Flow to HDL

Flow to HDL tools and methods convert flow-based system design into a hardware description language (HDL) such as VHDL or Verilog. Typically this is a method of creating designs for field-programmable gate array, application-specific integrated circuit prototyping and digital signal processing (DSP) design. Flow-based system design is well-suited to field-programmable gate array design as it is easier to specify the innate parallelism of the architecture.

History

The use of flow-based design tools in engineering is a reasonably new trend. Unified Modeling Language is the most widely used example for software design. The use of flow-based design tools allows for more holistic system design and faster development. C to HDL tools and flow have a similar aim, but with C or C-like programming languages.

Applications

Most applications are ones which take too long with existing supercomputer architectures. These include bioinfomatics, CFD, financial processing and oil and gas survey data analysis. Embedded applications that require high performance or real-time data processing are also an area of use. System-on-a-chip design can also be done using this flow.

Examples
  • Xilinx System Generator from Xilinx
  • StarBridge VIVA from defunct
  • Nimbus from defunct Exsedia
External links
  • [1] an overview of flows by Daresbury Labs.
  • [2] Xilinx's ESL initiative, some products listed and C to VHDL tools.
See also
Continue Reading...
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Flow to HDL

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Flow to HDL

Flow to HDL tools and methods convert flow-based system design into a hardware description language (HDL) such as VHDL or Verilog. Typically this is a method of creating designs for field-programmable gate array, application-specific integrated circuit prototyping and digital signal processing (DSP) design. Flow-based system design is well-suited to field-programmable gate array design as it is easier to specify the innate parallelism of the architecture. History The use of flow-based design tools in engineering is a reasonably new trend. Unified Modeling Language is the most widely used example for software design. The use of flow-based design tools allows for more holistic system design and faster development. C to HDL tools and flow have a similar aim, but with C or C-like programming languages. Applications Most applications are ones which take too long with existing supercomputer architectures. These include bioinfomatics, CFD, financial processing and oil and gas survey data analysis. Embedded appli ...more...

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Hardware description languages

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Hardware description language

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Hardware description language

In computer engineering, a hardware description language (HDL) is a specialized computer language used to describe the structure and behavior of electronic circuits, and most commonly, digital logic circuits. A hardware description language enables a precise, formal description of an electronic circuit that allows for the automated analysis and simulation of an electronic circuit. It also allows for the synthesis of a HDL description into a netlist (a specification of physical electronic components and how they are connected together), which can then be placed and routed to produce the set of masks used to create an integrated circuit. A hardware description language looks much like a programming language such as C; it is a textual description consisting of expressions, statements and control structures. One important difference between most programming languages and HDLs is that HDLs explicitly include the notion of time. HDLs form an integral part of electronic design automation (EDA) systems, especially ...more...

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Hardware Description Language

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C to HDL

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C to HDL

C to HDL tools convert C or C-like computer program code into a hardware description language (HDL) such as VHDL or Verilog. The converted code can then be synthesized and translated into a hardware device such as a field-programmable gate array. The motivation for this is that writing in a hardware description language can be tedious and time-consuming. C to RTL is another name for this methodology. RTL refers to the register transfer level representation of a program necessary to implement it in logic. History Early development on C to HDL was done by Ian Page, Charles Sweeney and colleagues at Oxford University in the 1990s who developed the Handel-C language. They commercialized their research by forming Embedded Solutions Limited (ESL) in 1999 which was renamed Celoxica in September 2000. In 2008, the embedded systems departments of Celoxica was sold to Catalytic for $3 million and which later merged to become Agility Computing. In January 2009, Mentor Graphics acquired Agility's C synthesis assets.[1 ...more...

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Flow

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Flow

Look up flow in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Flow may refer to: Science Flow (fluid) or fluid dynamics, the motion of a gas or liquid Flow (geomorphology), a type of slope movement in geomorphology Flow (mathematics), a variable that depends on time Flow (psychology), a psychological state where a person is fully immersed and focused on an activity or task Flow (television), the sequencing of TV material from one element to the next Flow: For Love of Water, a documentary Flow, a 1996 film by Quentin Lee#Flow Music Flow (rapping), the delivery of a rap music vocal performance Flow (American band), an American new age band Flow (Japanese band), a Japanese rock group Flow (rapper) (born 1991), American rapper Flow (Terence Blanchard album) Flow (Conception album) Flow (Foetus album) The Flow, a 1997 album by Chris Leslie "Flow", a song by Cage the Elephant from Thank You, Happy Birthday "Flow", a song by Sade from Lovers Rock "Flow", a song by Transister Computin ...more...



List of HDL simulators

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List of HDL simulators

HDL simulators are software packages that compile and simulate expressions written in one of the hardware description languages. History HDL simulation software has come a long way since its early origin as a single proprietary product offered by one company. Today, simulators are available from many vendors at various prices, including free ones. For desktop/personal use, Aldec, Mentor, LogicSim, SynaptiCAD,TarangEDA and others offer tool-suites under US$5000 for the Windows 2000/XP platform. The suites bundle the simulator engine with a complete development environment: text editor, waveform viewer, and RTL-level browser. Additionally, limited-functionality editions of the Aldec and ModelSim simulator are downloadable free of charge, from their respective OEM partners (Microsemi, Altera, Lattice Semiconductor, Xilinx, etc.) For those desiring open-source software, there is Icarus Verilog, GHDL among others. Beyond the desktop level, enterprise-level simulators offer faster simulation runtime, more robust ...more...

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Verilog

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Verilog

Verilog, standardized as IEEE 1364, is a hardware description language (HDL) used to model electronic systems. It is most commonly used in the design and verification of digital circuits at the register-transfer level of abstraction. It is also used in the verification of analog circuits and mixed-signal circuits, as well as in the design of genetic circuits.[1] Overview Hardware description languages such as Verilog are similar to software programming languages because they include ways of describing the propagation time and signal strengths (sensitivity). There are two types of assignment operators; a blocking assignment (=), and a non-blocking (>>. A generate/endgenerate construct (similar to VHDL's generate/endgenerate) allows Verilog-2001 to control instance and statement instantiation through normal decision operators (case/if/else). Using generate/endgenerate, Verilog-2001 can instantiate an array of instances, with control over the connectivity of the individual instances. File I/O has been improved ...more...

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TIMI

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TIMI

The 'Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction', or TIMI Study Group is an Academic Research Organization (ARO) affiliated with Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School. The group has its headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts, and a satellite location in Quincy. The TIMI Study Group was founded by Eugene Braunwald, MD in 1984. Dr. Braunwald held the chairmanship until 2010, when he appointed Marc Sabatine, MD to the position. The group has conducted numerous practice-changing clinical trials in patients with cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Among the group's most important contributions to medicine is the TIMI Risk Score, which assess the risk of death and ischemic events in patients experiencing unstable angina (UA) or a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). TIMI Calculators TIMI Risk Score In patients with UA/NSTEMI, the TIMI risk score is a simple prognostication scheme that categorizes a patient's risk of death and ischemic events and provides a b ...more...

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Atherosclerosis

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Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.[7] Initially, there are generally no symptoms.[1] When severe, it can result in coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, or kidney problems, depending on which arteries are affected.[1] Symptoms, if they occur, generally do not begin until middle age.[3] The exact cause is not known.[1] Risk factors include abnormal cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, obesity, family history, and an unhealthy diet.[3] Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood.[7] The narrowing of arteries limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to parts of the body.[7] Diagnosis is based upon a physical exam, electrocardiogram, and exercise stress test, among others.[8] Prevention is generally by eating a healthy diet, exercising, not smoking, and maintaining a normal weight.[4] Treatment of established disease may include medications to lower cholesterol s ...more...

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M734 fuze

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M734 fuze

M734 fuze cross section Amplifier (top) and oscillator The M734 multi-option fuze[1] is a rangefinder and collision detection system used on 60mm, 81mm, and 120mm mortar shells as a trigger to detonate the shells at the most damaging heights of burst when combating four types of battlefield threats: The rangefinder is a Doppler radar using FMCW [2] technology to emit a radar signal and can be set to trigger two types of air-bursts, one being a near surface burst to combat standing targets and the other being a higher proximity burst downward onto prone or dug-in targets.[3] The collision detection portion of the fuze consists of two mechanical devices, one being a quick response electric inertial switch for a burst upon impact with a target, such as a vehicle, and the other being a slow response mechanical detonator that allows shell penetration, such as through a forest canopy, before detonating.[3] This integration of four functions into a single fuze reduces the logistics and cost to support morta ...more...

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Hypercholesterolemia

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Hypercholesterolemia

Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.[1] It is a form of high blood lipids and hyperlipoproteinemia (elevated levels of lipoproteins in the blood).[1] Elevated levels of non-HDL cholesterol and LDL in the blood may be a consequence of an unhealthy diet, obesity, inherited (genetic) diseases (such as LDL receptor mutations in familial hypercholesterolemia), or the presence of other diseases such as type 2 diabetes and an underactive thyroid.[1] Cholesterol is one of three major classes of lipids which all animal cells use to construct their membranes and is thus manufactured by all animal cells. Plant cells do not manufacture cholesterol. It is also the precursor of the steroid hormones and bile acids. Since cholesterol is insoluble in water, it is transported in the blood plasma within protein particles (lipoproteins). Lipoproteins are classified by their density: very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein ( ...more...

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Blood test

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Blood test

Modern hospital hematology laboratory A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick. Multiple tests for specific blood components, such as a glucose test or a cholesterol test, are often grouped together into one test panel called a blood panel or blood work. Blood tests are often used in health care to determine physiological and biochemical states, such as disease, mineral content, pharmaceutical drug effectiveness, and organ function. Typical clinical blood panels include a basic metabolic panel or a complete blood count. Blood tests are also used in drug tests to detect drug abuse. In some of the United States, a blood test is required before marriage. Extraction A venipuncture performed using a vacutainer Venipuncture is useful as it is a minimally invasive way to obtain cells and extracellular fluid (plasma) from the body for analysis. Blood flows throughout the body, acting as a med ...more...

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Ant mill

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Ant mill

An ant mill is an observed phenomenon in which a group of army ants, which are blind, are separated from the main foraging party, lose the pheromone track and begin to follow one another, forming a continuously rotating circle. The ants will eventually die of exhaustion. It has been reproduced in laboratories and has been produced in ant colony simulations.[1] The phenomenon is a side effect of the self-organizing structure of ant colonies. Each ant follows the ant in front of it, which works until something goes wrong, and an ant mill forms.[2] An ant mill was first described by William Beebe in 1921 who observed a mill 1200 ft (~370 m) in circumference.[3] It took each ant 2.5 hours to make one revolution.[4] Similar phenomena have been noted in processionary caterpillars and fish.[5] See also Information cascade Feedback loop Stigmergy Woozle effect Rat king References Delsuc F (2003). "Army Ants Trapped by Their Evolutionary History". PLoS Biology. 1 (2): e37. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.000003 ...more...

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Register-transfer level

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Register-transfer level

In digital circuit design, register-transfer level (RTL) is a design abstraction which models a synchronous digital circuit in terms of the flow of digital signals (data) between hardware registers, and the logical operations performed on those signals. Register-transfer-level abstraction is used in hardware description languages (HDLs) like Verilog and VHDL to create high-level representations of a circuit, from which lower-level representations and ultimately actual wiring can be derived. Design at the RTL level is typical practice in modern digital design.[1] RTL description Example of a simple circuit with the output toggling at each rising edge of the input. The inverter forms the combinational logic in this circuit, and the register holds the state. A synchronous circuit consists of two kinds of elements: registers (Sequential logic) and combinational logic. Registers (usually implemented as D flip-flops) synchronize the circuit's operation to the edges of the clock signal, and are the only ele ...more...

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Logic synthesis

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Logic synthesis

In electronics, logic synthesis is a process by which an abstract form of desired circuit behavior, typically at register transfer level (RTL), is turned into a design implementation in terms of logic gates, typically by a computer program called a synthesis tool. Common examples of this process include synthesis of HDLs, including VHDL and Verilog.[1] Some synthesis tools generate bitstreams for programmable logic devices such as PALs or FPGAs, while others target the creation of ASICs. Logic synthesis is one aspect of electronic design automation. History of logic synthesis The roots of logic synthesis can be traced to the treatment of logic by George Boole (1815 to 1864), in what is now termed Boolean algebra. In 1938, Claude Shannon showed that the two-valued Boolean algebra can describe the operation of switching circuits. In the early days, logic design involved manipulating the truth table representations as Karnaugh maps. The Karnaugh map-based minimization of logic is guided by a set of rules on ho ...more...

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Physical design (electronics)

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Physical design (electronics)

In integrated circuit design, physical design is a step in the standard design cycle which follows after the circuit design. At this step, circuit representations of the components (devices and interconnects) of the design are converted into geometric representations of shapes which, when manufactured in the corresponding layers of materials, will ensure the required functioning of the components. This geometric representation is called integrated circuit layout. This step is usually split into several sub-steps, which include both design and verification and validation of the layout.[1][2] Modern day Integrated Circuit (IC) design is split up into Front-end design using HDLs, Verification, and Back-end Design or Physical Design. The next step after Physical Design is the Manufacturing process or Fabrication Process that is done in the Wafer Fabrication Houses. Fab-houses fabricate designs onto silicon dies which are then packaged into ICs. Each of the phases mentioned above has design flows associated with ...more...

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Lolita fashion

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Lolita fashion

A lolita in Harajuku The Angelic Pretty Shop in Tokyo Lolita (ロリータ・ファッション rorīta fasshon) is a fashion subculture from Japan that is highly influenced by Victorian and Edwardian children's clothing and styles from the Rococo period.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] A very distinctive property of Lolita fashion is the aesthetic of cuteness.[8] This clothing subcuture can be categorized into three main substyles: 'gothic', 'classic', and 'sweet'[3][9][10][11] Many other substyles such as 'Sailor', 'Country', 'Hime' (princess), 'Ero', 'Guro', 'Oriental', 'Punk', 'Shiro (white)', Kuro (black) and Steampunk Lolita also exist .[12] This style evolved into a widely followed subculture in Japan and other countries in the 1990s and 2000s and may have waned in Japan as of the 2010s as the fashion became more mainstream.[13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] Description The main feature of Lolita fashion is the volume of the skirt,[22] often created by wearing a petticoat or crinoline. The skirt can be either clock-shaped or ...more...

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Aortic aneurysm

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Aortic aneurysm

An aortic aneurysm is an enlargement (dilation) of the aorta to greater than 1.5 times normal size.[1] They usually cause no symptoms except when ruptured.[2] Occasionally, there may be abdominal, back, or leg pain.[3] They are most commonly located in the abdominal aorta, but can also be located in the thoracic aorta. Aortic aneurysms cause weakness in the wall of the aorta and increase the risk of aortic rupture. When rupture occurs, massive internal bleeding results and, unless treated immediately, shock and death can occur. Screening with ultrasound is indicated in those at high risk, prevention is by decreasing risk factors such as smoking, and treatment is either by open or endovascular surgery. Aortic aneurysms resulted in about 152,000 deaths worldwide in 2013, up from 100,000 in 1990.[4] Classification Aortic aneurysms are classified by their location on the aorta. An aortic root aneurysm, or aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva. Thoracic aortic aneurysms are found within the chest; these are f ...more...

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Dalcetrapib

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Dalcetrapib

Dalcetrapib (INN, codenamed JTT-705) is a CETP inhibitor which was being developed by Hoffmann–La Roche until May 2012. The drug was aimed at raising the blood levels of "good cholesterol" (cholesterol carried in HDL particles, aka HDL-C). Prevailing observations indicate that high HDL levels correlate with better overall cardiovascular health, though it remains unclear whether raising HDL levels consequently leads to an increase in cardiovascular health. A 24-week clinical trial showed that dalcetrapib did increase HDL-C levels, supporting the agent's desired effect. Further, the dal-PLAQUE phase IIb trial found evidence of plaque reduction. Plaque reduction is an anticipated observation following an increase in HDL. As of 2010 five phase II trials had started and there was no evidence of the raised blood pressure seen with torcetrapib. dal-VESSEL phase IIb trial found no evidence of flow-mediated dilatation improvement. A 17% increase of Lp-PLA mass level was noted. Lp-PLA is associated with coronary hea ...more...

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Verilog-to-Routing

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Verilog-to-Routing

Verilog-to-Routing (VTR) is an open source CAD flow for FPGA devices.[1][2] VTR's main purpose is to map a given circuit described in Verilog, a Hardware Description Language, on a given FPGA architecture for research and development purposes. The VTR project is a collaboration between the University of New Brunswick, the University of California, Berkeley and the University of Toronto. Additional contributors include Altera and Texas Instruments. VTR Flow The VTR design flow consists of three component applications: ODIN II which compiles Verilog code to a circuit in Berkeley Logic Interchange Format (BLIF), a human-readable graph representation of the circuit;[3] ABC which optimizes the BLIF circuit produced by ODIN II; and VPR which packs, places and routes the optimized circuit on the given FPGA architecture. ODIN II ODIN II is the HDL compiler of the VTR flow. It transforms a given Verilog code to a BLIF circuit, performs code and circuit optimizations, visualizes circuits,[4] and performs partial ma ...more...

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Application-specific integrated circuit

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Application-specific integrated circuit

A tray of application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) , is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use. For example, a chip designed to run in a digital voice recorder or a high-efficiency Bitcoin miner is an ASIC. Application-specific standard products (ASSPs) are intermediate between ASICs and industry standard integrated circuits like the 7400 series or the 4000 series.[1] As feature sizes have shrunk and design tools improved over the years, the maximum complexity (and hence functionality) possible in an ASIC has grown from 5,000 logic gates to over 100 million. Modern ASICs often include entire microprocessors, memory blocks including ROM, RAM, EEPROM, flash memory and other large building blocks. Such an ASIC is often termed a SoC (system-on-chip). Designers of digital ASICs often use a hardware description language (HDL), such as Verilog or VHDL, to describe the functionality of ASI ...more...

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Semulation

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Semulation

Semulation is a computer science-related portmanteau of simulation and emulation, signifying the process of controlling an emulation through a simulator. Semulation in computer science Digital hardware is described using hardware description languages (HDL) like VHDL, Verilog or System Verilog. These descriptions are simulated together with a problem-specific testbench. The initial functional verification of most IP designs is done via simulation at register transfer level (RTL) or gate level. In an event driven simulation method the code must be processed sequential by a CPU, because a normal computer is not able to process the implemented hardware parallel. This sequential approach leads to long simulation times especially in complex systems on chip (SoC) designs. After simulation the RTL description must be synthesized to fit in the final hardware (e.g. FPGA, ASIC). This step brings a lot of uncertainties because the real hardware is normally not as ideal as the simulation model. The differences between ...more...

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Anode

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Anode

Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. Note how electrons move out of the cell, and the conventional current moves into it in the opposite direction. An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device. This contrasts with a cathode, an electrode through which conventional current leaves an electrical device. A common mnemonic is ACID for "anode current into device".[1] The direction of conventional current (the flow of positive charges) in a circuit is opposite to the direction of electron flow, so (negatively charged) electrons flow out the anode into the outside circuit. In a galvanic cell, the anode is the electrode at which the oxidation reaction occurs. An anode is also the wire or plate having excess positive charge.[2] Consequently, anions will tend to move towards the anode. Charge flow The terms anode and cathode do not relate to the voltage polarity of those electrodes but the direction of the current: whether positive charge is flowin ...more...

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Xilinx Vivado

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Xilinx Vivado

Vivado Design Suite is a software suite produced by Xilinx for synthesis and analysis of HDL designs, superseding Xilinx ISE with additional features for system on a chip development and high-level synthesis.[3][4][5][6] Vivado represents a ground-up rewrite and re-thinking of the entire design flow (compared to ISE), and has been described by reviewers as "well conceived, tightly integrated, blazing fast, scalable, maintainable, and intuitive".[7][8][9] Unlike ISE which relied on ModelSim for simulation,[10][11] the Vivado System Edition includes an in-built logic simulator.[12] Vivado also introduces high-level synthesis, with a toolchain that converts C code into programmable logic.[5] Vivado has been described as a "state-of-the-art comprehensive EDA tool with all the latest bells and whistles in terms of data model, integration, algorithms, and performance".[13] Replacing the 15 year old ISE with Vivado Design Suite took 1000 person-years and cost US $200 million.[14] Features Vivado enables develope ...more...

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Vortex ring

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Vortex ring

Spark photography image of a vortex ring in flight. A vortex ring, also called a toroidal vortex, is a torus-shaped vortex in a fluid or gas; that is, a region where the fluid mostly spins around an imaginary axis line that forms a closed loop. The dominant flow in a vortex ring is said to be toroidal, more precisely poloidal. Vortex rings are plentiful in turbulent flows of liquids and gases, but are rarely noticed unless the motion of the fluid is revealed by suspended particles—as in the smoke rings which are often produced intentionally or accidentally by smokers. Fiery vortex rings are also a commonly produced trick by fire eaters. Visible vortex rings can also be formed by the firing of certain artillery, in mushroom clouds, and in microbursts.[1][2] A vortex ring usually tends to move in a direction that is perpendicular to the plane of the ring and such that the inner edge of the ring moves faster forward than the outer edge. Within a stationary body of fluid, a vortex ring can travel for relativel ...more...

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Selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry

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Selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry

Picture of SIFT-MS profile 3. Selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) is a quantitative mass spectrometry technique for trace gas analysis which involves the chemical ionization of trace volatile compounds by selected positive precursor ions during a well-defined time period along a flow tube.[1] Absolute concentrations of trace compounds present in air, breath or the headspace of bottled liquid samples can be calculated in real time from the ratio of the precursor and product ion signal ratios, without the need for sample preparation or calibration with standard mixtures. The detection limit of commercially available SIFT-MS instruments extends to the single digit pptv range. The instrument is an extension of the selected ion flow tube, SIFT, technique, which was first described in 1976 by Adams and Smith.[2] It is a fast flow tube/ion swarm method to react positive or negative ions with atoms and molecules under truly thermalised conditions over a wide range of temperatures. It has been used e ...more...

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Field-programmable gate array

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Field-programmable gate array

A Stratix IV FPGA from Altera A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing – hence "field-programmable". The FPGA configuration is generally specified using a hardware description language (HDL), similar to that used for an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). (Circuit diagrams were previously used to specify the configuration, as they were for ASICs, but this is increasingly rare.) A Spartan FPGA from Xilinx FPGAs contain an array of programmable logic blocks, and a hierarchy of reconfigurable interconnects that allow the blocks to be "wired together", like many logic gates that can be inter-wired in different configurations. Logic blocks can be configured to perform complex combinational functions, or merely simple logic gates like AND and XOR. In most FPGAs, logic blocks also include memory elements, which may be simple flip-flops or more complete blocks of memory.[1] Technical design Contempora ...more...

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Harry Diamond Laboratories

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Harry Diamond Laboratories

The Harry Diamond Laboratories (HDL) was a research facility of the Ordnance Development Division of the National Bureau of Standards and later the US Army, most notable for its work on proximity fuzes in World War II. The organization was founded in 1940, but was not named after its first director Harry Diamond until 1962. HDL was one of seven Army laboratories merged to form the new Army Research Laboratory in 1992.[1] History In 1940, concerned about increasing warfare abroad, the National Defense Research Committee organized a group of scientists and engineers into the Ordnance Development Division of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), to develop fuzes for non-rotating (fin-stabilized) munitions such as bombs, rockets and mortar shells. Harry Diamond, a pioneer radio engineer, was given technical direction of the program, a position he held until his death in 1948. Proximity fuzes were first used in combat in January 1943, and the U.S. War Department later described the proximity fuze as "one of th ...more...

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Source-to-source compiler

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Source-to-source compiler

A source-to-source compiler, transcompiler or transpiler is a type of compiler that takes the source code of a program written in one programming language as its input and produces the equivalent source code in another programming language. A source-to-source compiler translates between programming languages that operate at approximately the same level of abstraction, while a traditional compiler translates from a higher level programming language to a lower level programming language. For example, a source-to-source compiler may perform a translation of a program from Pascal to C. An automatic parallelizing compiler will frequently take in a high level language program as an input and then transform the code and annotate it with parallel code annotations (e.g., OpenMP) or language constructs (e.g. Fortran's forall statements).[1] Another purpose of source-to-source-compiling is translating legacy code to use the next version of the underlying programming language or an API that breaks backward compatibility ...more...

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Simulink

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Simulink

Simulink, developed by MathWorks, is a graphical programming environment for modeling, simulating and analyzing multidomain dynamical systems. Its primary interface is a graphical block diagramming tool and a customizable set of block libraries. It offers tight integration with the rest of the MATLAB environment and can either drive MATLAB or be scripted from it. Simulink is widely used in automatic control and digital signal processing for multidomain simulation and Model-Based Design.[2][3] Add-on products MathWorks and other third-party hardware and software products can be used with Simulink. For example, Stateflow extends Simulink with a design environment for developing state machines and flow charts. MathWorks claims that, coupled with another of their products,[4] Simulink can automatically generate C source code for real-time implementation of systems. As the efficiency and flexibility of the code improves, this is becoming more widely adopted for production systems,[5][6] in addition to being a t ...more...

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List of programming languages by type

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List of programming languages by type

This is a list of notable programming languages, grouped by type. (Because there is no overarching classification scheme for programming languages, in many cases a language will be listed under multiple headings.) Array languages Array programming (also known as vector or multidimensional) languages generalize operations on scalars to apply transparently to vectors, matrices, and higher-dimensional arrays. A+ Analytica APL Chapel Fortran 90 Freemat Futhark GAUSS J Julia K MATLAB Octave Q R S S-Lang SequenceL X10 ZPL IDL Wolfram Language Assembly languages Assembly languages directly correspond to a machine language (see below) so machine code instructions appear in a form understandable by humans. Assembly languages let programmers use symbolic addresses, which the assembler converts to absolute addresses. Most assemblers also support macros and symbolic constants. Authoring languages An authoring language is a programming language used to create tutorials, websites, and other ...more...

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William Shakespeare

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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare ( SHAYK-speer; 26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616)[a] was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.[2][3][4] He is often called England's national poet, and the "Bard of Avon".[5][b] His extant works, including collaborations, consist of approximately 39 plays,[c] 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language, and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.[7] Shakespeare was born and raised in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna, and twins Hamnet and Judith. Sometime between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part-owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known as the King's Men. At age 49 (around 1613), ...more...

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1564 births

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Famous Quotes

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Stateflow

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Stateflow

Stateflow (developed by MathWorks) is a control logic tool used to model reactive systems via state machines and flow charts within a Simulink model. Stateflow uses a variant of the finite-state machine notation established by David Harel, enabling the representation of hierarchy, parallelism and history within a state chart.[2][3] Stateflow also provides state transition tables and truth tables. Common uses Stateflow is generally used to specify the discrete controller in the model of a hybrid system where the continuous dynamics (i.e., the behavior of the plant and environment) are specified using Simulink.[4][5] Specific applications for Stateflow include: Mode logic, where each discrete mode of a system is represented by a state[6] Fault management, where the Stateflow chart is used to control how the system responds to faults and failures within a system[7] Task scheduling, where the Stateflow chart is used to schedule when specific tasks occur, either within the Stateflow chart or within the ...more...

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Visual programming languages

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Syncope (medicine)

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Syncope (medicine)

Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.[1] It is caused by a decrease in blood flow to the brain, usually from low blood pressure.[1] There are sometimes symptoms before the loss of consciousness such as lightheadedness, sweating, pale skin, blurred vision, nausea, vomiting, or feeling warm. Syncope may also be associated with a short episode of muscle twitching.[1] When consciousness and muscle strength are not completely lost, it is called presyncope.[1] It is recommended that presyncope be treated the same as syncope.[1] Causes range from non-serious to potentially fatal.[1] There are three broad categories of causes: heart or blood vessel related, reflex also known as neurally mediated, and orthostatic hypotension.[1] Issues with the heart and blood vessels are the cause in about 10% and typically the most serious while neurally mediated is the most common.[1] Heart related causes may include ...more...

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Verilator

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Verilator

Verilator is a free and open source software tool which converts Verilog (a hardware description language) to a cycle-accurate behavioral model in C++ or SystemC. It is restricted to modeling the synthesizable subset of Verilog and the generated models are cycle-accurate, 2-state, with synthesis (zero delay) semantics. As a consequence the models typically offer higher performance than the more widely used event driven simulators, which can process the entire Verilog language and model behavior within the clock cycle. Verilator is now used within academic research, open source projects and for commercial semiconductor development. It is part of the growing body of free EDA software. Usage Verilator has seen its widest adoption in the academic and open source communities. The semiconductor industry has been more cautious in its adoption of an open source tool, and has the financial means to use commercial alternatives. Academic Researchers have used Verilator to develop new co-simulation environments,[3] a ...more...

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Electronic design automation software for Linux

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Magnetic circuit

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Magnetic circuit

A magnetic circuit is made up of one or more closed loop paths containing a magnetic flux. The flux is usually generated by permanent magnets or electromagnets and confined to the path by magnetic cores consisting of ferromagnetic materials like iron, although there may be air gaps or other materials in the path. Magnetic circuits are employed to efficiently channel magnetic fields in many devices such as electric motors, generators, transformers, relays, lifting electromagnets, SQUIDs, galvanometers, and magnetic recording heads. The concept of a "magnetic circuit" exploits a one-to-one correspondence between the equations of the magnetic field in an unsaturated ferromagnetic material to that of an electrical circuit. Using this concept the magnetic fields of complex devices such as transformers can be quickly solved using the methods and techniques developed for electrical circuits. Some examples of magnetic circuits are: horseshoe magnet with iron keeper (low-reluctance circuit) horseshoe magnet with ...more...

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Mentor Graphics

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Mentor Graphics

Mentor Graphics A Siemens Business is a US-based electronic design automation (EDA) multinational corporation for electrical engineering and electronics. The company was founded in 1981 and sold to Siemens in 2017. History Mentor Graphics was founded in 1981 by Tom Bruggere, Gerry Langeler and Dave Moffenbeier. The first round of money, worth $1 million, came from Sutter Hill, Greylock, and Venrock Associates. The next round was $2 million from five venture capital firms, and in April 1983 a third round raised $7 million more. Mentor Graphics was one of the first companies to attract venture capital to Oregon. Apollo Computer workstations were chosen as the initial hardware platform. Based in Chelmsford, Apollo was less than a year old and had only announced itself to the public a few weeks prior to when the founders of Mentor Graphics began their initial meetings. When Mentor entered the CAE market the company had two technical differentiators: the first was the software - Mentor, Valid, and Daisy each ...more...

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Started in 1981 in Oregon

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Arterial embolism

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Arterial embolism

Arterial embolism is a sudden interruption of blood flow to an organ or body part due to an embolus adhering to the wall of an artery blocking the flow of blood,[1] the major type of embolus being a blood clot (thromboembolism). Sometimes, pulmonary embolism is classified as arterial embolism as well,[2] in the sense that the clot follows the pulmonary artery carrying deoxygenated blood away from the heart. However, pulmonary embolism is generally classified as a form of venous embolism, because the embolus forms in veins. Arterial embolism is the major cause of infarction (which may also be caused by e.g. arterial compression, rupture or pathological vasoconstriction). Signs and symptoms Symptoms may begin quickly or slowly depending on the size of the embolus and how much it blocks the blood flow.[2] Symptoms of embolisation in an organ vary with the organ involved but commonly include: Pain in the involved body part[2] Temporarily[2] decreased organ function Later symptoms are closely related to in ...more...

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Nutaq

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Nutaq

Nutaq provides advanced digital signal processing solutions and wireless technologies, including software defined radios (SDR). Their hardware platforms are primarily based on Xilinx FPGAs, and are typically integrated with a model-based design software flow (Matlab Simulink & Xilinx SygGen for DSP). Researchers who use this sort of design flow can benefit from targeting an FPGA without having to write the associated HDL code. In 2013, Nutaq spun off its Wireless Network Products division into Nuran Wireless, which is focused on mobile and broadband wireless solutions. NuRAN Wireless supplies GSM, LTE, and TV White Space radio access network (RAN) products. Mobile network operators and internet service providers use these sorts of products to enable wireless access in remote areas. Nutaq is headquartered in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. ...more...

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Electric eel

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Electric eel

The electric eel (Electrophorus electricus) is a South American electric fish, and the only species in its genus. Despite the name, it is not an eel, but rather a knifefish. Anatomy The electric eel has an elongated, cylindrical body, typically growing to about 2 m (6 ft 7 in) in length, and 20 kg (44 lb) in weight, making them the largest species of the Gymnotiformes.[2] Their coloration is dark gray-brown on the back and yellow or orange on the belly. Mature females have a darker color on the belly. They have no scales. The mouth is square, and positioned at the end of the snout. The anal fin extends the length of the body to the tip of the tail. As in other ostariophysan fishes, the swim bladder has two chambers. The anterior chamber is connected to the inner ear by a series of small bones derived from neck vertebrae called the Weberian apparatus, which greatly enhances its hearing capability. The posterior chamber extends along the whole length of the body and maintains the fish's buoyancy. E. electric ...more...

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Coronary artery disease

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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD),[13] refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.[14] It is within the group of cardiovascular diseases of which it is the most common type.[15] A common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw.[4] Occasionally it may feel like heartburn. Usually symptoms occur with exercise or emotional stress, last less than a few minutes, and improve with rest.[4] Shortness of breath may also occur and sometimes no symptoms are present.[4] In many cases, the first sign is a heart attack.[5] Other complications include heart failure or an abnormal heartbeat.[5] Risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, depression, and excessive alcohol.[6][7][16] The underlying mechanism involves reduction of blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscle du ...more...

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Energy Efficient Engine

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Energy Efficient Engine

The Energy Efficient Engine was a program funded by NASA in the 1970s to develop technologies suitable for energy efficient turbofans, its goal was to improve thrust specific fuel consumption by 12% compared to a GE CF6-50C.[1] Both General Electric and Pratt & Whitney produced turbofans for the program. The GE core featured a 23:1 high-pressure (HP) ratio ten-stage HP compressor,[2] later used in the GE90 and GEnx. P&W had a nine-stage HP compressor in their core. References Hall, Edward J.; Lynn, Sean R.; Heidegger, Nathan J.; Delaney, Robert A. (April 1998), Energy Efficient Engine Low Pressure Subsystem Flow Analysis (PDF), Lewis Research Center, NASA, pp. 6–7, hdl:2060/19980232149 Ciepluch, Carl C.; Davis, Donald Y.; David E. Gray (1987). "Results.of NASA's Energy Efficient Engine Program" (PDF). Journal of Propulsion and Power. doi:10.2514/3.23024. Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. ...more...

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Wind wave

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Wind wave

Large wave Video of large waves from Hurricane Marie along the coast of Newport Beach, California Ocean waves In fluid dynamics, wind waves, or wind-generated waves, are surface waves that occur on the free surface of bodies of water (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, canals, puddles or ponds). They result from the wind blowing over an area of fluid surface. Waves in the oceans can travel thousands of miles before reaching land. Wind waves on Earth range in size from small ripples, to waves over 100 ft (30 m) high.[1] When directly generated and affected by local winds, a wind wave system is called a wind sea. After the wind ceases to blow, wind waves are called swells. More generally, a swell consists of wind-generated waves that are not significantly affected by the local wind at that time. They have been generated elsewhere or some time ago.[2] Wind waves in the ocean are called ocean surface waves. Wind waves have a certain amount of randomness: subsequent waves differ in height, duration, and ...more...

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Atyopsis

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Atyopsis

Atyopsis is a genus of freshwater shrimp from Southeast Asia. It was erected in 1983 by Fenner A. Chace, Jr. for two species formerly treated in the genus Atya.[1] It differs from Atya by various characters, including the form of the telson (which is longest at the corners in Atyopsis, but not in Atya) and the presence of a "massive spur" on the male third pereiopod.[1] The genus comprises two species, Atya spinipes and Atyopsis moluccensis.[2] No fossil representatives are known.[3] They are found on high islands from Sri Lanka to the Samoan Islands, and as far north as Okinawa, as well as on the Asian mainland from the Malay Peninsula to India.[1] The two species differ in the number of teeth on the underside of the rostrum, A. spinipes having 2–6, while A. moluccensis has 7–16.[1] When kept in the aquarium this species prefers to have a moderate water flow. This shrimp feeds using its feather like claspers to filter particles from the water. If food is scarce you may find them foraging through the substr ...more...

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VLSI Technology

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VLSI Technology

VLSI Technology, Inc., was a company which designed and manufactured custom and semi-custom Integrated circuits (ICs). The company was based in Silicon Valley, with headquarters at 1109 McKay Drive in San Jose, California, US. Along with LSI Logic, VLSI Technology defined the leading edge of the application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) business, which accelerated the push of powerful embedded systems into affordable products. VLSI was acquired in June 1999, for about $1 billion by Philips Electronics and is today a part of the Philips spin-off NXP Semiconductors. History The company was founded in 1979, by a trio from Fairchild Semiconductor by way of Synertek – Jack Balletto, Dan Floyd, and Gunnar Wetlesen – and by Doug Fairbairn of Xerox PARC and Lambda (later VLSI Design) magazine. Alfred J. Stein became the CEO of the company in 1982. Subsequently VLSI built its first fab in San Jose; eventually a second fab was built in San Antonio, Texas. VLSI had its initial public offering in 1983, and was l ...more...

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Vanadium

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Vanadium

Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23. It is a hard, silvery-grey, ductile, and malleable transition metal. The elemental metal is rarely found in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer (passivation) somewhat stabilizes the free metal against further oxidation. Andrés Manuel del Río discovered compounds of vanadium in 1801 in Mexico by analyzing a new lead-bearing mineral he called "brown lead", and presumed its qualities were due to the presence of a new element, which he named erythronium (derived from Greek for "red") since, upon heating, most of the salts turned red. Four years later, however, he was (erroneously) convinced by other scientists that erythronium was identical to chromium. Chlorides of vanadium were generated in 1830 by Nils Gabriel Sefström who thereby proved that a new element was involved, which he named "vanadium" after the Scandinavian goddess of beauty and fertility, Vanadís (Freyja). Both names were attributed to the wide r ...more...

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Hemorheology

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Hemorheology

Hemorheology, also spelled haemorheology (from the Greek ‘αἷμα, haima "blood" and rheology), or blood rheology, is the study of flow properties of blood and its elements of plasma and cells. Proper tissue perfusion can occur only when blood's rheological properties are within certain levels. Alterations of these properties play significant roles in disease processes.[1] Blood viscosity is determined by plasma viscosity, hematocrit (volume fraction of red blood cell, which constitute 99.9% of the cellular elements) and mechanical properties of red blood cells. Red blood cells have unique mechanical behavior, which can be discussed under the terms erythrocyte deformability and erythrocyte aggregation.[2] Because of that, blood behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid. As such, the viscosity of blood varies with shear rate. Blood becomes less viscous at high shear rates like those experienced with increased flow such as during exercise or in peak-systole. Therefore, blood is a shear-thinning fluid. Contrarily, blood vis ...more...

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Seguin River

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Seguin River

The Seguin River is a river in Parry Sound District in central Ontario, Canada that empties into Parry Sound on Georgian Bay, Lake Huron at the town of Parry Sound.[1] The river's name comes from the Ojibwe word ziigwan, meaning "spring". Course The Seguin River begins at Horn Lake near the community of Bear Lake in the municipality of McMurrich/Monteith. It is joined by a tributary off of Bear lake, then turns southwest and enters the township of Seguin, flows through Upper Fry Lake and Lower Fry Lake and passes north over a series of waterfalls near the community of Seguin Falls, at which point it is crossed by the former path of the Ottawa, Arnprior and Parry Sound Railway, now the recreational Seguin Trail rail trail. The river turns again southwest into Isabella Lake where it takes in the left tributary Little Seguin River. It continues southwest over the Serpent Rapids, the Indian Rapids and the Hab Rapids, passes into the township of McDougall, and takes in the right tributary Manitouwabing River. Th ...more...

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Tributaries of Lake Huron

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Offside (association football)

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Offside (association football)

A Linesman signals for offside by raising his flag Offside is one of the laws of association football, codified in Law 11 of the Laws of the Game. The law states that a player is in an offside position if any of their body parts except the hands and arms is in the opponents' half of the pitch and closer to the opponents' goal line than both the ball and the second-last opponent (the last opponent is usually but not necessarily the goalkeeper).[1] Being in an offside position is not an offence in itself, but a player so positioned when the ball is played forward by a teammate will commit the offside offence if they become "involved in active play", which includes receiving the ball. Significance Being in an offside position is not an offence in itself; a player who was in an offside position at the moment the ball last touched, or was played, by a teammate, must then become involved in active play in the opinion of the referee, in order for an offence to occur. When the offside offence occurs, the referee ...more...

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Computer

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Computer

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices. This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer-aided design, and also general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones. Early computers were only conceived as calculating devices. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calcu ...more...

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* IT chronicle *

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Mauna Loa

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Mauna Loa

Mauna Loa ( or ; Hawaiian: ; English: Long Mountain[3]) is one of five volcanoes that form the Island of Hawaii in the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi in the Pacific Ocean. The largest subaerial volcano in both mass and volume, Mauna Loa has historically been considered the largest volcano on Earth, dwarfed only by Tamu Massif. It is an active shield volcano with relatively gentle slopes, with a volume estimated at approximately 18,000 cubic miles (75,000 km3),[4] although its peak is about 120 feet (37 m) lower than that of its neighbor, Mauna Kea. Lava eruptions from Mauna Loa are silica-poor and very fluid, and they tend to be non-explosive. Mauna Loa has probably been erupting for at least 700,000 years, and may have emerged above sea level about 400,000 years ago. The oldest-known dated rocks are not older than 200,000 years.[5] The volcano's magma comes from the Hawaii hotspot, which has been responsible for the creation of the Hawaiian island chain over tens of millions of years. The slow drift of the Pacific P ...more...

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Extreme points of Earth

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