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GE-600 series

General Electric model GE-645

The GE-600 series was a family of 36-bit mainframe computers originating in the 1960s, built by General Electric (GE). When GE left the mainframe business the line was sold to Honeywell, which built similar systems into the 1990s as the division moved to Groupe Bull and then NEC.

Architecture

The 600 series used 36-bit words and 18-bit addresses. They had two 36-bit accumulators, eight 18-bit index registers, and one 8-bit exponent register. It supported floating point in both 36-bit single-precision and 2 x 36-bit double precision, the exponent being stored separately, allowing up to 71 bits of precision (one bit being used for the sign). It had an elaborate set of addressing modes, many of which used indirect words, some of which were auto-incrementing or auto-decrementing. It supported 6-bit and 9-bit bytes through addressing modes; these supported extracting specific bytes, and incrementing the byte pointer, but not random access to bytes.

It also included a number of channel controllers for handling I/O. The CPU could hand off short programs written in the channel controller's own machine language, which would then process the data, move it to or from the memory, and raise an interrupt when they completed. This allowed the main CPU to move on to other tasks while waiting for the slow I/O to complete, a primary feature of time sharing systems.

Operating systems

Originally the operating system for the 600-series computers was GECOS, developed by GE beginning in 1962.

The GE-635 was used for the Dartmouth Time Sharing System starting in 1965.

The GE Mark II operating system (later Mark III) was used by GE Information Services as the basis for its timesharing and networked computing business. Although Mark II / Mark III was originally based on the Dartmouth system, the systems quickly diverged. Mark II/III incorporated many features normally associated with on-line transaction-processing systems, such as journalization and granular file locking. In the early-to-mid-1970s, Mark III adopted a high-reliability cluster technology, in which up to eight processing systems (each with its own copy of the operating system) had access to multiple file systems.

The Multics operating system was begun in 1964 as an advanced new operating system for the 600 series, though it was not production-ready until 1969. GE was hardware supplier to the project and one of development partners (the others were Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Bell Labs). GE saw this project as an opportunity to clearly separate themselves from other vendors by offering this advanced OS which would run best only on their machines. Multics required a number of additional features in the CPU to be truly effective, and John Couleur was joined by Edward Glaser at MIT to make the required modifications. The result was the GE-645, which included support for virtual memory. Addressing was modified to use an 18-bit segment in addition to the 18-bit address, dramatically increasing the theoretical memory size and making virtual memory much easier to support.

History

The GE-600 line of computers was developed by a team led by John Couleur out of work they had done for the military MISTRAM project in 1959. MISTRAM was a tracking system that was used on a number of projects (including Project Apollo) and the Air Force required a data-collection computer to be installed in a tracking station downrange from Cape Canaveral. The data would eventually be shared with the 36-bit IBM 7094 machine at the Cape, so the computer would likely have to be 36-bits as well. GE built a machine called the M236 for the task, and as a result of the 36-bit needs, it ended up acting much like the 7094. In fact GE offered a box to connect to the 635 called a 9SA that allowed the 635 to run 7094 programs.

GE originally hadn't intended on entering the commercial computer market with the machine. However by the early 1960s GE was the largest user of IBM mainframes, and producing their own machines seemed like an excellent way to lower the costs of their computing department. In one estimate the cost of development would be paid for in a single year free of IBM rental fees. Many remained skeptical, but after a year of internal wrangling, the project to commercialize the M236 eventually got the go-ahead in February 1963.

The machine was originally offered as the main GE-635, and the slower but compatible GE-625 and GE-615. While most were single-processor systems, the 635 could be configured with four CPUs and up to four input/output controllers (IOC's) each with up to 16 Common Peripheral Interface Channels.

The 635 was likely the first example of a general purpose SMP system, though the GECOS/GCOS software treated the processors as a master and up to three slaves. The 600 line consisted of six models: the 605, 615, 625, 635, 645, and 655.

The 615 was a 635 with Control Unit (CU) and Operations Unit (OU) overlap disabled, and a 36-bit-wide memory path. The 625 was a 635 with Control Unit and Operations Unit overlap disabled and 72-bit-wide memory path. The 635 had a 72-bit-wide memory path and CU/OU overlap enabled. The difference between these models was less than 10 wires on the backplane. Field service could convert a 615 to a 635 or 625 or vice versa in a couple of hours if necessary;other than those few wires, the 615, 625 and 635 were identical. The 605 was used in some realtime/military applications, and was essentially a 615 without the floating point hardware. Programs coded for a 605 would run without any modification on any other 600 line processor.

The 645 was a modified 635 processor that provided hardware support for the Multics operating system developed at MIT. The 605/615/625/635 and 645 were essentially second generation computers with discrete transistor TTL logic and a handful of integrated circuits. Memory consisted of a two-microsecond ferrite core, which could be interleaved. GE bought core memory from Fabri-Tek, Ampex and Lockheed. The Lockheed memory tended to be the most reliable.

The last model, the 655, was announced but probably never delivered as a 655.

Continuing problems with the reliability of the magnetic tape systems used with the system cast a pall over the entire project. In 1966 GE froze many orders while others were cancelled outright. By 1967 these problems were cleared up, and the machines were re-launched along with an upgraded version of the GECOS operating system.

A follow-on project to create a next-generation 635 started in 1967. The new GE-655 replaced the individual transistors from the earlier models with integrated circuits, which doubled the performance of the machine while also greatly reducing assembly costs. However the machine was still in development in 1969, by which time the Multics project had finally produced an operating system usable by end-users. Besides MIT, Bell Labs, and GE, GE-645 systems running Multics were installed at the US Air Force Rome Development Center, Honeywell Billerica, and Machines Bull in Paris. These last two systems were used as a "software factory" by a Honeywell/Bull project to design the Honeywell Level 64 computer.

GE sold its computer division to Honeywell in 1970, who renamed the GE-600 series as the Honeywell 6000 series. The 655 was officially released in 1973 as the Honeywell 6070 (with reduced performance versions, the 6030 and 6050). An optional Decimal/Business instruction set was added to improve COBOL performance. (Extended Instruction Set, aka EIS and the Decimal Unit or DU). The machines with EIS were the 'even' series, the 6040, 6060, 6080 and later the 6025. Several hundred of these processors were sold. Memory was initially 600 ns Ferrite core made by Lockheed. Later versions used 750 ns MOS memory. The two could co-exist within a system, but not within a memory controller.

A version of the 6080 with the various Multics-related changes similar to the 645 was released as the 6180. A few dozen 6180-architecture CPUs were shipped. Later members of the 6000 series were released under various names, including Level 66, Level 68, DPS-8, DPS-88, DPS-90, DPS-9000 by Honeywell, Groupe Bull, and NEC.

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GE-600 series

topic

The GE-600 series was a family of 36-bit mainframe computers originating in the 1960s, built by General Electric (GE). When GE left the mainframe business the line was sold to Honeywell , which built similar systems into the 1990s as the division moved to Groupe Bull and then NEC . Architecture The 600 series used 36-bit words and 18-bit addresses. They had two 36-bit accumulators , eight 18-bit index registers , and one 8-bit exponent register. It supported floating point in both 36-bit single-precision and 2 x 36-bit double precision, the exponent being stored separately, allowing up to 71 bits of precision (one bit being used for the sign). It had an elaborate set of addressing modes, many of which used indirect words , some of which were auto-incrementing or auto-decrementing. It supported 6-bit and 9-bit bytes through addressing modes; these supported extracting specific bytes, and incrementing the byte pointer, but not random access to bytes. It also included a number of channel controllers for handling ...more...



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GE-200 series

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GE-400 series

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GE AC6000CW

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GeForce 700 series

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General Electric

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GeForce 200 series

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The GeForce 200 Series is a series of Tesla -based GeForce graphics processing units developed by Nvidia . Architecture The GeForce 200 Series introduces Nvidia's second generation of Tesla (microarchitecture) , Nvidia's unified shader architecture ; the first major update to it since introduced with the GeForce 8 Series . The GeForce GTX 280 and GTX 260 are based on the same processor core. During the manufacturing process, GTX chips are binned and separated through defect testing of the core's logic functionality. Those that fail to meet the GTX 280 hardware specification are re-tested and binned as GTX 260 (which is specified with fewer stream processors, less ROPs and a narrower memory bus). In late 2008, Nvidia re-released the GTX 260 with 216 stream processors, up from 192. Effectively, there were two GTX 260 cards in production with non-trivial performance differences. The GeForce 200 series GPUs (GT200a/b GPU), excluding GeForce GTS 250, GTS 240 GPUs (these are older G92b GPUs), have double precision ...more...



GeForce 8 series

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The GeForce 8 Series is the eighth generation of NVIDIA 's GeForce line of graphics processing units . The third major GPU architecture developed by Nvidia, Tesla (microarchitecture) represents the company's first unified shader architecture . GeForce 8 Series overview All GeForce 8 Series products are based on Tesla (microarchitecture) . Max resolution Dual Dual-link DVI Support: Able to drive two flat-panel displays up to 2560×1600 resolution. Available on select GeForce 8800 and 8600 GPUs. One Dual-link DVI Support: Able to drive one flat-panel display up to 2560×1600 resolution. Available on select GeForce 8500 GPUs and GeForce 8400 GS cards based on the G98. One Single-link DVI Support: Able to drive one flat-panel display up to 1920×1200 resolution. Available on select GeForce 8400 GPUs. GeForce 8400 GS cards based on the G86 only support single-link DVI. Display capabilities The GeForce 8 series supports 10-bit per channel display output, up from 8-bit on previous NVIDIA cards. This potentially allows ...more...



Toyota A engine

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The A Series engines are a family of inline-four internal combustion engines with displacement from 1.3 L to 1.8 L produced by Toyota Motor Corporation . The series has cast iron engine blocks and aluminum cylinder heads. The development of the series began in the late 1970s, when Toyota wanted to develop a completely new engine for the Toyota Tercel , successor of Toyota's K engine . The goal was to achieve good fuel efficiency and performance as well as low emissions with a modern design. The A-series includes the first mass-production DOHC , four-valve-per-cylinder engine, the 4A-GE, and a later version of the same engine was one of the first production five-valve-per-cylinder engines. Toyota joint venture partner Tianjin FAW Xiali still produces the 1.3 L 8A and recently resumed production of the 5A . 1A The 1.5 L 1A was produced between 1978 and 1980. All variants were belt-driven 8-valve counter-flow SOHC engine with a single, twin-barrel downdraft carburetor . 1A-C Applications: AL10 Tercel 1A-U Us ...more...



GeForce 6 series

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The GeForce 6 Series ( codename NV40 ) is Nvidia 's sixth generation of GeForce graphic processing units . Launched on April 14, 2004, the GeForce 6 family introduced PureVideo post-processing for video, SLI technology, and Shader Model 3.0 support (compliant with Microsoft DirectX 9.0c specification and OpenGL 2.0). GeForce 6 Series features GeForce 6600 GT AGP SLI The Scalable Link Interface (SLI) allows two GeForce 6 cards of the same type to be connected in tandem. The driver software balances the workload between the cards. SLI-capability is limited to select members of the GeForce 6 family; 6500 and above. SLI is only available for cards utilizing the PCI-Express bus. Nvidia PureVideo Technology Nvidia PureVideo technology is the combination of a dedicated video processing core and software which decodes H.264, VC-1, WMV, and MPEG-2 videos with reduced CPU utilization. Shader Model 3.0 Nvidia was the first to deliver Shader Model 3.0 (SM3) capability in its GPUs. SM3 extends SM2 in a number of ways: sta ...more...



GE U30C

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The GE U30C was one of the earliest successes from General Electric in the diesel locomotive market. With 600 units sold, the U30C proved to be a viable alternative for customers who were unable to purchase SD40s or SD40-2s from Electro-Motive Diesel (EMD) due to production backlog. Throughout its ten-year production span, the U30C was known for reliability issues concerning its electrical system. However, most railroads were assured of the reliability of the GE Model 752 DC traction motor, and began to place orders for U30Cs starting in 1966. When production ended, the last U30Cs carried pre-Dash 7 specifications, which would be carried in its replacement, the GE C30-7 . The U30C served customers of all kinds, from mining, to general freights, coal trains, and even as a power source unit for the Department of Transportation's subway-car test tracks in Pueblo, Colorado before a connection from the commercial electric power grid could be established ( Cudahy 1979 ). Not to be outdone in the freight sector, GE ...more...



GeForce 800M series

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The GeForce 800M Series is a family of graphics processing units by Nvidia for laptop PCs. It consists of rebrands of mobile versions of the GeForce 700 series and some newer chips that are lower end compared to the rebrands. The GeForce 800 series name was originally planned to be used for both desktop and mobile chips based on the Maxwell microarchitecture (GM-codenamed chips), named after the Scottish theoretical physicist James Clerk Maxwell , which was previously introduced into the GeForce 700 series in the GTX 750 and GTX 750 Ti, released on February 18, 2014. However, because mobile GPUs under the GeForce 800M series had already been released using the Kepler architecture, Nvidia decided to rename its GeForce 800 series desktop GPUs as the GeForce 900 series. The Maxwell microarchitecture , the successor to Kepler microarchitecture , was the first Nvidia architecture to feature an integrated ARM CPU of its own. This enabled Maxwell GPUs to be more independent from the main CPU according to Nvidia' ...more...



GeForce 500 series

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A refresh of the Fermi based GeForce 400 series, the GeForce 500 series is a series of graphics processing units developed by Nvidia , first released on November 9, 2010 with the GeForce GTX 580. Overview The Nvidia Geforce 500 Series graphics cards are significantly modified versions of the Nvidia GeForce 400 Series graphics cards, in terms of performance and power management. Like the Nvidia GeForce 400 Series graphics cards, the Nvidia Geforce 500 Series graphics cards support DirectX 12.0, OpenGL 4.6, and OpenCL 1.1. The refreshed Fermi chip is large: it includes 512 stream processors, grouped in 16 stream multiprocessors clusters (each with 32 CUDA cores), and is manufactured by TSMC in a 40 nm process. The Nvidia GeForce GTX 580 graphics card is the first in the Nvidia GeForce 500 Series to use a fully enabled chip based on the refreshed Fermi architecture, with all 16 stream multiprocessors clusters and all six 64-bit memory controllers active. The new GF110 GPU was enhanced with full speed FP16 filter ...more...



GeForce 9 series

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The GeForce 9 series is the ninth generation of NVIDIA 's GeForce series of graphics processing units , the first of which was released on February 21, 2008. Products are based on a slightly repolished Tesla microarchitecture, adding PCIe 2.0 support, improved color and z-compression, and built on a 65 nm process, later using 55 nm process to reduce power consumption and die size (GeForce 8 G8x GPUs only supported PCIe 1.1 and were built on 90 nm process or 80 nm process). GeForce 9300 Series Geforce 9100 G 65 nm G98 GPU PCI-E x16 64 Bit Bus Width 4 ROP, 8 Unified Shaders 540 MHz Core Clock 256 MB DDR2, 400 MHZ Memory Clock 1300 MHZ Shader Clock 5.1 G texels/s fill rate 7.6 GB/s Memory bandwidth Supports DirectX 10, SM 4.0 OpenGL 2.1 Compliance Supports 1st generation PureVideo HD technology with partial VC1 decoding. Geforce 9300 GS On May 1, 2008 the GeForce 9300 GS was officially launched. 80 nm G86GPU PCI-E x16 64 Bit Bus Width 8 ROP, 16 Unified Shaders 450 MHz Core Clock 512 MB DDR2, 400 MHz Memory Clock ...more...



GeForce 300 series

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The GeForce 300 series is a series of Tesla -based graphics processing units developed by Nvidia , first released in November 2009. Its cards are rebrands of the GeForce 200 series cards, available only for OEMs. All GPUs of the series support Direct3D 10.1, except the GT 330 (Direct3D 10.0). History On 27 November 2009, Nvidia released its first GeForce 300 series video card, the GeForce 310. However, this card is a re-brand of one of Nvidia's older models (the GeForce 210) and not based on the newer Fermi architecture. On 2 February 2010, Nvidia announced the official titles of the new generation GF100 (Fermi) cards, the GeForce GTX 470 and the GeForce GTX 480. Later that month the company announced the release of the GeForce GT 320, GT 330 and GT 340, available to OEMs only. The Geforce GT 340 is simply a rebadged GT 240, sharing exactly the same specifications, while the GT 320 and 330 are new cards (albeit still based on the previous generation GT200b and G92b architecture). Chipset table Discontinued s ...more...



Radeon HD 7000 Series

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The Radeon HD 7000 Series , based on "Southern Islands" , is further products series in the family of Radeon GPUs developed by AMD . AMD builds Southern Islands series graphics chips based on the 28 nm manufacturing process at TSMC . The primary competitor of Southern Islands, Nvidia 's GeForce 600 Series (also manufactured at TSMC), also shipped during Q1 2012, largely due to the immaturity of the 28 nm process. Architecture This article is about all products under the Radeon HD 7000 Series brand . Graphics Core Next was introduced with the Radeon HD 7000 Series. A GPU implementing Graphics Core Next is found on the Radeon HD 7730 and above branded discrete GPUs. A GPU implementing TeraScale (microarchitecture) version " Evergreen (VLIW5) " is found on Radeon HD 7670 and below branded discrete GPUs. A GPU implementing TeraScale (microarchitecture) version " Northern Island (VLIW4) " is found on APUs whose GPUs are branded with the Radeon HD 7000 series. Multi-monitor support The AMD Eyefinity -branded on- ...more...



SPARKLE Computer

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Sparkle Computer Co., Ltd. (stylised as SPARKLE ),is a Taiwanese electronics firm established in 1982, based in Taipei . The company currently specialises in manufacturing video cards using Nvidia graphics processing units , along with peripherals (fans and heatsinks ) for graphics controllers. Sparkle is one of the few manufacturers of modern discrete video cards that still use the PCI bus, producing PCI versions of GeForce 8 Series and GeForce 9 Series based discrete graphics controllers , and more recently, GeForce 200 series and GeForce 600 series -based GPUs using the aforementioned interface. Products PCI Series GeForce 7900 PCI SP-PX79GDH (GeForce 7900 GT Series with active cooling - 256MB RAM) GeForce 8400 PCI SPARKLE introduced a unique PCI version of the GeForce 8400 series cards in PCI versions. SF-PC84GS512U2LP (GeForce 8400 GS Series with active cooling - 512MB RAM) SF-PC84GS512U2LP (GeForce 8400 GS Series with passive cooling - 512MB RAM) SF-PC84GS256U2LP (GeForce 8400 GS Series with active cool ...more...



GeForce 400 series

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Serving as the introduction of Fermi , the GeForce 400 Series is a series of graphics processing units developed by Nvidia. Its release was originally slated in November 2009, however, after delays, it was released on March 26, 2010 with availability following in April 2010. Architecture Nvidia described the Fermi (microarchitecture) as the next major step in its line of GPUs following the Tesla (microarchitecture) used since the G80 . The GF100, the first Fermi-architecture product, is large: 512 stream processors , in sixteen groups of 32, and 3.0 billion transistors, manufactured by TSMC in a 40 nm process. It is Nvidia's first chip to support OpenGL 4.0 and Direct3D 11 . No products with a fully enabled GF100 GPU were ever sold. The GTX 480 had one streaming multiprocessor disabled. The GTX 470 had two streaming multiprocessors and one memory controller disabled. The GTX 465 had five streaming multiprocessors and two memory controllers disabled. Consumer GeForce cards came with 256MB attached to each of ...more...



General Electric CF34

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CF34 engine mounted on an Embraer E-190 Recent versions of the CF34 feature chevrons on the core nozzle outlet. The General Electric CF34 is a civilian turbofan developed by GE Aircraft Engines from its TF34 military engine. The CF34 is used on a number of business and regional jets , including the Bombardier CRJ series, the Embraer E-Jets , and the Chinese ARJ21 under development. As of 2012, there are over 5,600 engines in service. Design and development The original engines comprise a single stage fan, driven by a 4-stage low pressure (LP) turbine, supercharging a 14-stage HP compressor, driven by a 2-stage high pressure (HP) turbine, with an annular combustor. Later higher thrust versions of the CF34 feature an advanced technology core, with only 10 HP compressor stages. Latest variants, the -10A and -10E , were derived from the CFM56 engine family, and have a radically different HP spool, comprising a 9-stage compressor driven by a single stage turbine. The LP spool has 3 core booster stages behind the ...more...



Rolls-Royce Trent

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Rolls-Royce Trent is a British family of three spool , high bypass turbofan aircraft engines manufactured by Rolls-Royce plc . All are developments of the RB211 with thrust ratings of 53,000 to 97,000 pounds-force (240 to 430  kN ). Versions of the Trent are in service on the Airbus A330 , A340 , A350 , A380 , Boeing 777 , and 787 . The Trent has also been adapted for marine and industrial applications. First run in August 1990 as the model Trent 700 , the Trent has achieved significant commercial success, having been selected as the launch engine for both of the 787 variants ( Trent 1000 ) , the A380 ( Trent 900 ) and the A350 ( Trent XWB ). Its overall share of the markets in which it competes is around 40%. Sales of the Trent family of engines have made Rolls-Royce the second biggest supplier of large civil turbofans after General Electric , relegating rival Pratt & Whitney to third position. In keeping with Rolls-Royce's (sometimes neglected) tradition of naming its jet engines after rivers, this ...more...



List of GE locomotives

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The following is a list of locomotives produced by GE Transportation Systems . All were/are built at Fort Worth, Texas or Erie, Pennsylvania , in the United States. Most (except the electrics, the switchers, the AC6000CW, and the Evolution series) are powered by various versions of GE's own FDL diesel prime mover, based on a Cooper Bessemer design and manufactured at Grove City, Pennsylvania . Freight locomotives Early locomotives, switchers and special purpose Switchers Model designation Build year Total produced AAR wheel arrangement Prime mover Power output Image 20-ton Boxcab 1938 5 B Cummins 150 hp (110 kW) 23-ton Boxcab 1939 6 B Cummins 150 hp (110 kW) 23-ton 1941 29 B Cummins 150 hp (110 kW) 25-ton 1941–1974 510 B Cummins 150 hp (110 kW) 35-ton B 43-ton B-B 44-ton 1940–1956 386 B-B Caterpillar D17000 × 2 (most) Hercules DFXD × 2 (11) Buda 6DH1742 × 2 (10) Caterpillar D342 × 2 (last 4) 380–400 hp (280–300 kW) 45-ton 1940–1956 B-B Cummins × 2 300 hp (220 kW) hp GE 45-Ton switcher "Drop Cab" 1944–1949 103 ...more...



GE Dash 7 Series

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The Dash 7 Series is a line of diesel-electric freight locomotives built by GE Transportation Systems . It replaced the Universal Series in the mid-1970s, and was superseded by the Dash 8 Series in the mid-1980s. Specifications All models of the Dash 7 Series are powered by a 12-cylinder or 16-cylinder, turbocharged , GE 7FDL 4-stroke diesel engine carried over from the Universal Series, and have speed-based adhesion control with a multi-channel LED annunciator panel. Dash 7 Series traction motors are powered by direct current . Construction history The Dash 7's predecessor, the Universal Series, had been introduced in the 1950s, and with its innovative body structure, it had initially been greeted favourably by the market. However, GM-EMD had then developed the GP30 model to compete with it; GP30 production had commenced in 1961. Over many years, the GP30's reliability had given it a sales advantage, and when EMD introduced its successor, the Dash 2 , in 1972, the Universal Series became completely obsolete. ...more...



Kepler (microarchitecture)

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Kepler is the codename for a GPU microarchitecture developed by Nvidia , first introduced at retail in April 2012, as the successor to the Fermi microarchitecture. Kepler was Nvidia's first microarchitecture to focus on energy efficiency. Most GeForce 600 series , most GeForce 700 series , and some GeForce 800M series GPUs were based on Kepler, all manufactured in 28 nm. Kepler also found use in the GK20A, the GPU component of the Tegra K1 SoC , as well as in the Quadro Kxxx series, the Quadro NVS 510, and Nvidia Tesla computing modules. Kepler was followed by the Maxwell microarchitecture and used alongside Maxwell in the GeForce 700 series and GeForce 800M series . The architecture is named after Johannes Kepler , a German mathematician and key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution . Overview Where the goal of Nvidia’s previous architecture was design focused on increasing performance on compute and tessellation, with Kepler architecture Nvidia targeted their focus on efficiency, programmability ...more...



NForce 600

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NVIDIA nForce 600 CPU support Athlon 64 Core 2 Socket support LGA 775 Socket AM2 Socket AM3 Socket F Release Date November 2006 Predecessor nForce 500 Successor nForce 700 The nForce 600 chipset was released in the first half of November 2006, coinciding with the GeForce 8 series launch on November 8, 2006. The nForce 600 supports Intel 's LGA 775 socket and AMD 's Quad FX platform and replaces the nForce 500 series. AMD chipsets nForce 680a SLI Specially made for the AMD Quad FX platform proposed by AMD, providing a total of two CPUs and multiple graphic cards configuation ( SLI ) working on a single chipset. AMD Dual Dual-core Socket F Enthusiast multiple- GPU segment Support for HyperTransport 2.0 2 northbridges as Media and Communications Processor (MCP) equal to that of nForce 570 SLI MCP, each providing one x16 and one x8 PCI-E lanes and total 28 PCI-E lanes Total of 4 PCI-E x16 slots Two of the x16 slots receive x8 PCI-E lanes bandwidth Additional PCI-E slots support (PCI-E x8/x4/x1 slots) Support of ...more...



GeForce 100 series

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The GeForce 100 Series is a series of Tesla -based graphics processing units developed by Nvidia , first released in January 2009. Its cards are rebrands of GeForce 9 series cards, available only for OEMs. However, the GTS 150 was briefly available to consumers. Products The GeForce 100 Series cards include the G 100, GT 120, GT 130, GT 140 and GTS 150. The GT 120 is a based on the 9500 GT with improved thermal designs while the GT 130 is based on the 9600 GSO (which itself was a re-badged 8800 GS). The GT 140 is simply a rebadged 9600 GT. The GTS 150 is an OEM version of the GTS 250 with some slight changes. Despite being based upon previous 9 series cards, the G 100, GT 120, and GT 130 utilize entirely different PCB's and slightly different clock speeds. Model Year Code name Fab ( nm ) Transistors (Billion) Die Size (mm ) Bus interface Config core Reference clock rate Fillrate Reference Memory Configuration Graphics library support (version GFLOPS (MADD+MUL) TDP (Watts) Prices (As of Oct 2009) Core ( MHz ...more...



General Electric CF6

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The General Electric CF6 is a family of high-bypass turbofan engines produced by GE Aviation . Based on the TF39 , the first high-power high-bypass jet engine, the CF6 powers a wide variety of civilian airliners. The basic engine core also powers the LM2500 , LM5000, and LM6000 marine and power generation turboshafts . GE intends to replace the CF6 family with the GEnx . Development A CF6 turbofan installed on a testbed After developing the TF39 for the C-5 Galaxy in the late 1960s, GE offered a more powerful variant for civilian use, the CF6, and quickly found interest in two designs being offered for a recent Eastern Airlines contract, the Lockheed L-1011 and the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 . Lockheed eventually selected the Rolls-Royce RB211 , but Douglas stuck with the CF6 and the DC-10 entered service in 1971. It was also selected for versions of the Boeing 747 . Since then, the CF6 has powered versions of the Airbus A300 , A310 and A330 , Boeing 767 , and McDonnell Douglas MD-11 . The high bypass of the CF6 ...more...



GE three-power boxcab

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The GE three-power boxcab s were early electro-diesel hybrid switcher locomotives . These boxcabs were termed oil battery electrics to avoid the use of the German name Diesel, unpopular after World War I . History Prototype of GE three-power-boxcab delivered as NYC #1525 The prototype of these locomotives was New York Central 1525 delivered in February 1928. This locomotive had a center-cab design. After successful testing a series of 40 locomotives with boxcab carbodies were built along with the line of the ALCO boxcabs by a consortium of ALCO , General Electric , Ingersoll Rand and Electric Storage Battery . ALCO built the locomotive frame , carbody and running gear , General Electric built the generator, traction motors and controls, Ingersoll Rand provided the diesel engine, and the traction batteries were made by the Electric Storage Battery Co. of Philadelphia (now Exide). The locomotives were mainly used in city areas for switching work, where exhaust-emissions-free operation was required at spurs e ...more...



Fermi (microarchitecture)

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Fermi is the codename for a GPU microarchitecture developed by Nvidia , first released to retail in April 2010, as the successor to the Tesla microarchitecture. It was the primary microarchitecture used in the GeForce 400 series and GeForce 500 series . It was followed by Kepler , and used alongside Kepler in the GeForce 600 series , GeForce 700 series , and GeForce 800 series , in the latter two only in mobile GPUs. In the workstation market, Fermi found use in the Quadro x000 series, Quadro NVS models, as well as in Nvidia Tesla computing modules. All desktop Fermi GPUs were manufactured in 40 nm, mobile Fermi GPUs in 40 nm and 28 nm. Fermi is the oldest microarchitecture from NVIDIA that can support DirectX 12 . The architecture is named after Enrico Fermi , an Italian physicist. Overview Fig. 1. NVIDIA Fermi architecture Convention in figures: orange - scheduling and dispatch; green - execution; light blue -registers and caches. Fermi Graphic Processing Units ( GPUs ) feature 3.0 billion transistors and a ...more...



General Electric LM2500

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The General Electric LM2500 is an industrial and marine gas turbine produced by GE Aviation . The LM2500 is a derivative of the General Electric CF6 aircraft engine. The LM2500 is available in 3 different versions: The LM2500 delivers 33,600 shaft horsepower (shp) (25,060 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 37 percent at ISO conditions . When coupled with an electric generator, it delivers 24 MW of electricity at 60 Hz with a thermal efficiency of 36 percent at ISO conditions. The improved, 3rd generation, LM2500+ version of the turbine delivers 40,500 shp (30,200 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 39 percent at ISO conditions. When coupled with an electric generator, it delivers 29 MW of electricity at 60 Hz with a thermal efficiency of 38 percent at ISO conditions. The latest, 4th generation, LM2500+G4 version was introduced in November 2005 and delivers 47,370 shp (35,320 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 39.3 percent at ISO conditions. As of 2004, the U.S. Navy and at least 29 other navies had used a total of m ...more...



Radeon HD 2000 series

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The graphics processing unit (GPU) codenamed Radeon R600 is the foundation of the Radeon HD 2000 series and the FireGL 2007 series video cards developed by ATI Technologies . The HD 2000 cards competed with nVidia's GeForce 8 series . Architecture This article is about all products under the brand "Radeon HD 2000 Series". They all contain a GPU which implements TeraScale 1 , ATI's first Unified shader model microarchitecture for PCs. Video acceleration The Unified Video Decoder (UVD) SIP core is on- die in the HD 2400 and the HD 2600. The HD 2900 GPU dice do not have a UVD core, as its stream processors were powerful enough to handle most of the steps of video acceleration in its stead except for entropy decoding and bitstream processing which are left for the CPU to perform. Other features HDTV encoding support is implemented via the integrated AMD Xilleon encoder; the companion Rage Theater chip used on the Radeon X1000 series was replaced with the digital Theater 200 chip, providing VIVO capabilities. For ...more...



GE boxcab

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The GE boxcab s, sometimes also GE IR boxcabs , were diesel-electric switcher locomotives succeeding the ALCO boxcabs . The locomotives were built by General Electric and Ingersoll Rand without ALCO . Production lasted from 1928 till 1930. These boxcabs were often termed oil-electrics to avoid the use of the German name Diesel, unpopular after World War I . History In 1912 GE combined for the first time an internal combustion engine with electric traction motors. Impetus for wider adoption of this technology was provided by improved control systems introduced around 1920 and the State of New York's Kaufman Act , which banned the use of steam locomotives within the New York metropolitan area. A consortium consisting of ALCO , GE and Ingersoll Rand started series production of the ALCO-Boxcabs in 1925. ALCO dropped out of the arrangement in 1928, after acquiring their own diesel engine manufacturer in McIntosh & Seymour and went on to start its own line of diesel switchers. GE and Ingersoll Rand went on w ...more...



GE Dash 8-40CW

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The GE C40-8W is a 6-axle diesel-electric locomotive built by GE Transportation Systems from 1990 to 1994. It is part of the GE Dash 8 Series of freight locomotives. This locomotive model is often referred to as a Dash 8-40CW , and is distinguished from the Dash 8-40C by the addition of a "wide" or "safety" cab. A cowl-bodied version of this locomotive, built only for the Canadian market, was the GE Dash 8-40CM . History GE C40-8W 7913 CSX Sand Lake Road station SunRail in Orange County, Florida The first Dash 8-40CW was delivered to the Union Pacific railroad in 1990. In total, GE would build 756 Dash 8-40CWs. The Dash 8-40CW was succeeded by the Dash 9-44CW in 1994. Like most GE locomotives, the Dash 8-40CW saw continuous upgrades over the course of its production. Later model Conrail units were built with split cooling systems for the turbocharger intercooler and engine cooling (previous Dash 8 series had both on the same cooling system). The later units delivered to Conrail in 1993 and 1994 were equipped ...more...



GE Dash 9-44CW

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The GE C44-9W is a 4,400 hp (3,281 kW) diesel-electric locomotive built by GE Transportation Systems of Erie, Pennsylvania . Keeping in tradition with GE's locomotive series nicknames beginning with the "Dash 7" of the 1970s, the C44-9W was dubbed the Dash 9 upon its debut in 1993. The design has since proven popular with North American railroads, although some railroads, like CSX , preferred its AC equivalent, the AC4400CW . Because of more stringent emissions requirements that came into effect in the United States on January 1, 2005, the Dash 9-44CW has been replaced in production by the GE ES44DC . Many North American railroads have ordered the C44-9W. They were originally ordered by Chicago & North Western Railway , Santa Fe , BNSF , CSX , Southern Pacific , Canadian National Railway , BC Rail , and Union Pacific Railroad . Norfolk Southern purchased the very similar Dash 9-40CWs . BNSF Dash 9 #4723 is featured as a drivable locomotive in Microsoft Train Simulator and the actual Dash 9 has stickers o ...more...



Comparison of Nvidia nForce chipsets

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This is a comparison of chipsets manufactured by Nvidia . nForce nForce Model Release Date Processors Supported Fabrication process ( nm ) FSB/HT Frequency (MHz) Memory Max. memory AGP Southbridge Features Notes nForce 215 2001 Athlon XP, Athlon, Duron 266 MHz, 200 MHz DDR266 single channel 1.5 GB AGP 4× MCP MCP-D nForce 220 2001 Athlon XP, Athlon, Duron 266 MHz, 200 MHz DDR266 single channel 1.5 GB AGP 4× MCP MCP-D Geforce 2 MX IGP nForce 415 2001 Athlon XP, Athlon, Duron 266 MHz, 200 MHz DDR266 dual channel 1.5 GB AGP 4× MCP MCP-D nForce 420 2001 Athlon XP, Athlon, Duron 266 MHz, 200 MHz DDR266 dual channel 1.5 GB AGP 4× MCP MCP-D Geforce 2 MX IGP nForce Southbridges Model Release Date Fabrication process ( nm ) PCI USB FireWire (IEEE1394) PATA SATA LAN Sound Features Notes MCP 2001 5 Ports 6 Ports Rev 1.1 No 2 Ports UDMA 100 No 100 Mbit/s AC'97 2.1 MCP-D 2001 5 Ports 6 Ports Rev 1.1 No 2 Ports UDMA 100 No 100 Mbit/s AC'97 2.1 NVAPU SoundStorm nForce2 nForce2 Model Release Date Processors Supported Fabricat ...more...



Vulkan (API)

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Vulkan is a low-overhead, cross-platform 3D graphics and compute API . Vulkan targets high-performance realtime 3D graphics applications such as video games and interactive media across all platforms. Compared with OpenGL and Direct3D 11 , and like Direct3D 12 and Metal , Vulkan is intended to offer higher performance and more balanced CPU / GPU usage. Other major differences from Direct3D 11 (and prior) and OpenGL are Vulkan being a considerably lower level API and offering parallel tasking. Vulkan also has the ability to render 2D graphics applications, however it is generally suited for 3D. In addition to its lower CPU usage, Vulkan is also able to better distribute work amongst multiple CPU cores . Vulkan was first announced by the non-profit Khronos Group at GDC 2015. The Vulkan API was initially referred to as the "next generation OpenGL initiative", or "OpenGL next" by Khronos, but use of those names was discontinued once the Vulkan name was announced. Vulkan is derived from and built upon compon ...more...



GE Honda Aero Engines

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HF120 GE Honda Aero Engines LLC (or GE Honda ) is a joint venture between GE Aviation and Honda Aero based in Cincinnati , Ohio . GE Honda is headed by Steven J. Shaknaitis of GE Aviation and Masahiko Izumi of Honda Aero. Formed in 2004, the company plans to create jet engines in the 1,000 to 3,500 lbf (4.4 to 15.6 kN) thrust class, suitable for the business aviation industry. History The GE Honda joint venture was formed in October 2004, with the intention of combining the propulsion technology and innovation of General Electric , the world's leading jet engine producer, and Honda , the world's largest engine manufacturer. Products GE Honda HF120 References About GE Honda Aero GE Honda Website External links GE Honda GE Aviation Honda Aero HF120 GE Honda Aero Engines LLC (or GE Honda ) is a joint venture between GE Aviation and Honda Aero based in Cincinnati , Ohio . GE Honda is headed by Steven J. Shaknaitis of GE Aviation and Masahiko Izumi of Honda Aero. Formed in 2004, the company plans to create jet eng ...more...



Nvidia NVENC

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Nvidia NVENC is a feature in its graphics cards that performs video encoding , offloading this compute-intensive task from the CPU . It was introduced with the Kepler -based GeForce 600 series in March 2012. The encoder is supported in many streaming and recording programs, such as Wirecast , Open Broadcaster Software (OBS) and Bandicam , and also works with Share game capture, which is included in Nvidia's GeForce Experience software. It is accompanied by NVDEC for video decoding in Nvidia's Video Codec SDK. Versions NVENC has undergone several hardware revisions since its introduction with the first Kepler GPU (GK104). First generation, Kepler The first generation of NVENC, which is shared by all Kepler -based GPUs, supports H.264 high-profile (YUV420, I/P/B frames, CAVLC/CABAC), H.264 SVC Temporal Encode VCE, and Display Encode Mode (DEM). NVidia's documentation states a peak encoder throughput of 8× realtime at a resolution of 1920×1080 (where the baseline "1×" equals 30   Hz). Actual throughput varies on ...more...



Toyota S engine

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The Toyota S Series engines are a family of straight-4 engines with displacement from 1.8 L to 2.2 L produced by Toyota Motor Corporation from January 1980 to August 2007. The series has cast iron engine blocks and alloy cylinder heads. Table of S-block engines S block engines Code Years Bore Stroke Compr. Displ. Power Torque Notes 1S 82-88 80.5 mm 90.0 mm 9:1 1,832 cc 90 PS (66 kW; 89 bhp) at 5,200/5,400 rpm 142 N·m (105 lb·ft) at 3,400 rpm Camry (SV10 export) 1S-L 80.5 mm 90.0 mm 9:1 1,832 cc 68 kW (92 PS) at 5,200 rpm 142 N·m (105 lb·ft) at 3,400 rpm Corona (ST150) (New Zealand, Latin America) 1S-U 1S-LU 82-86 80.5 mm 90.0 mm 9:1 1,832 cc 100 PS (74 kW; 99 bhp) at 5,400 rpm 152 N·m (112 lb·ft) at 3,400 rpm Carina RWD (SA60) Carina FF (ST150) Celica (SA60) Mark II / Chaser / Cresta (SX60/SX70) Corona (ST140) Corona FF (ST150) Camry / Vista (SV10) 1S-iLU 83-86 80.5 mm 90.0 mm 9:1 1,832 cc 105 PS (77 kW; 104 bhp) at 5,400 rpm 157–160 N·m (116–118 lb·ft) at 2,800-3,000 rpm Carina (ST150) Carina ED (ST160) Coro ...more...



GE Genesis

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General Electric Genesis (officially trademarked GENESIS ) is a series of passenger locomotives produced by GE Transportation Systems , a subsidiary of General Electric . Between 1992 and 2001, a total of 321 units were built for Amtrak , Metro-North , and Via Rail . The Genesis series of locomotives was designed by General Electric in response to a specification published by Amtrak and ultimately selected over a competing design presented by GM EMD . The Genesis series are unique among current North American diesel-electric locomotives because of their low height . This height restriction allowed the locomotive to travel easily through low-profile tunnels in the Northeast Corridor . The Genesis series is lower than even the previous-generation F40PH by 14 inches (356 mm), and is the only Amtrak diesel locomotive that meets the clearance or loading gauge requirements on every Amtrak route. Technical design Amtrak P42DCs #1 and #56 pulling the eastbound California Zephyr at Grand Junction, Colorado , April 201 ...more...




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