Biebl was born in Pursruck, now part of Freudenberg, Bavaria, in 1906. He studied composition at the Musikhochschule in Munich. Biebl served as Choir Director at the Catholic church of St Maria in München-Thalkirchen from 1932 until 1939, and as an assistant professor of choral music at the Mozarteum, an academy of music in Salzburg, Austria, beginning in 1939, where he taught voice and music theory.
Biebl was drafted into the military beginning in 1943 during World War II. He was a prisoner of war from 1944 to 1946, being detained at Fort Custer in Battle Creek, Michigan. After the war, he moved from Austria to Fürstenfeldbruck, Germany, where he served as director of the town chorus.
Biebl's best-known work is his Ave Maria (1964), which sets portions of the Angelus as well as the Ave Maria. The piece was brought to the United States by the Cornell University Glee Club in 1970. The ensemble met Biebl while on tour in Germany, during a recording session at a radio network where Biebl was music director. Conductor Thomas A. Sokol was given a number of Biebl's works, premiering them after returning home. The Ave Maria quickly gained popularity, most notably after becoming part of the repertoire of Chanticleer. Although it was originally scored for male voices, after "Ave Maria" became popular the composer himself rearranged the piece for SATB and SSA choirs as well.
Wilbur Skeels - who published some of Biebl's other works - prepared the following information about the piece for use in choral program notes. All or parts of the information in this note are commonly cited by choirs recording or performing the piece.
Herr Biebl told me that when he was organist/choirmaster and teacher in the Fürstenfeldbruck parish near Munich he had in his church choir a fireman. It was common for companies, factories, police and fire departments, etc. to sponsor an employees' choir, which often would participate in choral competitions and festivals with other similar choirs. This fireman asked Biebl to please compose something for his fireman's choir for such an occasion. The result was the Ave Maria (double male choir version).
The piece gained practically no attention in Germany for many years. However, when Biebl was the head of choral programs for the Bayerischen Rundfunk (Bavarian Radio) he made a habit of inviting American choirs to come to Munich and sing on the radio and with other German choirs. One of these choirs [Wikipedia ed. - the Cornell University Glee Club, see above] was introduced to his Ave Maria and brought it back to the US, where it became increasingly popular. When Chanticleer recorded it, it became a hit, not only in the US but in Germany too, which now considered the piece must be special as it was such a hit in America! Biebl did arrangements for other voicings, and the seven-part mixed choir arrangement is now probably the most popular.
The text is unique in its conjoining of two sources. The first source is the thrice-daily devotional exercise called the Angelus in the Catholic Church. It is cued by the ringing of the "Angelus" bell, sometimes referred to as the "Peace Bell." It consists of a thrice-repeated "Hail Mary," each with an introductory versicle based on the Gospel, followed by a concluding versicle and prayer.
Here is the first part of the Angelus, the only part that Biebl uses:
Angelus Domini nuntiavit Mariae The Angel of the Lord announced to Mary
Et concepit de Spiritu Sancto. And she conceived by the Holy Spirit.
[Ave Maria, Sancta Maria.] [Hail Mary, Holy Mary.]
- Behold the handmaiden of the Lord
- Do to me according to your word.
- [Hail Mary, Holy Mary.]
- And the Word was made flesh
- And dwelt among us.
- [Hail Mary, Holy Mary]
In place of the 'Ave Maria, Sancta Maria' from the Angelus text, Biebl has substituted the first part of the even more familiar text of the standard 'Ave Maria' prayer [Ave Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum, etc.] and in lieu of the closing versicle and prayer of the 'Angelus' he has substituted the second part of the 'Ave Maria' [Sancta Maria, Mater Dei, ora pro nobis, etc.], so that the whole is a hybrid of the two ancient texts.
The San Francisco Renegades, an all-age Drum and Bugle Corps, first adapted sections of Biebl's Ave Maria in their 2003 show: "Red Skies At Night". In 2005 they played the piece as the opener to their show, "The Days of Future Past". In 2006 the Phantom Regiment Drum and Bugle Corps, an International World Class Corps based in Rockford, Illinois, used the piece in its 2006 field show "Faust," further expanding awareness of Biebl's arrangement. Both drum and bugle corps continue to perform Franz Biebl's Ave Maria as part of their yearly repertoire.
A recent arrangement of the Biebl "Ave Maria" was transcribed by Jerry Brubaker, horn player and arranger for 30 years with the US Navy Band, after hearing the piece sung at a Navy funeral. It has been performed by the Navy Band horn section and the NIH Community Orchestra Horn Club on numerous occasions.
Pacific Crest Drum and Bugle Corps uses Franz Biebl's Ave Maria as their corps song.
In 2009–10, an arrangement of the Ave Maria for wind ensemble was the subject of litigation that reached the United States Supreme Court. At issue was whether a school district was justified in prohibiting an instrumental performance of the piece (without lyrics) at a high school graduation ceremony due to its underlying religious nature. The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit upheld the school district's actions. The Supreme Court declined to hear the case, but Justice Samuel Alito issued a rare written opinion dissenting from the Court's decision. In a footnote, Alito described Biebl's setting of the Ave Maria text as "relatively obscure" in comparison to settings by Franz Schubert, Charles Gounod, and other more well-known composers.
Franz Xaver Biebl (1 September 1906 – 2 October 2001) was a German composer of classical music . Most of his compositions were for choral ensembles. Biebl was born in Pursruck , now part of Freudenberg, Bavaria , in 1906. He studied composition at the Musikhochschule in Munich . Biebl served as Choir Director at the Catholic church of St Maria in München-Thalkirchen from 1932 until 1939, and as an assistant professor of choral music at the Mozarteum , an academy of music in Salzburg , Austria , beginning in 1939, where he taught voice and music theory . Biebl was drafted into the military beginning in 1943 during World War II . He was a prisoner of war from 1944 to 1946, being detained at Fort Custer in Battle Creek, Michigan . After the war, he moved from Austria to Fürstenfeldbruck , Germany, where he served as director of the town chorus. Ave Maria Biebl's best-known work is his Ave Maria (1964), which sets portions of the Angelus as well as the Ave Maria . The piece was brought to the United States by the
A cryptotope is an antigenic site or epitope hidden in a protein or virion by surface subunits. Cryptotopes are antigenically active only after the dissociation of protein aggregates and virions Some infectious pathogens are known to escape immunological targeting by B-cells by masking antigen-binding sites as cryptotopes. A cryptotope can also be referred to as a cryptic epitope . Cryptotopes are becoming important for HIV vaccine research as a number of studies have shown that cryptic epitopes can be revealed or exposed when HIV gp120 binds to CD4. References Regenmortel, Marc (2008). "Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of Viral Proteins" (PDF) . Elsevier. Reider, Franz; Biebl, Julia; et al. (22 July 2016). "Microbial Cryptotopes are Prominent Targets of B-cell Immunity" . Scientific Reports. 6 . Retrieved 11 September 2017 . Thali, Marcus (July 1993). "Characterization of Conserved Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gpl20 Neutralization Epitopes Exposed upon gpl20-CD4 Binding" . Journal of Virology. Americ
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The Erwin Schrödinger Prize ( German : Erwin Schrödinger-Preis ) is an annual award presented by the Austrian Academy of Sciences for lifetime achievement by Austrians in the fields of mathematics and natural sciences . The prize was established in 1958, and was first awarded to its namesake, Erwin Schrödinger . Prize criteria and endowment The prize is awarded at the discretion of the Austrian Academy of Sciences to scholars resident in Austria for excellence and achievements in the mathematical and scientific disciplines in the broadest sense. The prize is not awarded to full members of the Academy. The award ceremony is held annually in October. The prize includes an annual stipend currently of € 15 000, paid monthly. Prize winners 1956 Erwin Schrödinger 1958 Felix Machatschki 1960 Erich Schmid 1962 Marietta Blau 1963 Ludwig Flamm and Karl Przibram 1964 Otto Kratky 1965 Fritz Wessely 1966 Georg Stetter 1967 Berta Karlik and Gustav Ortner 1968 Hans Nowotny 1969 Walter Thirring 1970 Erika Cremer 1971 Richar
Jiří Kroha (5 June 1893, Prague – 7 June 1974, Prague) was a Czech architect, painter, sculptor, scenographer, designer and pedagogue. He was an important exponent of Czech architecture and design during inter-war period. Biography Kroha began his studies in Prague, but in 1904 his family moved to Plzeň . From 1907 to 1909 he gained his first experience with theatre, as a member of amateur cabaret group. In 1911, he graduated from realschule in Plzeň. The same year he began to study at the Czech Technical University in Prague . Among his professors were Jan Koula, Josef Fanta, Antonín Balšánek and Rudolf Kříženecký. In 1918 he successfully finished his studies at the Czech Technical University. At the same time he made first contacts with bohemian group of the cabaret Montmartre from Řetězová Street in Prague. Among regular guests of the performances were Jaroslav Hašek , Max Brod , Franz Kafka , Eduard Bass , Eduard Bass , Konstantin Biebl , Egon Erwin Kisch , Vítězslav Nezval , Karel Teige , František Tich
Bach Beethoven Brahms Handel Hildegard von Bingen Mendelssohn Schumann Schütz Stockhausen Richard Strauss Wagner Weill This is an alphabetical list of composers from Germany . A Ludwig Abeille (1761–1838) Carl Friedrich Abel (1723–1787) Clamor Heinrich Abel (1634–1696) Ludwig Abel (1835–1895) Otto Abel (1905–1977) Walter Abendroth (1896–1973) Franz Abt (1819–1885) Anton Cajetan Adlgasser (1729–1777) Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund Adorno (1903–1969) Johan Agrell (1701–1765) Johann Friedrich Agricola (1720–1774) Martin Agricola (1486–1556) Carl Christian Agthe (1762–1797) Johann Georg Ahle (1651–1706) Johann Gottfried Arnold (1773–1806) Johann Rudolph Ahle (1625–1673) Eugen d'Albert (1864–1932) Heinrich Albert (1604–1651) Giovanni Henrico Albicastro (c. 1660–1730), born Johann Heinrich von Weissenburg Christoph Albrecht (born 1930) Leni Alexander (1924–2005) Johann Peter Cornelius d'Alquen (1800–1863) Johann Ernst Altenburg (1734–1801) Michael Altenburg (1584–1640) Johann Christoph Altnikol (1720–1759) Anna Amalia,
Madonna and Child by Taddeo di Bartolo , 1400, an example of Marian art The Annunciation, by Fra Angelico The Hail Mary , also commonly called the Ave Maria ( Latin ) or Angelic Salutation , is a traditional Catholic prayer asking for the intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary , the mother of Jesus . In Roman Catholicism , the prayer forms the basis of the Rosary and the Angelus prayers. In the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches , a similar prayer is used in formal liturgies, both in Greek and in translations. It is also used by many other groups within the Catholic tradition of Christianity including Anglicans , Independent Catholics , and Old Catholics . Some Protestant denominations, such as Lutherans , also make use of a form of the prayer. Based on the greeting of the archangel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary in the Gospel of Luke , the prayer takes different forms in various traditions. It has often been set to music, although the most famous musical expression of the words Ave Maria — that by F
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This is a list of persons named after Saint Francis Xavier . The list includes cognates of the name Francis Xavier in other languages, including: Francesc Xavier – Catalan Francesco Saverio – Italian Francisco Javier – Spanish Francisco Xavier – Portuguese Franciszek Ksawery – Polish François Xavier – French František Xaver – Czech Franz Xaver – German Persons A. F. X. Baron (Anthony Francis Xavier Baron) (1913–1974), British far-right political figure of the 1940–1950s Antoine Labelle (François-Xavier-Antoine Labelle) (1833–1891), Roman Catholic priest; principally responsible for the settlement (or "colonization") of the Laurentians Antonio Francisco Xavier Alvares (1836–1923), Portuguese Roman Catholic priest in Goa and British India Antonio Soler (Antonio Francisco Javier José Soler Ramos), (1729–1783), Spanish composer of the late Baroque and early Classical periods Auguste Comte (Isidore Auguste Marie François Xavier Comte) (1798–1857), French philosopher; founder of the discipline of sociology Brennan
The Phantom Regiment Drum and Bugle Corps (commonly referred to as "Phantom") is a World Class competitive junior drum and bugle corps based in Rockford, Illinois , USA. The corps is a long-standing member of Drum Corps International (DCI), having been a DCI World Championship Top Twelve Finalist every year since 1974 and DCI World Champions in 1996 and 2008. History Sources: The corps was founded in 1956 by members of the Col. Thomas G. Lawler VFW Post 342 who wanted a local competitive drum corps. Under the direction of Alex Haddad, the corps was provisionally named the Rockford Rangers with all-boy drums and bugles sections and an all-girl color guard to be named the Rangerettes. However, when many of the charter members were impressed by the recording of the Syracuse Brigadiers performing the Leroy Anderson composition The Phantom Regiment, the corps' name was changed before the unit made its debut, with the color guard renamed the Phantomettes. In the corps' early years, the Phantomettes and a corps-spon
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Veronika Fischer (born 28 July 1951 in Wölfis , also called Vroni) is a German singer. Life Fischer was born in the Thuringian municipality of Wölfis (near Gotha ). She began a study at the Hochschule für Musik Carl Maria von Weber in 1968. She also appeared with various bands such as the Fred-Herfter-Combo and 1970 with the Stern-Combo Meißen . In 1973 her first LP was released with the group Panta Rhei, which was jazz-oriented, among others Herbert Dreilich, Ed Swillms and Henning Protzmann, who later founded the group Karat . The titles Nachts and Blues were successful in hit parades like the Beatkiste. Fischer graduated in music studies with the Staatsexamen as a soloist for chanson and musical . One year later she founded the group Veronika Fischer & Band. In this volume Franz Bartzsch (piano, keyboard, singing) was responsible for most compositions and arrangements. On the LP Veronika Fischer & Band the guitarist and singer Johannes Biebl also contributed. In 1974 the blues appeared from the l
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The Pacific Crest Drum and Bugle Corps is a World Class competitive junior drum and bugle corps . Based in Diamond Bar, California , Pacific Crest is a member corps of Drum Corps International (DCI). History Pacific Crest was founded in 1993 to serve the youth in the eastern part of Los Angeles County . Marching only 33 members in its inaugural season, the corps grew in size and ability while maintaining a local California profile. The corps did not perform outside its home state until travelling to Texas for two shows in 2000. The corps journeyed to the Northwest in 2002, and it finally entered the national competition scene by attending its first DCI Championships at Orlando, Florida in 2003, where many drum corps fans unfamiliar with Pacific Crest were surprised as the corps reached the semifinal round. Although it now tours nationally each season, the corps has maintained a policy of spending approximately the first half of the season near home. While this has possibly prevented Pacific Crest from ascendi
October 2 is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years ) in the Gregorian calendar . There are 90 days remaining until the end of the year. This date is slightly more likely to fall on a Tuesday, Friday or Sunday (58 in 400 years each) than on Wednesday or Thursday (57), and slightly less likely to occur on a Monday or Saturday (56). Events 829 – Theophilos succeeds his father Michael II as Byzantine Emperor . 939 – Battle of Andernach : King Otto I crushes a rebellion against his rule, by a coalition of Eberhard of Franconia and other Frankish dukes. 1187 – Siege of Jerusalem : Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule . 1263 – The Battle of Largs is fought between Norwegians and Scots. 1470 – Richard Neville 's rebellion forces King Edward IV of England to flee to the Netherlands , restoring Henry VI to the throne. 1528 – William Tyndale , the renowned English Reformer and Bible translator published his famous work The Obedience of a Christian Man . 1535 – Jacques Cartier discovers the
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The Strahov Library Czech literature is the literature written in the Czech language . The earliest literary works written in Czech date to the 14th century. Modern literature may be divided into the periods of national awakening in the 19th century; the avantgarde of the interwar period; the years under Communism and the Prague Spring; and the literature of the post-Communist Czech Republic. In another meaning of the term,, "Czech literature" may refer to "literature written by Czechs " regardless of language, including works in Old Church Slavonic , Middle Latin or German . Middle Latin works A writer and historian Cosmas Bohemia was Christianized in the late 9th to 10th centuries, and the earliest written works associated with the kingdom of Bohemia are Middle Latin works written in the 12th to 13th centuries (with the exception of the Latin Legend of Christian, supposedly of the 10th century but of dubious authenticity). The majority of works from this period are chronicles and hagiographies. Bohemian hag
Alpine skiing is an Olympic sport , contested at the Winter Olympic Games . The first Winter Olympics, held in 1924 , included nordic skiing , but the first alpine skiing events were not held until 1936 in Garmisch-Partenkirchen , Germany . A combined event was held for both men and women in 1936. The International Ski Federation (FIS) decided that ski instructors could not compete in 1936 because they were professionals, and the Olympics were meant for amateur athletes. Because of this, Austrian and Swiss skiers boycotted the events, although some Austrians decided to compete for Germany. Due to World War II , no games were held in 1940 or 1944 . Two new alpine events were added in 1948 : downhill and slalom . Combined events were also held in 1948, but were dropped after that and not contested again at the Olympics until 1988 . The giant slalom debuted at the Olympics in 1952 and the Olympic program was three events for both men and women through 1984 . Since 1988, events for both men and women have been
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Speed skating at the 1960 Winter Olympics 500 m men women 1000 m women 1500 m men women 3000 m women 5000 m men 10,000 m men The 5000 metres speed skating event was part of the speed skating at the 1960 Winter Olympics programme. The competition was held on the Squaw Valley Olympic Skating Rink and for the first time at the Olympics on artificially frozen ice. It was held on Thursday, February 25, 1960. Thirty-seven speed skaters from 15 nations competed. Medalists Gold Silver Bronze Viktor Kosichkin ( URS ) Knut Johannesen ( NOR ) Jan Pesman ( NED ) Records These were the standing world and Olympic records (in minutes) prior to the 1960 Winter Olympics. World Record 7:45.6(*) Boris Shilkov Medeo ( URS ) January 9, 1955 Olympic Record 7:48.7(*) Boris Shilkov Cortina d'Ampezzo / Lake Misurina ( ITA ) January 29, 1956 (*) The record was set in a high altitude venue (more than 1000 metres above sea level) and on naturally frozen ice. Results Place Speed skater Time 1 Viktor Kosichkin ( URS ) 7:51
The 1982 Star World Championships were held in Medemblik , Netherlands in 1982. Results Results of individual races Pos Crew Country I II III IV V VI Pts Gorostegui, Antonio Antonio Gorostegui ( H ) José Doreste Spain 12 1 13 3 1 3 29.4 Hagen, Alexander Alexander Hagen ( H ) Vincent Hoesch West Germany 1 4 7 18 YMP 9 45 Buchan, Jr., Bill Bill Buchan, Jr. ( H ) Steve Erickson United States 3 13 PMS 7 3 7 56.4 4 Wrede, Jens-Peter Jens-Peter Wrede ( H ) Matthias Borowy West Germany 4 6 4 28 11 11 61.7 5 Menkart, Andrew Andrew Menkart ( H ) Steve Calder United States 5 14 14 5 9 4 63 6 Douze, Kees Kees Douze ( H ) Willem Nagel Netherlands 16 2 2 14 37 14 68 7 Griese, Joachim Joachim Griese ( H ) Jurgen Homeyer West Germany 14 17 9 8 2 12 70 8 Christensen, Jens Jens Christensen ( H ) Morten Nielsen Denmark 2 15 18 8 18 5 72 9 Wright, Peter Peter Wright ( H ) Todd Cozzens United States 13 7 3 13 19 - 81.7 10 Bate, Colin Colin Bate ( H ) Phil Baker Australia 20 12 36 2 4 25 86 11 Schwar
The FIS Alpine World Ski Championships are organized by the International Ski Federation (FIS). History The first world championships in alpine skiing were held in 1931. During the 1930s, the event was held annually in Europe, until interrupted by the outbreak of World War II , preventing a 1940 event. An event was held in 1941, but included competitors only from nations from the Axis powers or nations not at war with them. The results were later cancelled by the FIS in 1946 because of the limited number of participants, so they are not considered official. Following the war, the championships were connected with the Olympics for several decades. From 1948 through 1982 , the competition was held in even-numbered years, with the Winter Olympics acting as the World Championships through 1980 , and a separate competition held in even-numbered non-Olympic years. The 1950 championships in the United States at Aspen were the first held outside of Europe and the first official championships separate of the Olympics
St. Martin is the name of a Catholic parish and church in Idstein , Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis , Germany. The official name of the church is Katholische Pfarrkirche St. Martin . The name of the parish became on 1 January 2017 St. Martin Idsteiner Land , when it was merged with five other parishes. The parish is part of the Diocese of Limburg . St. Martin is the patron saint of Idstein, to whom a Gothic church was dedicated in 1330. The present building designed by architect Johannes Krahn was consecrated in 1965. It replaced a church built in 1888 in Gothic revival style and dedicated to Mary Magdalene which was too small for the congregation growing after World War II. After restoration in 2003, a new organ was installed in 2006. Church music in services and concerts, performed by several groups including children's choir and ensembles on historic instruments, have received attention in the Rhein-Main Region . The parish is in long-term ecumenical contact with the main Protestant church of the town, Unionskirche
The Cornell University Glee Club (CUGC) is the oldest student organization at Cornell University , having been organized shortly after the first students arrived on campus in 1868. The CUGC is a sixty-member chorus for male voices, with repertoire including classical , folk , 20th-century music , and traditional Cornell songs . The Glee Club also performs major works with the Cornell University Chorus such as Beethoven's Missa Solemnis , Handel's Messiah , and Bach's Mass in B Minor . Achievements Performances at two American Choral Directors Association (ACDA) conventions as an auditioned choir: the 2008 ACDA Eastern Division Convention in Hartford, CT, and the 2009 ACDA National Convention in Oklahoma City, OK. First American collegiate ensemble to tour the Soviet Union , traveled to the Soviet Union and England from December 1960 to January 1961. Performed for national television and radio on such networks as Television Moscow, BBC , Educational Television Network, Radio Leningrad, Frankfurt Radio Network,
Athletes from Germany (GER) have appeared in only 20 of the 22 editions of the Winter Olympic Games as they were not invited to two events after the World Wars, in 1924 and 1948 . Germany hosted the 1936 Winter Olympics in Garmisch-Partenkirchen and had been selected to host in 1940 again. The nation appeared 11 times as a single country (IOC code GER), before World War II and again after German reunification in 1990. Three times, from 1956 to 1964, German athletes from the separate states in West and East competed as a United Team of Germany , which is currently listed by the IOC as EUA, not GER. Due to partition under occupation that resulted in three post-war German states, German athletes took part seven times for the contemporary states they lived in, in 1952, and from 1968 to 1988. The all-time results of German athletes are thus divided among the designations GER, EUA, FRG, GDR and also SAA (the Saarland only took part in the 1952 Summer games and won no medal). Including the Winter Games of 2014, Germ