IBM System/34, 36 System Support Program

System Support Program (SSP) was an operating system for the IBM System/34 and System/36 minicomputers. SSP was a command-based operating system released in 1977.

History

SSP originally contained 60 or so commands that were implemented on the System/34 from 1977 to 1983 in different versions called releases. Release 1 was issued with the original S/34 in 1977. Release 9 was issued in 1981. In 1983, IBM repackaged SSP on a new computer called the IBM System/36, which was not object-code compatible with the S/34. In 1994, IBM repackaged SSP on an updated model of the S/36 called the Advanced/36. The A/36 was an IBM AS/400 which had the SSP implemented as a "virtual machine".

Major releases of SSP include:

  • S/34 Release 1.0 - this was apparently shipped with the first S/34 in 1977.
  • S/34 Release 8.0 - this seems to have been issued about 1980.
  • S/34 Release 9.0 - this was the last release for the S/34 c.1980.
  • S/36 Release 1.0 - this was apparently shipped with the first S/36 in 1983.
  • S/36 Release 2.0 - this release supported the 8809 tape drive.
  • S/36 Release 4.0 - this was the release where S/36 was given 5 job queues.
  • S/36 Release 5.1 - this 1988 release was the last major change on 536X platforms.
  • S/36 Release 6.0 - also known as the VASP or Value-Added Support Product, this release added functionality that allowed program calls in RPG, and it also provided software to calculate the size AS/400 that the user would need when upgrading. The VASP was controversial. Rumors circulated in the industry papers that the customer could not go back to 5.1 if 6.0 did not function adequately. Program calls with RPG CALL/PARM were inferior to RPGIII designs and inferior to customer add-on products.
  • S/36 Release 7.1 - this 1994 release was shipped with the Advanced/36 (9402-236 models). The first A/36 machines would not function on a lower release and were also incompatible with 7.5 (while technically, true, program object code from a 7.1 machine would run on a 7.5 and vice versa, plus many 9402-236's were upgraded to 9402-436, which they changed out the motherboard and installed some new LIC code and you restored on a copy of your files and voila, it all worked). Rumors circulated that stated prior release compilers would not function on the Advanced/36, but they proved unfounded. There were reasons a programmer would rather use the 5.1 RPGII compiler instead of the presumably more advanced 7.x compiler.
  • S/36 Release 7.5 - this 1995 release was shipped with the second and final wave of the Advanced/36 (9402-436). Functions like WRKSYSVL allowed the operator to change the system time on the fly, which was interesting because customer add-ons to do this through assembler subroutines did not function on the Advanced/36. However assembler routines to do things like open/close files, retrieve the VTOC, etc. functioned just fine on 7.1 and 7.5
  • Guest/36, this is Release 7.5, but you could set up an M36 (a guest) on an as/400 (running os/400 V3R6 thru V4R4), and it would function just like the 9402-436, except that in addition to having this guest "partition", you also had os/400 if you wanted it. So if the 9402-436 which came in 3 speeds 2102, 2104 and 2106 (which the latter was about 2.7X faster than the base) wasn't fast enough, you could get a 9406-xxx machine and install a "guest/36" on such. And actually you could install more than one guest/36. There was some limitations of number of attached workstations, but having two guest/36's running on an as/400, and setting up DDM (distributed data management) between them and even with os/400 to host large files, could easily be done. While the S/36 and A/36 for the most part worked only with twinax attached terminals, on a Guest/36 (or M/36), you could have all your terminals be on a LAN running tcp/ip and be virtual devices in the Guest/36 environment.
  • S36EE, which is S/36 execution environment was supported native on the as/400 and its follow on (iseries, ibm i), which allows a user to continue to run their s/36 programs and procedures without having to convert them. Many of the system procs also work with such. While it was typically "slower" since it has to go through additional steps, however today with such fast machines, the speed of an S36EE is many times faster than the A/36 execution speed. Example, one job took 12 minutes to run on an Adv/36, took 20 seconds to run in S36EE mode. The object code however is NOT compatible with the previous s/36 and a/36, meaning that one had to recompile all programs and menus. However one advantage is that you can not only run s36ee but you can harness the power of i5/os (the follow on (or rename) of os/400). You can access database tables in your S/36 programs, you can call rpg/400 and RPGIV programs from with a S/36 program. So while technically not SSP, it looks like SSP, it acts like SSP and it will run your S/36 programs/procs.

Limitations on S/36 and A/36 and M/36 operating system: The maximum amount of disk space that a system could utilize was 4 gb (per occurrence of the operating system, so a machine running two M36 "partitions" could have 4 gb in each. Another limitation was the program size, could not exceed 64kb (not 64mb, but 64KB). If you had a program that was larger than that, you had to become creative in the later years when call/parm came into place, as you would move code into a called program, because if the base program was 63kb for example, you could easily call a 20kb called program. You also could not have more than around 8,000+ files on the machine. There were also restrictions on the number of files you could bring into a program (again, you could get around by putting files in called programs and passing the result back in. The maximum number of records you could initially load was about 8 million and the maximum a file could hold was about 16 million. None of these limitations exist in S36EE (there are a few maximum number of files in a program, but much larger# than in native SSP).

Functions and components

Using SSP, the operator can create, delete, and manage S/34-36 objects such as libraries, data files, menus, procedures, source members, and security files.

SSP contains modules such as DFU, SEU, SDA, and WSU that permit operators to build libraries and files, enter information into those files, produce simple reports, and maintain a menu structure that simplifies access to the information. The Advanced/36 does not support WSU. Password and resource security are also implemented through SSP, as are remote communications, which today is similar to dial-up networking.

SSP is a disk-based operating system. Computer programs can be run from the fixed disk, but not from diskette or tape. The complement of a System/34 5340, or System/36 5360/5362 is a fixed disk array of one to four fixed disks, at least one computer terminal, and an 8" diskette drive, optionally fitted with two magazine units that can contain 10 diskettes each and three diskette slots.. A S/36 5363/5364 has a 5-1/4" diskette drive. S/36 computers can be configured with an 8809 reel-to-reel tape drive (800/1600 bpi) or a 6157 1/4" cartridge (QIC) tape drive. A/36 computers have a high-density QIC drive but the 5.25" or 8" diskette drive (single) was optional as was a 9348-001 9 track (reel to reel) 1600/6250 bpi tape drive.

Basic SSP procedures include:

  • HELP, to request an online form to assist with command entry.
  • MENU, to display a user-created menu of commands, procedures, or OCL.
  • ALTERBSC, to change the binary synchronous communications profile.
  • ALOCFLDR(*), to reallocate a folder.
  • HISTORY, to report and optionally reset the system history file.
  • BLDLIBR, to create a user library.
  • BLDFILE, to create a file.
  • KEYSORT, to reorganize an indexed file, rebuilding the key index area for greater efficiency.
  • CATALOG, to report the disk VTOC or media VTOC.
  • INIT, to initialize diskette media.
  • TAPEINIT, to initialize tape media.
  • COPYDATA(*), to create a new file using records from an existing file.
  • LISTDATA(*), to print unformatted records from an existing file.
  • LISTLIBR, to print members within a library.
  • LIBRLIBR, to copy members within a library.
  • REMOVE, to remove members within a library.
  • ALOCLIBR(*), to change the size or directory size of a library.
  • DELETE, to remove files.
  • DFU, to start the interactive Data File Utility.
    • ENTER, to enter new records into a defined file.
    • UPDATE, to change records in a defined file.
    • INQUIRY, to display records in a defined file.
    • LIST, to report records from a defined file.
  • SEU, to start the interactive Source Entry Utility.
  • SDA, to start the interactive Screen Design Aid.
    • BLDMENU, to create a menu.
    • CREATE, to create a message member.
    • FORMAT, to create a display format member.
  • WSU (**), to start the interactive Work Station Utility.
  • SECDEF(*), to define security.
  • SECEDIT(*), to change security.
  • SECLIST(*), to report security.
  • SECSAVE(*), to copy security from disk to media.
  • SECREST(*), to copy security from media to disk.
  • SECDROP(*), to remove security.
  • PROF(**), to edit password security.
  • PRSRCID(**), to edit resource security.
  • PRLIST (**), to print password or resource security.
  • HISTORY, to print or manage the System History file.
  • HISTCOPY (*), to copy the System History file to a disk file.
  • CNFIGSSP, to configure the system support product.
  • IPL, to restart the system.
  • SAVE, to copy a disk file to media.
  • SAVELIBR, to copy a library to media.
  • RESTORE, to copy a file from media to disk.
  • RESTLIBR, to copy a library from media to disk.
  • SAVEFLDR(*), to save a folder to media.
  • RESTFLDR(*), to restore a folder from media.
  • COMPRESS, to reorganize the disk for maximum space availability.
  • CONDENSE, to reorganize a library, or (*) a folder, for maximum space availability.
  • WRKSYSVL(****), to view/change system values such as date and time.
  • CSALL (*), to cancel inactive sessions.

Basic SSP commands include:

  • ASSIGN (A), to temporarily switch workstation IDs.
  • CHANGE (G), to change the parameters of a spooled report.
  • CANCEL (C), to cancel a spooled report, or a session, or the job queue(***), or a user program.
  • STOP (P), to stop a printer, or a session, or the job queue(***), or the system.
  • START (S), to start a printer, or a session, or the job queue(***), or the system.
  • STATUS (D), to see the status of a printer, or sessions, or communications.
  • HOLD (H), to place a spooled report on hold.
  • RELEASE (L), to release a spooled report from hold.
  • RESTART (T), to restart a stopped report from the beginning.
  • REPLY (R), to reply to a message sent to the System Console, or to a subconsole, or to all informational messages, or to clear messages from the console or subconsole.
  • CONSOLE GIVE, to surrender the System Console to alternate consoles.
  • CONSOLE TAKE, to cause an alternate console to become System Console.
  • COMMAND, to return to command mode from console/subconsole mode.
  • INFOMSG (I), to set the suppression of informational console messages.
  • VARY (V), to set the online state of a device.
  • TIME, to request the current time and date.
  • OFF, to end the current session.
  • DATE, to set the session date (not the system date).
  • MSG, to send or retrieve messages.
  • POWER, to power off the system.

(*) These functions were created for the System/36. CSALL was created for the VASP.

(**) These functions were discontinued on the System/36.

(***) The System/34 was created with a single job queue. The System/36 was created with five job queues; therefore, where "job queue" is written above, the action can refer to a single job queue or all of them.

(****) This function was added on the Advanced/36.

System utility programs

SSP procedures utilize utility programs, which can in some cases be more useful to the computer programmer than the SSP procedures themselves. $MAINT is the library utility, used in ALOCLIBR, BLDLIBR, FROMLIBR, LIBRLIBR, REMOVE, CONDENSE, LISTLIBR, and TOLIBR. $COPY is the file utility used in SAVE, RESTORE, COPYDATA, and LISTDATA. There are many other utilities, including $FBLD, $LABEL, $DUPRD, $INIT, $DELET, $HIST, $CNFIG, #GSORT, $PACK, and $PROF, which are more flexible at the program level than associated SSP procedures can be.

Operational Control Language (OCL)

High-level language programs require OCL to be activated. OCL is used to load programs into the system's memory and start them (a process called execution) and assign resources such as disk files, printers, message members, memory, and disk space to those programs. Other abilities, such as displaying text on the screen, pause messages, and so forth, make OCL more powerful.

Related operating systems

The System/3 (1969) ran a disk-based batch operating system called SCP (5702-SC1). IBM introduced for the S/3 an online program called CCP ("Communications Control Program.") which was started as a batch program. The IBM System/32 (1975) ran a disk-based operating system called SCP ("System Control Program.") The IBM System/38 (1978) ran an operating system called CPF ("Control Program Facility") that was much more advanced than SSP and not particularly similar.

Sources
  • IBM Publication SC21-8299, General Information for SSP Operating System.
Continue Reading...
Content from Wikipedia Licensed under CC-BY-SA.

IBM System/36

topic

IBM System/36

IBM 5360 System Unit IBM 5362 System Unit The IBM System/36 (often abbreviated as S/36) was a small computer system marketed by IBM from 1983 to 2000 - a multi-user, multi-tasking successor to the System/34. Like the System/34 and the older System/32, the System/36 was primarily programmed in the RPG II language. One of the machine's more interesting optional features was an off-line storage mechanism (on the 5360 model) that utilized "magazines" – boxes of 8-inch floppies that the machine could load and eject in a nonsequential fashion. The System/36 also had many mainframe features such as programmable job queues and scheduling priority levels. While these systems were similar to other manufacturer's minicomputers, IBM themselves described the System/32, System/34 and System/36 as "small systems"[1] and later as "midrange" computers along with the System/38 and succeeding AS/400 range. Overview of the IBM System/36 Front of a 5363 prior to IPL The IBM System/36 was a simple and popular small bus ...more...

Member feedback about IBM System/36:

IBM minicomputers

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


IBM System/34, 36 System Support Program

topic

IBM System/34, 36 System Support Program

System Support Program (SSP) was an operating system for the IBM System/34 and System/36 minicomputers. SSP was a command-based operating system released in 1977. History SSP originally contained 60 or so commands that were implemented on the System/34 from 1977 to 1983 in different versions called releases. Release 1 was issued with the original S/34 in 1977. Release 9 was issued in 1981. In 1983, IBM repackaged SSP on a new computer called the IBM System/36, which was not object-code compatible with the S/34. In 1994, IBM repackaged SSP on an updated model of the S/36 called the Advanced/36. The A/36 was an IBM AS/400 which had the SSP implemented as a "virtual machine". Major releases of SSP include: S/34 Release 1.0 - this was apparently shipped with the first S/34 in 1977. S/34 Release 8.0 - this seems to have been issued about 1980. S/34 Release 9.0 - this was the last release for the S/34 c.1980. S/36 Release 1.0 - this was apparently shipped with the first S/36 in 1983. S/36 Release 2.0 - thi ...more...

Member feedback about IBM System/34, 36 System Support Program:

1977 introductions

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


IBM System/34

topic

IBM System/34

The IBM System/34 was an IBM midrange computer introduced in 1977.[1] It was withdrawn from marketing in February 1984.[1] It was a multi-user, multi-tasking successor to the single-user System/32. Most notably, it included two very different processors, one based on System/32 and the second based on older System/3. Like the System/32 and the System/3, the System/34 was primarily programmed in the RPG II language.[2] One of the machine's interesting features was an off-line storage mechanism that utilized "magazines" - boxes of 8-inch floppies that the machine could load and eject in a nonsequential fashion. Borrowing mainframe features such as programmable job queues and priority levels, the System/34 ran on 64K of memory. System summary IBM System/34 (model 5340) The System/34 5340 System Unit resembled a huge washer-dryer in appearance, and was noisy, due to its internal cooling fans. It had several access doors on both sides. Inside, were swing-out assemblies where the circuit boards and memory cards ...more...

Member feedback about IBM System/34:

IBM minicomputers

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


IBM System i

topic

IBM System i

IBM System i 570 server (as of 2006) The IBM System i is IBM's previous generation of midrange computer systems for IBM i users, and was subsequently replaced by the IBM Power Systems in April 2008. The platform was first introduced as the AS/400 (Application System/400) on June 21, 1988 and later renamed to the eServer iSeries in 2000. As part of IBM's Systems branding initiative in 2006, it was again renamed to System i. The codename of the AS/400 project was "Silver Lake", named for the lake in downtown Rochester, Minnesota, where development of the system took place. In April 2008, IBM announced its integration with the System p platform. The unified product line is called IBM Power Systems and features support for the IBM i (previously known as i5/OS or OS/400), AIX and GNU/Linux operating systems. Summary The predecessor to AS/400, IBM System/38, was first made available in August 1979 and was marketed as a minicomputer for general business and departmental use. It was sold alongside other product ...more...

Member feedback about IBM System i:

1988 introductions

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


IBM System/36 BASIC

topic

IBM System/36 BASIC

IBM System/36 BASIC was an interpreter for the IBM System/36 midrange computer. System/36 BASIC was first offered in 1983, and as such, contained many of the trappings that a BASIC program would have encountered in the time period of the IBM PC, the Commodore 64, the VIC-20, the TRS-80, or many other offerings of the Seventies and early Eighties. As such, S/36 BASIC uses conventions that are no longer standard in modern BASICs, such as line numbers, and does not support newer features such as WHILE/WEND, DO/ENDDO, WITH/END WITH, procedures, properties, and so forth. BASIC interpreters written in the Seventies tended to "do odd things odd ways". For example, on the Apple II, a programmer could embed a command into a program via PRINT, when prefaced by the character string CHR$(4). PEEK and POKE could be used in various BASICs to examine memory content or change it, or even to create an ad hoc machine language program and then run it. System/36 BASIC tends to stay away from these odd conventions; however, the ...more...

Member feedback about IBM System/36 BASIC:

IBM software

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


IBM System/38

topic

IBM System/38

IBM System/38 The System/38 was a midrange computer server platform manufactured and sold by the IBM Corporation. The system offered a number of innovative features, and was the brainchild of Frank Soltis and Glenn Henry. IBM announced the System/38 in 1978.[1] Developed under the code-name "Pacific", it was made commercially available in August 1979. The System/38 was oriented toward a multi-user system environment. History The midrange predecessors to the System/38 included the System/3, System/32, and System/34. The System/38 offered more capacity than the previous System/34. The System/38 chronologically preceded the System/36, which was a successor to the System/34. The System/38 was nearly called the System/380, and the AS/400 was nearly called the System/40. The System/38 was superseded by the AS/400 (which also supported System/36 data & programs, at least to some extent). The AS/400 was primarily a re-marketing of the System/38, with some updates to the operating system. S/38 programs (with ...more...

Member feedback about IBM System/38:

IBM minicomputers

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


IBM RPG

topic

IBM RPG

RPG is a high-level programming language (HLL) for business applications. RPG is an IBM proprietary programming language and its later versions are available only on IBM i- or OS/400-based systems.[1] It has a long history, having been developed by IBM in 1959 as the Report Program Generator - a tool to replicate punched card processing on the IBM 1401[2] then updated to RPG II for the IBM System/3 in the late 1960s, and since evolved into an HLL equivalent to COBOL and PL/I. It remains a popular programming language on the IBM i operating system, which runs on IBM Power platform hardware. The current version, RPG IV (a.k.a. ILE RPG), provides a modern programming environment. Overview An RPG program once typically started off with File Specifications, listing all files being written to, read from or updated, followed by Data Definition Specifications containing program elements such as Data Structures and dimensional arrays, much like a "Working-Storage" section of a COBOL program or "var" statements in ...more...

Member feedback about IBM RPG:

IBM software

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


IBM System/3

topic

IBM System/3

The IBM System/3 was an IBM midrange computer introduced in 1969,[1] and marketed until 1985. It was produced by IBM Rochester in Minnesota as a low-end business computer aimed at smaller organizations that still used IBM 1400 series computers or unit record equipment. The first member of what IBM refers to as their "midrange" line, it also introduced the RPG II programming language. History The System/3 and successor models System/32, System/34, System/36 and System/38 are generally referred to as minicomputers or in IBM terminology "midrange systems"—in contrast to IBM's mainframes. Many of the original System/3 model 10 units were shipped diskless, with only a card reader/sorter/punch I/O and a printer. IBM delivered the following models: 1969 - IBM 5410, or System/3 Model 10, introduced 1970 - IBM 5406, or System/3 Model 6, introduced (disk-oriented system) 1973 - IBM 5415, or System/3 Model 15, introduced 1974 - IBM 5408, or System/3 Model 8, introduced 1975 - IBM 5412, or System/3 Model 12, in ...more...

Member feedback about IBM System/3:

IBM minicomputers

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


IBM Systems Network Architecture

topic

IBM Systems Network Architecture

Systems Network Architecture (SNA) is IBM's proprietary networking architecture, created in 1974.[1] It is a complete protocol stack for interconnecting computers and their resources. SNA describes formats and protocols and is, in itself, not a piece of software. The implementation of SNA takes the form of various communications packages, most notably Virtual Telecommunications Access Method (VTAM), the mainframe software package for SNA communications. History SNA was made public as part of IBM's "Advanced Function for Communications" announcement in September, 1974, which included the implementation of the SNA/SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control) protocols on new communications products: IBM 3767 communication terminal (printer) IBM 3770 data communication system They were supported by IBM 3704/3705 communication controllers and their Network Control Program (NCP), and by System/370 and their VTAM and other software such as CICS and IMS. This announcement was followed by another announcement in Jul ...more...

Member feedback about IBM Systems Network Architecture:

Network protocols

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


IBM System/360

topic

IBM System/360

The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.[1] It was the first family of computers designed to cover the complete range of applications, from small to large, both commercial and scientific. The design made a clear distinction between architecture and implementation, allowing IBM to release a suite of compatible designs at different prices. All but the incompatible model 44 and the most expensive systems used microcode to implement the instruction set, which featured 8-bit byte addressing and binary, decimal and (hexadecimal) floating-point calculations. The launch of the System/360 family introduced IBM's Solid Logic Technology (SLT), a new technology that was the start of more powerful but smaller computers.[2] The slowest System/360 model announced in 1964, the Model 30, could perform up to 34,500 instructions per second, with memory from 8 to 64 KB.[3] High performance models came later. The 1967 IB ...more...

Member feedback about IBM System/360:

Computing platforms

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


History of IBM magnetic disk drives

topic

History of IBM magnetic disk drives

IBM manufactured magnetic disk storage devices from 1956 to 2003, when it sold its hard disk drive business to Hitachi.[1][2] Both the hard disk drive (HDD) and floppy disk drive (FDD) were invented by IBM and as such IBM's employees were responsible for many of the innovations in these products and their technologies.[3] The basic mechanical arrangement of hard disk drives has not changed since the IBM 1301. Disk drive performance and characteristics are measured by the same standards now as they were in the 1950s. Few products in history have enjoyed such spectacular declines in cost and size along with equally dramatic improvements in capacity and performance. IBM manufactured 8-inch floppy disk drives from 1969 until the mid-1980s, but did not become a significant manufacturer of smaller-sized, 5.25- or 3.5-inch floppy disk drives (the dimension refers to the diameter of the floppy disk, not the size of the drive).[4] IBM always offered its magnetic disk drives for sale but did not offer them with origin ...more...

Member feedback about History of IBM magnetic disk drives:

History of computing hardware

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


List of IBM products

topic

List of IBM products

IBM 526 Printing Summary Punch, ca. 1948, with French keyboard layout The following is a partial list of products, services, and subsidiaries of International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation and its predecessor corporations, beginning in the 1890s. This list is eclectic; it includes, for example, the AN/FSQ-7, which was not a product in the sense of offered for sale, but was a product in the sense of manufactured—produced by the labor of IBM. Several machines manufactured for the Astronomical Computing Bureau at Columbia University are included, as are some machines built only as demonstrations of IBM technology. Missing are RPQs, OEM products (semiconductors, for example), and supplies (punched cards, for example). These products and others are missing simply because no one has added them. IBM sometimes uses the same number for a system and for the principal component of that system. For example, the IBM 604 Calculating Unit is a component of the IBM 604 Calculating Punch. And different IBM divisions ...more...

Member feedback about List of IBM products:

Products by company

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


Timeline of DOS operating systems

topic

Timeline of DOS operating systems

This article presents a timeline of events in the history of x86 DOS operating systems from 1973 to 2016. Other operating systems named "DOS" are generally not part of the scope of this timeline. DOS releases have been in the forms of: OEM adaption kits (OAKs) – all Microsoft releases before version 3.2 were OAKs only Shrink wrap packaged product for smaller OEMs (system builders) – starting with MS-DOS 3.2 in 1986, Microsoft offered these in addition to OAKs End-user retail – all versions of IBM PC DOS (and other OEM-adapted versions) were sold to end users. DR-DOS began selling to end users with version 5.0 in July 1990, followed by MS-DOS 5.0 in June 1991 Free download – starting with OpenDOS 7.01 in 1997, followed by FreeDOS in 1998 Color key Microsoft: MS-DOS, 86-DOS IBM: PC DOS Digital Research: DR-DOS Compaq MS-DOS FreeDOS, GNU/DOS Other Overview First end-user releases of IBM–Microsoft-compatible versionsMajor market-leading releases and releases introducing significant new t ...more...

Member feedback about Timeline of DOS operating systems:

DOS on IBM PC compatibles

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


List of operating systems

topic

List of operating systems

This is a list of operating systems. Computer operating systems can be categorized by technology, ownership, licensing, working state, usage, and by many other characteristics. In practice, many of these groupings may overlap. Criteria for inclusion is notability, as shown either through an existing Wikipedia article or citation to a reliable source. Proprietary Acorn Computers Arthur ARX MOS RISC iX RISC OS Amiga Inc. AmigaOS AmigaOS 1.0-3.9 (Motorola 68000) AmigaOS 4 (PowerPC) Amiga Unix (a.k.a. Amix) Apple Inc. Apple II family Apple DOS Apple Pascal ProDOS GS/OS GNO/ME Apple III Apple SOS Apple Lisa Lisa Workshop[1] Lisa Operating System[2] Apple Macintosh Classic Mac OS A/UX (UNIX System V with BSD extensions) Copland MkLinux Pink Rhapsody NeXTSTEP macOS (formerly Mac OS X and OS X) macOS Server (formerly Mac OS X Server and OS X Server) Apple Network Server IBM AIX (Apple-customized) Apple MessagePad Newton OS iPhone, iPod Touch, ...more...

Member feedback about List of operating systems:

Lists of software

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User

* IT chronicle *

Pavlo Shevelo (pavlosh)

Revolvy User


System/34 BASIC

topic

System/34 BASIC

IBM System/34 BASIC was an interpreter for the IBM System/34 midrange computer. System/34 BASIC was first offered in 1978, and as such, contained many of the trappings that a BASIC program would have encountered in the time period of the TRS-80, or many other offerings of the Seventies and early Eighties. As such, S/34 BASIC uses conventions that are no longer standard in modern BASICs, such as line numbers, and does not support newer features such as WHILE/WEND, DO/ENDDO, WITH/END WITH, procedures, properties, and so forth. BASIC conventions BASIC interpreters written in the Seventies tended to "do odd things odd ways." For example, on the Apple II, a programmer could embed a DOS command into a program via PRINT, when prefaced by the character string CHR$(4). PEEK and POKE could be used in various BASICs to examine memory content or change it, or even to create an ad hoc machine language program and then run it. System/34 BASIC tends to stay away from these odd conventions; however, the programmer could c ...more...

Member feedback about System/34 BASIC:

Interpreters (computing)

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


History of IBM mainframe operating systems

topic

History of IBM mainframe operating systems

The history of operating systems running on IBM mainframes is a notable chapter of history of mainframe operating systems, because of IBM's long-standing position as the world's largest hardware supplier of mainframe computers. Arguably the operating systems which IBM supplied to customers for use on its early mainframes have seldom been very innovative, except for the virtual machine systems beginning with CP-67. But the company's well-known reputation for preferring proven technology has generally given potential users the confidence to adopt new IBM systems fairly quickly. IBM's current mainframe operating systems, z/OS, z/VM, z/VSE, and z/TPF, are backward compatible successors to operating systems introduced in the 1960s, although of course they have been improved in many ways. Both IBM-supplied operating systems and those supplied by others are discussed here, if notably used on IBM mainframes. Before System/360 IBM was slow to introduce operating systems: General Motors produced General Motors OS i ...more...

Member feedback about History of IBM mainframe operating systems:

History of software

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


History of IBM

topic

History of IBM

International Business Machines, or IBM, nicknamed "Big Blue", is a multinational computer technology and IT consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM originated from the bringing together of several companies that worked to automate routine business transactions. In 1911 the company that leased Unit record equipment, especially Hollerith punched cards and card readers to government bureaus and insurance agencies, became the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR). Thomas J. Watson (1874-1956) took over in 1924, using the name "International Business Machines." IBM expanded into electric typewriters and other office machines. Watson was a salesman and concentrated on building a highly motivated, very well paid sales force that could craft solutions for clients unfamiliar with the latest technology. His motto was "THINK"; customers were advised to not "fold, spindle or mutilate" the delicate cardboard cards. IBM's first experiments with computers in the 1940s and 1950s w ...more...

Member feedback about History of IBM:

IBM

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User

I B M

Pavlo Shevelo (pavlosh)

Revolvy User


IBM 5250

topic

IBM 5250

IBM 3486 Terminal, a later terminal with 5250 functionality, capable of supporting two independent sessions concurrently, and with an amber screen. The original 5251-1 had a much smaller keyboard.[1] IBM 5250 is a family of block-oriented terminals originally introduced with the IBM System/34 midrange computer systems in 1977.[2] It also connects to the later System/36, System/38, and AS/400 and System i systems, and to IBM Power Systems systems running IBM i. Components 5250 devices can be directly attached to the host or communicate remotely using Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) at up to 9600bit/s. Devices can also be clustered or daisy-chained. In 1980 the 5250 system consisted of the following components:[3] 5251 Display Station. The monochrome text-only display can be either 960 characters, formatted as 12 lines of 80 characters, or 1920 characters as 24 lines of 80 characters. Upper and lower case is standard. Text attributes consist of blink, high intensity, reverse video, non-display, und ...more...

Member feedback about IBM 5250:

Block-oriented terminal

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


Midrange computer

topic

Midrange computer

IBM System/3, a midrange computer introduced in 1969 Midrange computers, or midrange systems, are a class of computer systems which fall in between mainframe computers and microcomputers.[1] The class called minicomputers[2] emerged in the 1960s and machines were generally known at the time as minicomputers – especially models from Digital Equipment Corporation (PDP line), Data General, Hewlett-Packard (HP3000 line and successors), and Sun Microsystems (SPARC Enterprise). These were widely used in science and research as well as for business. IBM favored the term "midrange computer" for their comparable, but more business-oriented,[3] systems. IBM System/38 IBM Midrange Systems included Although the systems numbered appear to simply be a series of successions, they weren't. Unlike the System/3, which was multi-user, the System/32 was not. System/3 was the first of the IBM midrange systems (1969)[4] System/32 (introduced in 1975) [5] was a 16-bit single-user system also known as the IBM 5320. S ...more...

Member feedback about Midrange computer:

IBM computers

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


Edos

topic

Edos

Edos was an operating system based upon IBM's original mainframe DOS (not to be confused with the unrelated and more well-known DOS for the IBM PC). The name stood for extended (or enhanced) disk operating system. In 1970, IBM announced the IBM/370 product line along with new peripherals, software products, and operating systems, including DOS/VS that supplanted DOS. Although IBM was rightly focused on their new products, the computing world was dominated by the IBM/360 line, which left a lot of users nervous about their investment. Although there were a couple of projects emulating the IBM/370 on the IBM/360 (e.g., CFS, Inc.), a couple of companies took a different approach, extending the then-current (and limited) DOS. The Computer Software Company (TCSC) took the latter approach. Starting in 1972, they developed Edos, Extended Disk Operating System. They extended the number of fixed program space partitions from 3 to 6, added support for new hardware, and included features that IBM had offered separatel ...more...

Member feedback about Edos:

IBM mainframe operating systems

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


IBM Office/36

topic

IBM Office/36

Office/36 is a suite of applications marketed by IBM from 1983 to 2000 for the IBM System/36 family of midrange computers. IBM announced its System/36 Office Automation (OA) strategy in 1985.[1] Office/36 could be purchased in its entirety, or piecemeal. Components of Office/36 include:[2][3][4] IDDU/36, the Interactive Data Definition Utility. Query/36, the Query utility. DisplayWrite/36,[5] a word processing program. Personal Services/36,[5] a calendaring system and an office messaging utility. Query/36 was not quite the same as SQL, but it had some similarities, especially the ability to very rapidly create a displayed recordset from a disk file. Note that SQL, also an IBM development, had not been standardized prior to 1986. DisplayWrite/36, in the same category as Microsoft Word, had online dictionaries and definition capabilities, and spell-check, and unlike the standard S/36 products, it would straighten spillover text and scroll in real time. Considerable changes were required to S/36 design ...more...

Member feedback about IBM Office/36:

IBM software

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


IBM 701

topic

IBM 701

IBM 701 operator's console The IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine, known as the Defense Calculator while in development, was IBM’s first commercial scientific computer, which was announced to the public on April 29, 1952.[1] It was designed by Nathaniel Rochester and based on the IAS machine at Princeton.[2] Its successor was the IBM 704, its computer siblings were the IBM 702 for business, and the lower-cost general-purpose IBM 650. History IBM 701 competed with Remington Rand's UNIVAC 1103 in the scientific computation market, which had been developed for the NSA, so it was held secret until permission to market it was obtained in 1953. In early 1954, a committee of the Joint Chiefs of Staff requested that the two machines be compared for the purpose of using them for a Joint Numerical Weather Prediction project. Based on the trials, the two machines had comparable computational speed, with a slight advantage for IBM's machine, but the UNIVAC was favored unanimously for its significantly faster ...more...

Member feedback about IBM 701:

1952 introductions

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User

I B M

Pavlo Shevelo (pavlosh)

Revolvy User


IBM PCjr

topic

IBM PCjr

The IBM PCjr (read "PC junior") was IBM's first attempt to enter the home computer market. The PCjr, IBM model number 4860, retained the IBM PC's 8088 CPU and BIOS interface for compatibility, but various design and implementation decisions led the PCjr to be a commercial failure. Description Overview Announced November 1, 1983, and first shipped in late January 1984,[1] the PCjr—nicknamed "Peanut" before its debut[2]—came in two models: the 4860-004, with 64 KB of memory, priced at US$669 (equivalent to $1,644 in 2017); and the 4860-067, with 128 KB of memory and a 360 KB 5.25-inch floppy disk drive, priced at US$1,269 (equivalent to $3,118 in 2017). It was manufactured for IBM in Lewisburg, Tennessee by Teledyne. The PCjr promised a high degree of compatibility with the IBM PC, which was already a popular business computer, in addition to offering built-in color graphics and 3 voice sound that was better than the standard PC-speaker sound and color graphics of the standard IBM PC and compatibles of the da ...more...

Member feedback about IBM PCjr:

Home computers

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


Infor XA

topic

Infor XA

Infor XA is commercial ERP software used to control the operations of manufacturing companies. Its prior name, MAPICS, is an acronym for Manufacturing, Accounting and Production Information Control Systems. MAPICS was created by IBM, International Business Machines, but the product is now owned by Infor Global Solutions. Originally all MAPICS code ran only on IBM midrange systems like the IBM System 34, 36, 38 and the AS/400, via succeeding versions of the platform - the IBM iSeries, System i and now IBM Power Systems. Early versions were written in IBM RPG, augmented with AS/400 Control Language programs. IBM's version of SQL is also utilized on the OS integrated database system called DB2 for i. Recent development efforts have added object oriented components written in the Java programming language, which extends a portion of the XA product to servers running Java. However, the Infor XA product still requires the IBM i operating system. The Java components provide an application runtime which allow user ...more...

Member feedback about Infor XA:

ERP software

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


IBM System/360 architecture

topic

IBM System/360 architecture

The IBM System/360 architecture is the model independent architecture for the entire S/360 line of mainframe computers, including but not limited to the instruction set architecture. The elements of the architecture are documented in the IBM System/360 Principles of Operation[1][2] and the IBM System/360 I/O Interface Channel to Control Unit Original Equipment Manufacturers' Information manuals.[3] Features The System/360 architecture provides the following features: 16 32-bit general-purpose registers 4 64-bit floating-point registers 64-bit processor status register (PSW), which includes a 24-bit instruction address 24-bit (16 MB) byte-addressable memory space Big-endian byte/word order A standard instruction set, including fixed-point binary arithmetic and logical instructions, present on all System/360 models (except the model 20, see below). A commercial instruction set, adding decimal arithmetic instructions, is optional on some models, as is a scientific instruction set, which adds floating- ...more...

Member feedback about IBM System/360 architecture:

Computing platforms

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


Timeline of operating systems

topic

Timeline of operating systems

This article presents a timeline of events in the history of computer operating systems from 1951 to the current day. For a narrative explaining the overall developments, see the History of operating systems. 1950s 1951 LEO I 'Lyons Electronic Office'[1] was the commercial development of EDSAC computing platform, supported by British firm J. Lyons and Co. 1953 DYSEAC[2] – an early machine capable of distributing computing 1955 MIT's Tape Director operating system made for WHIRLWIND I[3][4] 1955 General Motors Operating System made for IBM 701[5] 1956 GM-NAA I/O for IBM 704, based on General Motors Operating System 1957 Atlas Supervisor (Manchester University) (Atlas computer project start) BESYS (Bell Labs), for IBM 704, later IBM 7090 and IBM 7094 1958 University of Michigan Executive System (UMES), for IBM 704, 709, and 7090 1959 SHARE Operating System (SOS), based on GM-NAA I/O 1960s 1960 IBSYS (IBM for its 7090 and 7094) 1961 CTSS (MIT's Compatible Time ...more...

Member feedback about Timeline of operating systems:

Operating systems

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User

Feb

Feb Annkate Natividad (FebAnnkateNatividad)

Revolvy User


IBM Personal Computer

topic

IBM Personal Computer

The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform. It is IBM model number 5150, and was introduced on August 12, 1981. It was created by a team of engineers and designers under the direction of Don Estridge of the IBM Entry Systems Division in Boca Raton, Florida. The generic term "personal computer" ("PC") was in use years before 1981, applied as early as 1972 to the Xerox PARC's Alto, but because of the success of the IBM Personal Computer, the term "PC" came to also mean more specifically a desktop microcomputer compatible with IBM's Personal Computer branded products. Since the machine was based on open architecture,[1][2] within a short time of its introduction, third-party suppliers of peripheral devices, expansion cards, and software proliferated; the influence of the IBM PC on the personal computer market was substantial in standardizing a platform for personal computers. "IBM compatible" became an important crit ...more...

Member feedback about IBM Personal Computer:

IBM personal computers

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


IBM 7030 Stretch

topic

IBM 7030 Stretch

The IBM 7030, also known as Stretch, was IBM's first transistorized supercomputer. It was the fastest computer in the world from 1961 until the first CDC 6600 became operational in 1964.[2][3] Originally designed to meet a requirement formulated by Edward Teller at Lawrence Livermore, the first example was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1961, and a second customized version, the IBM 7950 Harvest, to the National Security Agency in 1962. The Stretch at RAF Aldermaston was heavily used by researchers at AERE Harwell, but only after the development of the S2 Fortran Compiler which was the first to add dynamic arrays, and which was later ported to the Ferranti Atlas at Chilton.[4][5] Since the 7030 was much slower than expected and failed to meet its aggressive performance estimates, IBM was forced to drop its price from $13.5 million to only $7.78 million and withdrew the 7030 from sales to customers beyond those having already negotiated contracts. PC World magazine named Stretch as one of the ...more...

Member feedback about IBM 7030 Stretch:

1961 introductions

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User

I B M

Pavlo Shevelo (pavlosh)

Revolvy User


Visual programming language

topic

Visual programming language

This is an example of Scratch's Visual Programming Language, showing a cat saying a message. In computing, a visual programming language (VPL) is any programming language that lets users create programs by manipulating program elements graphically rather than by specifying them textually.[1][2] A VPL allows programming with visual expressions, spatial arrangements of text and graphic symbols, used either as elements of syntax or secondary notation. For example, many VPLs (known as dataflow or diagrammatic programming)[3] are based on the idea of "boxes and arrows", where boxes or other screen objects are treated as entities, connected by arrows, lines or arcs which represent relations. Definition VPLs may be further classified, according to the type and extent of visual expression used, into icon-based languages, form-based languages, and diagram languages. Visual programming environments provide graphical or iconic elements which can be manipulated by users in an interactive way according to some specific ...more...

Member feedback about Visual programming language:

Programming language classification

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User

MyPersonalUncategorized

(rajooda)

Revolvy User

yangyang

(yangliu)

Revolvy User


EBCDIC

topic

EBCDIC

Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code[1] (EBCDIC;[1] ) is an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems. It descended from the code used with punched cards and the corresponding six bit binary-coded decimal code used with most of IBM's computer peripherals of the late 1950s and early 1960s.[2] It is supported by various non-IBM platforms, such as Fujitsu-Siemens' BS2000/OSD, OS-IV, MSP, and MSP-EX, the SDS Sigma series, Unisys VS/9, Burroughs MCP and ICL VME. History Punched card with the 1964 EBCDIC character set. Contrast at top enhanced to show the printed characters. EBCDIC was devised in 1963 and 1964 by IBM and was announced with the release of the IBM System/360 line of mainframe computers. It is an eight-bit character encoding, developed separately from the seven-bit ASCII encoding scheme. It was created to extend the existing Binary-Coded Decimal (BCD) Interchange Code, or BCDIC, which itself was devised as an efficient means o ...more...

Member feedback about EBCDIC:

IBM mainframe operating systems

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


Computer

topic

Computer

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices. This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer-aided design, and also general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones. Early computers were only conceived as calculating devices. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calcu ...more...

Member feedback about Computer:

Computers

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User

* IT chronicle *

Pavlo Shevelo (pavlosh)

Revolvy User


Watson (computer)

topic

Watson (computer)

Watson's avatar, inspired by the IBM "smarter planet" logo[1] Watson is a question-answering computer system capable of answering questions posed in natural language,[2] developed in IBM's DeepQA project by a research team led by principal investigator David Ferrucci.[3] Watson was named after IBM's first CEO, industrialist Thomas J. Watson.[4][5] The computer system was initially developed to answer questions on the quiz show Jeopardy![6] and, in 2011, the Watson computer system competed on Jeopardy! against legendary champions Brad Rutter and Ken Jennings[4][7] winning the first place prize of $1 million.[8] In February 2013, IBM announced that Watson software system's first commercial application would be for utilization management decisions in lung cancer treatment at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York City, in conjunction with health insurance company WellPoint.[9] IBM Watson's former business chief, Manoj Saxena, says that 90% of nurses in the field who use Watson now follow its guida ...more...

Member feedback about Watson (computer):

One-of-a-kind computers

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


Parallel port

topic

Parallel port

Micro ribbon 36 pin female, such as on printers and on some computers, particularly industrial equipment and early (pre-1980s) personal computers. Mini-Centronics 36 pin male connector (top) with Micro ribbon 36 pin male Centronics connector (bottom) The Apple II Parallel Printer Port connected to the printer via a folded ribbon cable; one end connected to the connector at the top of the card, and the other end had a 36-pin Centronics connector. A parallel port is a type of interface found on computers (personal and otherwise) for connecting peripherals. The name refers to the way the data is sent; parallel ports send multiple bits of data at once, in parallel communication, as opposed to serial interfaces that send bits one at a time. To do this, parallel ports require multiple data lines in their cables and port connectors, and tend to be larger than contemporary serial ports which only require one data line. There are many types of parallel ports, but the term has become most closely associa ...more...

Member feedback about Parallel port:

Legacy hardware

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


IBM 1400 series

topic

IBM 1400 series

IBM 1401 Data Processing System, the first member of the 1400 series The IBM 1400 series were second-generation (transistor) mid-range business decimal computers that IBM marketed in the early 1960s. The computers were offered to replace tabulating machines like the IBM 407. The 1400-series machines stored information in magnetic cores as variable length character strings separated at the left and right by a special flag, called word mark. Arithmetic was performed digit-by-digit. Input and output support included punched card, magnetic tape, and high speed line printers. Disk storage was also available. Many members of the series could be used as independent systems, as extensions to IBM punched card equipment, or as auxiliary equipment to other computer systems. Some, however, were intended for specific applications or were economical only as independent systems. History The 1401, announced on October 5, 1959, was the first member of the IBM 1400 series. It was the first computer to deploy over 10,000 u ...more...

Member feedback about IBM 1400 series:

IBM 1400 series

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


Expert system

topic

Expert system

A Symbolics Lisp Machine: an early platform for expert systems. In artificial intelligence, an expert system is a computer system that emulates the decision-making ability of a human expert.[1] Expert systems are designed to solve complex problems by reasoning through bodies of knowledge, represented mainly as if–then rules rather than through conventional procedural code.[2] The first expert systems were created in the 1970s and then proliferated in the 1980s.[3] Expert systems were among the first truly successful forms of artificial intelligence (AI) software.[4][5][6][7][8] An expert system is divided into two subsystems: the inference engine and the knowledge base. The knowledge base represents facts and rules. The inference engine applies the rules to the known facts to deduce new facts. Inference engines can also include explanation and debugging abilities.[9] History Expert systems were introduced by the Stanford Heuristic Programming Project led by Edward Feigenbaum, who is sometimes termed the " ...more...

Member feedback about Expert system:

Information systems

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


History of computing hardware

topic

History of computing hardware

Computing hardware is a platform for information processing. Parts from four early computers, 1962. From left to right: ENIAC board, EDVAC board, ORDVAC board, and BRLESC-I board, showing the trend toward miniaturization. The history of computing hardware covers the developments from early simple devices to aid calculation to modern day computers. Before the 20th century, most calculations were done by humans. Early mechanical tools to help humans with digital calculations, such as the abacus, were called "calculating machines", called by proprietary names, or referred to as calculators. The machine operator was called the computer. The first aids to computation were purely mechanical devices which required the operator to set up the initial values of an elementary arithmetic operation, then manipulate the device to obtain the result. Later, computers represented numbers in a continuous form, for instance distance along a scale, rotation of a shaft, or a voltage. Numbers could also be represented in the ...more...

Member feedback about History of computing hardware:

History of computing hardware

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User

* IT chronicle *

Pavlo Shevelo (pavlosh)

Revolvy User


Flow-based programming

topic

Flow-based programming

In computer programming, flow-based programming (FBP) is a programming paradigm that defines applications as networks of "black box" processes, which exchange data across predefined connections by message passing, where the connections are specified externally to the processes. These black box processes can be reconnected endlessly to form different applications without having to be changed internally. FBP is thus naturally component-oriented. FBP is a particular form of dataflow programming based on bounded buffers, information packets with defined lifetimes, named ports, and separate definition of connections. Introduction Flow-based programming defines applications using the metaphor of a "data factory". It views an application not as a single, sequential process, which starts at a point in time, and then does one thing at a time until it is finished, but as a network of asynchronous processes communicating by means of streams of structured data chunks, called "information packets" (IPs). In this view, ...more...

Member feedback about Flow-based programming:

Programming paradigms

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


CP/CMS

topic

CP/CMS

CP/CMS (Control Program/Cambridge Monitor System) is a discontinued time-sharing operating system of the late 60s and early 70s, known for its excellent performance and advanced features.[1][2] It had three distinct versions: CP-40/CMS, an important "one-off" research system that established the CP/CMS virtual machine architecture CP-67/CMS, a reimplementation of CP-40/CMS for the IBM System/360-67, and the primary focus of this article CP-370/CMS, a reimplementation of CP-67/CMS for the System/370 – never released as such, but became the foundation of IBM's VM/370 operating system, announced in 1972. Each implementation was a substantial redesign of its predecessor and an evolutionary step forward. CP-67/CMS was the first widely available virtual machine architecture. IBM pioneered this idea with its research systems M44/44X (which used partial virtualization) and CP-40 (which used full virtualization). In addition to its role as the predecessor of the VM family, CP/CMS played an important role in ...more...

Member feedback about CP/CMS:

History of software

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


PLATO (computer system)

topic

PLATO (computer system)

PLATO running a simulation of fractional distillation PLATO (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations)[1][2] was the first generalized computer-assisted instruction system. Starting in 1960, it ran on the University of Illinois' ILLIAC I computer. By the late 1970s, it supported several thousand graphics terminals distributed worldwide, running on nearly a dozen different networked mainframe computers. Many modern concepts in multi-user computing were originally developed on PLATO, including forums, message boards, online testing, e-mail, chat rooms, picture languages, instant messaging, remote screen sharing, and multiplayer games. PLATO was designed and built by the University of Illinois and functioned for four decades, offering coursework (elementary through university) to UIUC students, local schools, and other universities. Courses were taught in a range of subjects, including Latin, chemistry, education, music, and primary mathematics. The system included a number of features useful for pe ...more...

Member feedback about PLATO (computer system):

History of electronic engineering

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


Global Positioning System

topic

Global Positioning System

Artist's conception of GPS Block II-F satellite in Earth orbit. Civilian GPS receivers ("GPS navigation device") in a marine application. Automotive navigation system in a taxicab. A U.S. Air Force Senior Airman runs through a checklist during Global Positioning System satellite operations. The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS,[1] is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.[2] It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.[3] Obstacles such as mountains and buildings block the relatively weak GPS signals. The GPS does not require the user to transmit any data, and it operates independently of any telephonic or internet reception, though these technologies can enhance the usefulness of the GPS positioning information. The GPS pr ...more...

Member feedback about Global Positioning System:

Geodesy

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User

Jets

(bernflan17)

Revolvy User


R (programming language)

topic

R (programming language)

R is a programming language and free software environment for statistical computing and graphics that is supported by the R Foundation for Statistical Computing.[6] The R language is widely used among statisticians and data miners for developing statistical software[7] and data analysis.[8] Polls, surveys of data miners, and studies of scholarly literature databases show that R's popularity has increased substantially in recent years.[9] As of June 2018, R ranks 10th in the TIOBE index, a measure of popularity of programming languages.[10] R is a GNU package.[11] The source code for the R software environment is written primarily in C, Fortran, and R.[12] R is freely available under the GNU General Public License, and pre-compiled binary versions are provided for various operating systems. While R has a command line interface, there are several graphical front-ends, most notably RStudio and RStudio Server, which are the only GUIs developed by the R Foundation.[13] Integrated development environments are avai ...more...

Member feedback about R (programming language):

Cross-platform free software

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


Punched card

topic

Punched card

A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. Digital data can be for data processing applications or, in earlier examples, used to directly control automated machinery. Punched cards were widely used through much of the 20th century in the data processing industry, where specialized and increasingly complex unit record machines, organized into semiautomatic data processing systems, used punched cards for data input, output, and storage.[1][2] Many early digital computers used punched cards, often prepared using keypunch machines, as the primary medium for input of both computer programs and data. While punched cards are now obsolete as a storage medium, as of 2012, some voting machines still use punched cards to record votes.[3] A punched card from the mid-twentieth century. Close-up of a Jacquard loom's tape, constructed using 8 × 26 hole punched cards History Basile Bouchon d ...more...

Member feedback about Punched card:

History of computing hardware

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


Copland (operating system)

topic

Copland (operating system)

Copland is an unreleased operating system prototype for Apple Macintosh computers of the late 1990s, intended to be released as the modern System 8 successor to the aging but venerable System 7. It introduced protected memory, preemptive multitasking, and a number of new underlying operating system features, while retaining compatibility with existing Mac applications. Copland's planned successor, codenamed Gershwin, was intended to add advanced features such as application-level multithreading. Across a protracted development period of several years, previews of Copland garnered much press that introduced the layperson Macintosh audience to basic concepts of modern operating system design such as object orientation, crash-proofing, and multitasking. The project was Apple's trigger to cofound several industry-wide standards and consortiums for next-generation operating system development, such as OpenDoc and Taligent. Copland reached Developer Release beta testing status before its cancellation in August 19 ...more...

Member feedback about Copland (operating system):

Microkernels

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


Minicomputer

topic

Minicomputer

First-generation Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-8 on display at the National Museum of American History Data General Nova, serial number 1, the first 16-bit minicomputer, on display at the Computer History Museum A PDP-11, model 40, an early member of DECs 16-bit minicomputer family, on display at the Vienna Technical Museum A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller computers that was developed in the mid-1960s[1][2] and sold for much less than mainframe[3] and mid-size computers from IBM and its direct competitors. In a 1970 survey, The New York Times suggested a consensus definition of a minicomputer as a machine costing less than US$25,000, with an input-output device such as a teleprinter and at least four thousand words of memory, that is capable of running programs in a higher level language, such as Fortran or BASIC.[4] The class formed a distinct group with its own software architectures and operating systems. Minis were designed for control, instrumentation, huma ...more...

Member feedback about Minicomputer:

American inventions

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


Distributed Data Management Architecture

topic

Distributed Data Management Architecture

Distributed Data Management Architecture (DDM) is IBM's open, published software architecture for creating, managing and accessing data on a remote computer. DDM was initially designed to support record-oriented files; it was extended to support hierarchical directories, stream-oriented files, queues, and system command processing; it was further extended to be the base of IBM's Distributed Relational Database Architecture (DRDA); and finally, it was extended to support data description and conversion. Defined in the period from 1980 to 1993, DDM specifies necessary components, messages, and protocols, all based on the principles of object-orientation. DDM is not, in itself, a piece of software; the implementation of DDM takes the form of client and server products. As an open architecture, products can implement subsets of DDM architecture and products can extend DDM to meet additional requirements. Taken together, DDM products implement a distributed file system. DDM Architecture in the media. Distribut ...more...

Member feedback about Distributed Data Management Architecture:

Distributed file systems

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


IBM 3270

topic

IBM 3270

The IBM 3270 is a class of block oriented computer terminal (sometimes called display devices) introduced by IBM in 1971[1] normally used to communicate with IBM mainframes. The 3270 was the successor to the IBM 2260 display terminal. Due to the text colour on the original models, these terminals are informally known as green screen terminals. Unlike a character-oriented terminal, the 3270 minimizes the number of I/O interrupts required by transferring large blocks of data known as data streams, and uses a high speed proprietary communications interface, using coaxial cable. Although IBM no longer manufactures 3270 terminals, the IBM 3270 protocol is still commonly used via terminal emulation to access mainframe-based applications. Accordingly, such applications are sometimes referred to as green screen applications. The use of 3270 is slowly diminishing as more and more mainframe applications acquire Web interfaces, although some Web applications merely use the technique of "screen scraping" to capture old ...more...

Member feedback about IBM 3270:

Multimodal interaction

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


IBM TopView

topic

IBM TopView

TopView is a text-mode PC DOS multitasking, object-oriented windowing environment written by IBM, announced in August 1984[1] and shipped in March 1985.[2][3] TopView provided an operating environment that allowed users to run more than one application at the same time on a PC. IBM demonstrated an early version of the product to key customers before making it generally available, around the time they shipped their new PC AT computer. Hopeful beginnings When Microsoft announced Windows 1.0 in November 1983, International Business Machines (IBM), Microsoft's important partner in popularizing MS-DOS for the IBM PC, notably did not announce support for the forthcoming window environment.[4] IBM determined that the microcomputer market needed a multitasking environment. When it released TopView in 1985, the press speculated that the software was the start of IBM's plan to increase its control over the IBM PC (even though nothing about the IBM PC was proprietary (including the BIOS which was published to the worl ...more...

Member feedback about IBM TopView:

IBM software

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


Classic Mac OS

topic

Classic Mac OS

Classic Mac OS is a colloquial term used to describe a series of operating systems developed for the Macintosh family of personal computers by Apple Inc. from 1984 until 2001. The Macintosh operating system is credited with having popularized the graphical user interface concept.[4] It was included with every Macintosh that was sold during the era it was developed, and many updates to the system software were done in conjunction with the introduction of new Macintosh systems. Apple released the original Macintosh on January 24, 1984. The first version of the system software, which had no official name, was partially based on the Lisa OS, previously released by Apple for the Lisa computer in 1983. As part of an agreement allowing Xerox to buy shares in Apple at a favorable price, it also used concepts from the Xerox PARC Alto computer, which former Apple CEO Steve Jobs and other Macintosh team members had previewed.[1] This operating system consisted of the Macintosh Toolbox ROM and the "System Folder", a set ...more...

Member feedback about Classic Mac OS:

History of software

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User


OpenDocument software

topic

OpenDocument software

This is an overview of software support for the OpenDocument format, an open document file format for saving and exchanging editable office documents. Current support A number of applications support the OASIS Open Document Format for Office Applications; listed alphabetically they include: Text documents (.odt) Word processors AbiWord 2.4+ (import from 2.4.0, export from 2.4.2;[1] used to require separate download and installation of plugins – up to version 2.6.8). Adobe Buzzword beta, a web-based word processor has limited ODF support owing to its beta status.[2][3] Atlantis Word Processor 1.6.5+ can import ODT documents.[4] Calligra Words uses ODT as its native file format. eyeOS Cloud computing operating system with eyeDocs Word Processor has basic support for ODF text documents.[5] EasiWriter (for RISC OS) Version 9.1 of EasiWriter can import/save ODT files on RISC OS.[6] FileApp allows viewing OpenDocument files on iPhone and iPad.[7] FocusWriter, a distraction-free word processo ...more...

Member feedback about OpenDocument software:

Office suites

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User

My Python

(Clive1950)

Revolvy User


SAP SE

topic

SAP SE

SAP SE (; Systeme, Anwendungen und Produkte in der Datenverarbeitung, "Systems, Applications & Products in Data Processing") is a German-based European multinational software corporation that makes enterprise software to manage business operations and customer relations.[2] SAP is headquartered in Walldorf, Baden-Württemberg, Germany with regional offices in 180 countries.[3][4] The company has over 335,000 customers in over 180 countries.[4] The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index.[5] History Formation Xerox aimed to exit to the computer industry in 1975,[6] it asked IBM to migrate its business systems to IBM technology. As part of IBM's compensation for the migration, IBM was given the rights to the Scientific Data Systems (SDS)/SAPE software, reportedly for a contract credit of $80,000. Five IBM engineers from the AI department[7][8] (Dietmar Hopp, Klaus Tschira, Hans-Werner Hector, Hasso Plattner, and Claus Wellenreuther, all from Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg) were workin ...more...

Member feedback about SAP SE:

Multinational companies headquartered in Germany

Revolvy Brain (revolvybrain)

Revolvy User



Next Page
Javascript Version
Revolvy Server https://www.revolvy.com
Revolvy Site Map