GE-600 series

The GE-600 series was a family of 36-bit mainframe computers originating in the 1960s, built by General Electric (GE). When GE left the mainframe business the line was sold to Honeywell, which built similar systems into the 1990s as the division moved to Groupe Bull and then NEC.

The system is perhaps best known as the platform on which the Dartmouth Time Sharing System (DTSS) spent most of its life, and the base machine for the Multics operating system as well. Multics was supported by virtual memory additions made to later versions of the series.

Architecture

The 600 series used 36-bit words and 18-bit addresses. They had two 36-bit accumulators, eight 18-bit index registers, and one 8-bit exponent register. It supported floating point in both 36-bit single-precision and 2 x 36-bit double precision, the exponent being stored separately, allowing up to 71 bits of precision (one bit being used for the sign). It had an elaborate set of addressing modes, many of which used indirect words, some of which were auto-incrementing or auto-decrementing. It supported 6-bit and 9-bit bytes through addressing modes; these supported extracting specific bytes, and incrementing the byte pointer, but not random access to bytes.

It also included a number of channel controllers for handling I/O. The CPU could hand off short programs written in the channel controller's own machine language, which would then process the data, move it to or from the memory, and raise an interrupt when they completed. This allowed the main CPU to move on to other tasks while waiting for the slow I/O to complete, a primary feature of time sharing systems.

Operating systems

Originally the operating system for the 600-series computers was GECOS, developed by GE beginning in 1962. Between 1963 and 1964, the first version of the Dartmouth Time Sharing System (DTSS) was developed on the GE-235. DTSS was the first truly useful time sharing system and was very influential in the market. It is also the platform where the BASIC programming language was first developed. In 1965, DTSS was ported to the GE-635 where it lived for many years.

The GE Mark II operating system (later Mark III) was used by GE Information Services as the basis for its timesharing and networked computing business. Although Mark II / Mark III was originally based on the Dartmouth system, the systems quickly diverged. Mark II/III incorporated many features normally associated with on-line transaction-processing systems, such as journalization and granular file locking. In the early-to-mid-1970s, Mark III adopted a high-reliability cluster technology, in which up to eight processing systems (each with its own copy of the operating system) had access to multiple file systems.

The Multics operating system was begun in 1964 as an advanced new operating system for the 600 series, though it was not production-ready until 1969. GE was hardware supplier to the project and one of development partners (the others were Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Bell Labs). GE saw this project as an opportunity to clearly separate themselves from other vendors by offering this advanced OS which would run best only on their machines. Multics required a number of additional features in the CPU to be truly effective, and John Couleur was joined by Edward Glaser at MIT to make the required modifications. The result was the GE-645, which included support for virtual memory. Addressing was modified to use an 18-bit segment in addition to the 18-bit address, dramatically increasing the theoretical memory size and making virtual memory much easier to support.

History

The GE-600 line of computers was developed by a team led by John Couleur out of work they had done for the military MISTRAM project in 1959. MISTRAM was a radar tracking system that was used on a number of projects (including Project Apollo) and the Air Force required a data-collection computer to be installed in a tracking station downrange from Cape Canaveral. The data would eventually be shared with the 36-bit IBM 7094 machine at the Cape, so the computer would likely have to be 36-bits as well. GE built a machine called the M236 for the task, and as a result of the 36-bit needs, it ended up acting much like the 7094. In fact GE offered a box to connect to the 635 called a 9SA that allowed the 635 to run 7094 programs.

GE originally hadn't intended on entering the commercial computer market with the machine. However, by the early 1960s GE was the largest user of IBM mainframes, and producing their own machines seemed like an excellent way to lower the costs of their computing department. In one estimate the cost of development would be paid for in a single year free of IBM rental fees. Many remained skeptical, but after a year of internal wrangling, the project to commercialize the M236 eventually got the go-ahead in February 1963.

The machine was originally offered as the main GE-635, and the slower but compatible GE-625 and GE-615. While most were single-processor systems, the 635 could be configured with four CPUs and up to four input/output controllers (IOC's) each with up to 16 Common Peripheral Interface Channels. The 635 was likely the first example of a general purpose SMP system, though the GECOS/GCOS software treated the processors as a master and up to three slaves.

In August 1964, IBM considered the 600 series to be "severe competition in the medium and large scale scientific areas."[1] In May 1965 the first GE-625 computer was delivered to the GE Schenectady plant to replace five other computers of various sizes and makes.[2] A number of GE 635's were shipped during 1965 including two to Martin Marietta in November.[3]

The 600 line consisted of six models: the 605, 615, 625, 635, 645, and 655.

The 615 was a 635 with Control Unit (CU) and Operations Unit (OU) overlap disabled, and a 36-bit-wide memory path. The 625 was a 635 with Control Unit and Operations Unit overlap disabled and 72-bit-wide memory path. The 635 had a 72-bit-wide memory path and CU/OU overlap enabled. The difference between these models was fewer than 10 wires on the backplane. Field service could convert a 615 to a 635 or 625 or vice versa in a couple of hours if necessary; other than those few wires, the 615, 625 and 635 were identical. The 605 was used in some realtime/military applications and was essentially a 615 without the floating point hardware. Programs coded for a 605 would run without any modification on any other 600 line processor. The 645 was a modified 635 processor that provided hardware support for the Multics operating system developed at MIT.

The 605/615/625/635 and 645 were essentially second generation computers with discrete transistor TTL logic and a handful of integrated circuits. Memory consisted of a two-microsecond ferrite core, which could be interleaved. GE bought core memory from Fabri-Tek, Ampex and Lockheed. The Lockheed memory tended to be the most reliable.

The last model,.

Continuing problems with the reliability of the magnetic tape systems used with the system cast a pall over the entire project. In 1966 GE froze many orders while others were cancelled outright. By 1967 these problems were cleared up, and the machines were re-launched along with an upgraded version of the GECOS operating system.

A follow-on project to create a next-generation 635 started in 1967. The new GE-655 replaced the individual transistors from the earlier models with integrated circuits, which doubled the performance of the machine while also greatly reducing assembly costs. However, the machine was still in development in 1969, and was announced but probably never delivered under that name.

By that time the Multics project had finally produced an operating system usable by end-users. Besides MIT, Bell Labs, and GE, GE-645 systems running Multics were installed at the US Air Force Rome Development Center, Honeywell Billerica, and Machines Bull in Paris. These last two systems were used as a "software factory" by a Honeywell/Bull project to design the Honeywell Level 64 computer.

GE sold its computer division to Honeywell in 1970, who renamed the GE-600 series as the Honeywell 6000 series. The 655 was officially released in 1973 as the Honeywell 6070 (with reduced performance versions, the 6030 and 6050). An optional Decimal/Business instruction set was added to improve COBOL performance. This was the Extended Instruction Set, aka EIS and the Decimal Unit or DU. The machines with EIS were the 'even' series, the 6040, 6060, 6080 and later the 6025. Several hundred of these processors were sold. Memory was initially 600 ns ferrite core made by Lockheed. Later versions used 750 ns MOS memory. The two could co-exist within a system, but not within a memory controller.

A version of the 6080 with the various Multics-related changes similar to the 645 was released as the 6180. A few dozen 6180-architecture CPUs were shipped. Later members of the 6000 series were released under various names, including Level 66, Level 68, DPS-8, DPS-88, DPS-90, DPS-9000 by Honeywell, Groupe Bull, and NEC.

See also
References
  1. IBM DSD ASG memo, August 13, 1954, US v IBM, Exh 14791 p.386
  2. "Training for conversion." Mario V. Farina, Datamation, June 1966
  3. Datamation, August 1965, p.71
External links
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GeForce 600 series

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GeForce 600 series

Serving as the introduction of Kepler architecture, the GeForce 600 Series is a series of graphics processing units developed by Nvidia, first released in 2012. Overview Where the goal of the previous architecture, Fermi, was to increase raw performance (particularly for compute and tessellation), Nvidia's goal with the Kepler architecture was to increase performance per watt, while still striving for overall performance increases.[4] The primary way Nvidia achieved this goal was through the use of a unified clock. By abandoning the shader clock found in their previous GPU designs, efficiency is increased, even though it requires more cores to achieve similar levels of performance. This is not only because the cores are more power efficient (two Kepler cores using about 90% of the power of one Fermi core, according to Nvidia's numbers), but also because the reduction in clock speed delivers a 50% reduction in power consumption in that area.[5] Kepler also introduced a new form of texture handling known as ...more...

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GE-600 series

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GE-600 series

The GE-600 series was a family of 36-bit mainframe computers originating in the 1960s, built by General Electric (GE). When GE left the mainframe business the line was sold to Honeywell, which built similar systems into the 1990s as the division moved to Groupe Bull and then NEC. The system is perhaps best known as the platform on which the Dartmouth Time Sharing System (DTSS) spent most of its life, and the base machine for the Multics operating system as well. Multics was supported by virtual memory additions made to later versions of the series. Architecture The 600 series used 36-bit words and 18-bit addresses. They had two 36-bit accumulators, eight 18-bit index registers, and one 8-bit exponent register. It supported floating point in both 36-bit single-precision and 2 x 36-bit double precision, the exponent being stored separately, allowing up to 71 bits of precision (one bit being used for the sign). It had an elaborate set of addressing modes, many of which used indirect words, some of which were ...more...

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GeForce 10 series

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GeForce 10 series

The GeForce 10 series is a series of graphics processing units developed by Nvidia, initially based on the Pascal microarchitecture announced in March 2014. This design series succeeded the GeForce 900 Series, and will be succeeded by cards using the Volta microarchitecture. Architecture The Pascal (microarchitecture), named after Blaise Pascal, was announced in March 2014[2], and the first graphics cards based on it, the GeForce GTX 1080 and 1070, were announced on May 6th, 2016 and released on May 27th, 2016 and June 10th respectively. The architecture incorporates TSMC's 16 nm FinFET or Samsung's 14 nm FinFET technologies and succeeds the Maxwell microarchitecture. Initially, chips were only produced in TSMC's 16nm process, though some chips have been made in Samsung's 14 nm process (GP107, GP108).[3] Samsung Electronics and Nvidia also have an agreement to shrink the design's die to use Samsung's 14 nm FinFET technology.[4] New Features in GP10x: CUDA Compute Capability 6.0 (GP100 only), 6.1 (GP102 ...more...

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GeForce 900 series

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GeForce 900 series

Serving as the high-end introduction to Maxwell, named after James Clerk Maxwell, the GeForce 900 Series is a family of graphics processing units developed by Nvidia, succeeding the GeForce 700 series. With Maxwell, the successor to Kepler, Nvidia expected three major outcomes from the Maxwell: improved graphics capabilities, simplified programming, and better energy-efficiency compared to the GeForce 700 Series and GeForce 600 Series.[7] Maxwell was announced in September 2010,[8] with the first Maxwell-based GeForce consumer-class products released in early 2014.[9] . Architecture First generation Maxwell (GM10x) First generation Maxwell GM107/GM108 were released as GeForce GTX 745, GTX 750/750 Ti and GTX 850M/860M (GM107) and GT 830M/840M (GM108). These new chips provide few consumer-facing additional features; Nvidia instead focused on power efficiency. Nvidia increased the amount of L2 cache from 256 KiB on GK107 to 2 MiB on GM107, reducing the memory bandwidth needed. Accordingly, Nvidia cut the me ...more...

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GeForce 8 series

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GeForce 8 series

The GeForce 8 Series is the eighth generation of NVIDIA's GeForce line of graphics processing units. The third major GPU architecture developed by Nvidia, Tesla (microarchitecture) represents the company's first unified shader architecture.[1][2] GeForce 8 Series overview All GeForce 8 Series products are based on Tesla (microarchitecture). Max resolution Dual Dual-link DVI Support: Able to drive two flat-panel displays up to 2560×1600 resolution. Available on select GeForce 8800 and 8600 GPUs. One Dual-link DVI Support: Able to drive one flat-panel display up to 2560×1600 resolution. Available on select GeForce 8500 GPUs and GeForce 8400 GS cards based on the G98. One Single-link DVI Support: Able to drive one flat-panel display up to 1920×1200 resolution. Available on select GeForce 8400 GPUs.[3] GeForce 8400 GS cards based on the G86 only support single-link DVI. Display capabilities The GeForce 8 series supports 10-bit per channel display output, up from 8-bit on previous NVIDIA cards. This potent ...more...

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GeForce 700 series

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GeForce 700 series

The GeForce 700 Series is a series of graphics processing units developed by Nvidia. While mainly a refresh of the Kepler microarchitecture (GK-codenamed chips), some cards use Fermi (GF) and later cards use Maxwell (GM). GeForce 700 series cards were first released in 2013, starting with the release of the GeForce GTX Titan on February 19, 2013, followed by the GeForce GTX 780 on May 23, 2013. The first mobile GeForce 700 series chips were released in April 2013. Overview GK110 has been designed and is being marketed with computational performance in mind. It contains 7.1 billion transistors. This model also attempts to maximise energy efficiency through the execution of as many tasks as possible in parallel according to the capabilities of its streaming processors. With GK110, increases in memory space and bandwidth for both the register file and the L2 cache over previous models, are seen. At the SMX level, GK110's register file space has increased to 256KB composed of 65K 32bit registers, as compared t ...more...

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GE-200 series

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GE-200 series

GE 210 advertisement from 1960 The GE-200 series was a family of small mainframe computers of the 1960s, built by General Electric (GE). GE marketing called the line Compatibles/200[1] (GE-205/215/225/235).[2] Oddly, the GE-210 of 1960[3] is not compatible with the rest of the 200 series.[4] The main machine in the line was the GE-225 (1961).[5][3] It used a 20-bit word, of which 13 bits could be used for an address. Along with the basic CPU the system could also include a floating-point unit, or a fixed-point decimal option with three six-bit decimal digits per word. It had 11 I/O channel controllers, and GE sold a variety of add-ons including disks, printers and other devices. The machines were built using discrete transistors, with a typical machine including about 10,000 transistors and 20,000 diodes. They used core memory, and a standard 8k-word system held 186,000 magnetic cores. The GE-215 (1963)[3] was a scaled-down version of the GE-225, including only six I/O channels and only 4K or 8K of core. ...more...

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GE Evolution Series

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GE Evolution Series

The Evolution Series is a line of diesel locomotives built by GE Transportation Systems, initially designed to meet the U.S. EPA's Tier 2 locomotive emissions standards that took effect in 2005. The first pre-production units were built in 2003. Evolution Series locomotives are equipped with either AC or DC traction motors, depending on the customer's preference. All are powered by the GE GEVO engine.[4] The Evolution Series was named as one of the "10 Locomotives That Changed Railroading" by industry publication Trains Magazine.[5] It was the only locomotive introduced after 1972 to be included in that list.[5] The Evolution Series, mainly the ES44DC, ES44AC, and ET44AC, are some of the best-selling and most successful freight locomotives in United States history, far surpassing the output of Electro-Motive Diesel. ModelsEdit Currently, six different Evolution Series models have been produced for the North American market. They are all six axle locomotives and have the wheel arrangement C-C (AAR classifi ...more...

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600 series

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600 series

600 series may refer to the following: Japanese train types Keikyu 600 series, a train operated by Keikyu since 1994 Keikyu 600 series, a train operated by Keikyu from 1956, which later became the Keikyu 700 series (1956) E1 Series Shinkansen, originally scheduled to be classified "600 series" Other 600 series connector, the Australian standard telephone handset connector before the introduction of the RJ11 and RJ12 modular connectors Bombardier Challenger 600 business jets Daimler-Benz DB 600 series aircraft engines French 600 Series submarines GE-600 series mainframe computers GeForce 600 Series graphic processing units Italian 600 Series submarines Rover 600 Series car ...more...



GeForce 500 series

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GeForce 500 series

A refresh of the Fermi based GeForce 400 series, the GeForce 500 series is a series of graphics processing units developed by Nvidia, first released on November 9, 2010 with the GeForce GTX 580. Overview The Nvidia Geforce 500 Series graphics cards are significantly modified versions of the Nvidia GeForce 400 Series graphics cards, in terms of performance and power management. Like the Nvidia GeForce 400 Series graphics cards, the Nvidia Geforce 500 Series graphics cards support DirectX 12.0,OpenGL 4.6, and OpenCL 1.1. The refreshed Fermi chip includes 512 stream processors, grouped in 16 stream multiprocessors clusters (each with 32 CUDA cores), and is manufactured by TSMC in a 40 nm process. The Nvidia GeForce GTX 580 graphics card is the first in the Nvidia GeForce 500 Series to use a fully enabled chip based on the refreshed Fermi architecture, with all 16 stream multiprocessors clusters and all six 64-bit memory controllers active. The new GF110 GPU was enhanced with full speed FP16 filtering (the pr ...more...

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General Electric

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General Electric

General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York [2] and headquartered in Boston.[1] As of 2018, the company operates through the following segments: aviation, healthcare, power, renewable energy, digital, additive manufacturing, venture capital and finance, lighting, transportation, and oil and gas.[3][4] In 2017, GE ranked among the Fortune 500 as the 13th-largest firm in the U.S. by gross revenue.[5] In 2011, GE ranked among the Fortune 20 as the 14th-most profitable company.[6] As of 2012, the company was listed as the fourth-largest in the world among the Forbes Global 2000, further metrics being taken into account.[7] Two employees of GE have been awarded the Nobel Prize: Irving Langmuir in 1932 and Ivar Giaever in 1973.[8] On January 13, 2016, it was announced that GE will be moving its corporate headquarters from Fairfield, Connecticut (where it had been since 1974) to the South Boston Waterfront neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. The first group o ...more...

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GE-400 series

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GE-400 series

The GE-400 series were time-sharing Information Systems computers by General Electric introduced in 1964 and shipped until 1968. System description The GE-400 series (Compatibles/400) came in models: 415, 425, 435 (1964),[1] 455 and 465.[2] GE-400 systems had a word length of 24 bits which could contain binary data, four six-bit BCD characters, or four signed decimal digits. GE-400 systems could have up to 32,768 words (132K characters) of magnetic-core memory with a cycle time of 2.7 microseconds (435) or 5.1 microseconds (425). The systems supported up to eight channels for input/output. The GE 412 (1962)[3] was an incompatible computer system with a 20-bit word length intended for process control applications.[4] Unique features GE-400 systems featured a "variable length, relocatable accumulator"[5] which could be set programmatically to a length of one to four words and relocated to overlay any four adjacent locations in memory (modulo four). "The accumulator can be moved to the data to be processed, ...more...

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GeForce

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GeForce

GeForce is a brand of graphics processing units (GPUs) designed by Nvidia. As of the GeForce 10 series, there have been fourteen iterations of the design. The first GeForce products were discrete GPUs designed for add-on graphics boards, intended for the high-margin PC gaming market, and later diversification of the product line covered all tiers of the PC graphics market, ranging from cost-sensitive[1] GPUs integrated on motherboards, to mainstream add-in retail boards. Most recently, GeForce technology has been introduced into Nvidia's line of embedded application processors, designed for electronic handhelds and mobile handsets. With respect to discrete GPUs, found in add-in graphics-boards, Nvidia's GeForce and AMD's Radeon GPUs are the only remaining competitors in the high-end market. Along with its nearest competitor, the AMD Radeon, the GeForce architecture is moving toward general-purpose graphics processor unit (GPGPU). GPGPU is expected to expand GPU functionality beyond the traditional rasterizat ...more...

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Bombardier Challenger 600 series

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Bombardier Challenger 600 series

The Bombardier Challenger 600 series is a family of business jets. It was first produced by Canadair (as an independent company), and then produced from 1986 by Canadair as a division of Bombardier Aerospace. As of December 2017, close to 1,100 Challenger 600 Series have been delivered.[1] Including the Challenger 300 and Challenger 850, the 1,600 Bombardier Challengers in-service had logged 7.3 million hours and over 4.3 million flights by early 2017.[3] Development The third prototype was reused as the ACT fly-by-wire demonstrator[4] The Challenger cabin Design process Circa 1974, Bill Lear conceptualised the LearStar 600 business jet powered by Garrett TFE731-1s. As Lear lacked the capabilities to launch it, Canadair backed it at the end of 1975. Canadair evolved the design to a large airframe with a new supercritical wing, new avionics and engines, for new FAR part 25 standards: an ambitious task. In April 1976, Canadair acquired the 63 by 53.3 ft (19.2 by 16.2 m) long and wide LearStar 600 conc ...more...

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GeForce 200 series

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GeForce 200 series

The GeForce 200 Series is a series of Tesla-based GeForce graphics processing units developed by Nvidia. Architecture The GeForce 200 Series introduces Nvidia's second generation of Tesla (microarchitecture), Nvidia's unified shader architecture; the first major update to it since introduced with the GeForce 8 Series. The GeForce GTX 280 and GTX 260 are based on the same processor core. During the manufacturing process, GTX chips are binned and separated through defect testing of the core's logic functionality. Those that fail to meet the GTX 280 hardware specification are re-tested and binned as GTX 260 (which is specified with fewer stream processors, less ROPs and a narrower memory bus). In late 2008, Nvidia re-released the GTX 260 with 216 stream processors, up from 192. Effectively, there were two GTX 260 cards in production with non-trivial performance differences. The GeForce 200 series GPUs (GT200a/b GPU), excluding GeForce GTS 250, GTS 240 GPUs (these are older G92b GPUs), have double precision ...more...

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GeForce 9 series

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GeForce 9 series

The GeForce 9 series is the ninth generation of NVIDIA's GeForce series of graphics processing units, the first of which was released on February 21, 2008. Products are based on a slightly repolished Tesla microarchitecture, adding PCIe 2.0 support, improved color and z-compression, and built on a 65 nm process, later using 55 nm process to reduce power consumption and die size (GeForce 8 G8x GPUs only supported PCIe 1.1 and were built on 90 nm process or 80 nm process). GeForce 9300 Series Geforce 9100 G 65 nm G98 GPU PCI-E x16 64 Bit Bus Width 4 ROP, 8 Unified Shaders 540 MHz Core Clock 256 MB DDR2, 400 MHZ Memory Clock 1300 MHZ Shader Clock 5.1 G texels/s fill rate 7.6 GB/s Memory bandwidth Supports DirectX 10, SM 4.0 OpenGL 2.1 Compliance Supports 1st generation PureVideo HD technology with partial VC1 decoding. Geforce 9300 GS On May 1, 2008 the GeForce 9300 GS was officially launched.[1] 80 nm G86GPU PCI-E x16 64 Bit Bus Width 8 ROP, 16 Unified Shaders 450 MHz Core Clock 512 MB D ...more...

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List of Nvidia graphics processing units

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List of Nvidia graphics processing units

This page contains general information about graphics processing units (GPUs) and video cards from Nvidia, based on official specifications. In addition some Nvidia motherboards come with integrated onboard GPUs. Limited/Special/Collectors' Editions or AIB versions not included. Field explanations The fields in the table listed below describe the following: Model – The marketing name for the processor, assigned by Nvidia. Launch – Date of release for the processor. Code name – The internal engineering codename for the processor (typically designated by an NVXY name and later GXY where X is the series number and Y is the schedule of the project for that generation). Fab – Fabrication process. Average feature size of components of the processor. Bus interface – Bus by which the graphics processor is attached to the system (typically an expansion slot, such as PCI, AGP, or PCI-Express). Memory – The amount of graphics memory available to the processor. SM Count – Number of streaming multiproces ...more...

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DATANET-30

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DATANET-30

The DATANET-30 was a computer manufactured by General Electric designed in 1961-1963 to be used as a communications computer. It was later used as a front-end processor for data communications. It became the first front end communications computer. The names on the patent were Don Birmingham, Bob McKenzie, Bud Pine, and Bill Hill. The first several free standing installations starting with Chrysler Corp in 1963 were message switching systems replacing Teletype punched tape systems. In 1964 acting as a front end processor along with an interface to the GE-225 computer a professor at Dartmouth College developed the BASIC programming language. Multiple Teletype units were attached to be the first Time Sharing system. The DATANET-30 used magnetic core memory with a cycle time of 6.94 μs. The word size was 18 bits and memory was available in sizes of 4K, 8K, or 16K words. The system could attach up to 128 asynchronous terminals, nominally at speeds of up to "3000 bits per second", but usually limited to the 300 ...more...

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GeForce 800M series

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GeForce 800M series

The GeForce 800M Series is a family of graphics processing units by Nvidia for laptop PCs.[2] It consists of rebrands of mobile versions of the GeForce 700 series[2] and some newer chips that are lower end compared to the rebrands. The GeForce 800 series name was originally planned to be used for both desktop and mobile chips based on the Maxwell microarchitecture (GM-codenamed chips), named after the Scottish theoretical physicist James Clerk Maxwell, which was previously introduced into the GeForce 700 series in the GTX 750 and GTX 750 Ti, released on February 18, 2014.[5] However, because mobile GPUs under the GeForce 800M series had already been released using the Kepler architecture, Nvidia decided to rename its GeForce 800 series desktop GPUs as the GeForce 900 series.[2] The Maxwell microarchitecture, the successor to Kepler microarchitecture, was the first Nvidia architecture to feature an integrated ARM CPU of its own.[6] This enabled Maxwell GPUs to be more independent from the main CPU according ...more...

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GeForce 400 series

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GeForce 400 series

Serving as the introduction of Fermi, the GeForce 400 Series is a series of graphics processing units developed by Nvidia. Its release was originally slated in November 2009;[2] however, after delays, it was released on March 26, 2010 with availability following in April 2010. Architecture Nvidia described the Fermi (microarchitecture) as the next major step in its line of GPUs following the Tesla (microarchitecture) used since the G80. The GF100, the first Fermi-architecture product, is large: 512 stream processors, in sixteen groups of 32, and 3.0 billion transistors, manufactured by TSMC in a 40 nm process. It is Nvidia's first chip to support OpenGL 4.0 and Direct3D 11. No products with a fully enabled GF100 GPU were ever sold. The GTX 480 had one streaming multiprocessor disabled. The GTX 470 had two streaming multiprocessors and one memory controller disabled. The GTX 465 had five streaming multiprocessors and two memory controllers disabled. Consumer GeForce cards came with 256MB attached to each of ...more...

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GeForce 300 series

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GeForce 300 series

The GeForce 300 series is a series of Tesla-based graphics processing units developed by Nvidia, first released in November 2009. Its cards are rebrands of the GeForce 200 series cards, available only for OEMs. All GPUs of the series support Direct3D 10.1, except the GT 330 (Direct3D 10.0). History On 27 November 2009, Nvidia released its first GeForce 300 series video card, the GeForce 310. However, this card is a re-brand of one of Nvidia's older models (the GeForce 210) and not based on the newer Fermi architecture.[1] On 2 February 2010, Nvidia announced the official titles of the new generation GF100 (Fermi) cards, the GeForce GTX 470 and the GeForce GTX 480.[2][3][4][5] Later that month the company announced the release of the GeForce GT 320, GT 330 and GT 340, available to OEMs only.[6] The Geforce GT 340 is simply a rebadged GT 240, sharing exactly the same specifications, while the GT 320 and 330 are new cards (albeit still based on the previous generation GT200b and G92b architecture).[6] Chips ...more...

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GE Dash 9 Series

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GE Dash 9 Series

The Dash 9 Series is a line of diesel locomotives built by GE Transportation Systems. It replaced the Dash 8 Series in the mid-1990s, and was superseded by the Evolution Series in the mid-2000s. Dash 9 series locomotives are some of the most common in the United States. Specifications The Dash 9 Series is an improved version of the Dash 8 Series. Like that earlier Series, it has a microprocessor-equipped engine control unit, and a modular system of construction of the vehicle body. All models of the Dash 9 Series are powered by a 16-cylinder, turbocharged, GE 7FDL 4-stroke diesel engine, with electronic fuel injection and split cooling. Dash 9 Series locomotives also ride on HiAdTM high adhesion trucks, with low weight transfer characteristics and microprocessor controlled wheelslip. Six axle models Common feature A specification common to all Dash 9 Series six axle models is the AAR wheel arrangement known as C-C C40-9 NS C40-9 # 8801. This version of the Dash 9 was manufactured between January an ...more...

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GeForce 6 series

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GeForce 6 series

The GeForce 6 Series (codename NV40) is Nvidia's sixth generation of GeForce graphic processing units. Launched on April 14, 2004, the GeForce 6 family introduced PureVideo post-processing for video, SLI technology, and Shader Model 3.0 support (compliant with Microsoft DirectX 9.0c specification and OpenGL 2.0). GeForce 6 Series features GeForce 6600 GT AGP SLI The Scalable Link Interface (SLI) allows two GeForce 6 cards of the same type to be connected in tandem. The driver software balances the workload between the cards. SLI-capability is limited to select members of the GeForce 6 family; 6500 and above. SLI is only available for cards utilizing the PCI-Express bus. Nvidia PureVideo Technology Nvidia PureVideo technology is the combination of a dedicated video processing core and software which decodes H.264, VC-1, WMV, and MPEG-2 videos with reduced CPU utilization. Shader Model 3.0 Nvidia was the first to deliver Shader Model 3.0 (SM3) capability in its GPUs. SM3 extends SM2 in a number of way ...more...

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GeForce 100 series

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GeForce 100 series

The GeForce 100 Series is a series of Tesla-based graphics processing units developed by Nvidia, first released in January 2009. Its cards are rebrands of GeForce 9 series cards, available only for OEMs. However, the GTS 150 was briefly available to consumers. Products The GeForce 100 Series cards include the G 100, GT 120, GT 130, GT 140 and GTS 150. The GT 120 is a based on the 9500 GT with improved thermal designs while the GT 130 is based on the 9600 GSO (which itself was a re-badged 8800 GS). The GT 140 is simply a rebadged 9600 GT. The GTS 150 is an OEM version of the GTS 250 with some slight changes. Despite being based upon previous 9 series cards, the G 100, GT 120, and GT 130 utilize entirely different PCB's and slightly different clock speeds. Model Year Code name Fab (nm) Transistors (Billion) Die Size (mm 2) Bus interface Config core 1 Reference clock rate Fillrate Reference Memory Configuration API compliance (version) GFLOPS2 (MADD+MUL) TDP (Watts) Prices (As of Oct 2009 ...more...

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SPARKLE Computer

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SPARKLE Computer

Sparkle Computer Co., Ltd. (stylised as SPARKLE),is a Taiwanese electronics firm established in 1982, based in Taipei. The company currently specialises in manufacturing video cards using Nvidia graphics processing units, along with peripherals (fans and heatsinks) for graphics controllers.[1] Sparkle is one of the few manufacturers of modern discrete video cards that still use the PCI bus, producing PCI versions of GeForce 8 Series and GeForce 9 Series based discrete graphics controllers, and more recently, GeForce 200 series and GeForce 600 series-based GPUs using the aforementioned interface.[2] Products PCI Series GeForce 7900 PCI SP-PX79GDH (GeForce 7900 GT Series with active cooling - 256MB RAM) GeForce 8400 PCI SPARKLE introduced a unique PCI version of the GeForce 8400 series cards in PCI versions. SF-PC84GS512U2LP (GeForce 8400 GS Series with active cooling - 512MB RAM) SF-PC84GS512U2LP (GeForce 8400 GS Series with passive cooling - 512MB RAM) SF-PC84GS256U2LP (GeForce 8400 GS Series with ac ...more...

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GE AC6000CW

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GE AC6000CW

The AC6000CW is a 6,000-horsepower (4,500 kW) diesel electric locomotive built by GE Transportation. This locomotive, along with the EMD SD90MAC, is among the most powerful single-engined diesel locomotives in the world. The only locomotives to surpass them are the dual-engine 6,600-horsepower (4,900 kW) EMD DDA40X, the Pennsylvania Railroad T-1 and S-2 class duplex-drive steam locomotives, and certain electric locomotives. History The AC6000CW was designed at the height of a horsepower race between the two major locomotive manufacturers, Electro-Motive Division of London, Ontario and GE Transportation of Erie, Pennsylvania in the early to mid 1990s. The goal was 6,000 horsepower (4,500 kW). GE partnered with Deutz-MWM of Germany in 1994 to design and construct the 6,250 hp (4,660 kW) 7HDL engine for the locomotives. The first locomotive constructed was the "Green Machine" GE 6000, the nickname due to the green paint scheme. The first production models were also built in 1995: CSX Transportation 600-602, a ...more...

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GE Dash 8 Series

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GE Dash 8 Series

The Dash 8 Series is a line of diesel-electric freight locomotives built by GE Transportation Systems. It replaced the Dash 7 Series in the mid-1980s, and was superseded by the Dash 9 Series in the mid-1990s. All models of the Dash 8 Series are powered by a 16- or 12-cylinder, turbocharged, GE 7FDL 4-stroke diesel engine. Specifications The design of the Dash 8 Series is based upon that of the Dash 7 Series. The biggest changes introduced during the production of the Dash 8 Series were the first use of a microprocessor-equipped engine control unit in a diesel locomotive, and the adoption of a modular system in the construction of the vehicle body. The Dash 8 locomotive bodies were assembled from several modules, creating a combination to fit the length of the chassis. On models with a traditional narrow short hood, the part of the equipment room immediately behind the cab is taller than the top of the rounded cab roof, giving those models a distinctive appearance. On all models, that part of the equipment ...more...

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History of operating systems

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History of operating systems

Computer operating systems (OSes) provide a set of functions needed and used by most application programs on a computer, and the links needed to control and synchronize computer hardware. On the first computers, with no operating system, every program needed the full hardware specification to run correctly and perform standard tasks, and its own drivers for peripheral devices like printers and punched paper card readers. The growing complexity of hardware and application programs eventually made operating systems a necessity for everyday use. Background The earliest computers were mainframes that lacked any form of operating system. Each user had sole use of the machine for a scheduled period of time and would arrive at the computer with program and data, often on punched paper cards and magnetic or paper tape. The program would be loaded into the machine, and the machine would be set to work until the program completed or crashed. Programs could generally be debugged via a control panel using dials, toggle ...more...

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* IT chronicle *

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List of instruction sets

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List of instruction sets

A list of computer central processor instruction sets: (By alphabetical order by its manufacturer.) Advanced Digital Chips Inc. EISC[1]: (AE32K) 32-bit embedded core Altera (later, Intel) Nios II[2]: 32-bit RISC, CPU core optimized for implementation in Altera FPGAs AMD AM29000 (112 Instructions)[3]: RISC AMD extensions to x86 3DNow! (21 instructions)[4]: An extension for floating-point arithmetic 3DNow! Extensions (5 instructions)[5]:316: An extension for 3DNow!. ABM - Advanced Bit Manipulation SSE4a – streaming SIMD extensions 4a SSE5 – streaming SIMD extensions 5 (170 instructions, proposal) F16C - FP16 conversion operations, a revision of part of the proposed SSE5 XOP - eXtended Operations, a revision of part of the proposed SSE5 TBM - Trailing Bit Manipulation AMD64[5][6][7][8][9][10]: 64-bit extension of x86, originally named x86-64, adopted by Intel Analog Devices, Inc. (ADI) SHARC[11] Blackfin[12] Apollo Computer Inc. Apollo PRISM: 32-bit VLIW RISC (N ...more...

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General Electric GE90

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General Electric GE90

The General Electric GE90 is a family of high-bypass turbofan aircraft engines built by GE Aviation for the Boeing 777, with thrust ratings from 81,000 to 115,000 lbf (360 to 510 kN). It entered service with British Airways in November 1995. It is one of three options for the 777-200, -200ER, and -300 versions, and the exclusive engine of the -200LR, -300ER, and 777F. It is the world's largest and the most powerful jet engine,[3] although its 6 in (15 cm) wider fan successor, the 105,000 lbf (470 kN) GE9X, is expected to finish development in time to power the Boeing 777X beginning in 2019. Development A 1998 CFD simulation of airflow through the engine The GE90 was developed from the NASA 1970s Energy Efficient Engine. GE's GE36 UDF (propfan) was meant to replace the CFM International CFM56 high-bypass turbofan which was initially noncompetitive against the rival IAE V2500, however when the V2500 ran into technical problems sales of the CFM56 took off. GE was not interested in having the GE36 cannibaliz ...more...

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List of computer system emulators

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List of computer system emulators

This article lists software and hardware that emulates computing platforms. The host in this article is the system running the emulator, and the guest is the system being emulated. The list is organized by guest operating system (the system being emulated), grouped by bitness. Each section contains a list of emulators capable of emulating the specified guest, details of the range of guest systems able to be emulated, and the required host environment and licensing. 64-bit guest systems AlphaServer Emulator Latest version Released Guest emulation capabilities Host Operating System License Charon-AXP 4.5 November 30, 2014 AlphaServer 4100, DS10, DS20, ES40, GS80, GS160, GS320 Windows, Linux Commercial Charon-AXP/SMA(+),/Station 2.2.39 November 20, 2013 AlphaServer 300, 800, 1000, 1200, 2000, 2100, 4000, 4100, DS10, DS20, DS25, ES40, ES45, 8200, 8400, AlphaStation 200, 250, 500, 600, DPW, XP1000, XP900, DMCC, DEC3000 Windows Commercial ES40 Emulator 0.18 March 14, 2008 Al ...more...

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Signed number representations

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Signed number representations

In computing, signed number representations are required to encode negative numbers in binary number systems. In mathematics, negative numbers in any base are represented by prefixing them with a minus ("−") sign. However, in computer hardware, numbers are represented only as sequences of bits, without extra symbols. The four best-known methods of extending the binary numeral system to represent signed numbers are: sign-and-magnitude, ones' complement, two's complement, and offset binary. Some of the alternative methods use implicit instead of explicit signs, such as negative binary, using the base −2. Corresponding methods can be devised for other bases, whether positive, negative, fractional, or other elaborations on such themes. There is no definitive criterion by which any of the representations is universally superior. The representation used in most current computing devices is two's complement, although the Unisys ClearPath Dorado series mainframes use ones' complement. History The early days of di ...more...

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General Electric CF34

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General Electric CF34

CF34 engine mounted on an Embraer E-190 Recent versions of the CF34 feature chevrons on the core nozzle outlet. The General Electric CF34 is a civilian turbofan developed by GE Aircraft Engines from its TF34 military engine. The CF34 is used on a number of business and regional jets, including the Bombardier CRJ series, the Embraer E-Jets, and the Chinese ARJ21 under development.[5][6] As of 2012, there are over 5,600 engines in service. Design and development The original engines comprise a single stage fan, driven by a 4-stage low pressure (LP) turbine, supercharging a 14-stage HP compressor, driven by a 2-stage high pressure (HP) turbine, with an annular combustor. Later higher thrust versions of the CF34 feature an advanced technology core, with only 10 HP compressor stages. Latest variants, the -10A and -10E, were derived from the CFM56 engine family, and have a radically different HP spool, comprising a 9-stage compressor driven by a single stage turbine. The LP spool has 3 core booster stage ...more...

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GE U30C

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GE U30C

The GE U30C was one of the earliest successes from General Electric in the diesel locomotive market. With 600 units sold, the U30C proved to be a viable alternative for customers who were unable to purchase SD40s or SD40-2s from Electro-Motive Diesel (EMD) due to production backlog. Throughout its ten-year production span, the U30C was known for reliability issues concerning its electrical system. However, most railroads were assured of the reliability of the GE Model 752 DC traction motor, and began to place orders for U30Cs starting in 1966. When production ended, the last U30Cs carried pre-Dash 7 specifications, which would be carried in its replacement, the GE C30-7. The U30C served customers of all kinds, from mining, to general freights, coal trains, and even as a power source unit for the Department of Transportation's subway-car test tracks in Pueblo, Colorado before a connection from the commercial electric power grid could be established (Cudahy 1979). Not to be outdone in the freight sector, GE p ...more...

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Radeon HD 7000 Series

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Radeon HD 7000 Series

The Radeon HD 7000 Series, based on "Southern Islands", is further products series in the family of Radeon GPUs developed by AMD.[9] AMD builds Southern Islands series graphics chips based on the 28 nm manufacturing process at TSMC.[10] The primary competitor of Southern Islands, Nvidia's GeForce 600 Series (also manufactured at TSMC), also shipped during Q1 2012, largely due to the immaturity of the 28 nm process.[11] Architecture This article is about all products under the Radeon HD 7000 Series brand. Graphics Core Next was introduced with the Radeon HD 7000 Series. A GPU implementing Graphics Core Next is found on the Radeon HD 7730 and above branded discrete GPUs. A GPU implementing TeraScale (microarchitecture) version "Evergreen (VLIW5)" is found on Radeon HD 7670 and below branded discrete GPUs. A GPU implementing TeraScale (microarchitecture) version "Northern Island (VLIW4)" is found on APUs whose GPUs are branded with the Radeon HD 7000 series. OpenGL 4.x compliance requires supporting FP64 ...more...

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List of transistorized computers

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List of transistorized computers

This is a list of transistorized computers, which were digital computers that used discrete transistors as their primary logic elements. Discrete transistors were a feature of logic design for computers from about 1960, when reliable transistors became economically available, until monolithic integrated circuits displaced them in the 1970s. The list is organized by operational date or delivery year to customers. Computers announced, but never completed, are not included. Some very early "transistor" computers may still have included vacuum tubes in the power supply or for auxiliary functions. 1950s Harwell CADET 1953 University of Manchester Transistor Computer 1953 (prototype) 1955 (full scale) experimental 1954 Bell Labs TRADIC for U.S. Air Force 1955 Harwell CADET demonstrated February 1955, one-off scientific computer 1956 Electrotechnical Laboratory ETL Mark III (Japan) experimental, began development 1954, completed 1956,[1] Japan's first transistorized stored-program computer[2][3][4] MIT ...more...

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Toyota A engine

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Toyota A engine

The A Series engines are a family of inline-four internal combustion engines with displacement from 1.3 L to 1.8 L produced by Toyota Motor Corporation. The series has cast iron engine blocks and aluminum cylinder heads. The development of the series began in the late 1970s, when Toyota wanted to develop a completely new engine for the Toyota Tercel, successor of Toyota's K engine.[1] The goal was to achieve good fuel efficiency and performance as well as low emissions with a modern design.[2][3] The A-series includes one of the first Japanese mass-production DOHC, four-valve-per-cylinder engines, the 4A-GE, and a later version of the same engine was one of the first production five-valve-per-cylinder engines.[4] Toyota joint venture partner Tianjin FAW Xiali still produces the 1.3 L 8A and recently resumed production of the 5A. 1A The 1.5 L 1A was produced between 1978 and 1980.[5] All variants were belt-driven 8-valve counter-flow SOHC engine with a single, twin-barrel downdraft carburetor. 1A-C ...more...

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List of Groupe Bull products

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List of Groupe Bull products

The following is a list of products from the French-owned computer hardware and software company Groupe Bull. Computer hardware A 1990 Honeywell-Bull DPS 7 mainframe Gamma 3 rekenautomaat (1953) Gamma 60[1] (1960) CAB500 (1962) Série 300 TI (1962) Gamma 30 (1964) (RCA 301) Gamma M 40 (1965) Gamma 10 (1966) GE 400 (1967) GE 115 (1966) GE 55 (1967) GE-265 (1968) CII Iris 50 (1970) CII Iris 60 (1972) CII Iris 80 (1972) CII Mitra 15 (1972) GE-600 series (1965) Honeywell H200 (1970) HB 2000 (1973) Micral (1973) Mini6 (1978) GE 58 (1970) CII HB 64/40 (1976) CII HB 66/60 (1976) CII HB 61 DPS (1978) Bull DPS4 (1980) Bull DPS7 and DPS 7000 (1981) SM 90 (1981) Correlative Syst. 1982 SPS7 and SPS9 DPX 2 (1992) Escala (1994) DPS 9000 (1999) NovaScale (2004) DS800 (2007) bullx (2009) Novascale bullion (2010) Mobile phones In October 2013 Groupe Bull introduced the Hoox line of cellular phones with enhanced encryption and biometric authentication targeting security-consci ...more...

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GE Dash 7 Series

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GE Dash 7 Series

The Dash 7 Series is a line of diesel-electric freight locomotives built by GE Transportation Systems. It replaced the Universal Series in the mid-1970s, and was superseded by the Dash 8 Series in the mid-1980s. Specifications All models of the Dash 7 Series are powered by a 12-cylinder or 16-cylinder, turbocharged, GE 7FDL 4-stroke diesel engine carried over from the Universal Series, and have speed-based adhesion control with a multi-channel LED annunciator panel. Dash 7 Series traction motors are powered by direct current. Construction history The Dash 7's predecessor, the Universal Series, had been introduced in the 1950s, and with its innovative body structure, it had initially been greeted favourably by the market. However, GM-EMD had then developed the GP30 model to compete with it; GP30 production had commenced in 1961. Over many years, the GP30's reliability had given it a sales advantage, and when EMD introduced its successor, the Dash 2, in 1972, the Universal Series became completely obsolete ...more...

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GE Wind Energy

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GE Wind Energy

GE Wind Energy is a branch of GE Renewable Energy a subsidiary of General Electric. The company manufactures and sells wind turbines to the international market. In 2016, GE was the second largest wind turbine manufacturer in the world.[1] History Enron Wind acquisition era (2002-2015) The entity was created as developer (not manufacturer) Zond in 1980 by James G.P. Dehlsen, who also formed Clipper Windpower in 2001. Enron acquired Zond and the German manufacturer Tacke in 1997. In 2002 GE acquired the wind power assets of Enron during its bankruptcy proceedings while gas turbine sales slumped.[2] Enron Wind was the only surviving US manufacturer of large wind turbines at the time, and GE increased engineering and supplies for the Wind Division and doubled the annual sales to $1.2B in 2003. It acquired ScanWind in 2009.[3] In 2011, GE acquired Wind Tower Systems LLC, a manufacturer of space frame wind turbine towers.[4] As of 2016, GE has a nacelle production capacity of 4.8 GW, some of which is in Flori ...more...

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Kepler (microarchitecture)

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Kepler (microarchitecture)

Kepler is the codename for a GPU microarchitecture developed by Nvidia, first introduced at retail in April 2012,[1] as the successor to the Fermi microarchitecture. Kepler was Nvidia's first microarchitecture to focus on energy efficiency. Most GeForce 600 series, most GeForce 700 series, and some GeForce 800M series GPUs were based on Kepler, all manufactured in 28 nm. Kepler also found use in the GK20A, the GPU component of the Tegra K1 SoC, as well as in the Quadro Kxxx series, the Quadro NVS 510, and Nvidia Tesla computing modules. Kepler was followed by the Maxwell microarchitecture and used alongside Maxwell in the GeForce 700 series and GeForce 800M series. The architecture is named after Johannes Kepler, a German mathematician and key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution. Overview Where the goal of Nvidia’s previous architecture was design focused on increasing performance on compute and tessellation, with Kepler architecture Nvidia targeted their focus on efficiency, programmability a ...more...

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List of GE locomotives

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List of GE locomotives

The following is a list of locomotives produced by GE Transportation Systems. All were/are built at Fort Worth, Texas or Erie, Pennsylvania, in the United States. Most (except the electrics, the switchers, the AC6000CW, and the Evolution series) are powered by various versions of GE's own FDL diesel prime mover, based on a Cooper Bessemer design and manufactured at Grove City, Pennsylvania. Freight locomotives Early locomotives, switchers and special purpose Switchers Model designation Build year Total produced AAR wheel arrangement Prime mover Power output Image 20-ton Boxcab 1938 5 B Cummins 150 hp (110 kW) 23-ton Boxcab 1939 6 B Cummins 150 hp (110 kW) 23-ton 1941 29 B Cummins 150 hp (110 kW) 25-ton 1941–1974 510 B Cummins 150 hp (110 kW) 35-ton B 43-ton B-B 44-ton 1940–1956 386 B-B Caterpillar D17000 × 2 (most)Hercules DFXD × 2 (11)Buda 6DH1742 × 2 (10)Caterpillar D342 × 2 (last 4) 380–400 hp (280–300 kW) 45-ton 1940–1956 B-B Cummins × 2 300 hp (220 kW) hp ...more...

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Radeon HD 2000 series

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Radeon HD 2000 series

The graphics processing unit (GPU) codenamed Radeon R600 is the foundation of the Radeon HD 2000 series and the FireGL 2007 series video cards developed by ATI Technologies. The HD 2000 cards competed with nVidia's GeForce 8 series. Architecture This article is about all products under the brand "Radeon HD 2000 Series". They all contain a GPU which implements TeraScale 1, ATI's first Unified shader model microarchitecture for PCs. Video acceleration The Unified Video Decoder (UVD) SIP core is on-die in the HD 2400 and the HD 2600. The HD 2900 GPU dice do not have a UVD core, as its stream processors were powerful enough to handle most of the steps of video acceleration in its stead except for entropy decoding and bitstream processing which are left for the CPU to perform.[4] Other features HDTV encoding support is implemented via the integrated AMD Xilleon encoder; the companion Rage Theater chip used on the Radeon X1000 series was replaced with the digital Theater 200 chip, providing VIVO capabilities. ...more...



GE Dash 9-44CW

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GE Dash 9-44CW

The GE C44-9W is a 4,400 hp (3,281 kW) diesel-electric locomotive built by GE Transportation Systems of Erie, Pennsylvania. Keeping in tradition with GE's locomotive series nicknames beginning with the "Dash 7" of the 1970s, the C44-9W was dubbed the Dash 9 upon its debut in 1993. The design has since proven popular with North American railroads, although some railroads, like CSX, preferred its AC equivalent, the AC4400CW. Because of more stringent emissions requirements that came into effect in the United States on January 1, 2005, the Dash 9-44CW has been replaced in production by the GE ES44DC. Many North American railroads have ordered the C44-9W. They were originally ordered by Chicago & North Western Railway, Santa Fe, BNSF, CSX, Southern Pacific, Canadian National Railway, BC Rail, and Union Pacific Railroad. Norfolk Southern purchased the very similar Dash 9-40CWs. BNSF Dash 9 #4723 is featured as a drivable locomotive in Microsoft Train Simulator and the actual Dash 9 has stickers on its cab n ...more...

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Bombardier CRJ700 series

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Bombardier CRJ700 series

The Bombardier CRJ700, CRJ900, and CRJ1000 are regional jet airliners manufactured by Bombardier and based on the CRJ100 and 200. Bombardier currently markets the trio of aircraft as the CRJ Series, complementing its C Series and Q Series aircraft. Development Four abreast cabin seating flight deck Following the success of the CRJ100/200 series, Bombardier Aerospace produced larger variants in order to compete with larger regional aircraft such as the Fokker 70/Fokker 100 or the BAe 146 family, and competed later with the Embraer E-Jet family. It accounts for over 20% of all jet departures in North America and globally the family operates more than 200,000 flights per month: a CRJ takes off every 10 seconds.[4] Final assembly of the aircraft is at Montréal-Mirabel International Airport in Mirabel, Quebec, outside Montreal, Quebec, Canada.[5] In 2007, Bombardier launched the CRJ900 NextGen to replace the initial version. Its improvements and conic nozzle enhances fuel economy by 5.5%.[6] The new mod ...more...

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GE Honda Aero Engines

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GE Honda Aero Engines

HF120 GE Honda Aero Engines LLC (or GE Honda) is a joint venture between GE Aviation and Honda Aero based in Cincinnati, Ohio. GE Honda is headed by Steven J. Shaknaitis of GE Aviation and Masahiko Izumi of Honda Aero. Formed in 2004, the company plans to create jet engines in the 1,000 to 3,500 lbf (4.4 to 15.6 kN) thrust class, suitable for the business aviation industry.[1] History The GE Honda joint venture was formed in October 2004, with the intention of combining the propulsion technology and innovation of General Electric, the world's leading jet engine producer, and Honda, the world's largest engine manufacturer. Products GE Honda HF120 References About GE Honda Aero GE Honda Website External links GE Honda GE Aviation Honda Aero ...more...

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Toyota ZZ engine

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Toyota ZZ engine

The Toyota ZZ engine family is a straight-4 piston engine series. The ZZ series uses a die-cast aluminum engine block with thin press-fit cast iron cylinder liners, and aluminum DOHC 4-valve cylinder heads, a first for Toyota.[1] The camshafts are chain-driven. The two 1.8 L members of the family, the 1ZZ and 2ZZ, use different bore and stroke. The former was optimized for economy, with torque emphasized in lower Revolutions_per_minute operating range, while the latter is a "square" design optimized for high-RPM torque, yielding higher peak power. The ZZ family replaced the extremely popular cast-iron block 4A engines. Toyota engine names are interpreted as follows. The leading number denotes the generation, and the next one or two letters, followed by a hyphen, specify the engine family. The remaining letters, following the hyphen, describe the engine's major features. For example, the 2ZZ-GE can be decoded as being the second generation of the ZZ engine series and features a performance-oriented cylinder h ...more...

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GE boxcab

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GE boxcab

The GE boxcabs, sometimes also GE IR boxcabs, were diesel-electric switcher locomotives succeeding the ALCO boxcabs. The locomotives were built by General Electric and Ingersoll Rand without ALCO. Production lasted from 1928 till 1930. These boxcabs were often termed oil-electrics to avoid the use of the German name Diesel, unpopular after World War I. History In 1912 GE combined for the first time an internal combustion engine with electric traction motors. Impetus for wider adoption of this technology was provided by improved control systems introduced around 1920 and the State of New York's Kaufman Act, which banned the use of steam locomotives within the New York metropolitan area.[1] A consortium consisting of ALCO, GE and Ingersoll Rand started series production of the ALCO-Boxcabs in 1925. ALCO dropped out of the arrangement in 1928, after acquiring their own diesel engine manufacturer in McIntosh & Seymour and went on to start its own line of diesel switchers. GE and Ingersoll Rand went on with ...more...

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NForce 600

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NForce 600

NVIDIA nForce 600 CPU support Athlon 64Core 2 Socket support LGA 775Socket AM2Socket AM3Socket F Release Date November 2006 Predecessor nForce 500 Successor nForce 700 The nForce 600 chipset was released in the first half of November 2006, coinciding with the GeForce 8 series launch on November 8, 2006. The nForce 600 supports Intel's LGA 775 socket and AMD's Quad FX platform and replaces the nForce 500 series. AMD chipsets nForce 680a SLI Specially made for the AMD Quad FX platform proposed by AMD, providing a total of two CPUs and multiple graphic cards configuation (SLI) working on a single chipset. AMD Dual Dual-core Socket F Enthusiast multiple-GPU segment Support for HyperTransport 2.0 2 northbridges as Media and Communications Processor (MCP) equal to that of nForce 570 SLI MCP,[1] each providing one x16 and one x8 PCI-E lanes and total 28 PCI-E lanes Total of 4 PCI-E x16 slots Two of the x16 slots receive x8 PCI-E lanes bandwidth Additional PCI-E slots support (PCI-E ...more...

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Motherboard

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General Electric LM2500

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General Electric LM2500

The General Electric LM2500 is an industrial and marine gas turbine produced by GE Aviation. The LM2500 is a derivative of the General Electric CF6 aircraft engine. The LM2500 is available in 3 different versions: The LM2500 delivers 33,600 shaft horsepower (shp) (25,060 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 37 percent at ISO conditions. When coupled with an electric generator, it delivers 24 MW of electricity at 60 Hz with a thermal efficiency of 36 percent at ISO conditions.[1] The improved, 3rd generation, LM2500+ version of the turbine delivers 40,500 shp (30,200 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 39 percent at ISO conditions. When coupled with an electric generator, it delivers 29 MW of electricity at 60 Hz with a thermal efficiency of 38 percent at ISO conditions.[2][3] The latest, 4th generation, LM2500+G4 version was introduced in November 2005 and delivers 47,370 shp (35,320 kW) with a thermal efficiency of 39.3 percent at ISO conditions.[4] As of 2004, the U.S. Navy and at least 29 other navies h ...more...

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