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Marine Medium Tilt Rotor Squadron 165 (VMM-165) is a United States Marine Corps Tilt-rotor squadron consisting of MV-22B Osprey transport aircraft. The squadron, known as the "White Knights", is based at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar, California and fall under the command of Marine Aircraft Group 16 (MAG-16) and the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing (3rd MAW).


Provide assault support transport of combat troops, supplies and equipment during expeditionary, joint or combined operations. Be prepared for short-notice, worldwide employment in support of Marine Air-Ground Task Force operations.

Vietnam War

Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 165 was activated on July 1, 1965 at Marine Corps Air Station Santa Ana, California as part of Marine Aircraft Group 36, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing. During August 1965, the White Knights were reassigned to Marine Wing Service Group 37.

In September 1966, the White Knights deployed to the Republic of Vietnam, where they were assigned to Marine Aircraft Group 36, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing. From October 1966 to August 1969, the squadron operated from Kỳ Hà, Hue/Phu Bai, the USS Valley Forge, the USS Tripoli, Marble Mountain area near Da Nang, and from the USS Tarawa. On June 6, 1968, HMM-165 had two of their CH-46As shot down in the vicinity of Khe Sanh. There were no deaths on the first incident but the second crash which occurred at LZ Loon, southeast of Khe Sanh, resulted in the death of 12 of the 23 Marines on board.[2]

Vietnam-era squadron insignia.

In August 1969, the squadron redeployed to Okinawa where it was reassigned to Marine Aircraft Group 15 of the 9th Marine Amphibious Brigade. In December 1969, the squadron again became part of Marine Aircraft Group 36.

During the early 1970s, HMM-165 participated as part of the Special Landing Force in support of activities in the Republic of Vietnam. During July and August 1972, the White Knights took part in Philippine flood relief operations, flying in food and supplies to local populations. At the end of April 1975, helicopters of HMM-165 played a key role in the evacuation of Saigon, Operation Frequent Wind. At 0500 on 30 April 1075, under direct orders from President Gerald Ford, the crew of Lady Ace 09 evacuated U.S. Ambassador Graham Martin from the US Embassy, Saigon, prior to the Fall of Saigon.

A CH-46 in front of an old blimp hangar at Marine Corps Air Station Tustin.
Post Vietnam and the 1980s

In November 1977, the White Knights moved to Marine Corps Air Station Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii where they were reassigned to Marine Aircraft Group 24, the air combat element of the 1st Marine Brigade. At this time the name of the squadron was changed from White Knights to Hawaiian Warriors. The logo on the tail of the aircraft was changed from a traditional knight to that of a profile of a Hawaiian king that resembled the logo of Primo Beer, causing the squadron enlisted to affectionately refer to themselves as, The Primo Warriors..

In December 1979 at a time of high international tension arising from the Iran hostage crisis and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, HMM-165 deployed to the Arabian Sea with the 31st Marine Amphibious Unit (31st MAU) on board the USS Okinawa (LPH-3). Their mission was to deter Soviet Aggression under the orders of then President Jimmy Carter. This policy would later be named the Carter Doctrine. At the same time, the squadron served in a minor support role for the Hostage Rescue Attempt in Iran.[3]

Upon returning to Hawaii in June 1980, the following winter produced a severe storm that damaged electrical lines crossing Oahu and HMM-165 assisted local officials in replacing these downed lines.

In 1981, HMM-165 was again deployed to the Western Pacific and Arabian Sea with the 31st MAU on board the USS Belleau Wood (LHA-3). Their name changed back to The White Knights and replaced the tail insignia with a traditional White Knight helmet. HMM-165 performed humanitarian work assisting the government of Sri Lanka in delivering television transmitters to a remote site providing the people of Sri Lanka full national coverage of their television station for the first time.

During April 1983 HMM-165 became the Air Combat Element (ACE) of the 31st Marine Amphibious Unit. The squadron was reinforced with 2 UH-1s, 4 AH-1s, 4 CH-53s, and 6 AV-8s in addition to its 12 CH-46s and was redesignated as HMM(C)Rein-165. The squadron deployed to the western Pacific and Indian Oceans and completed contingency operations in the Okinawa, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Kenya, and Somalia. The reinforced squadron was diverted to Beirut, Lebanon, where they conducted contingency operations in Lebanon, Cyprus, and Israel from the deck of the USS Tarawa (LHA-1). The squadron returned to Kaneohe Bay in time for Christmas. In December 1989, the White Knights supported American interests, to include reinforcement of the American Embassy, in the Republic of the Philippines during that country's coupe attempt.

The Gulf War & the 1990s

In August 1990, the squadron was sent to Saudi Arabia to participate in Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm. The White Knights returned home from Saudi Arabia in March 1991. HMM-165 was the "last squadron in the Philippine Islands" when they supported the special purpose MAGTF from July to November 1992. From September to October 1992 a detachment was sent to Cambodia to participate in Joint Task Force Full Accounting. The squadron aided the task force in the search for remains of MIA's from the war in Vietnam. In March 1993, another detachment from HMM-165 was sent to Cambodia to participate in Joint Task Force Full Accounting; this time the mission was cut short when the task force base camp was attacked by mortar fire in April 1993.


As a result of the Base Realignment And Closure Committee's (BRAC) actions HMM-165 was reassigned from the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing Aviation Support Element, Marine Corps Base Hawaii, to Marine Aircraft Group 16, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, Marine Corps Air Station El Toro, California on May 15, 1996.

HMM-165 moved to MCAS Miramar, San Diego, California in November 1998 as the result of additional BRAC requirements. In December 1998 HMM-165 was designated the Aviation Combat Element for the 11th Marine Expeditionary Unit.

Global War on Terror

In July 2001, HMM-165 was designated the Aviation Combat Element for the 13th Marine Expeditionary Unit. After the terror attacks of September 11, 2001, HMM-165 deployed in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan.

The White Knights received orders to deploy to Iraq in December 2002. Beginning in January, HMM-165 deployed on the USS Boxer (LHD-4) and cruised to the Persian Gulf. After offloading in Kuwait, the squadron was tasked with supporting Regimental Combat Team 1 (RCT-1) for the duration of Operation Iraqi Freedom. On the night of April 1, 2003, HMM-165 comprised the CH-46 element of Task Force 20, the special team that extracted prisoner of war Army PFC Jessica Lynch.

The squadron redeployed to Iraq in September 2006 attached to the 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit. On December 3, 2006 a helicopter carrying 16 personnel made an emergency landing on Lake Qadisiyah in Al Anbar Province. Four of the passengers drowned in the incident.[4] They returned to Camp Pendleton on May 30, 2007.

In June 2010, the unit again sailed with the 15th MEU aboard USS Peleliu, marking the last deployment of its CH-46s. The squadron demonstrated its prowess in a wide variety of missions as the White Knights headed up Task Force Ghazi in Khyber, Pakhtunkhwa Province, Northern Pakistan and Task Force South in the Sindh Province, Southern Pakistan in support of Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief operations.

HMM-165 transitioned to the V-22 Osprey on March 1, 2011 and were subsequently re-designated Marine Medium Tiltrotor Squadron 165 (VMM-165).[5] On 6 October 2012, a MV-22 Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft from squadron VMM-165 land and refueled on board the USS Nimitz (CVN-68). This operation was part of an evaluation of the feasibility of the MV-22 as a potential replacement for the C-2 Greyhound carrier onboard delivery (COD) cargo transport aircraft.[6]

In July 2013, VMM-165 deployed to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. Upon arriving at Camp Bastion, Afghanistan, the squadron assumed the duties of assault support for Regional Command Southwest [RC(SW)]. During their seven-month deployment to Afghanistan, the White Knights of VMM-165 conducted assault support, battlefield illumination, VIP transport, and CASEVAC in support of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) effort in Helmand Province.

Unit awards

A unit citation or commendation is an award bestowed upon an organization for the action cited. Members of the unit who participated in said actions are allowed to wear on their uniforms the awarded unit citation. VMM-165 has been presented with the following awards:

Streamer Award Year(s) Additional Info
U.S. Navy Presidential Unit Citation streamer.png Presidential Unit Citation Streamer with one Bronze Star 1966–1967, 1968,2003 Vietnam War, Iraq
Navy Unit Commendation streamer.png Navy Unit Commendation Streamer with three Bronze Stars 1968, 1968, 1969, 1972 Vietnam War
Meritorious Unit Commendation (Navy-Marine) Streamer.jpg Meritorious Unit Commendation Streamer with three Bronze Stars 1972, 1975 Vietnam War
Streamer NDS.PNG National Defense Service Streamer with two Bronze Stars 1961–1974, 1990–1995, 2001–present Vietnam War, Gulf War, War on Terrorism
Streamer AFE.PNG Armed Forces Expeditionary Streamer Somalia
Streamer VS.PNG Vietnam Service Streamer with two Silver and three Bronze Stars July 1965 - April 1971, April - December 1975
Streamer SAS.PNG Southwest Asia Service Streamer September 1990 - February 1991 Desert Shield, Desert Storm
Streamer IQCS.PNG Iraq Campaign Streamer January - July 2003, March - April 2005, November 2006 - April 2007
ACM 1B.PNG Afghanistan Campaign Streamer with one Bronze Star August 2013 - February 2014
Streamer gwotE.PNG Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Streamer March - May 2003, April - October 2015 Operation Inherent Resolve
Streamer gwotS.PNG Global War on Terrorism Service Streamer 2001–present
VGCP Streamer.jpg Vietnam Gallantry Cross with Palm Streamer
See also
  1. Paying Tribute to the 'Lady Ace 09'
  2. "PALACIOS, LUIS FERNANDO - Remains ID announce 11/05/08". pownetwork.org. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
  3. [1]
  4. "Incident Date 061203 HMM-165 CH-46E unknown Mechanical failure", USMC Combat Helicopter Association, 08 February 2007
  5. Velasquez, Cpl Gabriel (June 1, 2010). "'White Knights' Ride With Their Trusty 'steed' One Last Time". 15th MEU Public Affairs. USS Peleliu: United States Marine Corps. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
  6. "MV-22 Osprey Flight Operations Tested Aboard USS Nimitz". Avionics Intelligence. PennWell Corporation. October 9, 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-09. and Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Renee Candelario, USN (October 8, 2012). "MV-22 Osprey Flight Operations Tested Aboard USS Nimitz". NNS121008-13. USS Nimitz Public Affairs. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
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Marine Medium Tilt Rotor Squadron 165 ( VMM-165 ) is a United States Marine Corps Tilt-rotor squadron consisting of MV-22B Osprey transport aircraft. The squadron, known as the "White Knights", is based at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar , California and fall under the command of Marine Aircraft Group 16 (MAG-16) and the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing (3rd MAW). Mission Provide assault support transport of combat troops, supplies and equipment during expeditionary, joint or combined operations. Be prepared for short-notice, worldwide employment in support of Marine Air-Ground Task Force operations. History Vietnam War Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 165 was activated on July 1, 1965 at Marine Corps Air Station Santa Ana , California as part of Marine Aircraft Group 36 , 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing . During August 1965, the White Knights were reassigned to Marine Wing Service Group 37 . In September 1966, the White Knights deployed to the Republic of Vietnam , where they were assigned to Marine Aircraft Group 36 , 1 ...more...



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Typhoon Megi (2010)


Typhoon Megi ( pronounced  ), known in the Philippines as Super Typhoon Juan , was one of the most intense tropical cyclones on record. Megi, which means catfish in Korean ( Hangul : 메기), was the only super typhoon in 2010. Early on October 18, Megi made its first landfall over Luzon . By passing Luzon, Megi weakened but gradually regained strength in the South China Sea , before weakening and losing its eyewall in the Taiwan Strait . Megi made its second landfall over Zhangpu in Fujian, China on October 23. Megi killed 31 people and caused $255.1 million (2010 USD) in damage over Luzon, making it one of the costliest typhoons in the Philippines . After moving to the South China Sea, the outflow of Megi and a weather front together brought torrential rainfall, caused $42.2 million (2010 USD) in damage and killed 38 people in Yilan , Taiwan, making Megi the deadliest typhoon of 2010 in Taiwan. Megi also caused $411.7 million (2010 USD) in damage over Fujian, China, although there were no deaths by the storm ...more...

List of accidents and incidents involving military aircraft (1990–99)


This is a list of notable accidents and incidents involving military aircraft grouped by the year in which the accident or incident occurred. Not all of the aircraft were in operation at the time. For more exhaustive lists, see the Aircraft Crash Record Office or the Air Safety Network or the Dutch Scramble Website Brush and Dustpan Database . Combat losses are not included except for a very few cases denoted by singular circumstances. Aircraft terminology Information on aircraft gives the type, and if available, the serial number of the operator in italics, the constructors number if the serial number is not known, also known as the manufacturer's serial number (c/n), exterior codes in apostrophes, nicknames (if any) in quotation marks, flight callsign in italics, and operating units. 1990 12 January USMC Douglas A-4M Skyhawk , 158149, of VMA-131 , crashes on approach to NAS Willow Grove , Pennsylvania , after an engine fire, coming down in Upper Moreland Township , impacting in an intersection, debris teari ...more...

Operation Frequent Wind


Operation Frequent Wind was the final phase in the evacuation of American civilians and "at-risk" Vietnamese from Saigon , South Vietnam prior to the takeover of the city by the North Vietnamese Army (PAVN) in the Fall of Saigon . It was carried out on 29–30 April 1975, during the last days of the Vietnam War . More than 7,000 people were evacuated by helicopter from various points in Saigon. The airlift resulted in a number of enduring images. Evacuation plans already existed as a standard procedure for American embassies. At the beginning of March, fixed-wing aircraft began evacuating civilians from Tan Son Nhat Airport through neighboring countries. By mid-April, contingency plans were in place and preparations were underway for a possible helicopter evacuation. As the imminent collapse of Saigon became evident, Task Force 76 (TF76) was assembled off the coast near Vung Tau to support a helicopter evacuation and provide air support if required. In the event, air support was not needed as the North Vietname ...more...

Proto-Hmong–Mien language


The Proto-Hmong–Mien language is the reconstructed ancestor of the Hmong–Mien languages . The time of proto-Hmong-Mien has been estimated to be about 2500 BP by Sagart, Blench, and Sanchez-Mazas and about 4243 BP by the Automated Similarity Judgment Program (ASJP). Lower-level reconstructions include Proto-Hmongic and Proto-Mienic. Reconstructions Past reconstructions include Wang & Mao (1995). Ratliff (2010) Ratliff (2010) used 11 criterion languages for her reconstruction. East Hmongic ( Qiandong ); Northern vernacular: Yanghao 养蒿, Yanghao Township, Taijiang County , Guizhou North Hmongic ( Xiangxi ); Western vernacular: Jiwei 吉卫, Jiwei Township, Huayuan County , Hunan West Hmongic ( Chuanqiandian ): White Hmong of Laos and Thailand West Hmongic ( Chuanqiandian ); Mashan subdialect, Central vernacular: Zongdi 宗地, Zongdi Township, Ziyun County , Guizhou West Hmongic ( Chuanqiandian ); Luopohe subdialect: Fuyuan 复员, Fuyuan County , Yunnan Hmongic; Jiongnai : Changdong Township 长垌, Jinxiu County , Guangx ...more...

Embassy of the United States, Saigon


The United States Embassy in Saigon was first established in June 1952, and moved into a new building in 1967 and eventually closed in 1975. The embassy was the scene of a number of significant events of the Vietnam War , most notably the Viet Cong attack during the Tet Offensive which helped turn American public opinion against the war, and the helicopter evacuation during the Fall of Saigon after which the embassy closed permanently. In 1995, the U.S. and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam formally established relations and the embassy grounds and building were handed back to the United States. The former embassy was subsequently demolished in 1998 and is currently a park inside of the U.S. Consulate General's compound in what is now called Ho Chi Minh City. First Embassy First U.S. Embassy on Hàm Nghi Boulevard The U.S. diplomatic presence in Saigon was established on December 9, 1907 as a consulate. It acted as a representative to French Indochina succeeding an American commercial agent that had been estab ...more...

Easter Offensive


The Easter Offensive (Vietnamese: Chiến dịch Xuân hè 1972 , or Mùa hè đỏ lửa , the Red fiery summer as romanticized in South Vietnamese literature) was a military campaign conducted by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN, the regular army of North Vietnam ) against the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN, the regular army of South Vietnam ) and the United States military between March 30 and October 22, 1972, during the Vietnam War . This conventional invasion (the largest offensive operation since 300,000 Chinese volunteers had crossed the Yalu River into North Korea during the Korean War ) was a radical departure from previous North Vietnamese offensives. The offensive was not designed to win the war outright but to gain as much territory and destroy as many units of the ARVN as possible, to improve the North's negotiating position as the Paris Peace Accords drew towards a conclusion. The U.S. high command had been expecting an attack in 1972 but the size and ferocity of the assault caught the defenders o ...more...

Battle of Huế


The Battle of Huế (also called the Siege of Huế), was one of the bloodiest and longest battles of the Vietnam War . In February 1968, in the South Vietnamese city of Huế , 11 battalions of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), four U.S. Army battalions, and three understrength U.S. Marine Corps battalions, for a total of 18 battalions, defeated 10 battalions of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN or NVA) and the Viet Cong (VC). With the beginning of the North Vietnamese Tet Offensive on January 30, 1968, the Vietnamese lunar New Year (Vietnamese: Tết Nguyên Đán ), large conventional American forces had been committed to combat upon Vietnamese soil for almost three years. Passing through the city of Huế, Highway 1 was an important supply line for ARVN, US, and Allied Forces from the coastal city of Đà Nẵng to the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). It also provided access to the Perfume River (Vietnamese: Sông Hương or Hương Giang) at the point where the river ran through Huế, dividing the city into nort ...more...

Learning to rank


Learning to rank or machine-learned ranking (MLR) is the application of machine learning , typically supervised , semi-supervised or reinforcement learning , in the construction of ranking models for information retrieval systems. Training data consists of lists of items with some partial order specified between items in each list. This order is typically induced by giving a numerical or ordinal score or a binary judgment (e.g. "relevant" or "not relevant") for each item. The ranking model's purpose is to rank, i.e. produce a permutation of items in new, unseen lists in a way which is "similar" to rankings in the training data in some sense. Applications In information retrieval A possible architecture of a machine-learned search engine. Ranking is a central part of many information retrieval problems, such as document retrieval , collaborative filtering , sentiment analysis , and online advertising . A possible architecture of a machine-learned search engine is shown in the figure to the right. Training data ...more...

List of biological databases


Biological databases are stores of biological information. The journal Nucleic Acids Research regularly publishes special issues on biological databases and has a list of such databases. For instance, the 2016 issue has a list of about 180 such databases and updates to previously described databases. Meta Databases Meta databases are databases of databases that collect data about data to generate new data. They are capable of merging information from different sources and making it available in a new and more convenient form, or with an emphasis on a particular disease or organism. BioGraph ( University of Antwerp , Vlaams Instituut voor Biotechnologie ) A knowledge discovery service based on the integration of more than 20 heterogeneous databases Neuroscience Information Framework ( University of California, San Diego ) – Integrates hundreds of neuroscience relevant resources, many are listed below. ConsensusPathDB – A molecular functional interaction database, integrating information from 12 other database ...more...

Activity recognition


Activity recognition aims to recognize the actions and goals of one or more agents from a series of observations on the agents' actions and the environmental conditions. Since the 1980s, this research field has captured the attention of several computer science communities due to its strength in providing personalized support for many different applications and its connection to many different fields of study such as medicine, human-computer interaction, or sociology. Due to its many-faceted nature, different fields may refer to activity recognition as plan recognition, goal recognition, intent recognition, behavior recognition, location estimation and location-based services. Types of activity recognition Sensor-based, single-user activity recognition Sensor -based activity recognition integrates the emerging area of sensor networks with novel data mining and machine learning techniques to model a wide range of human activities. Mobile devices (e.g. smart phones) provide sufficient sensor data and calculat ...more...

List of aviation shootdowns and accidents during the Iraq War


This list of aviation shootdowns and accidents during the Iraq War includes incidents with Coalition and civilian aircraft during the Iraq War . According to media reports, 129 helicopters and 24 fixed-wing aircraft have been lost in Iraq since the 2003 invasion , up to February 2009. Of these incidents, 46 have been attributed to hostile fire, such as anti-aircraft artillery and surface-to-air missiles . In March 2007, Brig. Gen. Stephen Mundt said that 130 helicopters had been lost in both Iraq and Afghanistan, about a third to hostile fire, and he was concerned that they were not being replaced fast enough. A report published in "Aircraft Survivability" in Summer 2010 gave a total of 375 U.S. helicopters lost in Iraq and Afghanistan up to 2009. Of these, 70 were downed by hostile fire, with the other 305 losses classified as non-hostile / non-combat events. Unmanned aircraft of any type are not included in the list below. At least 283 personnel have been killed in helicopter crashes since the invasion, an ...more...

Hurricane Inez


Hurricane Inez was a major hurricane that affected the Caribbean , Bahamas , Florida , and Mexico in 1966. It was the first storm on record to affect all of those areas. It originated from a tropical wave over Africa, and became a tropical depression by September 21. It moved slowly westward, initially failing to intensify much; it was upgraded to Tropical Storm Inez on September 24. The storm strengthened into a hurricane and was quickly intensifying when it struck the French overseas region of Guadeloupe on September 27. Inez severely damaged the island's banana and sugar crops, and thousands of homes were damaged, leaving 10,000 people homeless. Damage on Guadeloupe was estimated at $50 million, and there were 40 deaths. After entering the Caribbean, Inez briefly weakened before restrengthening, attaining peak sustained winds of 150 mph (240 km/h) on September 28. That day a hurricane hunters flight reported a gust of 197 mph (317 km/h), which was the highest recorded at the time. Continuing westward, Ine ...more...

Poisson point process


In probability , statistics and related fields, a Poisson point process or Poisson process (also called a Poisson random measure , Poisson random point field or Poisson point field ) is a type of random mathematical object that consists of points randomly located on a mathematical space . The point process has convenient mathematical properties, which has led to it being frequently defined in Euclidean space and used as a mathematical model for seemingly random processes in numerous disciplines such as astronomy , biology , ecology , geology , physics , economics , image processing , and telecommunications . The Poisson point process is often defined on the real line , where it can be considered as a stochastic process . In this setting, it is used, for example, in queueing theory to model random events, such as the arrival of customers at a store or phone calls at an exchange, distributed in time. In the plane , the point process, also known as a spatial Poisson process , can represent the locations of s ...more...

Boeing Vertol CH-46 Sea Knight


The Boeing Vertol CH-46 Sea Knight is a medium-lift tandem-rotor transport helicopter powered by twin turboshaft aircraft engines designed by Vertol and manufactured by Boeing Vertol following Vertol's acquisition by Boeing . Development of the Sea Knight, which was originally designated by the firm as the Vertol Model 107 , commenced during 1956. It was envisioned as a successor to the first generation of rotorcraft, such as the H-21 "Flying Banana", that had been powered by piston engines ; in its place, the V-107 made use of the emergent turboshaft engine. On 22 April 1958, the V-107 prototype performed its maiden flight . During June 1958, the U.S. Army awarded a contract for the construction of ten production-standard aircraft, designated as the YHC-1A , based on the V-107; this initial order was later cut down to three YHC-1As though. During 1961, the U.S. Marine Corps , who had been studying its requirements for a medium-lift, twin-turbine troop/cargo assault helicopter, selected Boeing Vertol's model ...more...

Stochastic process


In probability theory and related fields, a stochastic or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a collection of random variables . Historically, the random variables were associated with or indexed by a set of numbers, usually viewed as points in time, giving the interpretation of a stochastic process representing numerical values of some system randomly changing over time , such as the growth of a bacterial population, an electrical current fluctuating due to thermal noise , or the movement of a gas molecule . Stochastic processes are widely used as mathematical models of systems and phenomena that appear to vary in a random manner. They have applications in many disciplines including sciences such as biology , chemistry , ecology , neuroscience , and physics as well as technology and engineering fields such as image processing , signal processing , information theory , computer science , cryptography and telecommunications . Furthermore, seemingly random changes in financial market ...more...

Fall of Saigon


The Fall or (depending on the context) the Liberation of Saigon was the capture of Saigon , the capital of South Vietnam , by the People's Army of Vietnam and the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (also known as the Việt Cộng ) on 30 April 1975. The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period to the formal reunification of Vietnam under the Socialist Republic . North Vietnamese forces, under the command of General Văn Tiến Dũng , began their final attack on Saigon on April 29, 1975, with the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) forces commanded by General Nguyễn Văn Toàn suffering a heavy artillery bombardment. This bombardment at the Tân Sơn Nhất Airport killed the last two American servicemen to die in Vietnam, Charles McMahon and Darwin Judge . By the afternoon of the next day, North Vietnamese troops had occupied the important points of the city and raised their flag over the South Vietnamese presidential palace . The South Vietnamese government capitulated sho ...more...

Time series


A time series is a series of data points indexed (or listed or graphed) in time order. Most commonly, a time series is a sequence taken at successive equally spaced points in time. Thus it is a sequence of discrete-time data. Examples of time series are heights of ocean tides , counts of sunspots , and the daily closing value of the Dow Jones Industrial Average . Time series are very frequently plotted via line charts . Time series are used in statistics , signal processing , pattern recognition , econometrics , mathematical finance , weather forecasting , intelligent transport and trajectory forecasting , container shipping freight rate forecasting , earthquake prediction , electroencephalography , control engineering , astronomy , communications engineering , and largely in any domain of applied science and engineering which involves temporal measurements. Time series analysis comprises methods for analyzing time series data in order to extract meaningful statistics and other characteristics of the data. Ti ...more...

Orders of magnitude (temperature)


List of orders of magnitude for temperature Factor Multiple Item 0 0 K Absolute zero : free bodies are still , no interaction within or without a thermodynamic system 10 10 yK Particular speeds bound paths to exceed size and lifetime of the universe (see least-energy in orders of magnitude (energy) ) 10 1 aK Macroscopic teleportation of matter Hawking temperature of Supermassive black holes 10 1 fK Atomic waves coherent over centimeters atomic particles decoherent over centimeters 10 1 pK 50 pK, lowest temperature ever produced, achieved with a rubidium gas. 450 pK, lowest temperature sodium Bose–Einstein condensate gas ever achieved in the laboratory, at MIT 10 1 nK 50 nK, Fermi temperature of potassium -40 critical temperature of alkali Bose–Einstein condensates 10 1 μK Nuclear demagnetization Doppler -cooled refrigerants in laser cooling and magneto-optical traps 10 1 mK Radio excitations 1.7 mK, temperature record for helium-3 / helium-4 dilution refrigeration , and the lowest temperature which may be s ...more...

Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey


The Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey is an American multi-mission, tiltrotor military aircraft with both vertical takeoff and landing ( VTOL ), and short takeoff and landing ( STOL ) capabilities. It is designed to combine the functionality of a conventional helicopter with the long-range, high-speed cruise performance of a turboprop aircraft. The failure of Operation Eagle Claw during the Iran hostage crisis in 1980 underscored the requirement for a new long-range, high-speed, vertical-takeoff aircraft for the United States Department of Defense . In response, the Joint-service Vertical take-off/landing Experimental (JVX) aircraft program started in 1981. A partnership between Bell Helicopter and Boeing Helicopters was awarded a development contract in 1983 for the V-22 tiltrotor aircraft. The Bell Boeing team jointly produce the aircraft. The V-22 first flew in 1989, and began flight testing and design alterations; the complexity and difficulties of being the first tiltrotor for military service led to many years o ...more...

Convolutional neural network


In machine learning , a convolutional neural network ( CNN , or ConvNet ) is a class of deep, feed-forward artificial neural networks that has successfully been applied to analyzing visual imagery. CNNs use a variation of multilayer perceptrons designed to require minimal preprocessing . They are also known as shift invariant or space invariant artificial neural networks ( SIANN ), based on their shared-weights architecture and translation invariance characteristics. Convolutional networks were inspired by biological processes in which the connectivity pattern between neurons is inspired by the organization of the animal visual cortex . Individual cortical neurons respond to stimuli only in a restricted region of the visual field known as the receptive field . The receptive fields of different neurons partially overlap such that they cover the entire visual field. CNNs use relatively little pre-processing compared to other image classification algorithms . This means that the network learns the filters that ...more...

1983 Beirut barracks bombings


The 1983 Beirut barracks bombings were attacks that occurred on October 23, 1983, in Beirut , Lebanon , during the Lebanese Civil War when two truck bombs struck separate buildings housing Multinational Force in Lebanon (MNF) peacekeepers , specifically against United States and French service members , killing 241 U.S. and 58 French peacekeepers, 6 civilians , and the 2 suicide attackers . A group called ' Islamic Jihad ' claimed responsibility for the bombings and said that the bombings were aimed to get the MNF out of Lebanon. According to Caspar Weinberger defense minister of America at the time, there is no actual knowledge of who did the bombing. While Israeli analyst Shimon Shapira points finger at Hezbollah and Iran, they have all continued to deny any involvement in any of the bombings. A fanatic Iranian group erected a monument in a cemetery in Tehran to commemorate the 1983 bombings and its "martyrs" in 2004. Two suicide bombers detonated each of the truck bombs. In the attack on the building ser ...more...

Roman Empire


The Roman Empire ( Latin : Imperium Rōmānum ; Classical Latin:  Koine and Medieval Greek : Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr. Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn ) was the post- Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization , characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia. The city of Rome was the largest city in the world c.  100 BC – c.  AD 400 , with Constantinople (New Rome) becoming the largest around AD 500, and the Empire's populace grew to an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants (roughly 20% of the world's population at the time). The 500-year-old republic which preceded it was severely destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict, during which Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and then assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian , Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation o ...more...

List of accidents and incidents involving military aircraft (1960–74)


This is a list of notable accidents and incidents involving military aircraft grouped by the year in which the accident or incident occurred. Not all of the aircraft were in operation at the time. For more exhaustive lists, see the Aircraft Crash Record Office or the Air Safety Network or the Dutch Scramble Website Brush and Dustpan Database . Combat losses are not included, except for a very few cases denoted by singular circumstances. Aircraft terminology Information on aircraft gives the type, and if available, the serial number of the operator in italics, the constructors number, also known as the manufacturer's serial number (c/n), exterior codes in apostrophes, nicknames (if any) in quotation marks, flight callsign in italics, and operating units. 1960 4 January Three United States Army de Havilland Canada U-1A Otters , of the 329th Engineer Detachment, fly from Wheelus Air Base to Bengazi , Libya, but 55-2974 disappears over the Gulf of Sirte in the Mediterranean in a storm. Aircraft never found. Searc ...more...

Hidden Markov model


Hidden Markov Model ( HMM ) is a statistical Markov model in which the system being modeled is assumed to be a Markov process with unobserved (i.e. hidden) states. The hidden markov model can be represented as the simplest dynamic Bayesian network . The mathematics behind the HMM were developed by L. E. Baum and coworkers. HMM is closely related to an earlier work on the optimal nonlinear filtering problem by Ruslan L. Stratonovich , who was the first to describe the forward-backward procedure . In simpler Markov models (like a Markov chain ), the state is directly visible to the observer, and therefore the state transition probabilities are the only parameters, while in the hidden Markov model, the state is not directly visible, but the output, dependent on the state, is visible. Each state has a probability distribution over the possible output tokens. Therefore, the sequence of tokens generated by an HMM gives some information about the sequence of states. The adjective hidden refers to the state se ...more...

List of allied military operations of the Vietnam War (1965)


This article is a list of known military operations of the Vietnam War in 1965, conducted by the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam , the United States and their allies. Date Duration Operation Name Unit(s) – Description Location VC – NVA KIA 's Allied KIA's 1965–72 Operation Footboy MACVSOG covert operations in North Vietnam and North Vietnamese waters for the purpose of collecting intelligence, conducting psychological warfare operations, and other activities to create dissension among the populace, and for diversion of North Vietnamese resources North Vietnam Jan 5 Unnamed Six-company CIDG and Special Forces A-114 and A-411 Detachments operation Tây Ninh Province Feb 7–24 Operation Flaming Dart Phase I (February 7): USAF reprisal bombing attacks against NVA units and military barracks near Đồng Hới and the Demilitarized Zone . Phase II (February 11): USAF and VNAF strike the Chanh Hoa and Vit Thu Lu barracks, respectively, in North Vietnam Đồng Hới , Demilitarized Zone , Chanh Hoa and Vit Thu Lu 8 Mar ...more...

Timeline of Treblinka extermination camp


This article presents the timeline of events at Treblinka extermination camp during the most deadly phase of the Holocaust in World War II. All deportations were from German occupied Poland , except where noted. In most cases the number of deportees are not exact figures, but rather approximations. Days are listed in chronological order, nevertheless, a number of dates are missing from the below tables which means only that no way bills survived for those particular dates. It does not mean that transports were not arriving or have not been processed from layover yards, when applicable. Day-by-day Day # Day of week Date Number of Deportees Deported from Cumulative total deportees Known deportees Major Events Tuesday July 7, 1942 Commandant Irmfried Eberl writes to Heinz Auerswald that Treblinka will be ready to start operations on July 11, 1942 . 1 Wednesday July 22, 1942 6,500 Warsaw Ghetto 6,500 First deportation from Warsaw Ghetto . 2 Thursday July 23, 1942 7,300 Warsaw 13,800 Finkelstein, Leon Leon Fi ...more...

Spring Championship of Online Poker


The Spring Championship of Online Poker - All Stakes (SCOOP) is an online poker tournament series sponsored by PokerStars . It was established in 2009. Unlike the World Championship of Online Poker (WCOOP), there are three different stakes in the SCOOP: Low, Medium - ten times the low stake - and High - 100 times the low stake. SCOOP is also offered on PokerStars.it, PokerStars' site for Italian players. The Italian version of SCOOP features two levels: Low (€10 buy-in) and High (€100 buy-in), begins on 30 May 2010, and comprises 30 events (15 low and 15 high) with a combined guarantee of €2,000,000. C 2009 Events There are 22 events in this series. In events other than 4(turbo), 10 and 21(heads-up), levels on low stakes are 15 minutes each, medium stakes are 20 minutes and high stakes are 30 minutes. Regardless of stakes in event 4, all levels are 5 minutes each. In events 10 and 21, levels on low stakes are 5 minutes each, medium stakes are 10 minutes and high stakes are 15 minutes. Low stakes uses 5.5x awa ...more...

List of United States servicemembers and civilians missing in action during the Vietnam War (1970–71)


This article is a list of US MIAs of the Vietnam War in the period from 1969–1971. In 1973, the United States listed 2,646 Americans as unaccounted for from the entire Vietnam War. By August 2017, 1604 Americans remained unaccounted for, of which 1026 were classified as further pursuit, 488 as no further pursuit and 90 as deferred. 1970 Date missing Surname, First name(s) Rank Service Unit Operation /Battle Name Location Circumstances of loss Recovery status January 2 Fryar, Bruce C Lieutenant US Navy VA-196 , USS Ranger Operation Steel Tiger Laos, Khammouane Province Pilot of A-6A #152937 hit by enemy fire on a bombing run, both crewmen ejected and a pararescueman confirmed he was dead but was unable to recover the body. The remains of the Bombardier/navigator LTJG Nicholas Brooks were returned in 1982 Presumptive finding of death January 2 Lindstrom, Ronnie G 1st Lieutenant USAF 25th Tactical Fighter Squadron Operation Steel Tiger Laos, Savannakhet Province Weapons system operator on F-4D #66‑8784 hit by en ...more...

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