is Italian . Classification Eastern Lombard is a Romance language and belongs to the Gallo-Italic branch. Its position on the language family put in evidence that it is genetically closer to Occitan , Catalan , French , etc. than to Italian . Its substratum is Celtic. Geographic distribution Eastern ...more...



List of international vehicle registration codes

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A 1960 Borgward Isabella showing the international vehicle code NL ( Netherlands ) Estonian registration plate in EU standard format with international code EST The country in which a motor vehicle 's vehicle registration plate was issued is indicated by an international licence plate country code , formerly known as an International Registration Letter or International Circulation Mark , displayed in bold block uppercase on a small white oval plate or sticker near the number plate on the rear of a vehicle. The allocation of codes is maintained by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe as the Distinguishing Signs Used on Vehicles in International Traffic (sometimes abbreviated to DSIT), authorised by the UN's Geneva Convention on Road Traffic of 1949 and the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic of 1968. Many vehicle codes created since the adoption of ISO 3166 coincide with ISO two- or three-letter codes. The 2004 South-East Asian Agreement ... for the Facilitation of Cross-Border Transport of Goods ...more...



HTML

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Hypertext Markup Language ( HTML ) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications . With Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and JavaScript it forms a triad of cornerstone technologies for the World Wide Web . Web browsers receive HTML documents from a web server or from local storage and render them into multimedia web pages. HTML describes the structure of a web page semantically and originally included cues for the appearance of the document. HTML elements are the building blocks of HTML pages. With HTML constructs, images and other objects, such as interactive forms, may be embedded into the rendered page. It provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links , quotes and other items. HTML elements are delineated by tags, written using angle brackets . Tags such as and introduce content into the page directly. Others such as ... surround and provide information about document text and may include other ...more...



Horsepower

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A team of six horses mowing hay in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania Horsepower ( hp ) is a unit of measurement of power (the rate at which work is done). There are many different standards and types of horsepower. Two common definitions being used today are the mechanical horsepower (or imperial horsepower ), which is 745.7 watts , and the metric horsepower , which is approximately 735.5 watts. The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt to compare the output of steam engines with the power of draft horses . It was later expanded to include the output power of other types of piston engines , as well as turbines , electric motors and other machinery. The definition of the unit varied among geographical regions. Most countries now use the SI unit watt for measurement of power. With the implementation of the EU Directive 80/181/EEC on January 1, 2010, the use of horsepower in the EU is permitted only as a supplementary unit. History One metric horsepower is needed to lift 75  ki ...more...



ISO 3166-2:CN

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ISO 3166-2:CN is the entry for China in ISO 3166-2 , part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g. provinces or states ) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1 . Currently for China, ISO 3166-2 codes are defined for the following province-level subdivisions : 23 provinces 5 autonomous regions 2 special administrative regions 4 municipalities Taiwan is included as a province of China because of its political status within the United Nations , as even though it is de facto under the jurisdiction of the Republic of China instead of the People's Republic of China , the United Nations considers Taiwan as part of China. Each code consists of two parts, separated by a hyphen. The first part is CN , the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code of China. The second part is two digits, which is the Guobiao GB/T 2260 (first published 1991, prior to ISO 3166-2, first published 1998) numeric code of the subdivision, w ...more...




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