ISO 31-3

ISO 31-3 is the part of international standard ISO 31 that defines names and symbols for quantities and units related to mechanics. It is superseded by ISO 80000-4.

Its definitions include (note boldfaced symbols mean quantity is a vector):

Quantity Unit Remarks
Name Symbol Name Symbol Definition
Force F newton N 1 N = 1 kg·m/s2 Unit named after Isaac Newton
Moment of force, Torque M, τ {\displaystyle {\boldsymbol {\tau }}} N·m 1 N·m = 1 kg·m2/s2 The unit is dimensionally equivalent to the units of energy, the joule; but the joule should not be used as an alternate for the newton metre.
Linear momentum p kg·m/s or N·s
(Linear) impulse J N·s or kg·m/s
Angular momentum L kg·m2/s or N·m·s
Mechanical energy, Work E, W joule J 1 J = 1 kg·m2/s2 = 1 Pa·m3 = 1 W·s Unit named after James Joule. The joule is dimensionally equivalent to the units of torque and moment of force but should be used in preference to the newton metre (N·m).
Power P watt W 1 W = 1 J/s = 1 N·m/s = 1 kg·m2/s3 Unit named after James Watt.
Pressure p pascal Pa 1 Pa = 1 N / m2 = 1 kg/(m·s2) Named after Blaise Pascal.
Normal stress, Shear stress σ , τ {\displaystyle \sigma ,\tau } pascal Pa 1 Pa = 1 N / m2 = 1 kg/(m·s2) Named after Blaise Pascal.
...

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ISO 31-3

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ISO 31-3

ISO 31-3 is the part of international standard ISO 31 that defines names and symbols for quantities and units related to mechanics. It is superseded by ISO 80000-4. Its definitions include (note boldfaced symbols mean quantity is a vector): Quantity Unit Remarks Name Symbol Name Symbol Definition Force F newton N 1 N = 1 kg·m/s2 Unit named after Isaac Newton Moment of force, Torque M, τ {\displaystyle {\boldsymbol {\tau }}} N·m 1 N·m = 1 kg·m2/s2 The unit is dimensionally equivalent to the units of energy, the joule; but the joule should not be used as an alternate for the newton metre. Linear momentum p kg·m/s or N·s (Linear) impulse J N·s or kg·m/s Angular momentum L kg·m2/s or N·m·s Mechanical energy, Work E, W joule J 1 J = 1 kg·m2/s2 = 1 Pa·m3 = 1 W·s Unit named after James Joule. The joule is dimensionally equivalent to the units of torque and moment of force but should be used in preference to the newton metre (N· ...more...

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ISO 31

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ISO 31

ISO 31 (Quantities and units, International Organization for Standardization, 1992) is a deprecated international standard for the use of physical quantities and units of measurement, and formulas involving them, in scientific and educational documents. It is superseded by ISO/IEC 80000. Parts The standard comes in 14 parts: ISO 31-0: General principles ISO 31-1: Space and time (replaced by ISO/IEC 80000-3:2007) ISO 31-2: Periodic and related phenomena (replaced by ISO/IEC 80000-3:2007) ISO 31-3: Mechanics (replaced by ISO/IEC 80000-4:2006) ISO 31-4: Heat (replaced by ISO/IEC 80000-5) ISO 31-5: Electricity and magnetism (replaced by ISO/IEC 80000-6) ISO 31-6: Light and related electromagnetic radiations (replaced by ISO/IEC 80000-7) ISO 31-7: Acoustics (replaced by ISO/IEC 80000-8:2007) ISO 31-8: Physical chemistry and molecular physics (replaced by ISO/IEC 80000-9) ISO 31-9: Atomic and nuclear physics (replaced by ISO/IEC 80000-10) ISO 31-10: Nuclear reactions and ionizing radiations ...more...

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ISO 31-1

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ISO 31-1

ISO 31-1 is the part of international standard ISO 31 that defines names and symbols for quantities and units related to space and time. It was superseded in 2006 by ISO 80000-3. Definitions Its definitions include: Quantity Unit Remarks Name Symbol Name Symbol Definition angle,(plane angle) α, β, γ, ϑ, φ radian rad 1 rad = 1 ​m⁄ = 1 degree ° 1° = ​π⁄ rad There is no space between the number and these superscript-style unit symbols. Decimal subdivision of degrees is preferable (i.e., 12.5° instead of 12°30′) minute ′ 1′ = (​1⁄)° second ″ 1″ = (​1⁄)′ solid angle Ω steradian sr 1 sr = 1 ​m²⁄ = 1 length l, L metre m The metre is the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of ​1⁄ of a second; see speed of light breadth b height h thickness d, δ radius r, R diameter d, D length of path, (linear) displacement vector s, s distance d, r cartesian coordinates x, y, z radius of curvature ϱ curvature ϰ recip ...more...

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ISO 31-11

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ISO 31-11

ISO 31-11:1992 was the part of international standard ISO 31 that defines mathematical signs and symbols for use in physical sciences and technology. It was superseded in 2009 by ISO 80000-2.[1] Its definitions include the following:[2] Mathematical logic Sign Example Name Meaning and verbal equivalent Remarks ∧ p ∧ q conjunction sign p and q ∨ p ∨ q disjunction sign p or q (or both) ¬ ¬ p negation sign negation of p; not p; non p ⇒ p ⇒ q implication sign if p then q; p implies q Can also be written as q ⇐ p. Sometimes → is used. ∀ ∀x∈A p(x) (∀x∈A) p(x) universal quantifier for every x belonging to A, the proposition p(x) is true The "∈A" can be dropped where A is clear from context. ∃ ∃x∈A p(x) (∃x∈A) p(x) existential quantifier there exists an x belonging to A for which the proposition p(x) is true The "∈A" can be dropped where A is clear from context. ∃! is used where exactly one x exists for which p(x) is true. Sets Sign Example Meaning and verbal equivalent Remarks ...more...

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ISO 31-0

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ISO 31-0

ISO 31-0 is the introductory part of international standard ISO 31 on quantities and units. It provides guidelines for using physical quantities, quantity and unit symbols, and coherent unit systems, especially the SI. It is intended for use in all fields of science and technology and is augmented by more specialized conventions defined in other parts of the ISO 31 standard. ISO 31-0 was withdrawn on 17 November 2009. It is superseded by ISO 80000-1. Other parts of ISO 31 have also been withdrawn and replaced by parts of ISO 80000. Scope ISO 31 covers only physical quantities used for the quantitative description of physical phenomena. It does not cover conventional scales (e.g., Beaufort scale, Richter scale, colour intensity scales), results of conventional tests, currencies, or information content. The presentation here is only a brief summary of some of the detailed guidelines and examples given in the standard. Quantities and units Physical quantities can be grouped into mutually comparable categorie ...more...

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ISO 31-10

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ISO 31-10

ISO 31-10 is the part of international standard ISO 31 that defines names and symbols for quantities and units related to nuclear reactions and ionizing radiations. It gives names and symbols for 70 quantities and units. Where appropriate, conversion factors are also given. Its definitions include: Quantity Unit Remarks Name Symbol Definition Name Symbol Definition ⋮ activity A Expectation value of the number of spontaneous nuclear transitions from a particular energy state occurring in an amount of radionuclide in a small time interval, divided by that time interval becquerel Bq 1 Bq = 1/s The becquerel is a special name for second to the power minus one, to be used as the SI unit of activity.curie:1 Ci = 3.7×1010 Bq (exactly) ⋮ absorbed dose D For any ionizing radiation, the mean energy imparted to an element of irradiated matter divided by the mass of this element grey Gy 1 Gy = 1 J/kg The grey is a special name for joule per kilogram, to be used as the SI unit for absorbed dose.r ...more...

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ISO 80000-3

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ISO 80000-3

ISO 80000-3:2006 is an ISO standard entitled Quantities and units – Part 3: Space and time, superseding ISO 31-1 and ISO 31-2.[1] It is a part of the group of standards called ISO/IEC 80000, which together form the International System of Quantities. Contents list The standard is divided into the following chapters: Foreword Introduction Scope Normative references Names, symbols and definitions Annex A (informative) Units in the CGS system with special names Annex B (informative) Units based on the foot, pound, second, and some other related units Annex C (informative) Other non-SI units given for information, especially regarding the conversion factors Names, symbols and definitions Space and time Space ISO 80000-3:2006 assigns names and symbols to quantities and units of space and time, and defines these quantities and units. For example, Units of length, area and volume metre (symbol m): "length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/(299 792 458) of a s ...more...

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ISO/IEC 8859-3

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ISO/IEC 8859-3

ISO/IEC 8859-3:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 3: Latin alphabet No. 3, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1988. It is informally referred to as Latin-3 or South European. It was designed to cover Turkish, Maltese and Esperanto, though the introduction of ISO/IEC 8859-9 superseded it for Turkish. The encoding remains popular with users of Esperanto, though use is waning as application support for Unicode becomes more common. ISO-8859-3 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. Microsoft has assigned code page 28593 a.k.a. Windows-28593 to ISO-8859-3 in Windows. IBM has assigned code page 913 to ISO 8859-3. Codepage layout Legend:   Alphabetic   Control character   Numeric digit   Punctuation   Extended punctuation   Graphic character   International   Undefined ISO/IEC 8859-3 ...more...

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ISO/IEC 80000

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ISO/IEC 80000

ISO 80000 or IEC 80000 is an international standard promulgated jointly by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The standard introduces the International System of Quantities (ISQ). It is a style guide for the use of physical quantities and units of measurement, formulas involving them, and their corresponding units, in scientific and educational documents for worldwide use. In most countries, the notations used in mathematics and science textbooks at schools and universities follow closely the guidelines in this standard. The ISO/IEC 80000 family of standards was completed with the publication of Part 1 in November 2009.[1] Areas The standard has 14 parts.[2] Mechanics ISO 80000-4:2006 supersedes ISO 31-3.[3] and specifies names and symbols for quantities and units of classical mechanics, and defines these names and symbols. The document is under review.[4] Thermodynamics ISO 80000-5:2007 supersedes ISO 31-4[5] which "gives ...more...

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List of ISO 639-1 codes

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List of ISO 639-1 codes

ISO 639 is a standardized nomenclature used to classify languages. Each language is assigned a two-letter (639-1) and three-letter (639-2 and 639-3), lowercase abbreviation, amended in later versions of the nomenclature. This table lists all of: ISO 639-1: two-letter codes, one per language for ISO 639 macrolanguage And some of: ISO 639-2/T: three-letter codes, for the same languages as 639-1 ISO 639-2/B: three-letter codes, mostly the same as 639-2/T, but with some codes derived from English names rather than native names of languages (in the following table, these differing codes are highlighted in boldface) ISO 639-3: three-letter codes, the same as 639-2/T for languages, but with distinct codes for each variety of an ISO 639 macrolanguage Note: Colors on the leftmost column represent the language family mentioned in second column. Language family ISO language name Native name (endonym) 639-1 639-2/T 639-2/B 639-3 Notes Northwest Caucasian Abkhazian аҧсуа бызшәа, аҧсшәа ab ...more...

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ISO 3166-1

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ISO 3166-1

ISO 3166-1 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest. The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 1: Country codes. It defines three sets of country codes:[1] ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 – two-letter country codes which are the most widely used of the three, and used most prominently for the Internet's country code top-level domains (with a few exceptions). ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 – three-letter country codes which allow a better visual association between the codes and the country names than the alpha-2 codes. ISO 3166-1 numeric – three-digit country codes which are identical to those developed and maintained by the United Nations Statistics Division, with the advantage of script (writing system) independence, and hence useful for people or systems using non-Latin scripts ...more...

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ISO 80000-2

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ISO 80000-2

ISO 80000-2:2009 is a standard describing mathematical signs and symbols developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), superseding ISO 31-11.[1] The Standard, whose full name is Quantities and units — Part 2: Mathematical signs and symbols to be used in the natural sciences and technology, is a part of the group of standards called ISO/IEC 80000. Contents list The Standard is divided into the following chapters: Foreword Introduction Scope Normative references Variables, functions, and operators Mathematical logic Sets Standard number sets and intervals Miscellaneous signs and symbols Elementary geometry Operations Combinatorics Functions Exponential and logarithmic functions Circular and hyperbolic functions Complex numbers Matrices Coordinate systems Scalars, vectors, and tensors Transforms Special functions Annex A (normative) - Clarification of the symbols used Bibliography Symbols for variables and constants Clause 3 specifies that variables such ...more...

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List of International Organization for Standardization standards

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List of International Organization for Standardization standards

This is a list of published[Note 1] International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables.[Note 2] For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue.[1] The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However, about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) have been made freely and publicly available.[2] ISO 1 – ISO 99 ISO 1:2016 Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Standard reference temperature for the specification of geometrical and dimensional properties ISO 2:1973 Textiles – Designation of the direction of twist in yarns and related products ISO 3:1973 Preferred numbers – Series of preferred numbers ISO 4:1997 Information and documentation – Rules for the abbreviation of title words and titles of publications ISO 5 Photography and graphic technology – Density measurements ISO 6:1993 Photography – Black-and-white pictorial still camera negative film/p ...more...

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ISO/IEC 8859

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ISO/IEC 8859

ISO/IEC 8859 is a joint ISO and IEC series of standards for 8-bit character encodings. The series of standards consists of numbered parts, such as ISO/IEC 8859-1, ISO/IEC 8859-2, etc. There are 15 parts, excluding the abandoned ISO/IEC 8859-12. The ISO working group maintaining this series of standards has been disbanded. ISO/IEC 8859 parts 1, 2, 3, and 4 were originally Ecma International standard ECMA-94. Introduction While the bit patterns of the 95 printable ASCII characters are sufficient to exchange information in modern English, most other languages that use Latin alphabets need additional symbols not covered by ASCII. ISO/IEC 8859 sought to remedy this problem by utilizing the eighth bit in an 8-bit byte to allow positions for another 96 printable characters. Early encodings were limited to 7 bits because of restrictions of some data transmission protocols, and partially for historical reasons. However, more characters were needed than could fit in a single 8-bit character encoding, so several mapp ...more...

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ISO 8601

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ISO 8601

ISO 8601 Data elements and interchange formats – Information interchange – Representation of dates and times is an international standard covering the exchange of date- and time-related data. It was issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was first published in 1988. The purpose of this standard is to provide an unambiguous and well-defined method of representing dates and times, so as to avoid misinterpretation of numeric representations of dates and times, particularly when data are transferred between countries with different conventions for writing numeric dates and times. In general, ISO 8601 applies to representations and formats of dates in the Gregorian (and potentially proleptic Gregorian) calendar, times based on the 24-hour timekeeping system (with optional time zone information, e. g. the UTC offset), time intervals and combinations thereof.[1] The standard does not assign any specific meaning to elements of the date/time to be represented; the meaning will depend o ...more...

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ISO 9000

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ISO 9000

The ISO 9000 family of quality management systems standards is designed to help organizations ensure that they meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders while meeting statutory and regulatory requirements related to a product or service.[1] ISO 9000 deals with the fundamentals of quality management systems,[2] including the seven quality management principles upon which the family of standards is based.[2][3][4] ISO 9001 deals with the requirements that organizations wishing to meet the standard must fulfil.[5] Third-party certification bodies provide independent confirmation that organizations meet the requirements of ISO 9001. Over one million organizations worldwide[6] are independently certified, making ISO 9001 one of the most widely used management tools in the world today. However, the ISO certification process has been criticized[7][8] as being wasteful and not being useful for all organizations.[9][10] Background ISO 9000 was first published in 1987 by ISO (International Organization for ...more...

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ISO 4217

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ISO 4217

Find a currency Enter an ISO 4217 code to find the corresponding currency article   An airline ticket showing the price in the ISO 4217 code "EUR" (bottom left) and not the currency sign € ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables: Table A.1 – Current currency & funds code list[1] Table A.2 – Current funds codes[2] Table A.3 – List of codes for historic denominations of currencies & funds[3] The tables, history and ongoing discussion are maintained by SIX Interbank Clearing on behalf of ISO and the Swiss Association for Standardization.[4] The ISO 4217 code list is used in banking and business globally. In many countries the ISO codes for the more common currencies are so well known publicly that exchange rates published in newspapers or posted in banks use only these to delineate the different currencies ...more...

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ISO 15118

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ISO 15118

ISO 15118 Road vehicles -- Vehicle to grid communication interface is an international standard defining a vehicle to grid (V2G) communication interface for bi-directional charging/discharging of electric vehicles. ISO 15118 is one of the International Electrotechnical Commission's group of standards for electric road vehicles and electric industrial trucks, and is the responsibility of Joint Working Group 1 (JWG1 V2G) of IEC Technical Committee 69 (TC69)[1] together with subcommittee 31 (SC31)[2] of the International Organization for Standardization's Technical Committee 22 (TC22)[3] on road vehicles. Standard documents ISO 15118 consists of the following parts, detailed in separate standard documents: ISO 15118-1: General information and use-case definition[4] ISO 15118-2: Network and application protocol requirements[5] ISO 15118-3: Physical and data link layer requirements[6] ISO 15118-4: Network and application protocol conformance test[7] ISO/FDIS 15118-5: Physical and data link layer confor ...more...

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ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Automatic identification and data capture techniques

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ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Automatic identification and data capture techniques

ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 Automatic identification and data capture techniques is a subcommittee of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Joint Technical Committee (JTC) 1, and was established in 1996. SC 31 develops and facilitates international standards, technical reports, and technical specifications in the field of automatic identification and data capture techniques. The first Plenary established three working groups (WGs): Data Carriers, Data Content, and Conformance.  Subsequent Plenaries established other working groups: RFID, RTLS, Mobile Item Identification and Management, Security and File Management, and Applications. As of 2017, SC 31 has the following working groups: ·        WG 1: Data carrier ·        WG 2: Data and Structure ·        WG 4: Radio communications ·        WG 8: Application of AIDC standards The international secretariat of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 is the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) located in ...more...

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ISO week date

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ISO week date

The ISO week date system is effectively a leap week calendar system that is part of the ISO 8601 date and time standard issued by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) since 1988 (last revised in 2004) and, before that, it was defined in ISO (R) 2015 since 1971. It is used (mainly) in government and business for fiscal years, as well as in timekeeping. This was previously known as "Industrial date coding". The system specifies a week year atop the Gregorian calendar by defining a notation for ordinal weeks of the year. The Gregorian leap cycle, which has 97 leap days spread across 400 years, contains a whole number of weeks (20871). In every cycle there are 71 years with an additional 53rd week (corresponding to the Gregorian years that contain 53 Thursdays). An average year is exactly 52.1775 weeks long; months (1/12 year) average at exactly 4.348125 weeks. An ISO week-numbering year (also called ISO year informally) has 52 or 53 full weeks. That is 364 or 371 days instead of the usual 3 ...more...

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ISO 8583

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ISO 8583

ISO 8583 is an international standard for financial transaction card originated interchange messaging. It is the International Organization for Standardization standard for systems that exchange electronic transactions initiated by cardholders using payment cards. ISO 8583 defines a message format and a communication flow so that different systems can exchange these transaction requests and responses. The vast majority of transactions made when a customer uses a card to make a payment in a store (EFTPOS) use ISO 8583 at some point in the communication chain, as do transactions made at ATMs. In particular, both the MasterCard and Visa networks base their authorization communications on the ISO 8583 standard, as do many other institutions and networks. Although ISO 8583 defines a common standard, it is not typically used directly by systems or networks. It defines many standard fields (data elements) which remain the same in all systems or networks, and leaves a few additional fields for passing network-speci ...more...

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ISO 80000-1

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ISO 80000-1

ISO 80000-1:2009 is a standard describing scientific and mathematical quantities and their units. The standard, whose full name is Quantities and units Part 1: General was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), superseding ISO 31-0.[1] It provides general information concerning quantities and units and their symbols, especially the International System of Quantities and the International System of Units, and defines these quantities and units. It is a part of a group of standards called ISO/IEC 80000. Contents list The standard is divided into the following chapters: Foreword Introduction Scope Normative references Terms and definitions Quantities Dimensions Units Printing rules Annex A (normative) – Terms in names for physical quantities Annex B (normative) – Rounding of numbers Annex C (normative) – Logarithmic quantities and their units Annex D (informative) – International organizations in the field of quantities and units Scope ISO 80000-1 gives "gen ...more...

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Articles to be expanded from January 2014

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Graphical Kernel System

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Graphical Kernel System

The Graphical Kernel System (GKS) was the first ISO standard for low-level computer graphics, introduced in 1977. A draft international standard was circulated for review in September, 1983.[1][2][3] Final ratification of the standard was achieved in 1985.[4][5] GKS provides a set of drawing features for two-dimensional vector graphics suitable for charting and similar duties. The calls are designed to be portable across different programming languages, graphics devices and hardware, so that applications written to use GKS will be readily portable to many platforms and devices. GKS was fairly common on computer workstations in the 1980s and early 1990s.[6] GKS formed the basis of Digital Research's GSX and GEM products; the latter was common on the Atari ST and was occasionally seen on PCs particularly in conjunction with Ventura Publisher. It was little used outside these markets and is essentially obsolete today except insofar as it is the underlying API defining the Computer Graphics Metafile. A descenda ...more...

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ISO 9660

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ISO 9660

ISO 9660 is a file system for optical disc media. Being published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) the file system is considered an international technical standard. Since the specification is available for anybody to purchase,[1] implementations have been written for many operating systems. History ISO 9660 traces its roots to the High Sierra Format file system.[2] High Sierra arranged file information in a dense, sequential layout to minimize nonsequential access by using a hierarchical (eight levels of directories deep) tree file system arrangement, similar to UNIX and FAT. To facilitate cross platform compatibility, it defined a minimal set of common file attributes (directory or ordinary file and time of recording) and name attributes (name, extension, and version), and used a separate system use area where future optional extensions for each file may be specified. High Sierra was adopted in December 1986 (with changes) as an international standard by Ecma International as ...more...

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ISO/IEC 18000

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ISO/IEC 18000

ISO/IEC 18000 is an international standard that describes a series of diverse RFID technologies, each using a unique frequency range. ISO/IEC 18000 consists of the following parts, under the general title Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management: Part 1: Reference architecture and definition of parameters to be standardized Part 2: Parameters for air interface communications below 135 kHz Part 3: Parameters for air interface communications at 13,56 MHz[a] Part 4: Parameters for air interface communications at 2,45 GHz Part 6: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Part 7: Parameters for active air interface communications at 433 MHz The ISO/IEC 18000-6 is a large document. In 2012 it was split into 5 parts for publication: Part 6: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz General Part 61: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type A Part 62: Parameters for air interface communic ...more...

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ISO/TC 176

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ISO/TC 176

ISO/TC 176 is Technical Committee 176 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), responsible for Quality management and quality assurance - the ISO 9000 family of standards. Overview The scope of the committee is ‘Standardization in the field of quality management (generic quality management systems and supporting technologies), as well as quality management standardization in specific sectors at the request of the affected sector and the ISO Technical Management Board’. Membership is open to any national body, in much the same way as membership in either of the two parent organizations. A member can be either participating (P) or observing (O) and the difference is mainly the ability to vote on proposed standards and other products. Other organizations participate as Liaison Members, some internal to ISO and IEC and some external. There is no requirement for any member body to maintain either (or any) status on all of the sub-committees. Sub-committees, working groups, task groups and ot ...more...

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MPEG-4

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MPEG-4

MPEG-4 is a method of defining compression of audio and visual (AV) digital data. It was introduced in late 1998 and designated a standard for a group of audio and video coding formats and related technology agreed upon by the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) (ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11) under the formal standard ISO/IEC 14496 – Coding of audio-visual objects. Uses of MPEG-4 include compression of AV data for web (streaming media) and CD distribution, voice (telephone, videophone) and broadcast television applications. Background MPEG-4 absorbs many of the features of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 and other related standards, adding new features such as (extended) VRML support for 3D rendering, object-oriented composite files (including audio, video and VRML objects), support for externally specified Digital Rights Management and various types of interactivity. AAC (Advanced Audio Coding) was standardized as an adjunct to MPEG-2 (as Part 7) before MPEG-4 was issued. MPEG-4 is still an evolving standard and is d ...more...

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ISO 14000

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ISO 14000

ISO 14000 is a family of standards related to environmental management that exists to help organizations (a) minimize how their operations (processes, etc.) negatively affect the environment (i.e. cause adverse changes to air, water, or land); (b) comply with applicable laws, regulations, and other environmentally oriented requirements; and (c) continually improve in the above. ISO 14000 is similar to ISO 9000 quality management in that both pertain to the process of how a product is produced, rather than to the product itself. As with ISO 9001, certification is performed by third-party organizations rather than being awarded by ISO directly. The ISO 19011 and ISO 17021 audit standards apply when audits are being performed. The requirements of ISO 14001 are an integral part of the European Union's Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). EMAS's structure and material are more demanding, mainly concerning performance improvement, legal compliance, and reporting duties.[1] The current version of ISO 14001 is I ...more...

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ISO 3166-2

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ISO 3166-2

ISO 3166-2 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and defines codes for identifying the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1. The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 2: Country subdivision code. It was first published in 1998. The purpose of ISO 3166-2 is to establish an international standard of short and unique alphanumeric codes to represent the relevant administrative divisions and dependent territories of all countries in a more convenient and less ambiguous form than their full names. Each complete ISO 3166-2 code consists of two parts, separated by a hyphen:[1] The first part is the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code of the country; The second part is a string of up to three alphanumeric characters, which is usually obtained from national sources and stems from coding systems already in use in the country concerned, bu ...more...

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ISO/IEC 7816

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ISO/IEC 7816

ISO/IEC 7816 is an international standard related to electronic identification cards with contacts, especially smart cards, managed jointly by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). It is edited by the Joint technical committee (JTC) 1 / Sub-Committee (SC) 17, Cards and personal identification.[1] The following describes the different parts of this standard. Note: abstracts and dates, when present, are mere quotations from the ISO website,[2] and are neither guaranteed at the time of edition nor in the future. Parts ISO/IEC 7816-1:2011 Part 1: Cards with contacts—Physical characteristics ISO/IEC 7816-2:2007 Part 2: Cards with contacts—Dimensions and location of the contacts ISO/IEC 7816-3:2006 Part 3: Cards with contacts—Electrical interface and transmission protocols ISO/IEC 7816-4:2013 Part 4: Organization, security and commands for interchange ISO/IEC 7816-5:2004 Part 5: Registration of application providers ISO/IE ...more...

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ISO 21500

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ISO 21500

ISO 21500:2012, Guidance on Project Management, is an international standard developed by the International Organization for Standardization, or ISO starting in 2007 and released in 2012. It was intended to provide generic guidance, explain core principles and what constitutes good practice in project management.[1] The ISO technical committee dealing with project management, ISO/PC 236 was held by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) which had approved four standards that used PMI materials. one of which was ANSI/PMI 99-001-2008, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge - 4th Edition (PMI BoK® Guide - 4th Edition) (revision and re-designation of ANSI/PMI 99-001-2004): 11/20/2008.[2] ISO plans for this standard (21500) to be the first in a family of project management standards. ISO also designed this standard to align with other, related standards such as ISO 10005:2005 Quality management systems − Guidelines for quality plans, ISO 10006:2003 Quality management systems − Guidelines fo ...more...

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ISO standards for trailer connectors

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ISO standards for trailer connectors

A number of ISO standards cover trailer connectors, the electrical connectors between vehicles and the trailers they tow that provide a means of control for the trailers. These are listed below, with notes on significant deviations from them that can cause problems. Trailer connectors between the trailer and passenger car, light truck or heavy trucks with 12V systems In Europe, both 7-pin (ISO 1724) and 13-pin (ISO 11446) are common. The reason that the 13-pin exists is that the 7-pin is not able to provide all expected services. These connectors are designed for 12V, but exceptions may exist where both 6V and 24V exists. Vehicles and trailers with 6V can use the 7-pin or 5-pin connector, but these are rare today. Note that the heavy trucks that may have 12V systems are usually older (Vintage vehicles) or on non-European markets.[1] The color coding is defined in ISO 4141-3, but the standard color codes are not always followed and may be different on your particular vehicle. 13-pin trailer connector (IS ...more...

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ISO/IEC 8859-12

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ISO/IEC 8859-12

ISO/IEC 8859-12 would have been part 12 of the ISO/IEC 8859 character encoding standard series. ISO 8859-12 was originally proposed to support the Celtic languages.[1] ISO 8859-12 was later slated for Latin/Devanagari, but this was abandoned in 1997, during the 12th meeting of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2/WG 3 in Iraklion-Crete, Greece, 4 to 7 July 1997. The Celtic proposal was changed to ISO 8859-14. References Everson, Michael. "Proposed ISO 8859-12 (later 14)". "Resolutions of the 12th Meeting of ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2/WG 3, Iraklion-Crete, Greece, 1997-07-04, 07" (PDF). Iraklion-Crete, Greece: ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2 N 2933, ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2/WG 3 N 401. 1997-07-04. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-07. Czyborra, Roman (1997-10-12). "The ISO 8859 Alphabet Soup". Archived from the original on 2000-08-17. (NB. "Celtic" note on old Czyborra page.) Czyborra, Roman (1998-12-01). "The ISO 8859 Alphabet Soup". Archived from the original on 2016-03-20. (NB. "ISCII" note on new Czyborra page.) Jarnefo ...more...

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ISO 965

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ISO 965

ISO 965 (ISO general purpose metric screw thread—tolerances) is an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard for metric screw thread tolerances.[1] It specifies the basic profile for ISO general purpose metric screw threads (M) conforming to ISO 261.[2] The tolerance system refers to the basic profile in accordance with ISO 68-1. The Field of application and purpose of ISO 965 can be defined as "ISO 965 specifies a tolerance system for screw threads from 1mm diameter upwards.[3] Thread tolerances Limits for Metric (standard) Coarse Threads According To ISO 965.[4] Thread size Engagement length Major diameter(d) Pitch diameter(d2) in mm from to max. min. max. min. M1 0,6 1,7 1,000 0,933 0,838 0,785 M1.1 0,6 1,7 1,100 1,033 0,938 0,885 M1.2 0,6 1,7 1,200 1,133 1,038 0,985 M1.4 0,7 2 1,400 1,325 1,205 1,149 M1.6 0,8 2,6 1,581 1,496 1,354 1,291 M1.8 0,8 2,6 1,781 1,696 1,554 1,491 M2 1 3 1,981 1,886 1,721 1,654 M2.2 1,3 3,8 2,180 2,080 1,888 1,817 M2.5 1,3 3,8 2,480 2 ...more...

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MPEG-2

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MPEG-2

MPEG-2 is used in Digital Video Broadcast and DVDs. The MPEG transport stream, TS, and MPEG program stream, PS, are container formats. MPEG-2 (a.k.a. H.222/H.262 as defined by the ITU) is a standard for "the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information".[1] It describes a combination of lossy video compression and lossy audio data compression methods, which permit storage and transmission of movies using currently available storage media and transmission bandwidth. While MPEG-2 is not as efficient as newer standards such as H.264/AVC and H.265/HEVC, backwards compatibility with existing hardware and software means it is still widely used, for example in over-the-air digital television broadcasting and in the DVD-Video standard. Main characteristics MPEG-2 is widely used as the format of digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. It also specifies the format of movies and other programs that are distrib ...more...

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ISO base media file format

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ISO base media file format

ISO base media file format (ISO/IEC 14496-12 – MPEG-4 Part 12) defines a general structure for time-based multimedia files such as video and audio.[1][2] The identical text is published as ISO/IEC 15444-12 (JPEG 2000, Part 12).[3] It is designed as a flexible, extensible format that facilitates interchange, management, editing and presentation of the media. The presentation may be local, or via a network or other stream delivery mechanism. The file format is designed to be independent of any particular network protocol while enabling support for them in general.[2] It is used as the basis for other media file formats (e.g. container formats MP4 and 3GP). History ISO base media file format is directly based on Apple’s QuickTime container format.[4][5][6][7][8] It was developed by MPEG (ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11). The first MP4 file format specification was created on the basis of the QuickTime format specification published in 2001.[9] The MP4 file format known as "version 1" was published in 2001 as ISO/IEC 1 ...more...

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Moving Picture Experts Group

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Moving Picture Experts Group

MPEG logo MPEG Format is used on several media. This picture relates some of the most known media to the MPEG Format version and container format (TS and PS) used. The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is a working group of authorities that was formed by ISO and IEC to set standards for audio and video compression and transmission.[1] It was established in 1988 by the initiative of Hiroshi Yasuda (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone) and Leonardo Chiariglione,[2] group Chair since its inception. The first MPEG meeting was in May 1988 in Ottawa, Canada.[3][4][5] As of late 2005, MPEG has grown to include approximately 350 members per meeting from various industries, universities, and research institutions. MPEG's official designation is ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 11 – Coding of moving pictures and audio (ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1, Subcommittee 29, Working Group 11).[6][7][8][9] Sub Groups ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 – Coding of moving pictures and audio has following Sub Groups (SG):[6] Requirements Sys ...more...

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ISO 216

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ISO 216

ISO 216 specifies international standard (ISO) paper sizes used in most countries in the world today, although not in Canada, the United States, Mexico, or the Dominican Republic. The standard defines the "A" and "B" series of paper sizes, including A4, the most commonly available size. Two supplementary standards, ISO 217 and ISO 269, define related paper sizes; the ISO 269 "C" series is commonly listed alongside the A and B sizes. All ISO 216, ISO 217 and ISO 269 paper sizes (except some envelopes) have the same aspect ratio, √2:1, within rounding to millimetres. This ratio has the unique property that when cut or folded in half widthways, the halves also have the same aspect ratio. Each ISO paper size is one half of the area of the next larger size in the same series. Dimensions of A, B and C Series ISO/DIN paper sizes in millimetres and in inches Size A series formats B series formats C series formats mm inches mm inches mm inches 0 0841 × 1189 33.1 × 46.8 1000 × 1414 39.4 × 55.7 0917 × 1297 3 ...more...

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Film speed

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Film speed

Film speed is the measure of a photographic film's sensitivity to light, determined by sensitometry and measured on various numerical scales, the most recent being the ISO system. A closely related ISO system is used to describe the relationship between exposure and output image lightness in digital cameras. Relatively insensitive film, with a correspondingly lower speed index, requires more exposure to light to produce the same image density as a more sensitive film, and is thus commonly termed a slow film. Highly sensitive films are correspondingly termed fast films. In both digital and film photography, the reduction of exposure corresponding to use of higher sensitivities generally leads to reduced image quality (via coarser film grain or higher image noise of other types). In short, the higher the sensitivity, the grainier the image will be. Ultimately sensitivity is limited by the quantum efficiency of the film or sensor. This film container denotes its speed as ISO 100/21°, including both arithmeti ...more...

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MPEG-4 Part 3

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MPEG-4 Part 3

MPEG-4 Part 3 or MPEG-4 Audio (formally ISO/IEC 14496-3) is the third part of the ISO/IEC MPEG-4 international standard developed by Moving Picture Experts Group.[1] It specifies audio coding methods. The first version of ISO/IEC 14496-3 was published in 1999.[2] The MPEG-4 Part 3 consists of a variety of audio coding technologies – from lossy speech coding (HVXC, CELP), general audio coding (AAC, TwinVQ, BSAC), lossless audio compression (MPEG-4 SLS, Audio Lossless Coding, MPEG-4 DST), a Text-To-Speech Interface (TTSI), Structured Audio (using SAOL, SASL, MIDI) and many additional audio synthesis and coding techniques.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] MPEG-4 Audio does not target a single application such as real-time telephony or high-quality audio compression. It applies to every application which requires the use of advanced sound compression, synthesis, manipulation, or playback. MPEG-4 Audio is a new type of audio standard that integrates numerous different types of audio coding: natural sound and synthet ...more...

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MP3

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MP3

MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III)[4] is an audio coding format for digital audio. Originally defined as the third audio format of the MPEG-1 standard, it was retained and further extended—defining additional bit rates and support for more audio channels—as the third audio format of the subsequent MPEG-2 standard. A third version, known as MPEG 2.5—extended to better support lower bit rates—is commonly implemented, but is not a recognized standard. MP3 (or mp3) as a file format commonly designates files containing an elementary stream of MPEG-1 audio and video encoded data, without other complexities of the MP3 standard. In the aspects of MP3 pertaining to audio compression—the aspect of the standard most apparent to end users (and for which is it best known)—MP3 uses lossy data compression to encode data using inexact approximations and the partial discarding of data. This allows a large reduction in file size when compared to uncompressed audio. The combination of small size a ...more...

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ISO 10303

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ISO 10303

ISO 10303 is an ISO standard for the computer-interpretable representation and exchange of product manufacturing information. Its official title is: Automation systems and integration — Product data representation and exchange. It is known informally as "STEP", which stands for "Standard for the Exchange of Product model data". ISO 10303 can represent 3D objects in Computer-aided design (CAD) and related information. Overview The international standard's objective is to provide a mechanism that is capable of describing product data throughout the life cycle of a product, independent from any particular system. The nature of this description makes it suitable not only for neutral file exchange, but also as a basis for implementing and sharing product databases and archiving.[1] Typically STEP can be used to exchange data between CAD, computer-aided manufacturing, computer-aided engineering, product data management/enterprise data modeling and other CAx systems. STEP addresses product data from mechanical an ...more...

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ISO/IEC 8859-8

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ISO/IEC 8859-8

ISO/IEC 8859-8, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 8: Latin/Hebrew alphabet, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings. ISO/IEC 8859-8:1999 from 1999 represents its second and current revision, preceded by the first edition ISO/IEC 8859-8:1988 in 1988. It is informally referred to as Latin/Hebrew. ISO/IEC 8859-8 covers all the Hebrew letters, but no Hebrew vowel signs. IBM assigned code page 916 to it.[1] ISO-8859-8 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. The text is (usually) in logical order, so bidi processing is required for display. Nominally ISO-8859-8 (code page 28598) is for “visual order”, and ISO-8859-8-I (code page 38598) is for logical order. But usually in practice, and required for HTML and XML documents, ISO-8859-8 also stands for logical order text. There is also ISO-8859-8-E which supposedly requires directionality to be explicitl ...more...

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ISO/IEC 8859-9

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ISO/IEC 8859-9

ISO/IEC 8859-9:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 9: Latin alphabet No. 5, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1989. It is informally referred to as Latin-5 or Turkish. It was designed to cover the Turkish language, designed as being of more use than the ISO/IEC 8859-3 encoding. It is identical to ISO/IEC 8859-1 except for these six replacements of Icelandic characters with characters unique to the Turkish alphabet: Position 0xD0 0xDD 0xDE 0xF0 0xFD 0xFE 8859-9 Ğ İ Ş ğ ı ş 8859-1 Ð Ý Þ ð ý þ ISO-8859-9 is the IANA preferred charset name for this standard when supplemented with the C0 and C1 control codes from ISO/IEC 6429. In modern applications Unicode and UTF-8 are preferred. 0.1% of all web pages use ISO-8859-9 in February 2016.[1][2] Microsoft has assigned code page 28599 a.k.a. Windows-28599 to ISO-8859-9 in Windows. IBM has assigned Code page 920 to ISO-8859-9. Code ...more...

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EUR-pallet

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EUR-pallet

EUR-pallets The EUR-pallet—also Euro-pallet or EPAL-pallet—is the standard European pallet as specified by the European Pallet Association (EPAL). Pallets conforming to the standardization are eligible for the European Pallet Pool (EPP) -the system allows for an exchange as "pallet for pallet". The EUR/EPAL-pallet is 1,200 by 800 by 144 millimetres (47.2 in × 31.5 in × 5.7 in); it is a four-way pallet made of wood that is nailed with 78 special nails in a prescribed pattern. History Branding irons for marking EUR-pallets, displayed at the Museum der Arbeit, Hamburg, Germany The Euro-pallet goes back to the wooden pallets used in railway transport. In 1961 the European railways commissioned the standardization of a common pallet type under the auspices of the UIC. The inventor was supposedly the Svensson brothers of Gyllsjö, Skåne, Sweden.[1] Using the Euro-pallet, it was possible to load railroad cars in just 10% of the time of earlier loading processes.[2] In 1968 the association also specified a ...more...

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Paper size

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Paper size

A size chart illustrating the ISO A series and a comparison with American letter and legal formats. Comparison of some paper and photographic paper sizes close to the A4 size. Many paper size standards conventions have existed at different times and in different countries. Today, the A and B series of ISO 216, which includes the commonly used A4 size, are the international standard used by almost every country. However, in many countries in the Americas as well as in the Philippines, the North American series of paper sizes such as 'Letter' is more prevalent.[1] Paper sizes affect writing paper, stationery, cards, and some printed documents. The international standard for envelopes is the C series of ISO 269. International paper sizes Map of the world showing adoption of ISO A4 (blue) vs. US-Letter (red) The international paper size standard is ISO 216. It is based on the German DIN 476 standard for paper sizes. ISO paper sizes are all based on a single aspect ratio of the square root of 2, or appro ...more...

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Linux Standard Base

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Linux Standard Base

The LSB logo The Linux Standard Base (LSB) is a joint project by several Linux distributions under the organizational structure of the Linux Foundation to standardize the software system structure, including the filesystem hierarchy used in the Linux operating system. The LSB is based on the POSIX specification, the Single UNIX Specification (SUS), and several other open standards, but extends them in certain areas. According to the LSB: The goal of the LSB is to develop and promote a set of open standards that will increase compatibility among Linux distributions and enable software applications to run on any compliant system even in binary form. In addition, the LSB will help coordinate efforts to recruit software vendors to port and write products for Linux Operating Systems. The LSB compliance may be certified for a product by a certification procedure.[1] The LSB specifies for example: standard libraries, a number of commands and utilities that extend the POSIX standard, the layout of the file sy ...more...

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Linga language

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Linga language

Linga (Elinga) is a Bantu language of the Soko–Kele group, spoken in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. References Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Elinga". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online ...more...

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International Standard Book Number

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International Standard Book Number

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero). ...more...

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ISO/IEC 2022

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ISO/IEC 2022

ISO/IEC 2022 Information technology—Character code structure and extension techniques, is an ISO standard (equivalent to the ECMA standard ECMA-35[1]) specifying a technique for including multiple character sets in a single character encoding system, and a technique for representing these character sets in both 7 and 8 bit systems using the same encoding. Many of the character sets included as ISO/IEC 2022 encodings are 'double byte' encodings where two bytes correspond to a single character. This makes ISO-2022 a variable width encoding. But a specific implementation does not have to implement all of the standard; the conformance level and the supported character sets are defined by the implementation. Introduction Many languages or language families not based on the Latin alphabet such as Greek, Cyrillic, Arabic, or Hebrew have historically been represented on computers with different 8-bit extended ASCII encodings. Written East Asian languages, specifically Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, use far mor ...more...

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