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Marine Medium Tilt Rotor Squadron 165 (VMM-165) is a United States Marine Corps Tilt-rotor squadron consisting of MV-22B Osprey transport aircraft. The squadron, known as the "White Knights", is based at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, California and fall under the command of Marine Aircraft Group 16 (MAG-16) and the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing (3rd MAW).


Provide assault support transport of combat troops, supplies and equipment during expeditionary, joint or combined operations. Be prepared for short-notice, worldwide employment in support of Marine Air-Ground Task Force operations.

Vietnam War

Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 165 was activated on July 1, 1965 at Marine Corps Air Station Santa Ana, California as part of Marine Aircraft Group 36, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing. During August 1965, the White Knights were reassigned to Marine Wing Service Group 37.

In September 1966, the White Knights deployed to the Republic of Vietnam, where they were assigned to Marine Aircraft Group 36, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing. From October 1966 to August 1969, the squadron operated from Kỳ Hà, Hue/Phu Bai, the USS Valley Forge, the USS Tripoli, Marble Mountain area near Da Nang, and from the USS Tarawa. On June 6, 1968, HMM-165 had two of their CH-46As shot down in the vicinity of Khe Sanh. There were no deaths on the first incident but the second crash which occurred at LZ Loon, southeast of Khe Sanh, resulted in the death of 12 of the 23 Marines on board.[2]

Vietnam-era squadron insignia.

In August 1969, the squadron redeployed to Okinawa where it was reassigned to Marine Aircraft Group 15 of the 9th Marine Amphibious Brigade. In December 1969, the squadron again became part of Marine Aircraft Group 36.

During the early 1970s, HMM-165 participated as part of the Special Landing Force in support of activities in the Republic of Vietnam. During July and August 1972, the White Knights took part in Philippine flood relief operations, flying in food and supplies to local populations. At the end of April 1975, helicopters of HMM-165 played a key role in the evacuation of Saigon, Operation Frequent Wind. At 0500 on 30 April 1075, under direct orders from President Gerald Ford, the crew of Lady Ace 09 evacuated U.S. Ambassador Graham Martin from the US Embassy, Saigon, prior to the Fall of Saigon.

A CH-46 in front of an old blimp hangar at Marine Corps Air Station Tustin.
Post Vietnam and the 1980s

In November 1977, the White Knights moved to Marine Corps Air Station Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii where they were reassigned to Marine Aircraft Group 24, the air combat element of the 1st Marine Brigade. At this time the name of the squadron was changed from White Knights to Hawaiian Warriors. The logo on the tail of the aircraft was changed from a traditional knight to that of a profile of a Hawaiian king that resembled the logo of Primo Beer, causing the squadron enlisted to affectionately refer to themselves as, The Primo Warriors..

In December 1979 at a time of high international tension arising from the Iran hostage crisis and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, HMM-165 deployed to the Arabian Sea with the 31st Marine Amphibious Unit (31st MAU) on board the USS Okinawa (LPH-3). Their mission was to deter Soviet Aggression under the orders of then President Jimmy Carter. This policy would later be named the Carter Doctrine. At the same time, the squadron served in a minor support role for the Hostage Rescue Attempt in Iran.[3]

Upon returning to Hawaii in June 1980, the following winter produced a severe storm that damaged electrical lines crossing Oahu and HMM-165 assisted local officials in replacing these downed lines.

In 1981, HMM-165 was again deployed to the Western Pacific and Arabian Sea with the 31st MAU on board the USS Belleau Wood (LHA-3). Their name changed back to The White Knights and replaced the tail insignia with a traditional White Knight helmet. HMM-165 performed humanitarian work assisting the government of Sri Lanka in delivering television transmitters to a remote site providing the people of Sri Lanka full national coverage of their television station for the first time.

During April 1983 HMM-165 became the Air Combat Element (ACE) of the 31st Marine Amphibious Unit. The squadron was reinforced with 2 UH-1s, 4 AH-1s, 4 CH-53s, and 6 AV-8s in addition to its 12 CH-46s and was redesignated as HMM(C)Rein-165. The squadron deployed to the western Pacific and Indian Oceans and completed contingency operations in the Okinawa, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Kenya, and Somalia. The reinforced squadron was diverted to Beirut, Lebanon, where they conducted contingency operations in Lebanon, Cyprus, and Israel from the deck of the USS Tarawa (LHA-1). The squadron returned to Kaneohe Bay in time for Christmas. In December 1989, the White Knights supported American interests, to include reinforcement of the American Embassy, in the Republic of the Philippines during that country's coupe attempt.

The Gulf War & the 1990s

In August 1990, the squadron was sent to Saudi Arabia to participate in Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm. The White Knights returned home from Saudi Arabia in March 1991. HMM-165 was the "last squadron in the Philippine Islands" when they supported the special purpose MAGTF from July to November 1992. From September to October 1992 a detachment was sent to Cambodia to participate in Joint Task Force Full Accounting. The squadron aided the task force in the search for remains of MIA's from the war in Vietnam. In March 1993, another detachment from HMM-165 was sent to Cambodia to participate in Joint Task Force Full Accounting; this time the mission was cut short when the task force base camp was attacked by mortar fire in April 1993.


As a result of the Base Realignment And Closure Committee's (BRAC) actions HMM-165 was reassigned from the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing Aviation Support Element, Marine Corps Base Hawaii, to Marine Aircraft Group 16, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, Marine Corps Air Station El Toro, California on May 15, 1996.

HMM-165 moved to MCAS Miramar, San Diego, California in November 1998 as the result of additional BRAC requirements. In December 1998 HMM-165 was designated the Aviation Combat Element for the 11th Marine Expeditionary Unit.

Global War on Terror

In July 2001, HMM-165 was designated the Aviation Combat Element for the 13th Marine Expeditionary Unit. After the terror attacks of September 11, 2001, HMM-165 deployed in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan.

The White Knights received orders to deploy to Iraq in December 2002. Beginning in January, HMM-165 deployed on the USS Boxer (LHD-4) and cruised to the Persian Gulf. After offloading in Kuwait, the squadron was tasked with supporting Regimental Combat Team 1 (RCT-1) for the duration of Operation Iraqi Freedom. On the night of April 1, 2003, HMM-165 comprised the CH-46 element of Task Force 20, the special team that extracted prisoner of war Army PFC Jessica Lynch.

The squadron redeployed to Iraq in September 2006 attached to the 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit. On December 3, 2006 a helicopter carrying 16 personnel made an emergency landing on Lake Qadisiyah in Al Anbar Province. Four of the passengers drowned in the incident.[4] They returned to Camp Pendleton on May 30, 2007.

In June 2010, the unit again sailed with the 15th MEU aboard USS Peleliu, marking the last deployment of its CH-46s. The squadron demonstrated its prowess in a wide variety of missions as the White Knights headed up Task Force Ghazi in Khyber, Pakhtunkhwa Province, Northern Pakistan and Task Force South in the Sindh Province, Southern Pakistan in support of Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief operations.

HMM-165 transitioned to the V-22 Osprey on March 1, 2011 and were subsequently re-designated Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron 165 (VMM-165).[5] On 6 October 2012, a MV-22 Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft from squadron VMM-165 land and refueled on board the USS Nimitz (CVN-68). This operation was part of an evaluation of the feasibility of the MV-22 as a potential replacement for the C-2 Greyhound carrier onboard delivery (COD) cargo transport aircraft.[6]

In July 2013, VMM-165 deployed to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Upon arriving at Camp Bastion, Afghanistan, the squadron assumed the duties of assault support for Regional Command Southwest [RC(SW)]. During their seven-month deployment to Afghanistan, the White Knights of VMM-165 conducted assault support, battlefield illumination, VIP transport, and CASEVAC in support of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) effort in Helmand Province.

Unit awards

A unit citation or commendation is an award bestowed upon an organization for the action cited. Members of the unit who participated in said actions are allowed to wear on their uniforms the awarded unit citation. VMM-165 has been presented with the following awards:

Streamer Award Year(s) Additional Info
U.S. Navy Presidential Unit Citation streamer.png Presidential Unit Citation Streamer with one Bronze Star 1966–1967, 1968,2003 Vietnam War, Iraq
Navy Unit Commendation streamer.png Navy Unit Commendation Streamer with three Bronze Stars 1968, 1968, 1969, 1972 Vietnam War
Meritorious Unit Commendation (Navy-Marine) Streamer.jpg Meritorious Unit Commendation Streamer with three Bronze Stars 1972, 1975 Vietnam War
Streamer NDS.PNG National Defense Service Streamer with two Bronze Stars 1961–1974, 1990–1995, 2001–present Vietnam War, Gulf War, War on Terrorism
Streamer AFE.PNG Armed Forces Expeditionary Streamer Somalia
Streamer VS.PNG Vietnam Service Streamer with two Silver and three Bronze Stars July 1965 - April 1971, April - December 1975
Streamer SAS.PNG Southwest Asia Service Streamer September 1990 - February 1991 Desert Shield, Desert Storm
Streamer IQCS.PNG Iraq Campaign Streamer January - July 2003, March - April 2005, November 2006 - April 2007
ACM 1B.PNG Afghanistan Campaign Streamer with one Bronze Star August 2013 - February 2014
Streamer gwotE.PNG Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Streamer March - May 2003, April - October 2015 Operation Inherent Resolve
Streamer gwotS.PNG Global War on Terrorism Service Streamer 2001–present
VGCP Streamer.jpg Vietnam Gallantry Cross with Palm Streamer
See also
  1. Paying Tribute to the 'Lady Ace 09'
  2. "PALACIOS, LUIS FERNANDO - Remains ID announce 11/05/08". Retrieved 2009-03-22.
  3. [1]
  4. "Incident Date 061203 HMM-165 CH-46E unknown Mechanical failure", USMC Combat Helicopter Association, 08 February 2007
  5. Velasquez, Cpl Gabriel (June 1, 2010). "'White Knights' Ride With Their Trusty 'steed' One Last Time". 15th MEU Public Affairs. USS Peleliu: United States Marine Corps. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
  6. "MV-22 Osprey Flight Operations Tested Aboard USS Nimitz". Avionics Intelligence. PennWell Corporation. October 9, 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-09. and Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Renee Candelario, USN (October 8, 2012). "MV-22 Osprey Flight Operations Tested Aboard USS Nimitz". NNS121008-13. USS Nimitz Public Affairs. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
External links
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Marine Medium Tilt Rotor Squadron 165 (VMM-165) is a United States Marine Corps Tilt-rotor squadron consisting of MV-22B Osprey transport aircraft. The squadron, known as the "White Knights", is based at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, California and fall under the command of Marine Aircraft Group 16 (MAG-16) and the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing (3rd MAW). Mission Provide assault support transport of combat troops, supplies and equipment during expeditionary, joint or combined operations. Be prepared for short-notice, worldwide employment in support of Marine Air-Ground Task Force operations. History Vietnam War Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 165 was activated on July 1, 1965 at Marine Corps Air Station Santa Ana, California as part of Marine Aircraft Group 36, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing. During August 1965, the White Knights were reassigned to Marine Wing Service Group 37. In September 1966, the White Knights deployed to the Republic of Vietnam, where they were assigned to Marine Aircraft Group 36, 1 ...more...

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The Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey is an American multi-mission, tiltrotor military aircraft with both vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL), and short takeoff and landing (STOL) capabilities. It is designed to combine the functionality of a conventional helicopter with the long-range, high-speed cruise performance of a turboprop aircraft. The failure of Operation Eagle Claw during the Iran hostage crisis in 1980 underscored the requirement for a new long-range, high-speed, vertical-takeoff aircraft for the United States Department of Defense. In response, the Joint-service Vertical take-off/landing Experimental (JVX) aircraft program started in 1981. A partnership between Bell Helicopter and Boeing Helicopters was awarded a development contract in 1983 for the V-22 tiltrotor aircraft. The Bell Boeing team jointly produce the aircraft. The V-22 first flew in 1989, and began flight testing and design alterations; the complexity and difficulties of being the first tiltrotor for military service led to many years of d ...more...

Marine Corps Air Station Tustin


Marine Corps Air Station Tustin (IATA: NTK, ICAO: KNTK, FAA LID: NTK) is a former United States Marine Corps air station, located in Tustin, California. History The Air Station was established in 1942 as Naval Lighter-Than-Air Station Santa Ana, a base for airship operations in support of the United States Navy's coastal patrol efforts during World War II. It was commissioned on 1 October 1942 by its commandant, Capt. Howard N. Coulter. As of July 1947, the facility, under command of Capt. Benjamin May, had personnel consisting of 100 officers, 500 enlisted men and 180 civilian employees. NLTAS Santa Ana was decommissioned in 1949. In 1951, the facility was reactivated as Marine Corps Air Facility Santa Ana to support the Korean War. It was the country's first air facility developed solely for helicopter operations. It was renamed Marine Corps Air Station Tustin in 1979. During the Vietnam War, the base was a center for on-going testing of radar installations (including the Sperry TPS-34) which were ere ...more...

Poisson point process


In probability, statistics and related fields, a Poisson point process or Poisson process (also called a Poisson random measure, Poisson random point field or Poisson point field) is a type of random mathematical object that consists of points randomly located on a mathematical space. The point process has convenient mathematical properties, which has led to it being frequently defined in Euclidean space and used as a mathematical model for seemingly random processes in numerous disciplines such as astronomy, biology, ecology, geology, physics, economics, image processing, and telecommunications. The Poisson point process is often defined on the real line, where it can be considered as a stochastic process. In this setting, it is used, for example, in queueing theory to model random events, such as the arrival of customers at a store or phone calls at an exchange, distributed in time. In the plane, the point process, also known as a spatial Poisson process, can represent the locations of scattered objects s ...more...



Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats from Prevotella and Francisella 1 or CRISPR/Cpf1 is a DNA -editing technology analogous to the CRISPR / Cas9 system. Cpf1 is an RNA-guided endonuclease of a class II CRISPR/Cas system. This acquired immune mechanism is found in Prevotella and Francisella bacteria. It prevents genetic damage from viruses. Cpf1 genes are associated with the CRISPR locus, coding for an endonuclease that use a guide RNA to find and cleave viral DNA. Cpf1 is a smaller and simpler endonuclease than Cas9, overcoming some of the CRISPR/Cas9 system limitations. CRISPR/Cpf1 could have multiple applications, including treatment of genetic illnesses and degenerative conditions. Description Discovery CRISPR/Cpf1 was found by searching a published database of bacterial genetic sequences for promising bits of DNA. Its identification through bioinformatics as a CRISPR system protein, its naming, and a hidden Markov model (HMM) for its detection were provided in 2012 in a release of t ...more...

Operation Frequent Wind


Operation Frequent Wind was the final phase in the evacuation of American civilians and "at-risk" Vietnamese from Saigon , South Vietnam prior to the takeover of the city by the North Vietnamese Army (PAVN) in the Fall of Saigon . It was carried out on 29–30 April 1975, during the last days of the Vietnam War . More than 7,000 people were evacuated by helicopter from various points in Saigon. The airlift resulted in a number of enduring images. Evacuation plans already existed as a standard procedure for American embassies. At the beginning of March, fixed-wing aircraft began evacuating civilians from Tan Son Nhat Airport through neighboring countries. By mid-April, contingency plans were in place and preparations were underway for a possible helicopter evacuation. As the imminent collapse of Saigon became evident, Task Force 76 (TF76) was assembled off the coast near Vung Tau to support a helicopter evacuation and provide air support if required. In the event, air support was not needed as the North Vietname ...more...

Learning to rank


Learning to rank or machine-learned ranking (MLR) is the application of machine learning , typically supervised , semi-supervised or reinforcement learning , in the construction of ranking models for information retrieval systems. Training data consists of lists of items with some partial order specified between items in each list. This order is typically induced by giving a numerical or ordinal score or a binary judgment (e.g. "relevant" or "not relevant") for each item. The ranking model's purpose is to rank, i.e. produce a permutation of items in new, unseen lists in a way which is "similar" to rankings in the training data in some sense. Applications In information retrieval A possible architecture of a machine-learned search engine. Ranking is a central part of many information retrieval problems, such as document retrieval , collaborative filtering , sentiment analysis , and online advertising . A possible architecture of a machine-learned search engine is shown in the figure to the right. Training data ...more...

USS Tripoli (LPH-10)


USS Tripoli (LPH-10) , an Iwo Jima-class amphibious assault ship , was laid down on 15 June 1964 at Pascagoula, Mississippi , by the Ingalls Shipbuilding Corporation ; launched on 31 July 1965; sponsored by Mrs. Jane Cates, the wife of General Clifton B. Cates , former Commandant of the Marine Corps ; and commissioned on 6 August 1966 at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard , Capt. Henry Suerstedt, Jr., in command. Tripoli is the second U.S. Navy ship named for the Battle of Derne in 1805. It was the decisive victory of a mercenary army led by a detachment of United States Marines and soldiers against the forces of Tripoli during the First Barbary War . It was the first recorded land battle of the United States fought overseas. Following three months fitting out at Philadelphia , the amphibious assault ship put to sea on 6 November 1966, bound for the west coast. She transited the Panama Canal at mid-month and arrived at her home port, San Diego , on 22 November 1966. Final acceptance trials, shakedown training, a ...more...

Orders of magnitude (temperature)


List of orders of magnitude for temperature Factor Multiple Item 0 0 K Absolute zero: free bodies are still, no interaction within or without a thermodynamic system 10 10 yK Particular speeds bound paths to exceed size and lifetime of the universe (see least-energy in orders of magnitude (energy)) 10 1 aK Macroscopic teleportation of matterHawking temperature of Supermassive black holes 10 1 fK Atomic waves coherent over centimeters atomic particles decoherent over centimeters 10 1 pK 50 pK, lowest temperature ever produced, achieved with a rubidium gas. 450 pK, lowest temperature sodium Bose–Einstein condensate gas ever achieved in the laboratory, at MIT 10 1 nK 50 nK, Fermi temperature of potassium-40critical temperature of alkali Bose–Einstein condensates 10 1 μK Nuclear demagnetizationDoppler-cooled refrigerants in laser cooling and magneto-optical traps 10 1 mK Radio excitations 1.7 mK, temperature record for helium-3/helium-4 dilution refrigeration, and the lowest temperature which ...more...

List of United States servicemembers and civilians missing in action during the Vietnam War (1961–65)


This article is a list of US MIAs of the Vietnam War in the period 1961–1965. In 1973, the United States listed 2,646 Americans as unaccounted for from the entire Vietnam War. By August 2017, 1604 Americans remained unaccounted for, of which 1026 were classified as further pursuit, 488 as no further pursuit and 90 as deferred. 1961 Date missing Surname, First name(s) Rank Service Unit Operation/Battle Name Location Circumstances of loss Recovery status January 13 Duffy, Charles J Civilian Laos, Vientiane Civilian with the US mission in Vientiane captured by Pathet Lao while hunting north of Vientiane. He is believed to have died in captivity in 1962 Presumptive finding of death March 23 Bankowski, Alfons A Staff Sergeant USAF 314th Air Division Laos, Xiangkhouang Province Passenger on an SC-47 shot down by Pathet Lao while on an intelligence gathering flight, only one passenger was captured by the Pathet Lao and returned following the International Agreement on the Neutrality of Laos. The remains of ...more...

Stochastic process


In probability theory and related fields, a stochastic or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a collection of random variables . Historically, the random variables were associated with or indexed by a set of numbers, usually viewed as points in time, giving the interpretation of a stochastic process representing numerical values of some system randomly changing over time , such as the growth of a bacterial population, an electrical current fluctuating due to thermal noise , or the movement of a gas molecule . Stochastic processes are widely used as mathematical models of systems and phenomena that appear to vary in a random manner. They have applications in many disciplines including sciences such as biology , chemistry , ecology , neuroscience , and physics as well as technology and engineering fields such as image processing , signal processing , information theory , computer science , cryptography and telecommunications . Furthermore, seemingly random changes in financial market ...more...

List of accidents and incidents involving military aircraft (1990–99)


This is a list of notable accidents and incidents involving military aircraft grouped by the year in which the accident or incident occurred. Not all of the aircraft were in operation at the time. For more exhaustive lists, see the Aircraft Crash Record Office or the Air Safety Network or the Dutch Scramble Website Brush and Dustpan Database . Combat losses are not included except for a very few cases denoted by singular circumstances. Aircraft terminology Information on aircraft gives the type, and if available, the serial number of the operator in italics, the constructors number if the serial number is not known, also known as the manufacturer's serial number (c/n), exterior codes in apostrophes, nicknames (if any) in quotation marks, flight callsign in italics, and operating units. 1990 12 January USMC Douglas A-4M Skyhawk , 158149, of VMA-131 , crashes on approach to NAS Willow Grove , Pennsylvania , after an engine fire, coming down in Upper Moreland Township , impacting in an intersection, debris teari ...more...

USS Blue Ridge (LCC-19)


USS Blue Ridge (LCC-19) is the lead ship of the two Blue Ridge–class command ships of the United States Navy, and is the command ship of the United States Seventh Fleet. Her primary role is to provide command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I) support to the commander and staff of the United States Seventh Fleet. She is currently forward-deployed to U.S. Navy Fleet Activities, Yokosuka in Japan, and is the third Navy ship named after the Blue Ridge Mountains, a range of mountains in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States. Blue Ridge is the oldest deployable warship of the U.S. Navy, following the decommissioning of USS Denver (LPD-9) in Pearl Harbor on 14 August 2014. Blue Ridge, now the U.S. Navy's active commissioned ship having the longest total period as active, flies the First Navy Jack. Blue Ridge is expected to remain in service until 2039. History Commissioning on 14 Nov 1970 USS Blue Ridge (LCC-19) was put "in commission special" on 14 November 1970, ...more...

Roman Empire


The Roman Empire (Latin: Imperium Rōmānum, Classical Latin: ; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr. Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia. The city of Rome was the largest city in the world c. 100 BC – c. AD 400, with Constantinople (New Rome) becoming the largest around AD 500, and the Empire's populace grew to an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population at the time). The 500-year-old republic which preceded it was severely destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict, during which Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and then assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Oct ...more...

Battle of Huế


The Battle of Huế (also called the Siege of Huế), was one of the bloodiest and longest battles of the Vietnam War. In February 1968, in the South Vietnamese city of Huế, 11 battalions of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), four U.S. Army battalions, and three understrength U.S. Marine Corps battalions, for a total of 18 battalions, defeated 10 battalions of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN or NVA) and the Viet Cong (VC). With the beginning of the North Vietnamese Tet Offensive on January 30, 1968, the Vietnamese lunar New Year (Vietnamese: Tết Nguyên Đán), large conventional American forces had been committed to combat upon Vietnamese soil for almost three years. Passing through the city of Huế, Highway 1 was an important supply line for ARVN, US, and Allied Forces from the coastal city of Đà Nẵng to the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). It also provided access to the Perfume River (Vietnamese: Sông Hương or Hương Giang) at the point where the river ran through Huế, dividing the city into ...more...

1983 Beirut barracks bombings


The 1983 Beirut barracks bombings were attacks that occurred on October 23, 1983, in Beirut , Lebanon , during the Lebanese Civil War when two truck bombs struck separate buildings housing Multinational Force in Lebanon (MNF) peacekeepers , specifically against United States and French service members , killing 241 U.S. and 58 French peacekeepers, 6 civilians , and the 2 suicide attackers . A group called ' Islamic Jihad ' claimed responsibility for the bombings and said that the bombings were aimed to get the MNF out of Lebanon. According to Caspar Weinberger United States Secretary of Defense at the time, there is no actual knowledge of who did the bombing. While Israeli analyst Shimon Shapira points finger at Hezbollah and Iran, they have all continued to deny any involvement in any of the bombings. A fanatic Iranian group erected a monument in a cemetery in Tehran to commemorate the 1983 bombings and its "martyrs" in 2004. Two suicide bombers detonated each of the truck bombs. In the attack on the build ...more...

Conserved sequence


A sequence alignment of mammalian histone proteins Sequences are the amino acids for residues 120-180 of the proteins. Residues that are conserved across all sequences are highlighted in grey. Below the protein sequences is a key denoting conserved sequence (*), conservative mutations (:), semi-conservative mutations (.), and non-conservative mutations . In evolutionary biology , conserved sequences are similar or identical sequences in nucleic acids ( DNA and RNA ) or proteins across species ( orthologous sequences ) or within a genome ( paralogous sequences ). Conservation indicates that a sequence has been maintained by natural selection . A highly conserved sequence is one that has remained relatively unchanged far back up the phylogenetic tree , and hence far back in geological time . Examples of highly conserved sequences include the RNA components of ribosomes present in all domains of life, the homeobox sequences widespread amongst Eukaryotes , and the tmRNA in Bacteria . The study of sequence conserv ...more...

Fall of Saigon


The Fall of Saigon was the capture of Saigon , the capital of South Vietnam , by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (also known as the Việt Cộng ) on 30 April 1975. The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period to the formal reunification of Vietnam under the Socialist Republic of Vietnam . The PAVN, under the command of General Văn Tiến Dũng , began their final attack on Saigon on April 29, 1975, with the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) forces commanded by General Nguyễn Văn Toàn suffering a heavy artillery bombardment. This bombardment at the Tân Sơn Nhất Airport killed the last two American servicemen to die in Vietnam, Charles McMahon and Darwin Judge . By the afternoon of the next day, the PAVN had occupied the important points of the city and raised their flag over the South Vietnamese presidential palace . The city was renamed Hồ Chí Minh City, after the late North Vietnamese President Hồ Chí Minh . The captu ...more...

Activity recognition


Activity recognition aims to recognize the actions and goals of one or more agents from a series of observations on the agents' actions and the environmental conditions. Since the 1980s, this research field has captured the attention of several computer science communities due to its strength in providing personalized support for many different applications and its connection to many different fields of study such as medicine, human-computer interaction, or sociology. Due to its many-faceted nature, different fields may refer to activity recognition as plan recognition, goal recognition, intent recognition, behavior recognition, location estimation and location-based services. Types of activity recognition Sensor-based, single-user activity recognition Sensor-based activity recognition integrates the emerging area of sensor networks with novel data mining and machine learning techniques to model a wide range of human activities. Mobile devices (e.g. smart phones) provide sufficient sensor data and cal ...more...

Typhoon Megi (2010)


Typhoon Megi ( pronounced  ), known in the Philippines as Super Typhoon Juan , was one of the most intense tropical cyclones on record. Megi, which means catfish in Korean ( Hangul : 메기), was the only super typhoon in 2010. Early on October 18, Megi made its first landfall over Luzon . By passing Luzon, Megi weakened but gradually regained strength in the South China Sea , before weakening and losing its eyewall in the Taiwan Strait . Megi made its second landfall over Zhangpu in Fujian, China on October 23. Megi killed 31 people and caused $255.1 million (2010 USD) in damage over Luzon, making it one of the costliest typhoons in the Philippines . After moving to the South China Sea, the outflow of Megi and a weather front together brought torrential rainfall, caused $42.2 million (2010 USD) in damage and killed 38 people in Yilan , Taiwan, making Megi the deadliest typhoon of 2010s in Taiwan. Megi also caused $411.7 million (2010 USD) in damage over Fujian, China, although there were no deaths by the stor ...more...

List of accidents and incidents involving military aircraft (1960–74)


This is a list of notable accidents and incidents involving military aircraft grouped by the year in which the accident or incident occurred. Not all of the aircraft were in operation at the time. For more exhaustive lists, see the Aircraft Crash Record Office or the Air Safety Network or the Dutch Scramble Website Brush and Dustpan Database . Combat losses are not included, except for a very few cases denoted by singular circumstances. Aircraft terminology Information on aircraft gives the type, and if available, the serial number of the operator in italics, the constructors number, also known as the manufacturer's serial number (c/n), exterior codes in apostrophes, nicknames (if any) in quotation marks, flight callsign in italics, and operating units. 1960 4 January Three United States Army de Havilland Canada U-1A Otters , of the 329th Engineer Detachment, fly from Wheelus Air Base to Bengazi , Libya, but 55-2974 disappears over the Gulf of Sirte in the Mediterranean in a storm. Aircraft never found. Searc ...more...

13th Marine Expeditionary Unit


The 13th Marine Expeditionary Unit (13th MEU) is one of seven Marine Expeditionary Units currently in existence in the United States Marine Corps. The Marine Expeditionary Unit is a Marine Air Ground Task Force with a strength of about 2,200 personnel. The MEU consists of a command element, a reinforced infantry battalion, a composite aviation squadron and a combat logistics battalion. The 13th MEU is currently based out of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. Mission The mission of the MEU is to provide geographic combatant commanders with a forward-deployed, rapid-response force capable of conducting conventional amphibious and selected maritime special operations at night or under adverse weather conditions from the sea, by surface and/or by air while under communications and electronics restrictions. Current subordinate units Ground Combat Element - 2nd Battalion 1st Marines Aviation Combat Element - VMM-166 Logistics Combat Element - Combat Logistics Battalion 13 History Early years ...more...

List of Crayon Shin-chan episodes


This is a list of Crayon Shin-chan episodes that aired from 1992 to the present. Episodes 1–422 Episodes 423–755 Episodes 756– English dub episodes Vitello dub This is a list of episodes dubbed in English by Vitello Productions in 2002. 52 23-minute episodes (156 5 to 7-minute segments) were dubbed by Vitello. Episodes with segments out of their original Japanese order are indicated by an additional segment number. English episode no. Japanese episode no. Name in English Japanese (Kanji) 1 95 "Playing House" 組長とままごとだゾ "Mom Wants to Drive" 母ちゃんは運転免許がないゾ "Mom Takes Driving Lessons" 運転免許の教習だゾ 2 68 "Mom's Getting Fat" 母ちゃんのダイエットだゾ "I'm a Kiddie Commando" アスレチックするゾ "Dad Lost His Eyebrows" 父ちゃんのマユゲがないゾ 3 61 "P.J. Party with Miss Dori" よしなが先生の私生活だゾ "I Meet a Hishi" 最後のセールスレディだゾ "Mom Wants an Air Conditioner" エアコンを買うゾ 4 81 "I Go Skiing" スキーバス旅行だゾ "Fun at the Ski Lodge" アフタースキーだゾ "Dopes at the Slopes" 家族でスキーだゾ 5 96 "Me Want Cookie" 高級お菓子が食べたいゾ "My Date with Miss Uma" まつざか ...more...

Embassy of the United States, Saigon


The United States Embassy in Saigon was first established in June 1952, and moved into a new building in 1967 and eventually closed in 1975. The embassy was the scene of a number of significant events of the Vietnam War , most notably the Viet Cong attack during the Tet Offensive which helped turn American public opinion against the war, and the helicopter evacuation during the Fall of Saigon after which the embassy closed permanently. In 1995, the U.S. and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam formally established relations and the embassy grounds and building were handed back to the United States. The former embassy was subsequently demolished in 1998 and is currently a park inside of the U.S. Consulate General's compound in what is now called Ho Chi Minh City. First Embassy First U.S. Embassy on Hàm Nghi Boulevard The U.S. diplomatic presence in Saigon was established on December 9, 1907 as a consulate. It acted as a representative to French Indochina succeeding an American commercial agent that had been estab ...more...

List of datasets for machine learning research


These datasets are used for machine-learning research and have been cited in peer-reviewed academic journals and other publications. Datasets are an integral part of the field of machine learning. Major advances in this field can result from advances in learning algorithms (such as deep learning ), computer hardware, and, less-intuitively, the availability of high-quality training datasets. High-quality labeled training datasets for supervised and semi-supervised machine learning algorithms are usually difficult and expensive to produce because of the large amount of time needed to label the data. Although they do not need to be labeled, high-quality datasets for unsupervised learning can also be difficult and costly to produce. This list aggregates high-quality datasets that have been shown to be of value to the machine learning research community from multiple different data repositories to provide greater coverage of the topic than is otherwise available. Image data Datasets consisting primarily of im ...more...

Dominican Civil War


The Dominican Civil War ( Spanish : Guerra Civil Dominicana ) took place between April 24, 1965, and September 3, 1965, in Santo Domingo , Dominican Republic . It started when civilian and military supporters of former President Juan Bosch overthrew acting President Donald Reid Cabral . The coup prompted General Elías Wessin y Wessin to organise elements of the military loyal to President Reid, known as loyalists, initiating an armed campaign against the so-called constitutionalist rebels. Allegations of foreign support for the rebels led to a United States intervention in the conflict, which later transformed into an Organization of American States occupation of the country. Elections were held in 1966, in the aftermath of which Joaquín Balaguer was elected into the presidential seat. Later in the same year international troops departed from the country. Background Constitutionalist troops attempted to reinstate overthrown President Juan Emilio Bosch Gaviño into power. On 19 November 1911, General Luis Tejer ...more...

List of active United States Marine Corps aircraft squadrons


This is a list of all of the active squadrons that exist in the United States Marine Corps, sorted by type. Most squadrons have changed names and designations many times over the years, so they are listed by their current designation. Squadron designations The basic tactical and administrative unit of United States Marine Corps aviation is the squadron. Fixed-wing aircraft squadrons (heavier than air) and tiltrotor squadrons are denoted by the letter "V", which comes from the Spanish verb "volar" (to fly). Rotary wing (helicopter) squadrons use "H." Marine squadrons are always noted by the second letter "M." Squadron numbering is not linear as some were numbered in ascending order and others took numbers from the wing or the ship to which they were assigned. From 1920 to 1941, Marine flying squadrons were identified by one digit numbers. This changed on July 1, 1941 when all existing squadrons were redesignated to a three-digit system. The first two numbers were supposed to identify the squadrons parent ...more...

Easter Offensive


The Easter Offensive (Vietnamese: Chiến dịch Xuân hè 1972 , or Mùa hè đỏ lửa , the Red fiery summer as romanticized in South Vietnamese literature) was a military campaign conducted by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN, the regular army of North Vietnam ) against the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN, the regular army of South Vietnam ) and the United States military between March 30 and October 22, 1972, during the Vietnam War . This conventional invasion (the largest offensive operation since 300,000 Chinese volunteers had crossed the Yalu River into North Korea during the Korean War ) was a radical departure from previous North Vietnamese offensives. The offensive was not designed to win the war outright but to gain as much territory and destroy as many units of the ARVN as possible, to improve the North's negotiating position as the Paris Peace Accords drew towards a conclusion. The U.S. high command had been expecting an attack in 1972 but the size and ferocity of the assault caught the defenders o ...more...

General-purpose computing on graphics processing units


General-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU, rarely GPGP) is the use of a graphics processing unit (GPU), which typically handles computation only for computer graphics, to perform computation in applications traditionally handled by the central processing unit (CPU). The use of multiple video cards in one computer, or large numbers of graphics chips, further parallelizes the already parallel nature of graphics processing. In addition, even a single GPU-CPU framework provides advantages that multiple CPUs on their own do not offer due to the specialization in each chip. Essentially, a GPGPU pipeline is a kind of parallel processing between one or more GPUs and CPUs that analyzes data as if it were in image or other graphic form. While GPUs operate at lower frequencies, they typically have many times the number of cores. Thus, GPUs can process far more pictures and graphical data per second than a traditional CPU. Migrating data into graphical form and then using the GPU to scan and analyze ...more...

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