Franz Biebl

Franz Xaver Biebl (1 September 1906 – 2 October 2001) was a German composer of classical music. Most of his compositions were for choral ensembles.

Biebl was born in Pursruck, now part of Freudenberg, Bavaria, in 1906. He studied composition at the Musikhochschule in Munich. Biebl served as Choir Director at the Catholic church of St Maria in München-Thalkirchen from 1932 until 1939, and as an assistant professor of choral music at the Mozarteum, an academy of music in Salzburg, Austria, beginning in 1939, where he taught voice and music theory.

Biebl was drafted into the military beginning in 1943 during World War II. He was a prisoner of war from 1944 to 1946, being detained at Fort Custer in Battle Creek, Michigan. After the war, he moved from Austria to Fürstenfeldbruck, Germany, where he served as director of the town chorus.

Ave Maria

Biebl's best-known work is his Ave Maria, which sets portions of the Angelus as well as the Ave Maria. The piece was composed sometime before 1 May 1959.[1]:14 The original composition was in the key of D major, but changed to C major when it was published by Wildt’s Musikverlag in 1964.[1]:15–16. The piece was brought to the United States by the Cornell University Glee Club in 1970. The ensemble met Biebl while on tour in Germany, during a recording session at a radio network where Biebl was music director. Conductor Thomas A. Sokol was given a number of Biebl's works, premiering them after returning home.[2] The Ave Maria quickly gained popularity, most notably after becoming part of the repertoire of Chanticleer. Although the Ave Maria was originally scored for male voices (TTB/TTBB), in 1985 Biebl prepared additional arrangements for SAT/SATB and SSA/TTTB choirs.[1]:16 In 1998, Biebl prepared a fourth arrangement for SSA/SSAA choir.[1]:17 As part of the Hinshaw Music, Inc. sheet music catalog, the four versions have sold over 670,000 copies between 1992 and 2016.[1]:40

Program note

Wilbur Skeels – who published some of Biebl's other works – prepared the following information about the piece for use in choral program notes.[3] All or parts of the information in this note are commonly cited by choirs recording or performing the piece.

Herr Biebl told me that when he was organist/choirmaster and teacher in the Fürstenfeldbruck parish near Munich he had in his church choir a fireman. It was common for companies, factories, police and fire departments, etc. to sponsor an employees' choir, which often would participate in choral competitions and festivals with other similar choirs. This fireman asked Biebl to please compose something for his fireman's choir for such an occasion. The result was the Ave Maria (double male choir version).

The piece gained practically no attention in Germany for many years. However, when Biebl was the head of choral programs for the Bayerischen Rundfunk (Bavarian Radio) he made a habit of inviting American choirs to come to Munich and sing on the radio and with other German choirs. One of these choirs was introduced to his Ave Maria and brought it back to the US, where it became increasingly popular. When Chanticleer recorded it, it became a hit, not only in the US but in Germany too, which now considered the piece must be special as it was such a hit in America! Biebl did arrangements for other voicings, and the seven-part mixed choir arrangement is now probably the most popular.

The text is unique in its conjoining of two sources. The first source is the thrice-daily devotional exercise called the Angelus in the Catholic Church. It is cued by the ringing of the "Angelus" bell, sometimes referred to as the "Peace Bell." It consists of a thrice-repeated "Hail Mary," each with an introductory versicle based on the Gospel, followed by a concluding versicle and prayer.

Here is the first part of the Angelus, the only part that Biebl uses:

Angelus Domini nuntiavit Mariae The Angel of the Lord announced to Mary

Et concepit de Spiritu Sancto. And she conceived by the Holy Spirit.

[Ave Maria, Sancta Maria.] [Hail Mary, Holy Mary.]

Maria dixit: Mary said:

Ecce ancilla Domini Behold the handmaiden of the Lord

Fiat mihi secundum verbum tuum. Do to me according to your word.

[Ave Maria, Sancta Maria.]
[Hail Mary, Holy Mary.]

Et verbum caro factum est And the Word was made flesh

Et habitavit in nobis And dwelt among us.

[Ave Maria, Sancta Maria]
[Hail Mary, Holy Mary]
[Ora pro nobis sancta Dei genetrix . . .]

In place of the 'Ave Maria, Sancta Maria' from the Angelus text, Biebl has substituted the first part of the even more familiar text of the standard 'Ave Maria' prayer [Ave Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum, etc.] and in lieu of the closing versicle and prayer of the 'Angelus' he has substituted the second part of the 'Ave Maria' [Sancta Maria, Mater Dei, ora pro nobis, etc.], so that the whole is a hybrid of the two ancient texts.

Instrumental arrangements

The San Francisco Renegades, an all-age Drum and Bugle Corps, first adapted sections of Biebl's Ave Maria in their 2003 show: "Red Skies At Night". In 2005 they played the piece as the opener to their show, "The Days of Future Past". In 2006 the Phantom Regiment Drum and Bugle Corps, an International World Class Corps based in Rockford, Illinois, used the piece in its 2006 field show "Faust," further expanding awareness of Biebl's arrangement. Both drum and bugle corps continue to perform Franz Biebl's Ave Maria as part of their yearly repertoire.

A recent arrangement of the Biebl "Ave Maria" was transcribed by Jerry Brubaker, horn player and arranger for 30 years with the US Navy Band, after hearing the piece sung at a Navy funeral. It has been performed by the Navy Band horn section and the NIH Community Orchestra Horn Club on numerous occasions.

Pacific Crest Drum and Bugle Corps uses Franz Biebl's Ave Maria as their corps song.

US First Amendment litigation

In 2009–10, an arrangement of the Ave Maria for wind ensemble was the subject of litigation that reached the United States Supreme Court. At issue was whether a school district was justified in prohibiting an instrumental performance of the piece (without lyrics) at a high school graduation ceremony due to its underlying religious nature. The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit upheld the school district's actions.[4] The Supreme Court declined to hear the case, but Justice Samuel Alito issued a rare written opinion dissenting from the Court's decision.[5] In a footnote, Alito described Biebl's setting of the Ave Maria text as "relatively obscure" in comparison to settings by Franz Schubert, Charles Gounod, and other more well-known composers.

References
  1. Oltman, Matthew (July 2017). e Iconic One-Hit Wonder: The History and Reception of Franz Biebl's Ave Maria. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  2. Michael Slon, Songs from the Hill – A History of the Cornell University Glee Club.
  3. ChoralNet Forums Archived 2014-12-23 at the Wayback Machine. (visited March 5, 2012). Wilbur Skeels (1938–2011) was a pastor, accompanist, composer, and music publisher who knew Biebl and published some of his works through Skeels' Cantus Quercus Press. See H. Wilbur Skeels online obituary (visited March 5, 2012) and Cantus Quercus Press (visited March 5, 2012 – website now largely defunct, except for downloadable catalog with section on Biebl's works)
  4. Nurre v. Whitehead, 580 F.3d 1087 (9th Cir. 2009), available at https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=16640877058818770540
  5. 130 S. Ct. 1937 (2010), available at https://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/09pdf/09-671.pdf
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Franz Biebl

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Franz Biebl

Franz Xaver Biebl (1 September 1906 – 2 October 2001) was a German composer of classical music. Most of his compositions were for choral ensembles. Biebl was born in Pursruck, now part of Freudenberg, Bavaria, in 1906. He studied composition at the Musikhochschule in Munich. Biebl served as Choir Director at the Catholic church of St Maria in München-Thalkirchen from 1932 until 1939, and as an assistant professor of choral music at the Mozarteum, an academy of music in Salzburg, Austria, beginning in 1939, where he taught voice and music theory. Biebl was drafted into the military beginning in 1943 during World War II. He was a prisoner of war from 1944 to 1946, being detained at Fort Custer in Battle Creek, Michigan. After the war, he moved from Austria to Fürstenfeldbruck, Germany, where he served as director of the town chorus. Ave Maria Biebl's best-known work is his Ave Maria, which sets portions of the Angelus as well as the Ave Maria. The piece was composed sometime before 1 May 1959.[1]:14 The orig ...more...

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Hail Mary

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Hail Mary

The Annunciation, by Fra Angelico The Hail Mary, also commonly called the Ave Maria (Latin) or Angelic Salutation, is a traditional Catholic prayer asking for the intercession of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus. In Roman Catholicism, the prayer forms the basis of the Rosary and the Angelus prayers. In the Oriental Orthodox Churches, Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches, a similar prayer is used in formal liturgies, both in Greek and in translations. It is also used by many other groups within the catholic tradition of Christianity including Anglicans, Independent Catholics, and Old Catholics. Some Protestant denominations, such as Lutherans, also make use of a form of the prayer. Based on the greeting of the archangel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary in the Gospel of Luke, the prayer takes different forms in various traditions. It has often been set to music. Biblical source The prayer incorporates two passages from Saint Luke's Gospel: "Hail, the Lord is with thee."[1] and "Blessed art ...more...

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Ave Maria (disambiguation)

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Ave Maria (disambiguation)

Look up Ave Maria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Ave Maria is Latin for Hail Mary, a traditional Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox prayer calling for the intercession of Mary, the mother of Jesus. It can also refer to: Places Ave Maria, Florida, a new university town near Naples, Florida, in Collier County Ave Maria Grotto, Cullman, Alabama, landscaped park Ave Maria Lane, a street near St Paul's Cathedral in London Art, entertainment, and mediaFilms Ave Maria (1936 film), a 1936 German and Italian film starring tenor Beniamino Gigli and Käthe von Nagy Ave Maria (1953 film), a West German drama film starring Zarah Leander Ave Maria (1984 film), a 1984 French drama film Avé Maria (2006), a Portuguese TV movie starring Beatriz Batarda Ave Maria (2015 film), a movie nominated for an Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Film at the 88th Academy Awards MusicAlbums Ave Maria – En Plein Air, an album by Finnish singer Tarja Turunen Compositions "Ave Maria" (Bach/Gounod) (1859 ...more...



List of German composers

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List of German composers

Bach Beethoven Brahms Handel Hildegard von Bingen Mendelssohn Schumann Schütz Stockhausen Richard Strauss Wagner Weill This is an alphabetical list of composers from Germany. A Ludwig Abeille (1761–1838) Carl Friedrich Abel (1723–1787) Clamor Heinrich Abel (1634–1696) Ludwig Abel (1835–1895) Otto Abel (1905–1977) Walter Abendroth (1896–1973) Franz Abt (1819–1885) Anton Cajetan Adlgasser (1729–1777) Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund Adorno (1903–1969) Johan Agrell (1701–1765) Johann Friedrich Agricola (1720–1774) Martin Agricola (1486–1556) Carl Christian Agthe (1762–1797) Johann Georg Ahle (1651–1706) Johann Gottfried Arnold (1773–1806) Johann Rudolph Ahle (1625–1673) Eugen d'Albert (1864–1932) Heinrich Albert (1604–1651) Giovanni Henrico Albicastro (c. 1660–1730), born Johann Heinrich von Weissenburg Christoph Albrecht (born 1930) Leni Alexander (1924–2005) Johann Peter Cornelius d'Alquen (1 ...more...

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Cryptotope

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Cryptotope

A cryptotope is an antigenic site or epitope hidden in a protein or virion by surface subunits. Cryptotopes are antigenically active only after the dissociation of protein aggregates and virions[1] Some infectious pathogens are known to escape immunological targeting by B-cells by masking antigen-binding sites as cryptotopes.[2] A cryptotope can also be referred to as a cryptic epitope. Cryptotopes are becoming important for HIV vaccine research as a number of studies have shown that cryptic epitopes can be revealed or exposed when HIV gp120 binds to CD4.[3] References Regenmortel, Marc (2008). "Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of Viral Proteins" (PDF). Elsevier. Reider, Franz; Biebl, Julia; et al. (22 July 2016). "Microbial Cryptotopes are Prominent Targets of B-cell Immunity". Scientific Reports. 6. doi:10.1038/srep31657. Retrieved 11 September 2017. Thali, Marcus (July 1993). "Characterization of Conserved Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 gpl20 Neutralization Epitopes Exposed upon gpl20-CD4 Bin ...more...

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St. Martin, Idstein

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St. Martin, Idstein

St. Martin is the name of a Catholic parish and church in Idstein, Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis, Germany. The official name of the church is Katholische Pfarrkirche St. Martin. The name of the parish became on 1 January 2017 St. Martin Idsteiner Land, when it was merged with five other parishes. The parish is part of the Diocese of Limburg. St. Martin is the patron saint of Idstein, to whom a Gothic church was dedicated in 1330. The present building designed by architect Johannes Krahn was consecrated in 1965. It replaced a church built in 1888 in Gothic revival style and dedicated to Mary Magdalene which was too small for the congregation growing after World War II. After restoration in 2003, a new organ was installed in 2006. Church music in services and concerts, performed by several groups including children's choir and ensembles on historic instruments, have received attention in the Rhein-Main Region. The parish is in long-term ecumenical contact with the main Protestant church of the town, Unionskirche, whi ...more...

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September 1

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September 1

September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 121 days remaining until the end of the year. Events 1355 – King Tvrtko I of Bosnia writes In castro nostro Vizoka vocatum from the Old town of Visoki. 1449 – Tumu Crisis: Mongols capture the Emperor of China. 1529 – The Spanish fort of Sancti Spiritu, the first one built in modern Argentina, is destroyed by natives. 1532 – Lady Anne Boleyn is made Marquess of Pembroke by her fiancé, King Henry VIII of England. 1604 – Adi Granth, now known as Guru Granth Sahib, the holy scripture of Sikhs, was first installed at Harmandir Sahib. 1644 – Battle of Tippermuir: James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose defeats the Earl of Wemyss's Covenanters, reviving the Royalist cause. 1715 – King Louis XIV of France dies after a reign of 72 years, which is the longest of any major European monarch. 1763 – Catherine II of Russia endorses Ivan Betskoy's plans for a Foundling Home in Moscow 1772 – The Mission San ...more...

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The University of the Philippines Manila Chorale

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The University of the Philippines Manila Chorale

The UP Manila Chorale is the multi-awarded official performing group for choral music of the University of the Philippines Manila. Established in July 1992 by a few BA Behavioral Sciences students, the group aims to embody and represent the University locally and internationally through the art of choral music, serving as ambassadors of cultural goodwill by being the “voice of UP Manila to the world”. Presently, the group is led by their musical director, Emmanuel "Eman" P. de Leon Jr. Through the years, the group has been performing a wide repertoire: sacred, secular, spiritual, folk, jazz, pop and our very own Filipino music. The UPMC has been able to mold its members coming from non-musical disciplines into well-rounded and versatile singers. In the recent years the UPMC has performed major works and various compositions by Franz Biebl, Morten Lauridsen, Moses Hogan, Z. Randall Stroope, C. V. Stanford, Edward Elgar, Karol Szymanowski, and many more. As an advocate of Filipino choral music, the UPMC has in ...more...

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October 2

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October 2

October 2 is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 90 days remaining until the end of the year. Events 829 – Theophilos succeeds his father Michael II as Byzantine Emperor. 939 – Battle of Andernach: King Otto I crushes a rebellion against his rule, by a coalition of Eberhard of Franconia and other Frankish dukes. 1187 – Siege of Jerusalem: Saladin captures Jerusalem after 88 years of Crusader rule. 1263 – The Battle of Largs is fought between Norwegians and Scots. 1470 – Richard Neville's rebellion forces King Edward IV of England to flee to the Netherlands, restoring Henry VI to the throne. 1528 – William Tyndale, the renowned English Reformer and Bible translator published his famous work The Obedience of a Christian Man. 1535 – Jacques Cartier discovers the area where Montreal is now located. 1552 – Conquest of Kazan by Ivan the Terrible. 1780 – John André, British Army officer of the American Revolutionary War, is hanged as a spy by Americ ...more...

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Phantom Regiment Drum and Bugle Corps

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Phantom Regiment Drum and Bugle Corps

The Phantom Regiment Drum and Bugle Corps (commonly referred to as "Phantom") is a World Class competitive junior drum and bugle corps based in Rockford, Illinois, USA. The corps is a long-standing member of Drum Corps International (DCI), having been a DCI World Championship Top Twelve Finalist every year since 1974 and DCI World Champions in 1996 and 2008.[1] History Sources:[2][3][4][5] The corps was founded in 1956 by members of the Col. Thomas G. Lawler VFW Post 342 who wanted a local competitive drum corps. Under the direction of Alex Haddad, the corps was provisionally named the Rockford Rangers with all-boy drums and bugles sections and an all-girl color guard to be named the Rangerettes. However, when many of the charter members were impressed by the recording of the Syracuse Brigadiers performing the Leroy Anderson composition The Phantom Regiment, the corps' name was changed before the unit made its debut, with the color guard renamed the Phantomettes. In the corps' early years, the Phantomettes ...more...

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Golden Angel

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Golden Angel

The Golden Angel (Czech: Zlatý Anděl) is an administrative complex situated in Prague. The designer was French architect Jean Nouvel.[1] The structure is located in the immediate vicinity of The Angel Crossroad (Křižovatka Anděl) which was named after The Golden Angel's Pharmacy (Lékárna U Zlatého Anděla). The pharmacy as well as its symbol - gilded statue of an angel - was demolished in 1980 to make a room for new subway station. Origin Nouvel started The Golden Angel project in 1994. The construction was launched five years later and the complex was completed in November 2000.[1] The exclusive investor of the building is the ING Real Estate company. Exterior Detail The Golden Angel is curve-shaped and edges are rounded. Technology of the layered facade allows to vary the building appearance during the daytime. Glassed facades bear passages from the writings of notable authors who had been creating in Prague: Jiří Orten, Konstantin Biebl, Franz Kafka, Guillaume Apollinaire, Rainer Maria Rilke and Gu ...more...

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Vancouver Cantata Singers

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Vancouver Cantata Singers

The Vancouver Cantata Singers (VCS) is a semi-professional Canadian choir in Vancouver, British Columbia, founded in 1959 by organist and conductor Hugh McLean. VCS began as a non-auditioned community chorus. Positive reviews from music critics and successful appearances on CBC Radio, eventually inspired the chorus to become an auditioned semi-professional ensemble in the early 1970s when James Fankhauser began to lead the group, winning the Healey Willan Grand Prize[1] in 1984 and a Juno Award nomination for Best Classical Album (Vocal or Choral Performance) in 1994. From 2002 to 2012 the choir was headed by conductor Eric Hannan, who has led the group to win the Healey Willan Grand Prize both in 2008 and 2011. In 2013, long-time VCS member Paula Kremer became artistic director.[2] In 2009, Vancouver Cantata Singers and the International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries[3] began a collaboration and annually organize a fundraiser together ("Spinal Chord"[4]) which benefits spinal cord research and the ar ...more...

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1906

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1906

Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1906. 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1906th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 906th year of the 2nd millennium, the 6th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1906, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. EventsJanuary–February January 12 – Persian Constitutional Revolution: A nationalistic coalition of merchants, religious leaders and intellectuals in Persia forces the shah to grant a constitution, and establish a national assembly, the Majlis. January 16–April 7 – The Algeciras Conference convenes, to resolve the First Moroccan Crisis between France and Germany. January 22 – The SS Valencia strikes a reef off Vancouver Island, Canada, killing over 100 (officially 136) in the ensuing disaster. January 31 – T ...more...

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Cornell University Glee Club

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Cornell University Glee Club

The Cornell University Glee Club (CUGC) is the oldest student organization at Cornell University, having been organized shortly after the first students arrived on campus in 1868. The CUGC is a fifty-five member chorus for male voices, with repertoire including classical, folk, 20th-century music, and traditional Cornell songs. The Glee Club also performs major works with the Cornell University Chorus such as Beethoven's Missa Solemnis, Handel's Messiah, and Bach's Mass in B Minor. Achievements Performances at two American Choral Directors Association (ACDA) conventions as an auditioned choir: the 2008 ACDA Eastern Division Convention in Hartford, CT, and the 2009 ACDA National Convention in Oklahoma City, OK. First American collegiate ensemble to tour the Soviet Union, traveled to the Soviet Union and England from December 1960 to January 1961.[1]:126 Performed for national television and radio on such networks as Television Moscow, BBC, Educational Television Network, Radio Leningrad, Frankfurt Radio N ...more...

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Boscorale

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Boscorale

Boscorale is one of the all-male High School choirs in the Philippines. It is the resident choir of Don Bosco Technical Institute, Makati. Under the current supervision of Mr. Alvin B. Paulin, a Subject area head of MAPEH at Don Bosco Makati and an active member of the Philippine Normal University(PNU) Chorale. From then on, the group started to make a name in the chorale scene. Over the years and months, Boscorale has entered a diversity of competitions and Has entered international competitions, thus considering Boscorale as one of the best choirs in the metro since joining and winning various prestige competitions since their debut in 2005. Etymology and history The word "Boscorale" simply rooted from the words, "Bosco" (St. John Bosco) and "chorale," merged to form the word Boscorale, meaning a choir of St. John Bosco. This was coined by William Gajelonia, Jr., the Music Club President in 2005. The Boscorale was first founded in 2005 under the supervision of Mr. Herman Coloma. It was composed of differe ...more...

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List of 20th-century classical composers

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List of 20th-century classical composers

This is a list of composers of 20th-century classical music, sortable by name, year of birth, year of death, nationality, notable works, and remarks. It includes only composers of significant fame and importance. The style of the composer's music is given where possible, bearing in mind that some defy simple classification. Names are listed first by year of birth, then in alphabetical order within each year. Name Year of birth Year of death Nationality Notable 20th-century works Remarks Dancla, CharlesCharles Dancla 1817 1907 French Solo de concours no. 7, Op. 224 Romanticism Arditi, LuigiLuigi Arditi 1822 1903 Italian Kirchner, TheodorTheodor Kirchner 1823 1903 German Reinecke, CarlCarl Reinecke 1824 1910 German Trio for piano, clarinet and horn in B♭, Op. 274; String Quartet No. 5, Op. 287 Romanticism Hol, RichardRichard Hol 1825 1904 Dutch Organ music Romanticism Minkus, LudwigLudwig Minkus 1826 1917 Austrian Eskesen, MortenMorten Eskesen 1826 1913 Danish Gevaert ...more...

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Pacific Crest Drum and Bugle Corps

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Pacific Crest Drum and Bugle Corps

The Pacific Crest Drum and Bugle Corps is a World Class competitive junior drum and bugle corps. Based in Diamond Bar, California, Pacific Crest is a member corps of Drum Corps International (DCI).[1]. History Pacific Crest was founded in 1993 to serve the youth in the eastern part of Los Angeles County. Marching only 33 members in its inaugural season, the corps grew in size and ability while maintaining a local California profile. The corps did not perform outside its home state until travelling to Texas for two shows in 2000. The corps journeyed to the Northwest in 2002, and it finally entered the national competition scene by attending its first DCI Championships at Orlando, Florida in 2003, where many drum corps fans unfamiliar with Pacific Crest were surprised as the corps reached the semifinal round. Although it now tours nationally each season, the corps has maintained a policy of spending approximately the first half of the season near home. While this has possibly prevented Pacific Crest from ascen ...more...

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Francis Xavier (name)

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Francis Xavier (name)

This is a list of persons named after Saint Francis Xavier. The list includes cognates of the name Francis Xavier in other languages, including: Francesc Xavier – Catalan Francesco Saverio – Italian Francisco Javier – Spanish Francisco Xavier – Portuguese Franciszek Ksawery – Polish François Xavier – French František Xaver – Czech Franz Xaver – German Persons A. F. X. Baron (Anthony Francis Xavier Baron) (1913–1974), British far-right political figure of the 1940–1950s Antoine Labelle (François-Xavier-Antoine Labelle) (1833–1891), Roman Catholic priest; principally responsible for the settlement (or "colonization") of the Laurentians Antonio Francisco Xavier Alvares (1836–1923), Portuguese Roman Catholic priest in Goa and British India Antonio Soler (Antonio Francisco Javier José Soler Ramos), (1729–1783), Spanish composer of the late Baroque and early Classical periods Auguste Comte (Isidore Auguste Marie François Xavier Comte) (1798–1857), French philosopher; founder of the disc ...more...



Erwin Schrödinger Prize

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Erwin Schrödinger Prize

The Erwin Schrödinger Prize (German: Erwin Schrödinger-Preis) is an annual award presented by the Austrian Academy of Sciences for lifetime achievement by Austrians in the fields of mathematics and natural sciences.[1] The prize was established in 1958, and was first awarded to its namesake, Erwin Schrödinger.[2] Prize criteria and endowment The prize is awarded at the discretion of the Austrian Academy of Sciences to scholars resident in Austria for excellence and achievements in the mathematical and scientific disciplines in the broadest sense. The prize is not awarded to full members of the Academy. The award ceremony is held annually in October. The prize includes an annual stipend currently of € 15 000, paid monthly.[1] Prize winners 1956 Erwin Schrödinger 1958 Felix Machatschki 1960 Erich Schmid 1962 Marietta Blau 1963 Ludwig Flamm and Karl Przibram 1964 Otto Kratky 1965 Fritz Wessely 1966 Georg Stetter 1967 Berta Karlik and Gustav Ortner 1968 Hans Nowotny 1969 Walter Thirring ...more...

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List of composers by name

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List of composers by name

This is a list of composers by name, alphabetically sorted by surname, then by other names. The list of composers is by no means complete. It is not limited by classifications such as genre or time period; however, it includes only music composers of significant fame, notability or importance who also have current Wikipedia articles. For lists of music composers by other classifications, see lists of composers. This list is not for arrangers or lyricists (see list of music arrangers and lyricists), unless they are also composers. Likewise, songwriters are listed separately, for example in a list of singer-songwriters and list of Songwriters Hall of Fame inductees. A Mary Anne à Beckett (1817–1863) Michel van der Aa (born 1970) Thorvald Aagaard (1877–1937) Truid Aagesen (fl. 1593–1625) Heikki Aaltoila (1905–1992) Juhan Aavik (1884–1982) Evaristo Felice Dall'Abaco (1675–1742) Joseph Abaco (dall'Abaco) (1710–1805) Antonio Maria Abbatini (c. 1595–1680) Gamal Abdel-Rahim (1924–1988) Moha ...more...

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United Team of Germany at the 1960 Winter Olympics

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United Team of Germany at the 1960 Winter Olympics

Athletes from East Germany (German Democratic Republic; GDR) and West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany; FRG) competed together as the United Team of Germany at the 1960 Winter Olympics in Squaw Valley, United States. Medalists Medal Name Sport Event  Gold Biebl, HeidiHeidi Biebl Alpine skiing Women's downhill  Gold Thoma, GeorgGeorg Thoma Nordic combined Men's individual  Gold Recknagel, HelmutHelmut Recknagel Ski jumping Men's normal hill  Gold Haase, HelgaHelga Haase Speed skating Women's 500m  Silver Lanig, Hans PeterHans Peter Lanig Alpine skiing Men's downhill  Silver Kilius, MarikaMarika KiliusBäumler, Hans-JürgenHans-Jürgen Bäumler Figure skating Pairs  Silver Haase, HelgaHelga Haase Speed skating Women's 1000m  Bronze Henneberger, BarbiBarbi Henneberger Alpine skiing Women's slalom Alpine skiing Men Athlete Event Race 1 Race 2 Total Time Rank Time Rank Time Rank Eberhard Riedel Downhill 2:13.3 16 Luggi Leitner 2:10.2 11 Willy Bogner 2:09.7 9 Ha ...more...

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Veronika Fischer

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Veronika Fischer

Veronika Fischer (born 28 July 1951 in Wölfis, also called Vroni) is a German singer. Life Fischer was born in the Thuringian municipality of Wölfis (near Gotha). She began a study at the Hochschule für Musik Carl Maria von Weber in 1968. She also appeared with various bands such as the Fred-Herfter-Combo and 1970 with the Stern-Combo Meißen. In 1973 her first LP was released with the group Panta Rhei, which was jazz-oriented, among others Herbert Dreilich, Ed Swillms and Henning Protzmann, who later founded the group Karat. The titles Nachts and Blues were successful in hit parades like the Beatkiste. Fischer graduated in music studies with the Staatsexamen as a soloist for chanson and musical. One year later she founded the group Veronika Fischer & Band. In this volume Franz Bartzsch (piano, keyboard, singing) was responsible for most compositions and arrangements. On the LP Veronika Fischer & Band the guitarist and singer Johannes Biebl also contributed. In 1974 the blues appeared from the last ...more...

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Jiří Kroha

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Jiří Kroha

Vestibule of Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry of Palacký University in Olomouc, Czech Republic, designed by Jiří Kroha and Václav Roštlapil, 1950–52. Jiří Kroha (5 June 1893, Prague – 7 June 1974, Prague) was a Czech architect, painter, sculptor, scenographer, designer and pedagogue. He was an important exponent of Czech architecture and design during inter-war period.[1] Biography Kroha began his studies in Prague, but in 1904 his family moved to Plzeň. From 1907 to 1909 he gained his first experience with theatre, as a member of amateur cabaret group.[2] In 1911, he graduated from realschule in Plzeň. The same year he began to study at the Czech Technical University in Prague. Among his professors were Jan Koula, Josef Fanta, Antonín Balšánek and Rudolf Kříženecký. In 1918 he successfully finished his studies at the Czech Technical University. At the same time he made first contacts with bohemian group of the cabaret Montmartre from Řetězová Street in Prague. Among regular guests of the performances wer ...more...

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1893 births

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List of Czech writers

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List of Czech writers

Below is an alphabetical list of Czech writers. A Daniel Adam z Veleslavína (1546–1599), lexicographer, publisher, translator, and writer Michal Ajvaz (born 1949), novelist and poet, magic realist Karel Slavoj Amerling, also known as Karl Slavomil Amerling or Slavoj Strnad Klatovský (1807–1884), teacher, writer, and philosopher Hana Andronikova (born 1967), writer Jakub Arbes (1840–1914), writer and journalist, realist Ludvík Aškenazy (1921–1986), writer and journalist Josef Augusta (1903–1968), paleontologist, geologist, and science popularizer B Jindřich Šimon Baar (1869–1925), Catholic priest and writer, realist, author of the so-called country prose Bohuslav Balbín (1621–1688), writer and Jesuit Josef Barák (1833–1883), politician, journalist, and poet, member of the Májovci literary group Eduard Bass (1888–1946), writer, journalist, singer, and actor Jan František Beckovský (1658–1725), writer, historian, translator, and priest Kamil Bednář (1912–1972), poet, writer and t ...more...

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Lists of writers by nationality

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Eduard Petiška

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Eduard Petiška

Eduard Petiška (14 May 1924 – 6 June 1987) was a Czech poet, translator, playwright and novelist, the author of many books for children and young people, and a translator and theorist of children's literature. He wrote over ninety books, which were translated to dozens of languages.[1] Family Petiška as a child Petiška was born in Prague on 14 May 1924 into a family with a rich cultural heritage. His father, František Petiška, was a passionate reader. From early childhood he spoke two languages – Czech and German – and this later enabled him to work as a translator during the years in which he was prohibited from publishing. He shared his love of books with his classmate Jaroslav Hašek, who sat next to him. Hašek later used Petiška's name in his own writings. He worked at an insurance company with Franz Kafka, and was among the first audience for Kafka's writings. The poet's mother, born Adeline Windant, gave up her career of an opera singer. She tried writing both prose and poetry. Petiška's artistic ...more...

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Vinetastraße (Berlin U-Bahn)

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Vinetastraße (Berlin U-Bahn)

Platform, Vinetastraße U-Bahn station Vinetastraße is a Berlin U-Bahn station in the Pankow district, located on the U 2. It was opened in 1930, and for decades was the northern terminus of the U2, until the line was extended to the Pankow S-Bahn station in 2000. Etymology This station is named after the legendary town of Vineta on the Baltic Sea. History In 1913, the Hochbahngesellschaft, the private operating company of the Berlin Hoch- und Untergrundbahn, extended the section of the so-called "Centrum Line" from the Spittelmarkt on 1 July 1913 to Alexanderplatz and shortly thereafter to the Nordring station, today Schönhauser Allee , Although there was a connection to the tram in the direction of Pankow at Nordring station, the town of Pankow was not satisfied with it. Already in 1905, shortly after the opening of the elevated and underground railway, between Warsaw Bridge, Potsdamer Platz and Zoologischer Garten, it demanded a route to the center of Pankow. Nordring station itself was constructed ab ...more...

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United Team of Germany at the 1964 Winter Olympics

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United Team of Germany at the 1964 Winter Olympics

Athletes from East Germany (German Democratic Republic; GDR) and West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany; FRG) competed together as the United Team of Germany at the 1964 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck, Austria. Medalists Medal Name Sport Event  Gold Schnelldorfer, ManfredManfred Schnelldorfer Figure skating Men's singles  Gold Köhler, ThomasThomas Köhler Luge Men's singles  Gold Enderlein, OrtrunOrtrun Enderlein Luge Women's singles  Silver Kilius, MarikaMarika KiliusBäumler, Hans JürgenHans Jürgen Bäumler Figure skating Pairs  Silver Bonsack, Klaus-MichaelKlaus-Michael Bonsack Luge Men's singles  Silver Geisler, IlseIlse Geisler Luge Women's singles  Bronze Bartels, WolfgangWolfgang Bartels Alpine skiing Men's downhill  Bronze Plenk, HansHans Plenk Luge Men's singles  Bronze Thoma, GeorgGeorg Thoma Nordic combined Men's individual Alpine skiing Men Athlete Event Race Time Rank Fritz Wagnerberger Downhill 2:21.03 12 Willy Bogner 2:20.72 9 Luggi Leitner 2:1 ...more...

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List of alpine skiing world champions

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List of alpine skiing world champions

The FIS Alpine World Ski Championships are organized by the International Ski Federation (FIS). History The first world championships in alpine skiing were held in 1931. During the 1930s, the event was held annually in Europe, until interrupted by the outbreak of World War II, preventing a 1940 event. An event was held in 1941, but included competitors only from nations from the Axis powers or nations not at war with them. The results were later cancelled by the FIS in 1946 because of the limited number of participants, so they are not considered official.[1] Following the war, the championships were connected with the Olympics for several decades. From 1948 through 1982, the competition was held in even-numbered years, with the Winter Olympics acting as the World Championships through 1980, and a separate competition held in even-numbered non-Olympic years. The 1950 championships in the United States at Aspen were the first held outside of Europe and the first official championships separate of the Olympic ...more...

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Speed skating at the 1960 Winter Olympics – Men's 5000 metres

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Speed skating at the 1960 Winter Olympics – Men's 5000 metres

The 5000 metres speed skating event was part of the speed skating at the 1960 Winter Olympics programme. The competition was held on the Squaw Valley Olympic Skating Rink and for the first time at the Olympics on artificially frozen ice. It was held on Thursday, February 25, 1960. Thirty-seven speed skaters from 15 nations competed. Medalists Gold Silver Bronze  Viktor Kosichkin (URS)  Knut Johannesen (NOR)  Jan Pesman (NED) Records These were the standing world and Olympic records (in minutes) prior to the 1960 Winter Olympics. World Record 7:45.6(*) Boris Shilkov Medeo (URS) January 9, 1955 Olympic Record 7:48.7(*) Boris Shilkov Cortina d'Ampezzo/Lake Misurina (ITA) January 29, 1956 (*) The record was set in a high altitude venue (more than 1000 metres above sea level) and on naturally frozen ice. Results Place Speed skater Time 1  Viktor Kosichkin (URS) 7:51.3 2  Knut Johannesen (NOR) 8:00.8 3  Jan Pesman (NED) 8:05.1 4  Torstein Seiersten (NOR) 8:05.3 5 ...more...

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List of Olympic medalists in alpine skiing

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List of Olympic medalists in alpine skiing

Alpine skiing is an Olympic sport, contested at the Winter Olympic Games. The first Winter Olympics, held in 1924, included nordic skiing, but the first alpine skiing events were not held until 1936 in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany.[1] A combined event was held for both men and women in 1936. The International Ski Federation (FIS) decided that ski instructors could not compete in 1936 because they were professionals, and the Olympics were meant for amateur athletes. Because of this, Austrian and Swiss skiers boycotted the events, although some Austrians decided to compete for Germany.[2] Summary Due to World War II, no games were held in 1940 or 1944. Two new alpine events were added in 1948: downhill and slalom. Combined events were also held in 1948, but were dropped after that and not contested again at the Olympics until 1988.[3] The giant slalom debuted at the Olympics in 1952 and the Olympic program was three events for both men and women through 1984. Since 1988, events for both men and women have ...more...

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Czech literature

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Czech literature

The Strahov Library Czech literature is the literature written in the Czech language. The earliest literary works written in Czech date to the 14th century. Modern literature may be divided into the periods of national awakening in the 19th century; the avantgarde of the interwar period; the years under Communism and the Prague Spring; and the literature of the post-Communist Czech Republic. In another meaning of the term,, "Czech literature" may refer to "literature written by Czechs" regardless of language, including works in Old Church Slavonic, Middle Latin or German. Middle Latin works A writer and historian Cosmas Bohemia was Christianized in the late 9th to 10th centuries, and the earliest written works associated with the kingdom of Bohemia are Middle Latin works written in the 12th to 13th centuries (with the exception of the Latin Legend of Christian, supposedly of the 10th century but of dubious authenticity). The majority of works from this period are chronicles and hagiographies. Bohe ...more...

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1982 Star World Championships

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1982 Star World Championships

The 1982 Star World Championships were held in Medemblik, Netherlands in 1982. Results Results of individual races Pos Crew Country I II III IV V VI Pts Gorostegui, Antonio Antonio Gorostegui (H)José Doreste  Spain 12 1 13 3 1 3 29.4 Hagen, Alexander Alexander Hagen (H)Vincent Hoesch  West Germany 1 4 7 18 YMP 9 45 Buchan, Jr., Bill Bill Buchan, Jr. (H)Steve Erickson  United States 3 13 PMS 7 3 7 56.4 4 Wrede, Jens-Peter Jens-Peter Wrede (H)Matthias Borowy  West Germany 4 6 4 28 11 11 61.7 5 Menkart, Andrew Andrew Menkart (H)Steve Calder  United States 5 14 14 5 9 4 63 6 Douze, Kees Kees Douze (H)Willem Nagel  Netherlands 16 2 2 14 37 14 68 7 Griese, Joachim Joachim Griese (H)Jurgen Homeyer  West Germany 14 17 9 8 2 12 70 8 Christensen, Jens Jens Christensen (H)Morten Nielsen  Denmark 2 15 18 8 18 5 72 9 Wright, Peter Peter Wright (H)Todd Cozzens  United States 13 7 3 13 19 - 81.7 10 Bate, Colin Colin Bate (H)Phil Baker  Australia 20 12 36 2 4 ...more...

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Rosenheim–Salzburg railway

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Rosenheim–Salzburg railway

The Rosenheim–Salzburg railway is a continuous double track and electrified main line railway almost entirely within the German state of Bavaria. It is an international transport corridor, linking Rosenheim to Salzburg in Austria. HistoryPlanning, treaty and Munich-Rosenheim-Salzburg Railway Society The first plan for a railway line between Rosenheim and Salzburg was in Friedrich List’s proposal in September 1828, which laid out as the main lines of the Bavarian network, a line from Bamberg via Nuremberg, Augsburg and Memmingen to Lindau, another from Kitzingen via Nuremberg and Augsburg to Munich and a third from Günzburg via Augsburg and Munich towards Austria. Simon Freiherr von Eichthal, a banker to the King of Bavaria, also called for a railway from Munich to Salzburg in 1835. On 5 January 1836, von Eichthal began a preliminary investigation of the building of the line. A messenger of the Bavarian government reported to the Austrian government on 7 April 1836 on the planned construction of the line. In ...more...

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Germany at the Winter Olympics

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Germany at the Winter Olympics

Athletes from Germany (GER) have appeared in only 20 of the 22 editions of the Winter Olympic Games as they were not invited to two events after the World Wars, in 1924 and 1948. Germany hosted the 1936 Winter Olympics in Garmisch-Partenkirchen and had been selected to host in 1940 again. The nation appeared 11 times as a single country (IOC code GER), before World War II and again after German reunification in 1990. Three times, from 1956 to 1964, German athletes from the separate states in West and East competed as a United Team of Germany, which is currently listed by the IOC as EUA, not GER. Due to partition under occupation that resulted in three post-war German states, German athletes took part seven times for the contemporary states they lived in, in 1952, and from 1968 to 1988. The all-time results of German athletes are thus divided among the designations GER, EUA, FRG, GDR and also SAA (the Saarland only took part in the 1952 Summer games and won no medal). Including the Winter Games of 2014, Ger ...more...

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