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GE-600 series

General Electric model GE-645

The GE-600 series was a family of 36-bit mainframe computers originating in the 1960s, built by General Electric (GE). When GE left the mainframe business the line was sold to Honeywell, which built similar systems into the 1990s as the division moved to Groupe Bull and then NEC.


The 600 series used 36-bit words and 18-bit addresses. They had two 36-bit accumulators, eight 18-bit index registers, and one 8-bit exponent register. It supported floating point in both 36-bit single-precision and 2 x 36-bit double precision, the exponent being stored separately, allowing up to 71 bits of precision (one bit being used for the sign). It had an elaborate set of addressing modes, many of which used indirect words, some of which were auto-incrementing or auto-decrementing. It supported 6-bit and 9-bit bytes through addressing modes; these supported extracting specific bytes, and incrementing the byte pointer, but not random access to bytes.

It also included a number of channel controllers for handling I/O. The CPU could hand off short programs written in the channel controller's own machine language, which would then process the data, move it to or from the memory, and raise an interrupt when they completed. This allowed the main CPU to move on to other tasks while waiting for the slow I/O to complete, a primary feature of time sharing systems.

Operating systems

Originally the operating system for the 600-series computers was GECOS, developed by GE beginning in 1962.

The GE-635 was used for the Dartmouth Time Sharing System starting in 1965.

The GE Mark II operating system (later Mark III) was used by GE Information Services as the basis for its timesharing and networked computing business. Although Mark II / Mark III was originally based on the Dartmouth system, the systems quickly diverged. Mark II/III incorporated many features normally associated with on-line transaction-processing systems, such as journalization and granular file locking. In the early-to-mid-1970s, Mark III adopted a high-reliability cluster technology, in which up to eight processing systems (each with its own copy of the operating system) had access to multiple file systems.

The Multics operating system was begun in 1964 as an advanced new operating system for the 600 series, though it was not production-ready until 1969. GE was hardware supplier to the project and one of development partners (the others were Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Bell Labs). GE saw this project as an opportunity to clearly separate themselves from other vendors by offering this advanced OS which would run best only on their machines. Multics required a number of additional features in the CPU to be truly effective, and John Couleur was joined by Edward Glaser at MIT to make the required modifications. The result was the GE-645, which included support for virtual memory. Addressing was modified to use an 18-bit segment in addition to the 18-bit address, dramatically increasing the theoretical memory size and making virtual memory much easier to support.


The GE-600 line of computers was developed by a team led by John Couleur out of work they had done for the military MISTRAM project in 1959. MISTRAM was a tracking system that was used on a number of projects (including Project Apollo) and the Air Force required a data-collection computer to be installed in a tracking station downrange from Cape Canaveral. The data would eventually be shared with the 36-bit IBM 7094 machine at the Cape, so the computer would likely have to be 36-bits as well. GE built a machine called the M236 for the task, and as a result of the 36-bit needs, it ended up acting much like the 7094. In fact GE offered a box to connect to the 635 called a 9SA that allowed the 635 to run 7094 programs.

GE originally hadn't intended on entering the commercial computer market with the machine. However by the early 1960s GE was the largest user of IBM mainframes, and producing their own machines seemed like an excellent way to lower the costs of their computing department. In one estimate the cost of development would be paid for in a single year free of IBM rental fees. Many remained skeptical, but after a year of internal wrangling, the project to commercialize the M236 eventually got the go-ahead in February 1963.

The machine was originally offered as the main GE-635, and the slower but compatible GE-625 and GE-615. While most were single-processor systems, the 635 could be configured with four CPUs and up to four input/output controllers (IOC's) each with up to 16 Common Peripheral Interface Channels.

The 635 was likely the first example of a general purpose SMP system, though the GECOS/GCOS software treated the processors as a master and up to three slaves. The 600 line consisted of six models: the 605, 615, 625, 635, 645, and 655.

The 615 was a 635 with Control Unit (CU) and Operations Unit (OU) overlap disabled, and a 36-bit-wide memory path. The 625 was a 635 with Control Unit and Operations Unit overlap disabled and 72-bit-wide memory path. The 635 had a 72-bit-wide memory path and CU/OU overlap enabled. The difference between these models was less than 10 wires on the backplane. Field service could convert a 615 to a 635 or 625 or vice versa in a couple of hours if necessary;other than those few wires, the 615, 625 and 635 were identical. The 605 was used in some realtime/military applications, and was essentially a 615 without the floating point hardware. Programs coded for a 605 would run without any modification on any other 600 line processor.

The 645 was a modified 635 processor that provided hardware support for the Multics operating system developed at MIT. The 605/615/625/635 and 645 were essentially second generation computers with discrete transistor TTL logic and a handful of integrated circuits. Memory consisted of a two-microsecond ferrite core, which could be interleaved. GE bought core memory from Fabri-Tek, Ampex and Lockheed. The Lockheed memory tended to be the most reliable.

The last model, the 655, was announced but probably never delivered as a 655.

Continuing problems with the reliability of the magnetic tape systems used with the system cast a pall over the entire project. In 1966 GE froze many orders while others were cancelled outright. By 1967 these problems were cleared up, and the machines were re-launched along with an upgraded version of the GECOS operating system.

A follow-on project to create a next-generation 635 started in 1967. The new GE-655 replaced the individual transistors from the earlier models with integrated circuits, which doubled the performance of the machine while also greatly reducing assembly costs. However the machine was still in development in 1969, by which time the Multics project had finally produced an operating system usable by end-users. Besides MIT, Bell Labs, and GE, GE-645 systems running Multics were installed at the US Air Force Rome Development Center, Honeywell Billerica, and Machines Bull in Paris. These last two systems were used as a "software factory" by a Honeywell/Bull project to design the Honeywell Level 64 computer.

GE sold its computer division to Honeywell in 1970, who renamed the GE-600 series as the Honeywell 6000 series. The 655 was officially released in 1973 as the Honeywell 6070 (with reduced performance versions, the 6030 and 6050). An optional Decimal/Business instruction set was added to improve COBOL performance. (Extended Instruction Set, aka EIS and the Decimal Unit or DU). The machines with EIS were the 'even' series, the 6040, 6060, 6080 and later the 6025. Several hundred of these processors were sold. Memory was initially 600 ns Ferrite core made by Lockheed. Later versions used 750 ns MOS memory. The two could co-exist within a system, but not within a memory controller.

A version of the 6080 with the various Multics-related changes similar to the 645 was released as the 6180. A few dozen 6180-architecture CPUs were shipped. Later members of the 6000 series were released under various names, including Level 66, Level 68, DPS-8, DPS-88, DPS-90, DPS-9000 by Honeywell, Groupe Bull, and NEC.

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The L-series is a compact 4-cylinder engine created by Honda , introduced in 2001 with the Honda Fit . It has 1.2, 1.3 and 1.5 litre displacement variants, which utilize the names L12A, L13A and L15A. Depending on the region, these engines are sold throughout the world in the 5-door Honda Brio Fit/Jazz hatchback Honda Civic and the 4-door Fit Aria/City sedan (also known as Fit Saloon). They are also sold in the Japanese -only Airwave wagon and Mobilio MPV . Two different valvetrains are present on this engine series. The L12A, L13A and L15A use ( Japanese : i-DSI ) , or “intelligent Dual & Sequential Ignition”. i-DSI utilizes two spark plugs per cylinder which fire at different intervals during the combustion process to achieve a more complete burn of the gasoline. This process allows the engine to have more power while keeping fuel consumption low, thanks to the better gasoline utilization. Emissions are also reduced. The i-DSI engines have two to five valves per cylinder and a modest redline of only 6, ...more...

Boeing 777X


The Boeing 777X is a new series of the long-range wide-body twin-engine Boeing 777 family that is under development by Boeing Commercial Airplanes . The 777X is to feature GE9X new engines , new composite wings with folding wingtips, a denser cabin, and technologies from the Boeing 787 . The 777X series was launched in November 2013 with two variants: the 777-8 and the 777-9. The 777-8 has seating for 365 and range of over 8,700 nmi (16,110 km) and the 777-9 has seating for 414 and range of over 7,600 nmi (14,075 km). The -9 is to fly in the first quarter of 2019 with deliveries to begin in December 2019. Development Initial design In 2010–2011, Boeing refined its response to the revamped Airbus A350 with three 777X models, targeting a firm configuration in 2015, flying in late 2017 or 2018 and entering service by 2019. The 407 passenger -9X should stretch the -300ER by four frames to 250 ft 11 in (76.48 m), for a 759,000 lb (344 t) MTOW and powered by 99,500 lbf (443 kN) engines, targeting per-seat 21% bette ...more...

UGL Rail C44aci


The C44aci is a model of Australian heavy duty diesel electric locomotive designed by UGL Rail and built at the Broadmeadow factory. It is operated by a number of rail freight operators. The design is based on the National Rail NR class but with some modifications and upgraded features. Design The C44aci was designed by UGL Rail in response to a tender issued by Pacific National , who required a locomotive to match the performance of their existing 90 class units when hauling heavy coal traffic, while still having the ability to work high speed intermodal services, with the change between applications to be simple. The existing UGL Rail Cv40-9i ( NR class ) locomotive design was used as a base, but with alterations including: Higher horsepower prime mover Smaller main alternator Enlarged radiator size now overhangs the walkway at the number 2 end to cope with the more powerful engine AC traction equipment allowing an increase in haulage capacity Addition of inline refuelling fittings Isolated cab for reduced ...more...

GE B36-7


The GE B36-7 is a 4-axle diesel-electric locomotive built by GE Transportation Systems between 1980 and 1985. 222 examples of this locomotive were built for North American railroads and eight units were built for a Columbian coal mining operation. The units were designed as successors to GE's U36B's. Of the 230 locomotives built, 180 of them were built for two Eastern railroads - Seaboard System Railroad (which became part of CSX Transportation in 1986) and Conrail . These 4-axle locomotives were powerful ones when introduced in 1980. When first built the units were rated at 3,600  hp (2,700  kW ), later versions were rated at 3,750  hp (2,800  kW ). They were designed for fast and priority service, moving intermodal and container trains. Most of Seaboard's 120 units were still in service as late as 2006. Conrail's units were all retired in 2000 and 2001. One notable exception among Conrail's units was CR 5045, which was destroyed in the infamous wreck of the Colonial at Chase, Maryland , on January 4, 1987. ...more...

Toyota G engine


The Toyota Motor Corporation G-family engine is a family of straight-6 piston engines produced from 1979 to 2006. It is notable in that only a single displacement, 2.0 L (1,988 cc), was produced in this series. All were belt-driven OHC non-interference engines (except the VVT-i version in the IS200 which is an interference engine), with multivalve DOHC (except the 1G-EU SOHC 12 valve engine) and even variable valve timing added later. The 1G-GEU was Toyota's first four-valve twincam engine. A prototype version of the 1G-GEU called the LASREα–X , featuring twin turbos, variable valve timing and intake as well as variable displacement, was fitted to the Toyota FX-1 show car at the 1983 Tokyo Motor Show . It showcased a number of technologies which were later to become commonplace. These engines were used as a lower-displacement alternative to the more upmarket M family and JZ family straight-sixes. 1G Since just one displacement was offered, all G-family engines are marked 1G and share the same "square" 75 mm ...more...

Bombardier CRJ700 series


The Bombardier CRJ700 , CRJ900 , and CRJ1000 are regional jet airliners manufactured by Bombardier and based on the CRJ200 . Development Four abreast cabin seating flight deck Following the success of the CRJ100/200 series, Bombardier Aerospace produced larger variants in order to compete with larger regional aircraft such as the Fokker 70 / Fokker 100 or the BAe 146 family, and competed later with the Embraer E-Jet family . It accounts for over 20% of all jet departures in North America and globally the family operates more than 200,000 flights per month: a CRJ takes off every 10 seconds. Final assembly of the aircraft is at Montréal-Mirabel International Airport in Mirabel, Quebec , outside Montreal , Quebec , Canada . NextGen In 2007, Bombardier launched the CRJ900 NextGen to replace the initial version. Its improvements and conic nozzle enhances fuel economy by 5.5%. The new model has improved economics and a new cabin common to the CRJ700 NextGen and CRJ1000 NextGen. Mesaba Aviation , operating at the t ...more...

Boeing 777


The Boeing 777 is a family of long-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliners developed and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes . It is the world's largest twinjet and has a typical seating capacity of 314 to 396 passengers, with a range of 5,240 to 8,555 nautical miles (9,704 to 15,844 km). Commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven", its distinguishing features include the largest-diameter turbofan engines of any aircraft, long raked wings, six wheels on each main landing gear , fully circular fuselage cross-section, and a blade-shaped tail cone. Developed in consultation with eight major airlines, the 777 was designed to replace older wide-body airliners and bridge the capacity difference between Boeing's 767 and 747 . As Boeing's first fly-by-wire airliner, it has computer-mediated controls. It was also the first commercial aircraft to be designed entirely with computer-aided design . The 777 is produced in two fuselage lengths as of 2017. The original 777-200 variant entered commercial service ...more...

Toyota Mark II


The Toyota Mark II was a mid-size sedan manufactured and marketed in Japan by Toyota between 1968 and 2004. Prior to 1984, the model was marketed as the Toyota Corona Mark II . In some export markets, Toyota marketed the vehicle as the Toyota Cressida between 1976 and 1992 across four generations. Toyota replaced the Cressida in North America with the Toyota Avalon . Every Mark II and Cressida was manufactured at the Motomachi plant at Toyota, Aichi . The nameplate Cressida derives from the Trojan character . History The first series, called the Toyota Corona Mark II was an all new vehicle at its introduction in 1968, that sought to offer a car that was just under Japanese government regulations concerning maximum vehicle dimensions and engine displacement, thus allowing the Crown to grow larger and more luxurious. Using the established platform of the Corona sedan but slightly larger and wider, it was exclusive to Toyopet Store locations, and offered as a competitor to the newly introduced Nissan Laurel in J ...more...

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CFM International LEAP


The CFM International LEAP is a high-bypass turbofan engine. It is produced by CFM International , a 50-50 joint venture company between GE Aviation of the United States and Safran Aircraft Engines (formerly known as Snecma ) of France. It is a modernized replacement for the successful CFM International CFM56 , intended to compete with the Pratt & Whitney PW1000G in the single-aisle jetliner market. Design The LEAP's basic architecture includes a scaled-down version of Safran 's low pressure turbine used on the GEnx engine. The fan has flexible blades manufactured by a resin transfer molding process, which are designed to untwist as the fan's rotational speed increases. While the LEAP is designed to operate at a higher pressure than the CFM56 (which is partly why it is more efficient), GE plans to set the operating pressure lower than the maximum in order to maximize the engine's service life and reliability. Currently proposed for the LEAP is a greater use of composite materials, a blisk fan in the comp ...more...

Union Pacific GTELs


Union Pacific operated the largest fleet of gas turbine-electric locomotives (GTELs) of any railroad in the world. The prototype, UP 50 , was the first in a series built by General Electric for Union Pacific 's long-haul cargo services and marketed by the Alco-GE partnership until 1953. The prototype was introduced in 1948 and was followed by three series of production locomotives. At one point, Union Pacific said, GTELs hauled more than 10% of the railroad's freight. Fuel economy was poor, for the turbine consumed roughly twice as much fuel as an equally powerful diesel engine. This was initially not a problem, because Union Pacific's turbines burned Bunker C heavy fuel oil that was less expensive than diesel . But this highly viscous fuel is difficult to handle, with a room-temperature consistency similar to tar or molasses . To solve this problem, a heater was built into the fuel tanks (and later into fuel tenders ) to heat the fuel to 200 °F (93 °C) before feeding it into the turbine. Eventually UP switch ...more...

Nvidia PureVideo


PureVideo is Nvidia 's hardware SIP core that performs video decoding . PureVideo is integrated into some of the Nvidia GPUs , and it supports hardware decoding of multiple video codec standards: MPEG-2 , VC-1 , H.264 , and HEVC . PureVideo occupies a considerable amount of a GPU's die area and should not be confused with Nvidia NVENC . Operating system support The PureVideo SIP core needs to be supported by the device driver , which provides one or more interfaces such as NVDEC , VDPAU , VAAPI or DXVA . One of these interfaces is then used by end-user software, for example VLC media player or GStreamer , to access the PureVideo hardware and make use of it. Nvidia's proprietary device driver is available for multiple operating systems and support for PureVideo has been added to it. Additionally, a free device driver is available, which also supports the PureVideo hardware. Linux Support for PureVideo has been available in Nvidia's proprietary driver version 180 since October 2008 through VDPAU . Since April ...more...

Mercedes-Benz G-Class


The Mercedes-Benz G-Class , sometimes called G-Wagen (short for Geländewagen, "cross country vehicle"), is a mid-size four-wheel drive luxury SUV manufactured by Magna Steyr (formerly Steyr-Daimler-Puch ) in Austria and sold by Mercedes-Benz . In certain markets, it has been sold under the Puch name as Puch G . The G-wagen is characterized by its boxy styling and body-on-frame construction. It uses three fully locking differentials , one of the few vehicles to have such a feature. Despite the introduction of an intended replacement, the unibody SUV Mercedes-Benz GL-Class in 2006, the G-Class is still in production and is one of the longest produced Mercedes-Benz in Daimler's history, with a span of 35 years. Only the Unimog surpasses it. The G-class was developed as a military vehicle from a suggestion by the Shah of Iran (at the time a significant Mercedes shareholder) to Mercedes and offered as a civilian version in 1979. In this role it is sometimes referred to as the "Wolf". The Peugeot P4 was a variant ...more...

ALCO boxcab


A preserved boxcab at the North Alabama Railroad Museum . The ALCO boxcab s were diesel-electric switcher locomotives , otherwise known as AGEIR boxcabs as a contraction of the names of the builders. Produced by a partnership of three companies, ALCO (American Locomotive Company) built the chassis and running gear, General Electric the generator, motors and controls, and Ingersoll Rand the diesel engine. The principle of operation was the same as modern locomotives, the diesel engine driving a main generator of 600 volts DC with four traction motors , one per axle. Two models were the 60-Ton with a six-cylinder four-stroke in-line engine of 300 hp (220 kW) and the 100-Ton with two of the same engines. Thirty-three units were produced between 1925 and 1928. These were the first commercially successful production diesel-electric locomotives. ALCO dropped out of the arrangement in 1928, acquired their own diesel engine manufacturer in McIntosh & Seymour and went on to start its own line of diesel switchers. ...more...

Honda CBR series


The Honda CBR models are a series of Honda sport bikes . With the exception of the single-cylinder CBR125R, CBR150R, CBR250R and CBR300R, all CBR motorbikes have inline engines . Less sporting/general models make up the CB series . Types The series includes: Single-cylinder CBR125R (2004–present) CBR150R (2002–present) CBR250R (2011–2013; 2011–present Japan/Malaysia) CBR300R (2015–present) Inline-twin CBR250RR (2017–present) CBR400R (2013–present) CBR500R (2012–present) Inline-four CBR250/250R/250RR (1986–1996) CBR400F/400R/400RR (1983–1994) CBR450SR (1989–1990) CBR500F (1986–1993) CBR600F Hurricane/ 600F2 / 600F3 / 600F4 / 600F4i (1987–2006; new CBR600F : 2011–2013) CBR600RR (2003–present) CBR650F (2014–present) CBR750F Hurricane, known in Japan as Super Aero (1987–1988) CBR900RR Fireblade (893 cc: 1992–1995; 919 cc: 1996–1999) CBR929RR Fireblade (2000–2001) CBR954RR Fireblade (2002–2003) CBR1000RR Fireblade (2004–present) CBR1000F Hurricane (1987–1999/1996 last year in USA) CBR1100XX Super Blackbird (1996–2 ...more...

Georgia (country)


Georgia (  (   listen ) ; Georgian : საქართველო , translit. : sakartvelo , IPA:   (   listen ) ) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia . Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe , it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea , to the north by Russia , to the south by Turkey and Armenia , and to the southeast by Azerbaijan . The capital and largest city is Tbilisi . Georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres (26,911 sq mi), and its 2017 population is about 3.718 million. Georgia is a unitary semi-presidential republic , with the government elected through a representative democracy . During the classical era , several independent kingdoms became established in what is now Georgia, such as Colchis and Iberia . The Georgians adopted Christianity in the early 4th century. A unified Kingdom of Georgia reached the peak of its political and economic strength during the reign of King David IV and Queen Tamar in the 12th and early 13th centuries. Thereafter, the kingdom declined ...more...

Honda B engine


The B-series are a family of inline four-cylinder DOHC/SOHC automotive engines introduced by Honda in 1989. Sold concurrently with the D-series which were primarily SOHC engines designed for more economical applications, the B-series were aimed more as a performance option featuring dual and single-overhead cams along with the first application of Honda's VTEC system (available in some models). To identify a Honda B-series engine, the letter B is normally followed by two numbers to designate the displacement of the engine, another letter, and in US-spec engines, another number. The Japanese spec-engines are normally designated with a four character alphanumeric designation. The B-series, the B20B variant in particular, is not to be confused with the earlier Honda B20A engine introduced in 1985 and primarily available in the Prelude and Accord-derived vehicles from 1985-1991. While sharing some design elements and both being multivalve Honda four-cylinders, the B-series and B20A differ substantially in archit ...more...

Radeon HD 5000 Series


The Evergreen series is a family of GPUs developed by Advanced Micro Devices for its Radeon line under the ATI brand name. It was employed in Radeon HD 5000 graphics card series and competed directly with Nvidia 's GeForce 400 Series . Release The existence was spotted on a presentation slide from AMD Technology Analyst Day July 2007 as "R8xx". AMD held a press event in the USS Hornet museum on September 10, 2009 and announced ATI Eyefinity multi-display technology and specifications of the Radeon HD 5800 series' variants. The first variants of the Radeon HD 5800 series were launched September 23, 2009, with the HD 5700 series launching October 12 and HD 5970 launching on November 18 The HD 5670, was launched on January 14, 2010, and the HD 5500 and 5400 series were launched in February 2010, completing what has appeared to be most of AMD's Evergreen GPU lineup. Demand so greatly outweighed supply that more than two months after launch, many online retailers were still having trouble keeping the 5800 and 59 ...more...

GE E60


The GE E60 is a family of six-axle 6,000 hp (4.5 MW) C-C electric locomotives made by GE Transportation Systems (GE) between 1972 and 1983. The E60s were produced in several variants for both freight and passenger use in the United States and Mexico . GE designed the locomotive for use on the Black Mesa and Lake Powell Railroad (BM&LP), a dedicated coal-hauling route in Arizona , which began operation in 1973. That same year GE adapted the design for high-speed passenger service on Amtrak 's Northeast Corridor . The largest customer was Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México (NdeM), the state-owned railroad in Mexico, which bought 39 for a new electrification project in the early 1980s. The E60s were successful in the coal-hauling role. They ran on the BM&LP for decades and remain in use on several mining railroads in the Western United States . The passenger variants failed in their intended role. Problems with the truck design caused derailments above 90 miles per hour (140 km/h), rendering the locomo ...more...

Honda D engine


D15B6 Engine D15B 3-stage VTEC Engine The Honda D series inline-four cylinder engine is used in a variety of compact models, most commonly the Honda Civic , CRX , Logo , Stream , and first-generation Integra . Engine displacement ranges between 1.2 and 1.7 liters. The D Series engine is either SOHC or DOHC , and might include VTEC variable valve timing. Power ranges from 62 hp (46 kW) in the Logo to 130 PS (96 kW) in the Civic Si. D-series production commenced 1984 and ended 2005. D-series engine technology culminated with production of the D15B 3-stage VTEC (D15Z7) which was available in markets outside of the United States. Earlier versions of this engine also used a single port fuel injection system Honda called PGM-CARB, signifying the carburetor was computer controlled. D12 series engines (1.2 liter) D12B1 Found in: 1988-1990 Honda Civic (European Market) Displacement: 1,193 cc (72.8  cu in ) Bore and Stroke: 75.0 mm × 67.5 mm (2.95 in × 2.66 in) Compression: 8,6:1 Power: 74 PS (54 kW; 73 hp) at 6300 rpm ...more...

ATi Radeon R400 Series


The R420 GPU , developed by ATI Technologies , was the company's basis for its 3rd-generation DirectX 9.0/ OpenGL 2.0-capable graphics cards . Used first on the Radeon X800, the R420 was produced on a 0.13 micrometer (130 nm ) low-K photolithography process and used GDDR-3 memory. The chip was designed for AGP graphics cards. Driver support of this core was discontinued as of Catalyst 9.4, and as a result there is no official Windows 7 support for any of the X700 - X850 products. Development In terms of supported DirectX features, R420 (codenamed Loki ) was very similar to the R300 . R420 basically takes a "wider is better" approach to the previous architecture, with some small tweaks thrown in to enhance it in various ways. The chip came equipped with over double the pixel and vertex pushing resources compared to the Radeon 9800 XT's R360 (a minor evolution of the R350), with 16 DirectX 9.0b pixel pipelines and 16 ROPs. One would not be far off seeing the X800 XT basically as a pair of Radeon 9800 cores conn ...more...



GE-2 , or AMC-2 (after 2001), is a privately owned American communications satellite launched in 1997. It was the first of the GE Series to be launched outside the United States. It was launched by an Ariane 4 on January 30, 1997, flying from ELA-2 , Guiana Space Center alongside another Satellite, Nahuel 1A. It was owned by GE Americom until 2001 when the company was sold to SES (Société Européenne des Satellites). The name of the spacecraft was then changed by SES to AMC 2. Overview GE-2 carries 24-K u -Band and 24 C-Band transponders. It weighs approximately 2,648 kilograms (5,838 lb) fully fueled and has a dry mass of 1,600 kilograms (3,500 lb). It is stationed at approximately 81°W. There is also a plan to relocate the satellite to 96.2 West orbital position and operate there pursuant to Argentine ITU filings. It is powered by two deployable solar panels which charge the batteries. It uses LEROS-1C engines for propulsion. References "GE 1, 2, 3 / AMC 1, 2, 3" . . Retrieved 2014-04-08 ...more...

Honda HA-420 HondaJet


The Honda HA-420 HondaJet is the first aircraft developed by Honda Aircraft Company . The light business jet was designed in Japan and then developed and manufactured in Greensboro, North Carolina in the United States. Development Honda began to study small sized business jets in the late 1980s, using engines from other manufacturers. The Honda SHM-1/MH01 turboprop tested laminar flow wings, and the Honda MH02 was fabricated and assembled at Mississippi State University's Raspet Flight Research Laboratory in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The MH02 was a prototype using carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials and was the first all-composite light business jet to fly. Flight testing on the MH02 continued through 1996, after which the aircraft was shipped to Japan. Designer Michimasa Fujino sketched the HondaJet in 1997, and the concept was locked in 1999. Testing in the Boeing windtunnel indicated a valid concept in 1999. A proof-of-concept (but not production-ready) version of the HondaJet first flew on 3 De ...more...

General Electric Theater


General Electric Theater was an American anthology series hosted by Ronald Reagan that was broadcast on CBS radio and television . The series was sponsored by General Electric 's Department of Public Relations . Radio After an audition show on January 18, 1953, entitled The Token, with Dana Andrews , the radio series, a summer replacement for The Bing Crosby Program, debuted on CBS on July 9, 1953 , with Ronald Colman in Random Harvest . With such guest stars as Cary Grant , Irene Dunne , Van Johnson , Jane Wyman , William Holden , Alan Young , Dorothy McGuire , John Hodiak , Ann Blyth , James Mason , Joan Fontaine , and Judy Garland , the series continued until October 1, 1953. Jaime del Valle produced and directed the show. Ken Carpenter was the host and announcer. Wilbur Hatch supplied the music. Also known as G.E. Stereo Theater, the program "was the first network radio series to be broadcast on FM in stereo." Television The television version of the program, produced by MCA-TV / Revue , was broadcast eve ...more...

High-dynamic-range rendering


High-dynamic-range rendering ( HDRR or HDR rendering ), also known as high-dynamic-range lighting , is the rendering of computer graphics scenes by using lighting calculations done in high dynamic range (HDR). This allows preservation of details that may be lost due to limiting contrast ratios. Video games and computer-generated movies and special effects benefit from this as it creates more realistic scenes than with the more simplistic lighting models used. Graphics processor company Nvidia summarizes the motivation for HDR in three points: bright things can be really bright, dark things can be really dark, and details can be seen in both. History The use of high-dynamic-range imaging (HDRI) in computer graphics was introduced by Greg Ward in 1985 with his open-source Radiance rendering and lighting simulation software which created the first file format to retain a high-dynamic-range image. HDRI languished for more than a decade, held back by limited computing power, storage, and capture methods. Not until ...more...

List of Honda motorcycles


The following is a list of motorcycles , scooters and mopeds produced by Honda . Name Engine size (cc) Beat (FC50) 48 Super Cub C100, CA100, C102, C50, Sports C110, C111. C110D, C114 49 CB50 49 Dio 49 Elite E (SB50) 49 Elsinore (MR50) 49 Express (NC50) 49 Hunter Cub (CT50) 49 MB5, MB50 49 Metropolitan Jazz (CHF 50) 49 Metropolitan II (CHF50P) 49 Motra (CT50) 49 MT5, MT50 49 NCZ50 also known as Motocompo 49 Spree (NQ50) 49 Mini Trail (Z50A) 49 Mini Trail (Z50M) 49 Mini Trail (Z50R) 49 Mini Trail (Z50J) 49 Moped (P50, P25) 49 Moped (PA50/Hobbit/Camino) 49 Moped (PF50/Amigo) 49 Moped (PC50, PS50) 49 Moped (SFX50) 49 Moped (SH50) 49 Moped (X8RS) 49 SS50 49 Trail 50 (C100H, C100T, CA100T) 49 XR50R 49 ZB50 49 Zoomer/Ruckus (NPS50) 49 AC15 50 Super Cub C105, CD105, Honda C115 Sports 54 Trail 55 (C105H, C105T, CA105T) 54 Super Cub C65, S65 63 C70 Passport, CD70 72 Motosport (SL70) 72 ST70, CT70 Trail 70 72 Scrambler (CL70) 72 XL80 79 Aero 80 (NH80) 80 XR80 80 CR85R Expert 85 Super Cub C90 (12 volt) 86 Super Cub CM90, ...more...

GE C39-8


The GE C39-8 is a 6-axle diesel-electric locomotive model built by GE Transportation Systems between 1984 and 1987. It is part of the GE Dash 8 Series of freight locomotives. A total of 161 examples of this locomotive were built for two North American railroads: Conrail and Norfolk Southern Railway . The C39-8 was a fairly unpopular locomotive with crews, cited factors such as a rough ride, tendency to overheat, frequent turbocharger issues, issues with the fuel injection system, and various other reliability issues. Technical The C39-8 is powered by a 3,900 horsepower (2,900 kW) V16 7FDL-16 diesel engine driving a GE GMC187A2 main alternator . The power generated by the main alternator drove 6 GE 752AG traction motors , each with a gear ratio of 83:20 and connected to 40-inch (1,016 mm) wheels which allowed the C39-8 a maximum speed of 70 mph (110 km/h). Depending on customer options, the C39-8 carried between 3,900 to 4,500 US gal (14,763 to 17,034 L; 3,247 to 3,747 imp gal) of diesel fuel, 360 to 400 US ga ...more...

V16 engine


1933 Marmon V16 engine. A V16 engine is a V engine with 16 cylinders . Engines of this number of cylinders are uncommon in automotive use. A V16 engine is perfectly balanced, so long as its constituent straight 8 banks are balanced, regardless of the V angle. That is to say, it doesn't require contra-rotating balancing shafts which are necessary to balance engines with odd numbers of cylinders in-line or those equipped with counterweighted crankshafts like the 90° V8 . In addition V angles of 45° and 135° give an impulse every 45°, so are optimal solutions, for even-firing and non-split bearing crankshaft journals . V16 engines are rarely used in automobiles because V8s or V12s of the same displacement typically produce just as much power, and are much less expensive to manufacture and maintain. The few V16s that have been produced were used in high-end luxury and high-performance automobiles due to their smoothness (low vibration). Today, the most common applications for V16 engines are railroad locomotives, ...more...

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