GE-600 series

The GE-600 series was a family of 36-bit mainframe computers originating in the 1960s, built by General Electric (GE). When GE left the mainframe business the line was sold to Honeywell, which built similar systems into the 1990s as the division moved to Groupe Bull and then NEC.

The system is perhaps best known as the platform on which the Dartmouth Time Sharing System (DTSS) spent most of its life, and the base machine for the Multics operating system as well. Multics was supported by virtual memory additions made to later versions of the series.

Architecture

The 600 series used 36-bit words and 18-bit addresses. They had two 36-bit accumulators, eight 18-bit index registers, and one 8-bit exponent register. It supported floating point in both 36-bit single-precision and 2 x 36-bit double precision, the exponent being stored separately, allowing up to 71 bits of precision (one bit being used for the sign). It had an elaborate set of addressing modes, many of which used indirect words, some of which were auto-incrementing or auto-decrementing. It supported 6-bit and 9-bit bytes through addressing modes; these supported extracting specific bytes, and incrementing the byte pointer, but not random access to bytes.

It also included a number of channel controllers for handling I/O. The CPU could hand off short programs written in the channel controller's own machine language, which would then process the data, move it to or from the memory, and raise an interrupt when they completed. This allowed the main CPU to move on to other tasks while waiting for the slow I/O to complete, a primary feature of time sharing systems.

Operating systems

Originally the operating system for the 600-series computers was GECOS, developed by GE beginning in 1962. Between 1963 and 1964, the first version of the Dartmouth Time Sharing System (DTSS) was developed on the GE-235. DTSS was the first truly useful time sharing system and was very influential in the market. It is also the platform where the BASIC programming language was first developed. In 1965, DTSS was ported to the GE-635 where it lived for many years.

The GE Mark II operating system (later Mark III) was used by GE Information Services as the basis for its timesharing and networked computing business. Although Mark II / Mark III was originally based on the Dartmouth system, the systems quickly diverged. Mark II/III incorporated many features normally associated with on-line transaction-processing systems, such as journalization and granular file locking. In the early-to-mid-1970s, Mark III adopted a high-reliability cluster technology, in which up to eight processing systems (each with its own copy of the operating system) had access to multiple file systems.

The Multics operating system was begun in 1964 as an advanced new operating system for the 600 series, though it was not production-ready until 1969. GE was hardware supplier to the project and one of development partners (the others were Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Bell Labs). GE saw this project as an opportunity to clearly separate themselves from other vendors by offering this advanced OS which would run best only on their machines. Multics required a number of additional features in the CPU to be truly effective, and John Couleur was joined by Edward Glaser at MIT to make the required modifications. The result was the GE-645, which included support for virtual memory. Addressing was modified to use an 18-bit segment in addition to the 18-bit address, dramatically increasing the theoretical memory size and making virtual memory much easier to support.

History

The GE-600 line of computers was developed by a team led by John Couleur out of work they had done for the military MISTRAM project in 1959. MISTRAM was a radar tracking system that was used on a number of projects (including Project Apollo) and the Air Force required a data-collection computer to be installed in a tracking station downrange from Cape Canaveral. The data would eventually be shared with the 36-bit IBM 7094 machine at the Cape, so the computer would likely have to be 36-bits as well. GE built a machine called the M236 for the task, and as a result of the 36-bit needs, it ended up acting much like the 7094. In fact GE offered a box to connect to the 635 called a 9SA that allowed the 635 to run 7094 programs.

GE originally hadn't intended on entering the commercial computer market with the machine. However, by the early 1960s GE was the largest user of IBM mainframes, and producing their own machines seemed like an excellent way to lower the costs of their computing department. In one estimate the cost of development would be paid for in a single year free of IBM rental fees. Many remained skeptical, but after a year of internal wrangling, the project to commercialize the M236 eventually got the go-ahead in February 1963.

The machine was originally offered as the main GE-635, and the slower but compatible GE-625 and GE-615. While most were single-processor systems, the 635 could be configured with four CPUs and up to four input/output controllers (IOC's) each with up to 16 Common Peripheral Interface Channels. The 635 was likely the first example of a general purpose SMP system, though the GECOS/GCOS software treated the processors as a master and up to three slaves.

In August 1964, IBM considered the 600 series to be "severe competition in the medium and large scale scientific areas."[1] In May 1965 the first GE-625 computer was delivered to the GE Schenectady plant to replace five other computers of various sizes and makes.[2] A number of GE 635's were shipped during 1965 including two to Martin Marietta in November.[3]

The 600 line consisted of six models: the 605, 615, 625, 635, 645, and 655.

The 615 was a 635 with Control Unit (CU) and Operations Unit (OU) overlap disabled, and a 36-bit-wide memory path. The 625 was a 635 with Control Unit and Operations Unit overlap disabled and 72-bit-wide memory path. The 635 had a 72-bit-wide memory path and CU/OU overlap enabled. The difference between these models was fewer than 10 wires on the backplane. Field service could convert a 615 to a 635 or 625 or vice versa in a couple of hours if necessary; other than those few wires, the 615, 625 and 635 were identical. The 605 was used in some realtime/military applications and was essentially a 615 without the floating point hardware. Programs coded for a 605 would run without any modification on any other 600 line processor. The 645 was a modified 635 processor that provided hardware support for the Multics operating system developed at MIT.

The 605/615/625/635 and 645 were essentially second generation computers with discrete transistor TTL logic and a handful of integrated circuits. Memory consisted of a two-microsecond ferrite core, which could be interleaved. GE bought core memory from Fabri-Tek, Ampex and Lockheed. The Lockheed memory tended to be the most reliable.

The last model,.

Continuing problems with the reliability of the magnetic tape systems used with the system cast a pall over the entire project. In 1966 GE froze many orders while others were cancelled outright. By 1967 these problems were cleared up, and the machines were re-launched along with an upgraded version of the GECOS operating system.

A follow-on project to create a next-generation 635 started in 1967. The new GE-655 replaced the individual transistors from the earlier models with integrated circuits, which doubled the performance of the machine while also greatly reducing assembly costs. However, the machine was still in development in 1969, and was announced but probably never delivered under that name.

By that time the Multics project had finally produced an operating system usable by end-users. Besides MIT, Bell Labs, and GE, GE-645 systems running Multics were installed at the US Air Force Rome Development Center, Honeywell Billerica, and Machines Bull in Paris. These last two systems were used as a "software factory" by a Honeywell/Bull project to design the Honeywell Level 64 computer.

GE sold its computer division to Honeywell in 1970, who renamed the GE-600 series as the Honeywell 6000 series. The 655 was officially released in 1973 as the Honeywell 6070 (with reduced performance versions, the 6030 and 6050). An optional Decimal/Business instruction set was added to improve COBOL performance. This was the Extended Instruction Set, aka EIS and the Decimal Unit or DU. The machines with EIS were the 'even' series, the 6040, 6060, 6080 and later the 6025. Several hundred of these processors were sold. Memory was initially 600 ns ferrite core made by Lockheed. Later versions used 750 ns MOS memory. The two could co-exist within a system, but not within a memory controller.

A version of the 6080 with the various Multics-related changes similar to the 645 was released as the 6180. A few dozen 6180-architecture CPUs were shipped. Later members of the 6000 series were released under various names, including Level 66, Level 68, DPS-8, DPS-88, DPS-90, DPS-9000 by Honeywell, Groupe Bull, and NEC.

See also
References
  1. IBM DSD ASG memo, August 13, 1954, US v IBM, Exh 14791 p.386
  2. "Training for conversion." Mario V. Farina, Datamation, June 1966
  3. Datamation, August 1965, p.71
External links
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GE Honda Aero Engines

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Jeff Immelt

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Jeff Immelt

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CFM International CFM56

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NForce 600

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ATR 72

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ATR 72

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History of compiler construction

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History of compiler construction

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Vulkan (API)

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CFM International

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CFM International

CFM International is a joint venture between GE Aviation, a division of General Electric of the United States, and Safran Aircraft Engines (formerly known as Snecma), a division of Safran of France. The joint venture was formed to build and support the CFM56 series of turbofan engines. The names of CFM International and the CFM56 product line are derived from the two parent companies’ commercial engine designations: GE's CF6 and Snecma's M56. The joint venture has delivered 30,700 engines to more than 570 operators and has 13,700 engines in backlog.[1] In 2016 CFM delivered 1,665 CFM56 and 77 LEAP, and booked 2,677 orders : 876 CFM56 and 1,801 LEAP for US$36 billion at list price. The LEAP engine backlog exceeds 12,200 which is valued at more than US$170 billion at list price.[2] In 2017, CFM delivered 1,900 engines including 459 LEAPs, of which it plan to deliver 1,200 in 2018, 1,800 in 2019 and more than 2,000 in 2020.[3] Products CFM International CFM56 (F108) CFM International LEAP, which entered ...more...

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Toyota S engine

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Toyota S engine

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Radeon X700 Series

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Radeon X700 Series

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GE PowerHaul

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GE PowerHaul

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GE U20C

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GE U20C

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General Imaging

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General Imaging

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Airbus A340

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Airbus A340

The Airbus A340 is a long-range, four-engine, wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner that was developed and produced by the European aerospace company Airbus. The A340 was assembled in Toulouse, France. It seats up to 375 passengers in the standard variants and 440 in the stretched -600 series. Depending on the model, it has a range of 6,700 to 9,000 nautical miles (12,400 to 16,700 km; 7,700 to 10,400 mi). Its distinguishing features are four high-bypass turbofan engines and three-bogie main landing gear. The A340 was manufactured in four fuselage lengths. The initial variant, A340-300, which entered service in 1993, measured 63.69 metres (209.0 ft).[5] The shorter -200 was developed next, and the A340-600 was a 15.96 metres (52.4 ft) stretch of the -200.[6] The -600 was developed alongside the shorter A340-500, which would become the longest-range commercial airliner until the arrival of the Boeing 777-200LR. The -200 and -300 models were powered by the 151 kilonewtons (34,000 lbf) CFM56-5C, while the ...more...

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General Electric T58

topic

General Electric T58

Inspection of a T58 engine before installation in a SH-3G Sea King helicopter The General Electric T58 is an American turboshaft engine developed for helicopter use. First run in 1955, it remained in production until 1984, by which time some 6,300 units had been built. On July 1, 1959, it became the first turbine engine to gain FAA certification for civil helicopter use. The engine was license-built and further developed by de Havilland in the UK as the Gnome, in the West Germany by Klöckner-Humboldt-Deutz,[1] and also manufactured by Alfa Romeo and the IHI Corporation. Design and development Development commenced with a 1953 US Navy requirement for a helicopter turboshaft to weigh under 400 lb (180 kg) while delivering 800 hp (600 kW). The engine General Electric eventually built weighed only 250 lb (110 kg) and delivered 1,050 hp (780 kW) and was soon ordered into production. First flight was on a modified Sikorsky HSS-1 in 1957, and civil certification for the CT58-100 variant was obtained two years la ...more...

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Nvidia NVENC

topic

Nvidia NVENC

Nvidia NVENC is a feature in its graphics cards that performs video encoding, offloading this compute-intensive task from the CPU. It was introduced with the Kepler-based GeForce 600 series in March 2012.[1][2] The encoder is supported in many streaming and recording programs, such as Wirecast, Open Broadcaster Software (OBS) and Bandicam, and also works with Share game capture, which is included in Nvidia's GeForce Experience software.[3][4][5] Consumer targeted GeForce graphics cards support no more than 2 simultaneously encoding video streams, regardless on the count of the cards installed. Professional cards support between 2 and 21 simultaneous streams per card, depending on card model and compression quality.[1] It is accompanied by NVDEC for video decoding in Nvidia's Video Codec SDK.[1] Versions NVENC has undergone several hardware revisions since its introduction with the first Kepler GPU (GK104).[6] First generation, Kepler The first generation of NVENC, which is shared by all Kepler-based GP ...more...

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GE Dash 8-40C

topic

GE Dash 8-40C

The GE C40-8 is a 6-axle diesel-electric locomotive built by GE Transportation Systems between 1987 and 1992. It is part of the GE Dash 8 Series of freight locomotives, and its wheel arrangement is of a C-C type. This locomotive model is often referred to as a Dash 8-40C or simply "Dash 8". "Dash 8" in general refers to the electrical control series, "Dash" being a carryover from the older syntax of C40-8. The "40" refers to the baseline horsepower rating (4,000 hp or 3,000 kW) of the unit, although some units may be re-rated to 4,100 hp (3,100 kW) (see below). Later units were supplied with a wide-nose cab and are designated Dash 8-40CW, the "W" indicating a wide-nose cab. C41-8 Some railroads, in particular the Chicago and North Western, upgraded some of their units to ~4,135 hp (3,083 kW) and designated them as C42-8. This designation was modified by Union Pacific to C41-8 after its takeover of C&NW in 1995. Former C&NW units are usually identified by a grab-iron on the front nose just above ...more...

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Diesel locomotives of the United States

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GE C39-8

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GE C39-8

The GE C39-8 is a 6-axle diesel-electric locomotive model built by GE Transportation Systems between 1984 and 1987. It is part of the GE Dash 8 Series of freight locomotives. A total of 161 examples of this locomotive were built for two North American railroads: Conrail and Norfolk Southern Railway. The C39-8 was a fairly unpopular locomotive with crews, cited factors such as a rough ride, tendency to overheat, frequent turbocharger issues, issues with the fuel injection system, and various other reliability issues. Technical The C39-8 is powered by a 3,900 horsepower (2,900 kW) V16 7FDL-16 diesel engine driving a GE GMC187A2 main alternator. The power generated by the main alternator drove 6 GE 752AG traction motors, each with a gear ratio of 83:20 and connected to 40-inch (1,016 mm) wheels which allowed the C39-8 a maximum speed of 70 mph (110 km/h). Depending on customer options, the C39-8 carried between 3,900 to 4,500 US gal (14,763 to 17,034 L; 3,247 to 3,747 imp gal) of diesel fuel, 360 to 400 US  ...more...

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Honda N360

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Honda N360

The Honda N360 is a small front-engine, front-wheel drive, two-passenger two-box automobile manufactured and marketed by Honda from March 1967 through 1970 in compliance with Japan's kei car regulations. After a January 1970 facelift, the N360 became the NIII360 and continued in production until June 1972.[8] A larger-engined variant, the N600, was marketed through 1973. All models complied with Japanese kei car dimensional regulations, though vehicles with the 401 cc and 598 cc engines exceeded the kei engine displacement limits and were largely intended for international sales. The N360 featured front wheel drive and an air-cooled, four stroke, 354 cc, 31 PS (23 kW) two-cylinder engine. This same engine was also used in the Honda Vamos, with a beam axle/leaf spring rear suspension. With the N360 nameplate, along with its variants, Honda used the "N" prefix, designating "norimono" (translating from Japanese to English as "vehicle" ) — to distinguish the car from its motorcycle production. In 2012 Honda i ...more...

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MISTRAM

topic

MISTRAM

MISTRAM Missile Trajectory Measurement System. MISTRAM (MISsile TRAjectory Measurement) was a high-resolution tracking system used by the United States Air Force (and later NASA) to provide highly detailed trajectory analysis of rocket launches. A "classic" ranging system used since the 1960s uses radar to time a radio signal's travel to a target (in this case, the rocket) and back. This technique is accurate to approximately 1%. The accuracy of this technique is limited by the need to create a sharp "pulse" of radio so that the start of the signal can be accurately defined. There are both practical and theoretical limits to the sharpness of the pulse. In addition, the timing of the signals often introduced inaccuracies of its own until the introduction of high precision clocks. In MISTRAM, this was avoided by broadcasting a continuous signal. The basic system used a ground station located down range from the launch site (at Valkaria, Florida and Eleuthera Island, Bahamas) and a transponder on the vehicle ...more...

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Transamerica Pyramid

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Transamerica Pyramid

The Transamerica Pyramid at 600 Montgomery Street between Clay and Washington Streets in the Financial District of San Francisco, California, United States, is a 48-story futurist building and the second-tallest skyscraper in the San Francisco skyline. Its height is surpassed by Salesforce Tower.[5] The building no longer houses the headquarters of the Transamerica Corporation, which moved its U.S. headquarters to Baltimore, Maryland, but it is still associated with the company and is depicted in the company's logo. Designed by architect William Pereira and built by Hathaway Dinwiddie Construction Company, at 853 feet (260 m), on completion in 1972 it was the eighth-tallest building in the world.[6] History The Transamerica building was commissioned by Transamerica CEO John (Jack) R. Beckett, with the claim that he wished to allow light in the street below. Built on the site of the historic Montgomery Block, it has a structural height of 853 feet (260 m) and has 48 floors of retail and office space. Constr ...more...

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Skyscrapers between 250 and 299 meters

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Honda L engine

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Honda L engine

The L-series is a compact 4-cylinder engine created by Honda, introduced in 2001 with the Honda Fit. It has 1.2, 1.3 and 1.5 litre displacement variants, which utilize the names L12A, L13A and L15A. Depending on the region, these engines are sold throughout the world in the 5-door Honda Brio Fit/Jazz hatchback Honda Civic and the 4-door Fit Aria/City sedan (also known as Fit Saloon). They are also sold in the Japanese-only Airwave wagon and Mobilio MPV. Two different valvetrains are present on this engine series. The L12A, L13A and L15A use (Japanese: i-DSI), or “intelligent Dual & Sequential Ignition”. i-DSI utilizes two spark plugs per cylinder which fire at different intervals during the combustion process to achieve a more complete burn of the gasoline. This process allows the engine to have more power while keeping fuel consumption low, thanks to the better gasoline utilization. Emissions are also reduced. The i-DSI engines have two to five valves per cylinder and a modest redline of only 6,000 rpm ...more...

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Honda B engine

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Honda B engine

The B-series are a family of inline four-cylinder DOHC/SOHC automotive engines introduced by Honda in 1988. Sold concurrently with the D-series which were primarily SOHC engines designed for more economical applications, the B-series were a performance option featuring dual and single-overhead cams along with the first application of Honda's VTEC system (available in some models). To identify a Honda B-series engine, the letter B is normally followed by two numbers to designate the displacement of the engine, another letter, and in US-spec engines, another number. The Japanese spec-engines are normally designated with a four character alphanumeric designation.[1] The B-series, the B20B variant in particular, is not to be confused with the earlier Honda B20A engine introduced in 1985 and primarily available in the Prelude and Accord-derived vehicles from 1985-1991. While sharing some design elements and both being multivalve Honda four-cylinders, the B-series and B20A differ substantially in architecture, enou ...more...

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Radeon HD 5000 Series

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Radeon HD 5000 Series

The Evergreen series is a family of GPUs developed by Advanced Micro Devices for its Radeon line under the ATI brand name. It was employed in Radeon HD 5000 graphics card series and competed directly with Nvidia's GeForce 400 Series. Release The existence was spotted on a presentation slide from AMD Technology Analyst Day July 2007 as "R8xx". AMD held a press event in the USS Hornet museum on September 10, 2009[4] and announced ATI Eyefinity multi-display technology and specifications of the Radeon HD 5800 series' variants. The first variants of the Radeon HD 5800 series were launched September 23, 2009, with the HD 5700 series launching October 12 and HD 5970 launching on November 18[5] The HD 5670, was launched on January 14, 2010, and the HD 5500 and 5400 series were launched in February 2010, completing what has appeared to be most of AMD's Evergreen GPU lineup. Demand so greatly outweighed supply that more than two months after launch, many online retailers were still having trouble keeping the 5800 a ...more...

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List of Honda motorcycles

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List of Honda motorcycles

Honda Motorcycles logo The following is a list of motorcycles, scooters and mopeds produced by Honda. Name Engine size (cc) Beat (FC50) 48 Super Cub C100, CA100, C102, C50, Sports C110, C111. C110D, C114 49 CB50 49 Dio 49 Elite E (SB50) 49 Elsinore (MR50) 49 Express (NC50) 49 Hunter Cub (CT50) 49 MB5, MB50 49 Metropolitan Jazz (CHF 50) 49 Metropolitan II (CHF50P) 49 Motra (CT50) 49 MT5, MT50 49 NCZ50 also known as Motocompo 49 Spree (NQ50) 49 Mini Trail (Z50A) 49 Mini Trail (Z50M) 49 Mini Trail (Z50R) 49 Mini Trail (Z50J) 49 Moped (P50, P25) 49 Moped (PA50/Hobbit/Camino) 49 Moped (PF50/Amigo) 49 Moped (PC50, PS50) 49 Moped (SFX50) 49 Moped (SH50) 49 Moped (X8RS) 49 SGX50 (Sky) 49 SS50 49 Trail 50 (C100H, C100T, CA100T) 49 XR50R 49 ZB50 49 Zoomer/Ruckus (NPS50) 49 AC15 50 Super Cub C105, CD105, Honda C115 Sports 54 Trail 55 (C105H, C105T, CA105T) 54 Super Cub C65, S65 63 C70 Passport, CD70 72 Motosport (SL70) 72 Motosport ( ...more...

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Lists of motorcycles by brand

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Toyota Mark II

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Toyota Mark II

The Toyota Mark II was a mid-size sedan manufactured and marketed in Japan by Toyota between 1968 and 2004. Prior to 1984, the model was marketed as the Toyota Corona Mark II. In some export markets, Toyota marketed the vehicle as the Toyota Cressida between 1976 and 1992 across four generations. Toyota replaced the Cressida in North America with the Toyota Avalon. Every Mark II and Cressida was manufactured at the Motomachi plant at Toyota, Aichi. The nameplate Cressida derives from the Trojan character. History The first series, called the Toyota Corona Mark II was an all new vehicle at its introduction in 1968, that sought to offer a car that was just under Japanese government regulations concerning maximum vehicle dimensions and engine displacement, thus allowing the Crown to grow larger and more luxurious. Using the established platform of the Corona sedan but slightly larger and wider, it was exclusive to Toyopet Store locations, and offered as a competitor to the newly introduced Nissan Laurel in Ja ...more...

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music from the seventys

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GE Dash 8-40CM

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GE Dash 8-40CM

The GE C40-8M is a 6-axle diesel locomotive built by GE Transportation Systems from 1990 to 1994. It is part of the GE Dash 8 Series of freight locomotives, and is often referred to as a Dash 8-40CM. Mechanically identical to the Dash 8-40CW, the Dash 8-40CM was constructed only for Canadian railways, with a production total of 84 units. It is distinguished from the Dash 8-40CW by the addition of a full-width cowl body and the use of a Canada-specific nose and windshield configuration. The trucks also differ, all units built ride on Dofasco trucks identical to locomotives built by Montreal Locomotive Works, Bombardier, and Morrison-Knudsen. Technical The Dash 8-40CM is powered by a 4,000-horsepower (3,000 kW) V16 7FDL diesel engine driving a GE GMG187 main alternator. The power generated by the main alternator drives six GE 752AG or 752AH direct current traction motors, each with a gear ratio of 83:20 and connected to 40-inch (1,000 mm) wheels which allow the Dash 8-40CM a maximum speed of 70 mph (110 km/h ...more...

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Nvidia PureVideo

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Nvidia PureVideo

PureVideo is Nvidia's hardware SIP core that performs video decoding. PureVideo is integrated into some of the Nvidia GPUs, and it supports hardware decoding of multiple video codec standards: MPEG-2, VC-1, H.264, and HEVC. PureVideo occupies a considerable amount of a GPU's die area and should not be confused with Nvidia NVENC.[1] In addition to video decoding on chip, PureVideo offers features such as edge enhancement, noise reduction, deinterlacing, dynamic contrast enhancement and color enhancement. Operating system support The PureVideo SIP core needs to be supported by the device driver, which provides one or more interfaces such as NVDEC, VDPAU, VAAPI or DXVA. One of these interfaces is then used by end-user software, for example VLC media player or GStreamer, to access the PureVideo hardware and make use of it. Nvidia's proprietary device driver is available for multiple operating systems and support for PureVideo has been added to it. Additionally, a free device driver is available, which also sup ...more...

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Honda D engine

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Honda D engine

D16Y8 Engine D15B6 Engine D15B 3-stage VTEC Engine The Honda D series naturally aspirated inline-four cylinder engine is used in a variety of compact models, most commonly the Honda Civic, CRX, Logo, Stream, and first-generation Integra. Engine displacement ranges between 1.2 and 1.7 liters. The D Series engine is a SOHC, and might include VTEC variable valve timing. Power ranges from 62 hp (46 kW) in the Logo to 130 PS (96 kW) in the Civic Si. D-series production commenced 1984 and ended 2005. D-series engine technology culminated with production of the D15B 3-stage VTEC (D15Z7) which was available in markets outside of the United States. Earlier versions of this engine also used a single port fuel injection system Honda called PGM-CARB, signifying the carburetor was computer controlled. D12 series engines (1.2 liter) D12B1 Found in: 1988-1990 Honda Civic (European Market) Displacement: 1,193 cc (72.8 cu in) Bore and Stroke: 75.0 mm × 67.5 mm (2.95 in × 2.66 in) Compression: 8,6:1 Power: 74 PS ...more...

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GE C36-7

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GE C36-7

China Railways class ND5 C36-7i in Estonia The GE C36-7 is a 6-axle diesel-electric locomotive built by GE Transportation Systems, GE do Brazil and A Goninan & Co between 1978 and 1989. 599 examples of this locomotive were built, 422 of which were exported to the People's Republic of China, where it is designated as ND5. In 2003 58 ex MP / UP locos were exported to Estonia. GE do Brazil built 15 C36-7s for Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México, numbers 9327–9341. Original owners Railroad Quantity Road numbers China Railways 422 ND5.0001–ND5.0422 Conrail 25 6620–6644 Ferrocarril del Pacífico 15 419–433 General Electric (testbed) 1 505 Hamersley Iron, Western Australia 3 5057–5059[1] Missouri Pacific Railroad 60 9000–9059 Ferrocarriles Nacionales de México 25 9317–9341 Norfolk and Western Railway 31 8500–8530 Norfolk Southern 12 8531–8542 OCTRA (Trans-Gabon Railway) 8 CC301–CC308 References Oberg, Leon (2010). Locomotives of Australi ...more...

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Comparison of Nvidia nForce chipsets

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Comparison of Nvidia nForce chipsets

This is a comparison of chipsets designed by Nvidia. nForce nForce Model Release Date Processors Supported Fabrication process (nm) FSB/HT Frequency (MHz) Memory Max. memory AGP Southbridge Features Notes nForce 215 2001 Athlon XP, Athlon, Duron 266 MHz, 200 MHz DDR266 single channel 1.5 GB AGP 4× MCP MCP-D nForce 220 2001 Athlon XP, Athlon, Duron 266 MHz, 200 MHz DDR266 single channel 1.5 GB AGP 4× MCP MCP-D Geforce 2 MX IGP nForce 415 2001 Athlon XP, Athlon, Duron 266 MHz, 200 MHz DDR266 dual channel 1.5 GB AGP 4× MCP MCP-D nForce 420 2001 Athlon XP, Athlon, Duron 266 MHz, 200 MHz DDR266 dual channel 1.5 GB AGP 4× MCP MCP-D Geforce 2 MX IGP nForce Southbridges Model Release Date Fabrication process (nm) PCI USB FireWire (IEEE1394) PATA SATA LAN Sound Features Notes MCP 2001 5 Ports 6 Ports Rev 1.1 No 2 Ports UDMA 100 No 100 Mbit/s AC'97 2.1 MCP-D 2001 5 Ports 6 Ports Rev 1.1 No 2 Ports UDMA 100 No 100 Mbit/s AC'97 2.1 NVAPU SoundStorm nForce2 nForce2 Model Release D ...more...

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Honda XR series

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Honda XR series

The Honda XR series is a range of four-stroke off-road motorcycles that were designed in Japan but assembled all over the world. Some of the XR series came in two versions: R and L. The R version bikes were enduro machines designed for off-road competitive riding. They were fitted with knobby off-road tires and were not always street legal. The L version models were dual-sport trailbikes, fitted with lights, indicators, horn, and street legal tyres. Small XR models Small XR models include the XR50R, XR70R, XR75R, XR80R and XR100R. They are much smaller in size in comparison to the other bikes in the series, and are designed for children, smaller riders, as pit bikes, or for recreational fun. The child actor Edward Furlong who plays the young John Connor sits on a towed XR80 in the film Terminator 2: Judgment Day, however his stunt double who was of legal age, needed to use the larger XR100 for his shots of physically riding the bike in the film, moreover, the audio tracks of the engines revving were taken ...more...

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GE B36-7

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GE B36-7

The GE B36-7 is a 4-axle diesel-electric locomotive built by GE Transportation Systems between 1980 and 1985. 222 examples of this locomotive were built for North American railroads and eight units were built for a Colombian coal mining operation. The units were designed as successors to GE's U36B's. Of the 230 locomotives built, 180 of them were built for two Eastern railroads - Seaboard System Railroad (which became part of CSX Transportation in 1986) and Conrail. These 4-axle locomotives were powerful ones when introduced in 1980. When first built the units were rated at 3,600 hp (2,700 kW), later versions were rated at 3,750 hp (2,800 kW). They were designed for fast and priority service, moving intermodal and container trains. Most of Seaboard's 120 units were still in service as late as 2006. Conrail's units were all retired in 2000 and 2001. One notable exception among Conrail's units was CR 5045, which was destroyed in the infamous wreck of the Colonial at Chase, Maryland, on January 4, 1987. CSX wa ...more...

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Toyota G engine

topic

Toyota G engine

The Toyota Motor Corporation G-family engine is a family of straight-6 piston engines produced from 1979 to 2006. It is notable in that only a single displacement, 2.0 L (1,988 cc), was produced in this series. All were belt-driven OHC non-interference engines (except the VVT-i version in the IS200 which is an interference engine), with multivalve DOHC (except the 1G-EU SOHC 12 valve engine) and even variable valve timing added later. The 1G-GEU was Toyota's first four-valve twincam engine.[1] A prototype version of the 1G-GEU called the LASREα–X, featuring twin turbos, variable valve timing and intake as well as variable displacement, was fitted to the Toyota FX-1 show car at the 1983 Tokyo Motor Show. It showcased a number of technologies which were later to become commonplace.[2] These engines were used as a lower-displacement alternative to the more upmarket M family and JZ family straight-sixes. 1G Since just one displacement was offered, all G-family engines are marked 1G and share the same "square" ...more...

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General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon variants

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General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon variants

A large number of variants of the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon have been produced by General Dynamics, Lockheed Martin, and various licensed manufacturers. The details of the F-16 variants, along with major modification programs and derivative designs significantly influenced by the F-16, are described below. Pre-production variants YF-16 U.S. Air Force YF-16 and YF-17, 1982 Two single-seat YF-16 prototypes were built for the Light Weight Fighter (LWF) competition. The first YF-16 was rolled out at Fort Worth on 13 December 1973 and accidentally accomplished its first flight on 21 January 1974, followed by its scheduled "first flight" on 2 February 1974. The second prototype first flew on 9 March 1974. Both YF-16 prototypes participated in the flyoff against the Northrop YF-17 prototypes, with the F-16 winning the Air Combat Fighter (ACF) competition, as the LWF program had been renamed.[2] F-16 FSD In January 1975, the Air Force ordered eight full-scale development (FSD) F-16s – six single-s ...more...

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30 Rockefeller Plaza

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30 Rockefeller Plaza

30 Rockefeller Plaza is an American Art Deco skyscraper that forms the centerpiece of Rockefeller Center in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Formerly called the RCA Building from 1933 to 1988, and later the GE Building from 1988 to 2015, it was renamed the Comcast Building in 2015, following the transfer of ownership to new corporate owner Comcast. Its name is often shortened to 30 Rock. The building is most famous for housing the headquarters and New York studios of television network NBC, as well as the Rainbow Room restaurant. At 850 feet (260 m) high, the 66-story building is the 14th tallest in New York City and the 47th tallest in the United States. It stands 400 feet (122 m) shorter than the Empire State Building. 30 Rockefeller Center underwent a $170 million floor-by-floor interior renovation in 2014. History Construction Rockefeller Center, featuring the RCA Building (December 1933) The construction of Rockefeller Center occurred between 1932 and 1940[a] on land that John D. Rockefeller Jr. l ...more...

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Buildings and structures on the National Regist...

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Pascal (microarchitecture)

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Pascal (microarchitecture)

Pascal is the codename for a GPU microarchitecture developed by Nvidia, as the successor to the Maxwell architecture. The architecture was first introduced in April 2016 with the release of the Tesla P100 (GP100) on April 5, 2016, and is primarily used in the GeForce 10 series, starting with the GeForce GTX 1080 and GTX 1070 (both using the GP104 GPU), which were released on May 17, 2016 and June 10, 2016 respectively. Pascal is manufactured using the 16nm FinFET process. The architecture is named after the 17th century French mathematician and physicist, Blaise Pascal. Details In March 2014, Nvidia announced that the successor to Maxwell would be the Pascal microarchitecture; announced on 6 May 2016 and released on 27 May 2016. The Tesla P100 (GP100 chip) has a different version of the Pascal architecture compared to the GTX GPUs (GP104 chip). The shader units in GP104 have a Maxwell-like design.[1] Architectural improvements of the GP100 architecture include the following:[2][3][4] In Pascal, an SM (s ...more...

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GE B23-7

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GE B23-7

The GE B23-7 is a diesel locomotive model that was first offered by GE in late 1977. Featuring a smaller 12 cylinder version of the FDL engine, it is the successor to GE's U23B produced from early 1968 to mid 1977, but at 62 ft 2 in (18.95 m) long is exactly 2 ft 0 in (0.61 m). longer. It competed with the very successful EMD GP38-2. General Electric also produced a variant, the BQ23-7, no.5130-5139, for the Seaboard Coast Line. A total of 537 B23-7's were built for 9 U.S. customers and 2 Mexican customers. A B23-7A is a 12-cylinder B23-7 with horsepower boosted to 250 per cylinder or 3,000 horsepower. In 1980 the Missouri Pacific ordered three B23-7A's (#'s 4667-4669, later UP #'s 257-259) and tested them system-wide. The result was the GE model B30-7A, B30-7 with a 12-cylinder FDL prime mover. They were not renumbered into the B30-7A series on the MP because they lacked Sentry Wheel Slip and had different engine governors. 13 B23-7's were built by GE of Brazil in Dec.1979 for United South Eastern Railways ...more...

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ThinkPad T Series

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ThinkPad T Series

The ThinkPad T Series is a line of laptop computers introduced by IBM in 2000. After the transfer of the consumer computer division in 2005, they were developed and marketed by Chinese technology company Lenovo. History The last ThinkPad to have been manufactured directly by IBM (T43). IBM introduced the T Series as part of their ThinkPad brand in 2000.[1] The laptop was meant to cater to users working with multiple networks and in different environments. This resulted in the development of the IBM Embedded Security Subsystem.[1] From the time of its inception, the series was designed to balance speed and mobility. Despite a 14.1” screen, similar to desktops at the time, the titanium composite body on the laptop was designed to keep the weight as low as possible.[1] Users were also given options to swap components for mobility, like a DVD player, writeable CD drive or numeric keypads.[1] The ThinkPad T20 was released by IBM as the successor to the ThinkPad 600 laptops.[2] Despite the weight of 2.1 kg ...more...

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Boeing 777X

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Boeing 777X

The Boeing 777X is a new series of the long-range wide-body twin-engine Boeing 777 family that is under development by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. The 777X is to feature GE9X new engines, new composite wings with folding wingtips, a denser cabin, and technologies from the Boeing 787. The 777X series was launched in November 2013 with two variants: the 777-8 and the 777-9. The 777-8 has seating for 365 and range of 8,690 nmi (16,090 km) and the 777-9 has seating for 414 and range of over 7,525 nmi (13,940 km). The -9 is to fly in the first quarter of 2019 with deliveries to begin in December 2019. Development Initial design In 2010–2011, Boeing refined its response to the revamped Airbus A350 with three 777X models, targeting a firm configuration in 2015, flying in late 2017 or 2018 and entering service by 2019. The 407 passenger -9X should stretch the -300ER by four frames to 250 ft 11 in (76.48 m), for a 759,000 lb (344 t) MTOW and powered by 99,500 lbf (443 kN) engines, targeting per-seat 21% better fuel ...more...

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Twinjets

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TransAsia Airways Flight 235

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TransAsia Airways Flight 235

TransAsia Airways Flight 235 (GE235/TNA235) was a domestic flight that crashed into the Keelung River on 4 February 2015, shortly after takeoff from Taipei Songshan Airport, 5.4 km (3.4 mi) to the west of Songshan in Taiwan. The TransAsia Airways flight, operated with a ten-month-old ATR 72-600 aircraft, was flying from Taipei to Kinmen (Quemoy), a Taiwanese island off the coast of mainland Fujian, with 53 passengers and five crew on board. There were 15 survivors. Two minutes after takeoff, the pilots reported an engine flameout. Flight 235 climbed to a maximum height of 1,500 feet (460 m), then descended. The other engine, still working, was shut down mistakenly.[1][2] Immediately before crashing into the river, it banked sharply left and clipped a taxi travelling west on the Huandong Viaduct, then the viaduct itself, with its left wing. Flight 235 was the second fatal accident involving a TransAsia Airways ATR aircraft within seven months. Flight 222 crashed on 23 July 2014, killing 48 of the 58 on board ...more...

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Filmed accidental deaths

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GE 70-ton switcher

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GE 70-ton switcher

The GE 70-ton switcher is a 4-axle diesel-electric locomotive built by General Electric between about 1942 and 1955. It is classified as a B-B type locomotive. The first series of "70 tonners" were a group of seven center-cab locomotives built for the New York Central Railroad in November 1942. These units differ from the later end-cab versions. Locomotives exported to Brazil were known as GE 64T (70 short tons or 63 long tons or 64 metric tons) and nicknamed "scooters". Survivors The Modesto and Empire Traction Company used nine of these reliable 70-ton locomotives (MET No. 600–609) on its railroad along with two former-Southern Pacific EMD SW1500s. The company has since retired and sold all of these locomotives except number 600.[2] The GE locomotives are also used by the Santa Maria Valley Railroad.[3] The Belfast and Moosehead Lake Railroad still has locomotives 50, 51 and 53. 50 and 51 are original to the line, 53 was purchased second hand. 50 and 53 are currently in service (3/17). 51 suffered a cata ...more...

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Standard gauge railway locomotives

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CUDA

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CUDA

CUDA is a parallel computing platform and application programming interface (API) model created by Nvidia.[1] It allows software developers and software engineers to use a CUDA-enabled graphics processing unit (GPU) for general purpose processing – an approach termed GPGPU (General-Purpose computing on Graphics Processing Units). The CUDA platform is a software layer that gives direct access to the GPU's virtual instruction set and parallel computational elements, for the execution of compute kernels.[2] The CUDA platform is designed to work with programming languages such as C, C++, and Fortran. This accessibility makes it easier for specialists in parallel programming to use GPU resources, in contrast to prior APIs like Direct3D and OpenGL, which required advanced skills in graphics programming. Also, CUDA supports programming frameworks such as OpenACC and OpenCL.[2] When it was first introduced by Nvidia, the name CUDA was an acronym for Compute Unified Device Architecture,[3] but Nvidia subsequently dro ...more...

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Parallel computing

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