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Fiber to the premises by country

This article lists the deployment of fiber to the premises, fiber to the home and fiber to the building by country.


In Kenya, the home entertainment and communication services provider, Zuku, offers fiber-based Triple-Play bundle (Broadband Internet, TV and phone) packages at speeds of 1, 10, 20 and 50 Mbit/s[1] in most areas of Nairobi and Mombasa.[2]

Another fiber service is Faiba provided by Jamii Telecommunications Ltd.(JTL).[3] They offer packages at speeds of 5, 10, 15 and 20 Mbit/s for residential customers[4] and 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 Mbit/s for businesses.[5]

34 out of the 47 counties of Kenya have been connected to the National Optical Fibre Backbone Infrastructure (NOFBI).[6] [7] [8]


As of June 2016, in terms of percentage of fibre penetration, Mauritius was ranked first in Africa and 16th in the global ranking worldwide, ahead of developed countries, such as USA, France and Germany. In Mauritius, two ISPs are currently providing FTTH. They are Mauritius Telecom[9] and Bharat Telecom Ltd,[10] with internet speeds of 10, 20, 30 and 100 Mbit/s.

South Africa

Link Africa (formerly i3 Africa) announced plans to construct a FTTH network in South Africa covering 2.5 million premises in six cities (Durban, Cape Town, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, Bloemfontein, and Pretoria) by 2016 with minimum connection speeds of 100Mbit/s. The "open-access" network will allow third-party Internet service providers (ISPs) to sell services. Link Africa will not sell services directly to customers.[11] Telkom, South Africa's primary fixed line operator, currently has 10, 20, 40 and 100Mbit/s commercial FTTH service being installed in residential and commercial sites since December 2014.[12]


In Tanzania, Spark is the first ISP to offer FTTH to home users in the city of Dar es Salaam, their packages offer speeds of 2, 4 and 10 Mbit/s.[13]


Zimbabwe operator TelOne is rolling out FTTH.[14]


Telekom Brunei Berhad, the incumbent telecommunications operator in Brunei, commenced construction of a FTTH network in 2010 to replace their copper infrastructure, contracting with Huawei for construction. It will offer initial speeds up to 150Mbit/s.[15]


80% of China's broadband connection are by Fiber by the end of 2016 making China the world leader in FTTP.[16]

During APOC 2003 (Asia-Pacific Optical and Wireless Communications) held in Wuhan, Chinese telecom experts discussed FTTH in China. Topics included FTTH opportunities and challenges, FTTH applications, FTTH network architecture and cost analysis.

Hong Kong

As of April 2006, Hong Kong Broadband Network (HKBN, Chinese: 香港寬頻網絡有限公司), wholly owned subsidiary of City Telecom (H.K.) Limited, was offering its customers Internet access via fiber to the building and FTTH. Speeds ranged from 10-1000 Mbit/s, although the speed to non-Hong Kong destinations was capped at 20 Mbit/s.

In October 2007, the largest telecom company in Hong Kong, PCCW Limited (Chinese: 電訊盈科有限公司), the holding company of HKT Group Holdings Limited, a Hong Kong-based Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) company, started to offer both 100 Mbit/s and 1000 Mbit/s FTTH Internet consumer plans.


Fiber service is available from several providers:

Railwire, a subsidiary of Railtel owned by the Indian railways (government) is providing FTTH services in India.

India's first FTTH network was launched in December 2008 by New Delhi based Radius Infratel Private Limited. TTN Broadband First company to provide FTTH at Bangalore in 2010, Having 10000 and plus customers since 2014.

Beam Fiber or ACT Fibernet supplies FTTX services across the city of Hyderabad[17] with plans ranging from 1Mbit/s to 1Gbit/s as of April 2017.

Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), a state-owned telecommunications company, launched an FTTH service in Jaipur in late 2010.

Airtel[18] offers FTTH in a few areas of Delhi NCR. Nextra Teleservices offers FTTH in certain areas of Delhi NCR including Noida and Gurgaon.

An FTTH-based network project was commissioned at INS Shivaji, Lonavla on 29 Jul 2013.

FTTH services were launched in Chennai in the year May 2013 by OODOO communications[19]

FTTH services were launched in Indore in 2015..

Fiber to the Home services are provided on a truly unlimited (a rarity among broadband providers in India which throttle speeds to 512 kbit/s or even 128kbit/s beyond a certain limit even in so called "unlimited plans") basis by an ISP called Spectranet in many cities like Gurgaon, Bangalore, Chennai, Mumbai, Pune etc. The download speeds offered are 10 Mbit/s, 20Mbit/s, 50Mbit/s and also 100Mbit/s (initially launched in Gurgaon but now available in other cities as well).[20]

Reliance Industries Limited venture called Reliance Jio is to launch an FTTH service of up to speeds of 1 Gigabit per second in the top 100 cities of India.[21] [22]


Telkom Indonesia Develop Fiber Internet IndiHome a Triple Play services which consists of Fiber Internet or High Speed Internet (Fast Internet), Interactive TV (UseeTV) and Phone (Home Phone). For most parts of Indonesia, IndiHome will be served by using 100% Fiber, FTTH network uses Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON) based networking technology.

Biznet Networks deployed FTTH service in Indonesia, the first in Southeast Asia. Biznet Metro's FTTH network uses Gigabit Ethernet Passive Optical Network (GE-PON) based networking technology. Supported by Nokia Siemens, the network is capable of delivering Triple Play services that consist of data (Internet or intranet), voice (VoIP), and video (interactive TV and multimedia) in a single infrastructure. This network is capable of supporting up to 1 Gbyte/s data transfer.

First Media, a company born from Lippo group's new $650 million investment in Internet in Indonesia, as well as cable television, began offering FTTH (using coaxial cable, not Optical fiber), branded as FastNet, on 8 September.


FTTH was introduced in 1999 and substantial growth began in 2001. In 2003–2004, FTTH accelerated, while DSL stagnated. DSL peaked in March 2006. 10.5 million FTTH connections were reported in September 2007.[23] On 17 September 2008, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications reported that FTTH connections (13.08 million connections) eclipsed DSL (12.29 million connections and declining) and became the most popular method of broadband connection at 45% of the total.[24]

FTTH started with a 10 Mbit/s (end-user rate) passive optical network (PON) by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) and 100 Mbit/s (end-user rate) with GEPON (Gigabit Ethernet-PON) or broadband PON in 2006. PON is NTT's major FTTH system but some competitive services offer 1 Gbit/s (at end-user rate) with SS (Single Star).

Major application services on fiber include voice over IP, video-IP telephony, IPTV (IP television), and general Internet access services.

As of April 2013, Sony ISP, known as So-Net, released a new fibre service to Tokyo for small businesses and homes and also made it available to six surrounding prefectures. It offered speeds of 2Gbit/s Download and 1Gbit/s Upload, which was until December 2014 the world's fastest home internet connection, since bettered by a Minneapolis, Minnesota service.


Telekom Malaysia (TM) officially launched FTTH on 24 March 2010. TM High Speed Broadband (HSBB) was released to end users in stages. The deployment from start to the connection of the first end user to the fiber network took only 18 months, which is the fastest ever in the world. The product name is UniFi and it initially offers speeds of 5, 10 and 20 Mbit/s under the VIP5, VIP10 and VIP20 brand name.[25] The packages were later revised to UniFi Advance (30 and 50Mbit/s) and UniFi Pro (100Mbit/s).[26] The fiber network is also leased out to competitors Maxis Communications and Packet One Networks. Maxis Communications offers speed of 10, 20 and 30 Mbit/s under the Maxis Home Broadband brand,[27] while Packet One Networks offers speeds identical to that of UniFi, but with a WiMAX USB modem and mobile bundled under the Fiber by P1 brand.[28] The network also carries two IPTV providers, HyppTV and Astro IPTV. The former is only available bundled with UniFi while the latter is only available bundled with Maxis Broadband.

TIME Fibre Broadband which is Officially launched on 2 February 2010 is a true fibre optic connectivity to home with speeds of 100Mbit/s, 300Mbit/s, 500Mbit/s. Time offer the FTTx services to the apartment Condominium residential only.


FTTH services entered Pakistan in July 2002 by NayaTel. Currently, FTTH services by Nayatel covers most parts of the twin cities Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Nayatel launched its operations in Faisalabad in November 2016.[29] The FTTH plans by Nayatel range from 3 Mbit/s to 10 Mbit/s.[30] Nayatel also provides PSTN and IPTV.

PTCL started offering FTTH services in Karachi and have expanded to Lahore and Islamabad/Rawalpindi.[31] The FTTH plans range from 8 Mbit/s to 100 Mbit/s.[32]

In 2015, FiberLink started offering its GPON services to the public. It is currently only available in Karachi and Lahore. Its plans range from 10 Mbit/s, up to 200 Mbit/s.[33]

StormFiber, a subsidiary of CyberNet, also offers FTTH services to customers in Karachi and Lahore. StormFiber provides TriplePlay Services which include high speed Fiber Broadband, IPTV and PSTN. Their plans range from 2 Mbit/s to 30 Mbit/s.[34]

Wateen, previously known for its WiMax network in Pakistan, has stopped offering WiMax and shifted its focus to its fiber network, under the name WiFibre. They offer HFC/GPON services in areas of Karachi, Lahore and Multan.[35]

Optix, which is powered by Multinet, has recently started its operations for FTTH in Karachi and Lahore. It offers TriplePlay plans with Phone service, TV and Internet, with speeds of 5 Mbit/s, 10 Mbit/s and 20 Mbit/s.[36]

Transworld Associates, commonly referred to as TWA owns a submarine communications cable linking Pakistan to the Middle East. In 2015, it started offering its own FTTH services to residents of DHA Phase 5 and 6 in Karachi. It offers only one plan of 30 Mbit/s, which can be taken as a standalone internet-only plan or with a combination of their Digital TV service.[37]

BrainNET is one of the oldest Internet Service Providers of Pakistan, which has recently upgraded its network infrastructure in Lahore to offer Fiber Broadband, it has plans ranging from 3 Mbit/s to 30 Mbit/s, it also offers phone services along with the internet plan. Currently they are only operating in Lahore and Multan.[38]


FTTH services are offered by the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT), Converge ICT Solutions and Globe Telecom Wireless Link Technoligies, Inc .

Initial tests done by PLDT showed download speeds of up to 94.86 Mbit/s and upload rates of 69.39 Mbit/s. Pilot areas for PLDT's service included Bonifacio Global City in Taguig, Forbes Park, Urdaneta Village, Dasmariñas Village in Makati City, Ayala Heights in Quezon City, Wack Wack in San Juan, Valle Verde in Mandaluyong and certain areas covered by PLDT in Subic and Clark freeports.[39]

As of 2015, the maximum plan for their connection is now at 1Gbit/s, while plans for lower speeds are scheduled for upgrades in the near future. As of 2017, they are aggressively increasing network presence in an attempt to improve internet speed and services, decried as one of the worst in Asia, apart from rivalry from other companies.

Globe Telecom deployed GPON pilot projects in 2009 for areas in Bonifacio Global City, Forbes park, Bel-Air and Urdaneta Village. After a hiatus in deployment, Globe is now rolling out FTTH services prominently in Metro Manila, and other nearby areas. Subsidiaries under Globe such as BayanTel now have fiber optic plans under the Globe branding.

Converge ICT offers similar Fiber Optic connectivity and is progressively rolling out services. They are initially available in Manila and neighboring cities. They are notable for offering 25 mbps for PHP 1,500, with comparable if not better service.


Multiple Internet service providers offer FTTH plans from 100Mbit/s to 10Gbit/s.There are six main players providing FTTH services in Singapore. Among them four ISPs offer speeds up to 10 Gigabit per second speeds (Viewqwest, SuperInternet, M1 and Singtel). M1 and Singtel use XG-PON for FTTH services (10 Gbit/s download and 2.5 Gbit/s upload speeds) whereas SuperInternet uses Optical Ethernet technology and ViewQwest has Metro Ethernet as the technology for FTTH (10Gbit/s symmetrical).[40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] MyRepublic and StarHub are the other ISPs that offer speeds up to 1 Gbit/s.[46] [47]

South Korea

FTTP in South Korea is offered by various Internet service providers including KT (formerly Korea Telecom), SK Broadband (formerly Hanaro Telecom) and LG U+ (formerly LG Powercom). The connection speed for both downloading and uploading is set to be 100 Mbit/s.

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka Telecom offers FTTH/FTTB in Sri Lanka. In April 2014, Sri Lankan operator Sri Lanka Telecom launched a 100 Mbit/s FTTH service.[48]


Chunghwa Telecom offers FTTB in Taiwan. Taiwan had the world's fourth highest FTTB penetration rate.


Beeline Uzbekistan offers service in Tashkent, Zarafshan and Uchquduq with bandwidth of 100 Mbit/s for TAS-IX and 2 Mbit/s for other connections. UzOnline, a state-run ISP, and Sarkor Telecom also offer service in Tashkent.


Andorra Telecom operates a country-wide fiber optic network delivering internet, TV, movies on demand and telephone service.[49] Internet access operates at 100 Mbit/s. The FTTH network is being used to replace copper loops, with telephony only subscribers being offered FTTH boxes to replace their copper PSTN line. Almost 100% of the country is covered. Andorra has some remote residences situated beyond the distance supported by DSL.


As of Nov 2017 Mobiltel became a major provider, covering more than 40 major markets with max speeds of 1 Gbps/s via GPON.[50]

Vivacom is expanding coverage for Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna, Burgas and Stara Zagora and 20 smaller markets with speeds up to 1 Gbps/s.[51]

FTTH in Bulgaria is being deployed by Coolbox (formerly ITD Network). Covering 3 markets as of 2017.

Other ISP's that were used local area networks to deliver broadband are upgrading their networks and now offer fiber-to-the-curb. FTTH is now available in most cities with population over 10,000 offered by variety of local players.


The first provider to offer FTTH in Croatia was Vodatel. In September 2006, Vodatel service was available in Zagreb. The service offered symmetrical 2/5/10 Mbit/s speeds in Triple Play packages. As of mid 2009 partly equipped a 28 floor building in Rijeka with fiber. The building was a test site and the service was initially offered free of charge.


In 2007, the largest telecommunication provider in Cyprus, the Cyprus Telecommunication Authority (CYTA), signed a contract with Ericsson for a rollout of FTTH.[52]

Czech Republic

FTTH services include in Prague, a FTTH 1/10/100 Mbit/s service called ViaGia provided by T-Systems is available in newer homes built by CentralGroup. UPC provides Triple Play Services over FTTH in new buildings.[53]

In December 2013, Czech operator CentroNet, a.s. launched a 1Gbit/s FTTH service in Prague.[54]

In Brno, SMART Company offers service branded NETBOX.[55] Other networks operate in Brno, Frýdek-Místek, Šumperk and Most.


As of 2006, FTTH was being installed in Denmark in the northern parts of Zealand north and west of Copenhagen. The installation was being performed by the power company DONG Energy as part of a project to convert their airborne power infrastructure into one consisting of underground cables. Their plans called for a completion date of 2010, after which they expected to expand FTTH installation to areas that fell outside of the scope of the power infrastructure conversion project. However, DONG Energy does not provide access to Internet, television, or telephone services by themselves – other providers rent the cable to provide the end customer with anything ranging from simple POTS-like telephony to triple play. As of 2014, FTTH is available through Waoo which is a consortium of 13 regional electric companies throughout the country. Stofa also offers fiber to the home service. Several apartment complexes also offer FTTH. DONG Energy sold its fiber to TDC which leases access to Waoo.


As of 2010, FTTH networks are fully developed and commercially available in select locations in Estonia. Speeds up to 300 Mbit/s downstream and 300 Mbit/s upstream are commercially available for €33 a month. The same network delivers digital television and is usually marketed as a "home package" (Internet, digital television and landline phone). The price for ADSL2 connection operating at 12/1 Mbit/s is €21 a month. In all cases, TV and Internet share the overall bandwidth, so the more active TV tuners in use at a given time, the less bandwidth is available for Internet use. Since 2013 AS Starman has been offering connections with 200 Mbit/s downstream and 20 Mbit/s upstream, at a cost of approximately €26 per month.


TeliaSonera offers FTTH in some urban areas of Finland, launching a 1 Gbit/s service for €99 per month.[56] Anvia provides FTTH in some areas of Vaasa and surroundings.[57]

DNA offers FTTH and coaxial 1 Gbit/s services in most urban areas of Finland for €49.90 per month.[3][4]


France had 4 million FTTH homes in 2015, and will increase this to 20 million FTTH homes in 2022. Deployments include:

  • In June 2006, Orange launched a test program for FTTH in some arrondissements of Paris. It proposed up to 2.5 Gbit/s downstream and 1.2 Gbit/s upstream per 30 users using PON for €70 a month.
  • On 1 March 2007, Orange released their first commercial FTTH offer in Paris at €45 a month for a 100 Mbit/s Internet connection (flat rate) and a set of services including telephone over IP and television. The fiber installation is free.
  • In September 2006, Free announced a €30 a month triple play offer including 100 Mbit/s Internet connection, free phone calls to 42 countries and high-definition television. The roll-out of this service was planned for May 2007, but wide offering was postponed to September. It will be available first in Paris, then other French towns including Montpellier, Lyon and Valenciennes as well as certain Paris suburbs.
  • A residential fibre service had been deployed in the 15th Arrondissement (borough) of Paris by Cité Fibre. Bandwidth allocated to each user was 100 Mbit/s with 30 Mbit/s reserved for Internet traffic. The package included digital television and VoIP telephone services along with unlimited Internet starting at €49 per month. The 15th Arrondissement was probably selected for its comparatively high residential population. Cité Fibre was bought by Free in October 2006 and merged into Free's own FTTH project.
  • In 2003 Erenis launched an offer of FTTB at 100 Mbit/s in January 2007 including triple play. Erenis was bought by Neuf on 2 April 2007 and this company is planning to offer a 50 Mbit/s triple play service for €29.90 starting at once.[58]
  • In July 2007 Neuf announced it will only use FTTH in new deployments and that the existing Erenis FTTB users would be switched to FTTH at some time in the future. Neuf also acquired Mediafibre, a company which sold fibre optic access is Pau, France, in January 2007.
  • In La Réunion island: in June 2013, Zeop launched a 35Mbit/s FTTH service on a first zone on the island. In April 2014, the bandwidth has been upgraded up to 100Mbit/s.[59] [60] [61] [62]
  • In October 2013 Free and SFR have upgraded their FTTH bandwidth to 1000 Mbit/s download and 200 Mbit/s upload.
  • In April 2014, Orange commercialised a higher package with 500 Mbit/s download and 200 Mbit/s upload. Bouygues Telecom, who tested FTTH in some cities since 2012, officially announced 1000/200 FTTH packages at 25,99 €/month in November. There are available in the biggest French cities for now.

The ARCEP (Electronic Communications and Postal services Regulation Authority) announced in September 2014 3.7 million homes were able to subscribe to FTTH.


FTTH networks in Georgia (country) are being quickly deployed growing from just 11% coverage in 2011 to 49% by the end of 2016 with 25% of households having service subscription. Speeds up to 100 Mbit/s downstream and 100 Mbit/s upstream are commercially available for 100 GEL a month, but entry packages start at 10 GEL a month. Fixed broadband market is dominated by two biggest players Silknet and MagtiCom (who in 2016 acquired biggest fixed player Caucasus Online).


In September 2008, Transport and Communications Minister Kostas Hatzidakis announced plans to provide FTTH to 2 million homes in Athens, Thessaloniki and 50 other cities across Greece by 2013, at a cost of €2.1 billion and at speeds of "at least" 100 Mbit/s.[63] Starting 2016 no Greek ISP offers more than 50Mbit/s of download speed, with the exception of one ISP announcing plans for 100Mbit/s towards the end of 2016 in some location.


In 2009, Magyar Telekom was the largest FTTH provider in the country. Fiber-optic services are available in the inner districts of Budapest and other major cities such as Győr and Sopron. By 2011 the fiber-optic network will be extended to 800,000 households.


FTTH is being deployed by Gagnaveita Reykjavikur (GR), a subsidiary of Orkuveita Reykjavíkur (Reykjavik Power Company). By March 2006, they had begun connecting the towns of Seltjarnarnes, Akranes and parts of the Capital Region. At that time they expected to have 50% of Reykjavik connected by 2008 and all of the Capital Region, Seltjarnes, Akranes, Mosfellsbær, Þorlákshöfn and Hveragerði connected by 2012. However, deployment in other areas was pending waiting for agreements with city officials. GR only owned the FTTH network; ISP services were provided by HIVE, Skýrr and Vortex. As of July 2006, VoIP service were available from HIVE. By March 2007, Vodafone Iceland was providing ISP and VoIP services and had introduced video via its Digital Iceland broadcasting system, while Skýrr had stopped providing ISP services. The FTTH connections were 100 Mbit/s, but as of January 2015 all new connections are 1Gbit/s. As of October 2016 there are 6 different ISP offer internet services ranging from 10Mbit/s to 1Gbit/s using the GR FTTH network.

In March 2006, the monthly cost of FTTH was 1.990 ISK (approx 26 US dollars), not including any services. This was somewhat more expensive than having a phone line in the house which at the time cost 1.340 ISK (approx 18 US dollars) but because the service providers need less equipment to provide services on the FTTH network the total price of services (access network price+service price) was similar. By June 2009, the monthly cost of FTTH had risen to 2.390 ISK (approx 19 US dollars at the time), not including any services. By comparison, having a phone line in the house had dropped to 1.147 ISK (approx $9 US dollars) by that time. Still total service prices for consumers has remained similar.

Other smaller FTTH providers are Míla which operates in recently developed areas in the Capital Region, Gagnveita Skagafjarðar which operates in Sauðárkrókur and Tengir in Akureyri and its vicinity.


OpenEir, the wholesale arm of Eir, Ireland's largest telecommunications company, is rolling out an FTTH network. This service provides up to 1Gbit/s down and 100 Mbit/s up.[64] and is in addition to a very widespread FTTC network, which offers speeds of 100Mbit/s down and 30Mbit/s. The FTTC network was built with enough fibre to each cabinet to future-proof them for eventual FTTH deployment.

Siro, a joint venture between the state owned power company ESB Group and Vodafone Ireland, is also rolling out 1 Gbit/s FTTH download and 150Mbit/s upload to 500,000 properties in Ireland by 2018.[65] This network uses ESB's physical electrical distribution network to carry fibres through ducts and on poles directly into homes and offices.

Both of these networks are being operated on a wholesale basis and end users can select from a range of different ISPs and IP television providers and a wide range of service for residential and business users.

Ireland's FTTH rollout faces particular challenges as the country's housing stock has a high percentage of individual homes built at quite low density. This necessitates far more civil engineering works to bring fibre to every home than would be the case in a country with a predominance of dense apartment type developments. However, this is being overcome using innovative solutions like running fibre through existing power line ducts and using mixtures of underground and arial cable.


In Italy, FTTH has been deployed by FASTWEB since 1999 in selected areas of Milan, Rome, Naples, Genova, Bologna and a few other cities, however they aren't planning to deploy any more FTTP as DSL deployment is far cheaper. Where FTTP is available, they have offered a triple play service on a 10/10 Mbit/s Internet connection since 2010. Fastweb started offering FTTP customers the option to upgrade to 100/50 Mbit/s at a small additional fee. Telecom Italia announced, in March 2008, they would deploy FTTH in 140,000 homes in Milan, by the end of 2008 and in 10 cities the following year at speeds up to 1 Gbit/s. As of November 2015 the state-of-the-art internet connection is represented by Vodafone fibre, the availability of which is limited to some areas of Milan and Bologna, reaching speeds of 1 Gbit/s in download and 200 Mbit/s in upload. This is a FTTH, just like the 100/50 connections provided by Fastweb in a bunch of cities. Most of other connections advertised as fibre are actually FTTC / VDSL (Telecom Italia is currently offering 30/3 and 50/10 connections, whereas Fastweb goes up to 200/20 and Vodafone reaches 100/20). As it might be expected, the real speed is about 20% less than the advertised speed in the case of FTTC. Fiber for Italy initiative: The initiative has the stated goal of offering 100 Mbit/s symmetrical connections to 10 million Italian subscribers across 15 cities by 2018 and up to 1Gbit/s for business customers.[66] [67] It involves operators Wind, Tele2, Vodafone, and Fastweb. An ongoing pilot project in the Italian capital Rome delivers symmetrical speeds of up to 100 Mbit/s to small businesses. Telecom Italia (the largest Italian operator) is not a participant in the Fiber for Italy program, but has independently committed to provide ultra-highspeed broadband up to 100 Mbit/s symmetrical connections to 50 percent of the country's population (138 cities) by 2018.[68] Both Fiber for Italy participants and Telecom Italia are working with Advanced Digital Broadcast to provide residential gateway technology with embedded fiber termination. Since 2006, Television Sierre SA[69] deploys a FTTH network in most municipalities in the district of Sierre, Switzerland. Triple Play services are offered to the public under the brand Vario.[70]


In Q1 2009, Lattelecom launched FTTH services with up to 100 Mbit/s speeds, initially available in Riga. By November 2009, the speed was increased to 500 Mbit/s in selected areas, however by October 2013 it was increased to 1 Gbit/s. In Q1 2013, the company's FTTH service covered 450,000 households across Latvia.[71] [72]


FTTH is provided in all major and smaller cities (~30 of them) of Lithuania, mainly by Telia and some smaller local providers. Teo LT is a former state telecom operator now owned by TeliaSonera and according to the local regulatory agency their data communications business accounts for ~69% of the total data service revenue in Lithuania for 2009. They sell FTTH under the brand ZEBRA, there were 63,000 subscribers connected via FTTH at the end of 2009,[73] and there are plans for most residents in the three largest cities, Vilnius (95%), Kaunas (70%) and Klaipėda (95%), to be able to connect to FTTH by the end of 2010. According to the FTTH European Rankings] of the FTTH Council Europe published 24 February 2010, Lithuania leads Europe in FTTH connectivity with 18% penetration, followed by Sweden, Norway and Slovenia.[74]


In Macedonia, as of 2015 Makedonski Telekom is the largest among the various FTTH providers in the country. Fiber-optic services are currently available in the larger cities in the country, as well as some rural areas. The service offers symmetrical 40/50/60/1000 Mbit/s speeds in triple play and double play packages.[75]


In Moldova FTTB has been deployed by StarNet and Arax since 2006 and Moldtelecom since 2008 in the city of Chișinău at first and other towns and regional centers later. Since then the fiber network grew very fast due to intense competition between two dominant ISP's in the country – StarNet and Moldtelecom. The result of this competition is that FTTB holds more than 50% of the broadband market in the country and is continuing to increase, slowly pushing back ADSL as the main Internet access technology.[76] As of 2015 there are multiple local and only two country-wide ISP's (StarNet and Moldtelecom) that offer Internet access via FTTB. StarNet and Moldtelecom both offer 1/1Gbit (symmetrical) Internet connection via FTTB in the city of Chișinău and some regional centers with prices around €9 per month for 100/100Mbit plan.[77] [78]


Montenegring Agency for Electronic Communications and Postal Services started reporting about number of FTTx connections for the first time in September 2011. In January 2015 13.16% of all Internet connections in Montenegro (cellular network excluded) were FTTx connections.[79] By connection type, ADSL was leading with 71.17% usage rate. Of all FTTx connections 62.31% were FTTH, 36.22% were FTTB and 1.47% were FTTC.[80] Crnogorski Telekom which is part of Deutsche Telekom group is holding majority of the FTTx market. Crnogorski Telekom is providing FFTx services only in form of FTTH connections and it is only FTTH service provider in country. FTTB connections are offered by Cable television service providers.


In The Netherlands in the city of Eindhoven and a nearby village of Nuenen, there is a large network with 15 000 connections. Triple play is offered. Houses and companies are connected with single-mode fibre. The network is owned by the members themselves, who formed a corporation. The first European FTTH project was also in Eindhoven in a neighborhood known as the "Vlinderflats". This was a multi-mode fibre but was in 2005 changed to single-mode fibre. FTTH resulted in new broadband services; the inhabitants started their own broadband TV station called VlinderTV.

Since October 2006 fibre optic connections are being deployed in the city of Amsterdam. In the first phase of the deployment there are some 40,000 connections planned with the first ones being available for connection to end users in February 2007. The network is rolled out in the boroughs of Zeeburg, Oost and Osdorp. The owner of the network is GNA CV, the operator is BBned, a subsidiary of Telecom Italia. BBned operates as a non-discriminating wholesaler of capacity to service providers. This setup, with a structural separation of ownership of the network and the delivery of services, ensures that the network is open to all.

Also, another company is building new FTTH networks in Arnhem, Nijmegen, Amersfoort, Hilversum, Soest, Leiden and Utrecht. These networks are almost completed. The first home was connected around March 2005. If all goes according to plan, the last home in these networks will be connected in June 2007. These networks also provide triple play services. Internet connection speed varies from 24, 48 and 100 Mbit/s (up and down).

The city of Deventer will be the first city in The Netherlands which will be fully connected with FTTH, at the end of 2009. Already in the first quarter of 2009, more than half of the roughly 100,000 citizens are able to use the FTTH services. Single play, double play and triple play are offered, with speeds of 35 and 50 Mbit/s. In the near future, these speeds will be upgraded to 50 and 100 Mbit/s respectively.[81]

In the last couple of years a wide deployment has been undertaken by Dutch firm Reggefiber. However, in 2013 Reggefiber was acquired by KPN and rollouts have been significantly less since then.


A lot of compaines currently provides FTTH/FTTP in Norway for consumers and businesses.[82] The maximum speed offered is 10Gbits symmetrical.


As of February 2017, Orange delivers FTTH to 0.1 million Polish customers and plans to expand this number to 3.5 million households.[83]


Vodafone are rolling our FTTH to 2.75 million homes (2/3 of the country) by the end of 2016.

ZON was created from TVCabo's spin-off from Portugal Telecom. Subsequently, a large group of smaller cable operators was bought into the new company. TVTEL was the first Portuguese ISP to offer FTTH services initially in Oeiras (near Lisbon) and also in Porto, Pluricanal is another ISP that offers this kind of access in some neighborhoods on the outskirts of Lisbon. Both TVTel and Pluricanal are now a part of ZON. ZON based its current expansion program not on the FTTH network, but in upgrading the HFC (cable) network to Eurodocsys3.0 at 200 Mbit/s on cable and 1 Gbit/s using FTTH.

But since 2012, ZON has been acquired by NOS [84]

Sonaecom with Optimus Clix Fibra[85] was the arguably the first to invest in a large-scale fiber optical network, to cover 1,000,000 people by 2011, the triple-play packages includes maximum speeds of 360/36 Mbit/s (down/upstream), TV with +150 channels over FTTH and IPTV. The company was first to offer such service in Portugal. Currently after ZON and NOS were merged , they have about 4 million customers and now offering up to 1000/100 Mbit/s (down/upstream), TV with +150 channels with 4K ability over FTTH and IPTV.

Portugal Telecom launched the FTTH service in May 2009, Meo Fibra[86] offers a triple-play service at a maximum speed (for now) of 1000/200 Mbit/s (download/upload), more than 200 TV channels over IPTV and VoIP phone; the coverage is still limited, but the expansion of the fiber is still underway across the country. They are planning to finish the expansion by 2020. A special notice should be mentioned about the late development of PT FTTH network since due to previous "unbundling" problems of the copper DSL network only after getting a guarantee from the respective authorities (Anacom) that they would not be mandated to give free/open access to other companies in their network.


In Romania, FTTH was first deployed in Timişoara by RDS. Currently, it is available in every major city. The name of the service is FiberLink. There are 4 subscription plans: FiberLink 100, FiberLink 300, FiberLink 500 and FiberLink 1000. For Home use, it is available since 2007, first only in some regions, but quickly expanded. All major operators, RCS&RDS, UPC, and Telekom are providing FTTH, with speed up to 1000 Mbps, but not in all counties and not in all cities and part of the counties sometimes not even in some cities or part of some cities. Offered only in big cities and the surroundings. To the present day, RCS&RDS is the biggest FTTH provider, mounting ONT equipment to the final user destination, followed by UPC and Telekom. In some regions, FTTH may be available but with smaller bandwidth than in big cities ( mainly in some rural areas were FTTH may be only up to 20 Mbps and analogue television in some isolated zones, sometimes even very small towns). Except major operators, some smaller providers of Internet & CATV are implementing or beginning to implement FTTH or had it implemented. It is used for Internet, Cable Television, IP TV, and fixed telephone. Speed reaches up to 1 Gbps at the user, HD channels over CATV or IPTV and analogue CATV, and telephony ( even IP telephony). FTTH is used both for business and home use services.


In Russia the ER-Telecom company started construction of the FTTH network, "Universal City Telecommunication Network" (UCTN), in Perm. The following services are offered over UCTN:

  • Cable Television «Divan-TV»
  • High-speed broadband Internet Access «DOM.RU»
  • IP-telephony «GORSVYAZ»
  • Services for corporations («home office» service, videoconference connection, telemetry collecting service etc.).

In Serbia Targo Telekom offers FTTH access to residents in Stara Pazova and New Belgrade. The offer includes both Internet access and television. Speed ranges from 10/5Mbit/s, 20/10Mbit/s, 40/20Mbit/s, 80/40Mbit/s and 120/60Mbit/s. Thunder and Warp plans include speeds of up to 2.5/1.5Gbit/s.[87]

Serbia Broadband has also announced plans to connect 50,000[88] residential customers to its FTTH service called Fiber Power by the end of the year.

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Fiber to the premises by country


This article lists the deployment of fiber to the premises , fiber to the home and fiber to the building by country. Africa Kenya In Kenya , the home entertainment and communication services provider, Zuku, offers fiber-based Triple-Play bundle (Broadband Internet, TV and phone) packages at speeds of 1, 10, 20 and 50 Mbit/s in most areas of Nairobi and Mombasa . Another fiber service is Faiba provided by Jamii Telecommunications Ltd.(JTL). They offer packages at speeds of 5, 10, 15 and 20 Mbit/s for residential customers and 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 Mbit/s for businesses. 34 out of the 47 counties of Kenya have been connected to the National Optical Fibre Backbone Infrastructure (NOFBI). Mauritius As of June 2016, in terms of percentage of fibre penetration, Mauritius was ranked first in Africa and 16th in the global ranking worldwide, ahead of developed countries, such as USA, France and Germany. In Mauritius , two ISPs are currently providing FTTH. They are Mauritius Telecom and Bharat Telecom Ltd, with inte ...more...

Fiber to the x


A schematic illustrating how FTTX architectures vary with regard to the distance between the optical fiber and the end user . The building on the left is the central office ; the building on the right is one of the buildings served by the central office. Dotted rectangles represent separate living or office spaces within the same building. Fiber to the x ( FTTX ) is a generic term for any broadband network architecture using optical fiber to provide all or part of the local loop used for last mile telecommunications . As fiber optic cables are able to carry much more data than copper cables, especially over long distances, copper telephone networks built in the 20th century are being replaced by fiber. FTTX is a generalization for several configurations of fibre deployment, arranged into two groups: FTTP/FTTH/FTTB (Fiber laid all the way to the premises/home/building) and FTTC/N (fiber laid to the cabinet/node, with copper wires completing the connection). Definitions The telecommunications industry different ...more...

Fiber to the premises in the United States


This article describes fiber to the premises in the United States . In the United States, the largest fiber to the premises (FTTP) deployment to date is Verizon 's FiOS , which covers 32 million people in Northeastern United States. Verizon is the only Regional Bell Operating Company thus far to deploy FTTP on a large scale. Verizon's initial FTTP offering was based on broadband passive optical network ( BPON ) technology. Verizon has already upgraded to Gigabit PON or GPON , a faster optical access technology capable of providing 1Gbit/s speeds to consumers. Lightower has the second most available fiber network, with 19 million people in the Northeast and the Midwest. Frontier is available to 10 million people across the country, and Monmouth is available to 8 million people in New Jersey. By company Company Region(s) Notes Allband Multimedia Curran, Michigan Serves certain rural areas of Alcona , Alpena , and Montmorency counties in Michigan with the first all fiber to the home (FTTH) system in the state of ...more...

Optical fiber connector


LC (top) and ST (bottom) optical fiber connectors, both with protective caps in place. An optical fiber connector terminates the end of an optical fiber , and enables quicker connection and disconnection than splicing . The connectors mechanically couple and align the cores of fibers so light can pass. Better connectors lose very little light due to reflection or misalignment of the fibers. In all, about 100 fiber optic connectors have been introduced to the market. Application Optical fiber connectors are used to join optical fibers where a connect/disconnect capability is required. Due to the polishing and tuning procedures that may be incorporated into optical connector manufacturing, connectors are generally assembled onto optical fiber in a supplier’s manufacturing facility. However, the assembly and polishing operations involved can be performed in the field, for example, to make cross-connect jumpers to size. Optical fiber connectors are used in telephone company central offices , at installations on c ...more...

The Fiber Optic Association


The Fiber Optic Association (FOA) Logo The Fiber Optic Association ( FOA ) is an international professional society of fiber optics . The FOA was founded in 1995 by a group of trainers from industry, government and education who wanted to create industry standards for training and certifying fiber optic technicians. The FOA is a not-for-profit 501 (c)6 organization based in California, USA, that has over 200 affiliated training organizations in over 40 countries. FOA approves fiber optic training organizations and certifies their instructors who train designers, installers and operators of all types of fiber optic networks. FOA programs are used by many organizations, companies and trade unions to train and certify their workers. History At the 1994 Fiber U Conference in Boston, the instructors decided that it was time to create a professional society for fiber optics. The instructors represented a number of fiber optic manufacturers including 3M , Siecor/Corning , Panduit and Fotec, two universities which ...more...

Cable television


A coaxial cable used to carry cable television onto subscribers' premises The bottom product is a set-top box , an electronic device which cable subscribers use to connect the cable signal to their television set. Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables , or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables . This contrasts with broadcast television , in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television; or satellite television , in which the television signal is transmitted by a communications satellite orbiting the Earth and received by a satellite dish on the roof. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet , telephone services , and similar non-television services may also be provided through these cables. Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems hav ...more...

Hybrid fibre-coaxial


Hybrid fiber-coaxial ( HFC ) is a telecommunications industry term for a broadband network that combines optical fiber and coaxial cable . It has been commonly employed globally by cable television operators since the early 1990s. In a hybrid fiber-coaxial cable system, the television channels are sent from the cable system's distribution facility, the headend , to local communities through optical fiber subscriber lines. At the local community, a box called an optical node translates the signal from a light beam to radio frequency (RF), and sends it over coaxial cable lines for distribution to subscriber residences. The fiberoptic trunk lines provide adequate bandwidth to allow future expansion and new bandwidth-intensive services. Description A common HFC architecture The fiber optic network extends from the cable operators' master headend , sometimes to regional headends, and out to a neighborhood's hubsite, and finally to a coaxial cable node which serves anywhere from 25 to 2000 homes. A master headend w ...more...

Last mile


The last mile or last kilometer is a colloquial phrase widely used in the telecommunications , cable television and internet industries to refer to the final leg of the telecommunications networks that deliver telecommunication services to retail end-users (customers). More specifically, the last mile refers to the portion of the telecommunications network chain that physically reaches the end-user's premises. Examples are the copper wire subscriber lines connecting landline telephones to the local telephone exchange ; coaxial cable service drops carrying cable television signals from utility poles to subscribers' homes, and cell towers linking local cell phones to the cellular network . The word "mile" is used metaphorically; the length of the last mile link may be more or less than a mile. Because the last mile of a network to the user is conversely the first mile from the user's premises to the outside world when the user is sending data (sending an email, for example), the term first mile is also alternat ...more...

Structured cabling


Data center. In telecommunications , structured cabling is building or campus cabling infrastructure that consists of a number of standardized smaller elements (hence structured) called subsystems. Overview Structured cabling network diagram. Structured cabling design and installation is governed by a set of standards that specify wiring data centers , offices , and apartment buildings for data or voice communications using various kinds of cable, most commonly category 5e (CAT5e), category 6 (CAT6), and fiber optic cabling and modular connectors . These standards define how to lay the cabling in various topologies in order to meet the needs of the customer, typically using a central patch panel (which is normally 19 inch rack-mounted ), from where each modular connection can be used as needed. Each outlet is then patched into a network switch (normally also rack-mounted) for network use or into an IP or PBX ( private branch exchange ) telephone system patch panel. Structured cabling is the design and install ...more...

Fiber-optic communication


An optical fiber junction box. The yellow cables are single mode fibers ; the orange and blue cables are multi-mode fibers : 62.5/125 µm OM1 and 50/125 µm OM3 fibers, respectively. Stealth installing a 432-count dark fiber cable underneath the streets of Midtown Manhattan, New York City Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber . The light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry information. Fiber is preferred over electrical cabling when high bandwidth , long distance, or immunity to electromagnetic interference are required. Optical fiber is used by many telecommunications companies to transmit telephone signals, Internet communication, and cable television signals. Researchers at Bell Labs have reached internet speeds of over 100 petabit ×kilometer per second using fiber-optic communication. Background First developed in the 1970s, fiber-optics have revolutionized the telecommunic ...more...

AT&T U-verse


AT&T U-verse , commonly called U-verse , was an AT&T brand of triple-play telecommunications services, although the brand is now only used in reference to the IPTV service. Launched on June 26, 2006, U-verse included broadband Internet (now AT&T Internet or AT&T Fiber), IP telephone (now AT&T Phone), and IPTV (U-verse TV) services in 21 states. In September 2016, AT&T announced that the "U-verse" brand would no longer apply to its broadband and phone services, renaming them "AT&T Internet" and "AT&T Phone", respectively. History SBC announced its plans for a fiber-optic network and Internet Protocol television (IPTV) deployment in 2004 and unveiled the name "U-verse" (formerly "Project Lightspeed" ) for the suite of network services in 2005. Beta testing began in San Antonio in 2005 and AT&T U-verse was commercially launched June 26, 2006, in San Antonio. A few months later on November 30, 2006, the service was launched in Houston. In December 2006, the product lau ...more...

Cable Internet access


In telecommunications , cable Internet access , shortened to cable Internet , is a form of broadband Internet access which uses the same infrastructure as a cable television . Like digital subscriber line and fiber to the premises services, cable Internet access provides network edge connectivity ( last mile access) from the Internet service provider to an end user. It is integrated into the cable television infrastructure analogously to DSL which uses the existing telephone network. Cable TV networks and telecommunications networks are the two predominant forms of residential Internet access. Recently, both have seen increased competition from fiber deployments , wireless , and mobile networks. Hardware and bit rates Broadband cable Internet access requires a cable modem at the customer's premises and a cable modem termination system (CMTS) at a cable operator facility, typically a cable television headend . The two are connected via coaxial cable or a Hybrid Fiber Coaxial (HFC) plant. While access networks ...more...

Local loop


In telephony , the local loop (also referred to as a local tail , subscriber line , or in the aggregate as the last mile ) is the physical link or circuit that connects from the demarcation point of the customer premises to the edge of the common carrier or telecommunications service provider 's network. At the edge of the carrier access network in a traditional public telephone network, the local loop terminates in a circuit switch housed in an incumbent local exchange carrier or telephone exchange . Infrastructure Traditionally, the local loop was an electrical circuit in the form of a single pair of conductors from the telephone on the customer's premises to the local telephone exchange . Single-wire earth return lines had been used in some countries until the introduction of electric tramways from the 1900s made them unusable. Historically the first section was often an aerial open-wire line, with several conductors attached to porcelain insulators on cross-arms on "telegraph" poles. Hence party line serv ...more...

Next-generation access


Next-generation access ( NGA ) describes a significant upgrade to the Broadband available by making a step change in speed and quality of the service. This is typically thought of as asymmetrical with a download speed of 24 Mbit/s plus and a fast upload speed. The Definition of UK Superfast Next Generation Broadband OFCOM have defined NGA as in "Ofcom's March 2010 'Review of the wholesale local access market" "Super-fast broadband is generally taken to mean broadband products that provide a maximum download speed that is greater than 24 Mbit/s. This threshold is commonly considered to be the maximum speed that can be supported on current generation (copper-based) networks." Milestones Operators around the world have been rolling out high-speed Internet access networks since the mid-2000s. Some used a network topology known as Active Ethernet Point-to-Point to deliver services from its central office directly into subscribers' homes. Fibre termination was handled by a residential gateway provided by Advanced ...more...

Demarcation point


Old and new style demarcation points in a Canadian home built in 1945. A DSL splitter has been plugged into the modern demarc (on the right). One line passes through a DSL filter before going to the old demarc, and from there to the remainder of the house. In telephony , the demarcation point is the point at which the public switched telephone network ends and connects with the customer's on-premises wiring . It is the dividing line which determines who is responsible for installation and maintenance of wiring and equipment—customer/subscriber, or telephone company /provider. The demarcation point varies between countries and has changed over time. Demarcation point is sometimes abbreviated as demarc , DMARC , or similar. The term MPOE ( minimum or main point of entry ) is synonymous, with the added implication that it occurs as soon as possible upon entering the customer premises. A network interface device often serves as the demarcation point. History Prior to the Bell System divestiture on January 1, 1984 ...more...

Internet in Brazil


The Internet in Brazil was launched in 1988. In 2011 Brazil ranked fifth in the world with nearly 89 million Internet users, 45% of the population. In 2010 Brazil ranked 9th in the world with 13,266,310 fixed broadband subscriptions, 6.8 per 100 residents. History In 1988 the National Research Network (RNP), was formed by the academic communities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo . Since its beginnings, including its introduction to the general public in 1995, the Brazilian Internet depended strongly on efforts led by the Federal Government through the Ministry of Communications, the state-owned communications company Embratel and its holding , Telebras . This changed in 1998, as a result of the privatization of Telebras , and the blossoming of private companies, such as Telefónica , Telemar and Brasil Telecom . With the surge of competition for customers, coupled with government-imposed requirements, came improvements in cost, quality, and availability of the Internet to Brazilians. ADSL was successful in Br ...more...

Bharat Broadband Network


Bharat Broadband Network Limited , also BharatNet , is a Telecom infrastructure provider, set up by the government of India under Telecom department for the establishment, management and operation of National Optical Fibre Network to provide a minimum of 100 Mbps broadband connectivity to each one of all 250,000 Gram panchayats in the country covering nearly 625,000 villages. The last mile connectivity with a total of 700,000 wifi hotspots to cover all 625,000 villages of India, by adding 2 to 5 wifi hotspots per gram panchayat and minimum one wifi hotspot per village, have been created by connecting high-speed 4G base tower stations of commercial telecomm operators to BharatNet, whereby commercially non-viable wifi hotspots will be subsidised by the union government grant of ₹ 36,000 million (US$560 million or €470 million) to sustain the operation. Government has discounted the bulk BharatNet bandwidth rates to the commercial telecom operators by 75% to enable them to offer the highly-discounted, aff ...more...

List of terrestrial fibre optic cable projects in Africa


This is a list of terrestrial fibre optic cable projects in Africa . While submarine communications cables are used to connect countries and continents to the Internet , terrestrial fibre optic cables are used to extend this connectivity to landlocked countries or urban centers within a country with submarine cable access. While in most of the world a large number of such cables exist, often amounting to robust Internet backbones , the lack of such high-speed cables poses a great problem for most African countries. The construction of both submarine cables and their terrestrial extensions is thus considered an important step to economic growth and development to many African countries. Countries Algeria Operator Map KML Summary Algeria Telecom map Algeria Telecom completes its part of the Algeria to Nigeria optical network. Angola Operator Map KML Summary Angola Telecom map kml Unitel Zap Fibra Benin Operator Map KML Summary Benin Telecoms map Phase3 See entry for Phase3 Nigeria Suburban Telecoms See entry fo ...more...

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Folder: Somcable

Somcable Telecommunication (Somcable2017)

Internet Backbone Services. Somcable provides high capacity dedicated Internet Backbone Services to Mobile Operators, ISP's and other telecom operators.

National Broadband Network


The National Broadband Network ( NBN ) is an Australian national wholesale open-access data network project with both wired , and radio communication components being rolled out and operated by NBN Co Limited. Retail service providers (RSPs), typically Internet service providers , contract with NBN to access the network and sell fixed internet access to end users . Rationales for this national telecommunications infrastructure project included replacing the existing copper cable telephony network which is approaching end of life , and the rapidly growing demand for internet access to support a growing range of services. The largest infrastructure project in Australia's history, it has been the subject of significant political contention and was an issue in the 2013 federal election . As originally proposed, wired connections would have provided up to 100 Mbit/s, later increased to 1 Gbit/s; after the election of the Abbott government in 2013 this was downgraded to a maximum of 25 Mbit/s. The first Rudd gove ...more...



unifi is a service by Telekom Malaysia , offering Internet access , VoIP and IPTV to residential and business customers in Malaysia through an optical fiber core network via FTTH for individual housing units and VDSL2 for multi-story buildings. The "Fi" in the name is for fibre optics. The Residential package, called VIP, provides V ideo or IP Television, I nternet Access, and P hone service. Background Initiated and signed in September 2008, the RM11.3 billion national HSBB (High-Speed Broadband) project is a PPP agreement between TM and the government to develop next generation HSBB infrastructure and services. TM invested RM8.9 billion and the government invested RM2.4 billion on an incurred claims basis based on project milestones reached by TM. unifi was launched on 24 March 2010. Other wireless broadband providers include P1 and YTL, which launched its WiMax wireless broadband in November 2010. The HSBB project, which is the flagship of the National Broadband Initiative (NBI), is hoped to help Malaysia ...more...



10G-PON (also known as XG-PON ) is a 2010 computer networking standard for data links , capable of delivering shared Internet access rates up to 10 Gbit/s (gigabits per second) over existing dark fiber . This is the ITU-T 's next generation standard following on from G-PON or Gigabit-capable PON. Optical fibre is shared by many subscribers in a network known as FTTx in a way that centralises most of the telecommunications equipment, often displacing copper phone lines that connect premises to the phone exchange. Passive optical network (PON) architecture has become a cost-effective way to meet performance demands in access networks , and sometimes also in large optical local networks for "Fibre-to-the-desk". Passive optical networks are used for the "Fibre-to-the-home" or "Fibre-to-the-premises" last mile with splitters that connect each central transmitter to many subscribers. The 10 Gbit/s shared capacity is the downstream speed broadcast to all users connected to the same PON, and the 2.5 Gbit/s upstream s ...more...

Internet service provider


Internet connectivity options from end-user to tier 3/2 ISPs An Internet service provider ( ISP ) is an organization that provides services accessing and using the Internet . Internet service providers may be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned , non-profit , or otherwise privately owned . Internet services typically provided by ISPs include Internet access , Internet transit , domain name registration, web hosting , Usenet service and colocation . Local ISP in Manhattan installing fiber for provisioning Internet access History The Internet was developed as a network between government research laboratories and participating departments of universities. By the late 1980s, a process was set in place towards public, commercial use of the Internet. The remaining restrictions were removed by 1995, 4 years after the introduction of the World Wide Web . In 1989, the first ISPs were established in Australia and the United States. In Brookline, Massachusetts, The World became the first co ...more...

Outline of the Internet


The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Internet. Internet – worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of interconnected smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail , online chat , file transfer, and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web . Essence of the Internet Computer network , Computer networking – Internetworking – Packet switching – Wide area network – data transmission – Internet features Hosting – File hosting – Web hosting E-mail hosting DNS hosting Game servers Wiki farms World Wide Web – Websites – Web applications – Webmail – Online retail sales – Online auctions – Webcomics – Wikis – Voice over IP IPTV Internet communication technology Internet infrastructure Critic ...more...

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FiOS from Frontier


Frontier FiOS , also known as FiOS from Frontier or simply FiOS , is a bundled Internet access , telephone, and television service that operates over a fiber-optic communications network in 7 states, including California, Texas, Florida, Indiana, South Carolina, Oregon, and Washington. Service is offered in some areas of the United States by Frontier Communications in areas built out and formerly served by Verizon , using the same infrastructure as its Fios service and continuing to license the FiOS name from Verizon. Other service providers often use fiber optics in the network backbone and existing copper or coax infrastructure for residential users. Frontier's service began in 2009 with the acquisition of portions of Verizon's network, and networked areas expanded through 2015 through similar acquisitions, although some areas do not have service or cannot receive TV and phone service because of franchise agreements. History Background of FiOS (2005–2010) In September 2005, Verizon Communications , announ ...more...

Cochin Special Economic Zone


The Cochin Special Economic Zone (CSEZ) is a multi-product Special Economic Zone located at Kochi , Kerala . It is established in an area of 41.7 hectares (103.0 acres) in the Kakkanad area under the Thrikkakara Municipality. It is a multi-product zone, with industrial units operating in Electronics Hardware, Engineering, Gem & Jewellery, IT & ITES, Agro & Food Processing, Textile & garments, Plastic & Rubber etc. Currently it has around 160 units operating employing more than 15,000 people. In FY2011-12, the total exports from the zone stood at ₹ 29,961 crore, recording a 63% rise in exports compared to the previous financial year. For the current financial year 2012-13, as on 30 September 2012, the total exports from CSEZ stand at ₹ 16,306 crore, ranking it the third among SEZs in the country. CSEZ was originally started as one of the first Export Processing Zone in India , and was later converted into a Special Economic Zone in 2003, when that system was introduced. It is operate ...more...

Wireless Internet service provider


An embedded RouterBoard 112 with U.FL - RSMA pigtail and R52 miniPCI Wi-Fi card widely used by WISPs in the Czech Republic Typical WISP Customer-premises equipment (CPE) installed on a residence. A wireless Internet service provider ( WISP ) is an Internet service provider with a network based on wireless networking . Technology may include commonplace Wi-Fi wireless mesh networking , or proprietary equipment designed to operate over open 900 MHz , 2.4 GHz , 4.9, 5, 24, and 60 GHz bands or licensed frequencies in the UHF band (including the MMDS frequency band), LMDS , and other bands from 6Ghz to 80Ghz. In the US, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) released Report and Order, FCC 05-56 in 2005 that revised the FCC’s rules to open the 3650 MHz band for terrestrial wireless broadband operations. On November 14, 2007 the Commission released Public Notice (DA 07-4605) in which the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau announced the start date for licensing and registration process for the 3650-3700 MHz ban ...more...

Novus Entertainment


Novus Entertainment (commonly known simply as Novus ) is a Canadian telecommunications company providing television, digital phone, and high-speed Internet services via a fibre optic network. The company is licensed by the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission (the CRTC) as a Class 1 Broadcast Distribution Undertaking for both Metro Vancouver . Novus presently provides services to apartments, condominiums, and businesses in Metro Vancouver. Novus is one of the few broadband Internet carriers in Canada to offer a Fibre-to-the-Building (FTTB) network. The company continues to expand its service in Metro Vancouver. Novus is also in the business of leasing dark fibre to other communications service providers and to businesses. Internet In July, 2011, Novus announced its 300 Mbit/s Internet service, claiming to be “Canada’s fastest Internet service” to go into effect July 2011. Due to its use of Metro Ethernet rather than DOCSIS or DSL technology, the carrier allows a direct RJ-45 connection ...more...

Internet access


Internet access is ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the Internet using computer terminals , computers , and other devices; and to access services such as email and the World Wide Web . Various technologies, at a wide range of speeds have been used by Internet service providers (ISPs) to provide this service. Internet access was once rare, but has grown rapidly. In 1995, only 0.04 percent of the world's population had access, with well over half of those living in the United States, and consumer use was through dial-up . By the first decade of the 21st century, many consumers in developed nations used faster broadband technology, and by 2014, 41 percent of the world's population had access, broadband was almost ubiquitous worldwide, and global average connection speeds exceeded 1 Mbit/s. History The Internet developed from the ARPANET , which was funded by the US government to support projects within the government and at universities and research laboratories in the US – but grew over ...more...

MCI Communications


MCI Communications Corp. was an American telecommunications company that was instrumental in legal and regulatory changes that led to the breakup of the AT&T monopoly of American telephony and ushered in the competitive long-distance telephone industry. It was headquartered in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1963, it grew to be the second-largest long-distance provider in the U.S. It was purchased by WorldCom in 1998 and became MCI WorldCom , with the name afterwards being shortened to WorldCom in 2000. WorldCom's financial scandals and bankruptcy led that company to change its name in 2003 to MCI Inc. The MCI name disappeared in January 2006 after the company was bought by Verizon . History Founding MCI's second logo MCI was founded as Microwave Communications, Inc. on October 3, 1963 with John D. Goeken being named the company's first president. The initial business plan was for the company to build a series of microwave relay stations between Chicago , Illinois and St. Louis , Missouri . The relay station ...more...

Global Internet usage


Global Internet usage refers to the number of people who use the Internet worldwide, which can be displayed using tables, charts, maps and articles which contain more detailed information on a wide range of usage measures. Internet users As of June 2017, 51% of the world's population is on internet. In 2015, the International Telecommunication Union estimated about 3.2 billion people, or almost half of the world's population, would be online by the end of the year. Of them, about 2 billion would be from developing countries, including 89 million from least developed countries . Internet users per 100 inhabitants Source: International Telecommunications Union .       These maps illustrate the growth in the percentage of individuals using the Internet from 1990 - 2014 Number of Internet users in 2011 This map illustrates the total number of Internet users in a country as well as the percentage of the population that had Internet access in 2011. Source: Information Geographies at the Oxford Internet Institute . ...more...

Digital subscriber line


Digital subscriber line ( DSL ; originally digital subscriber loop ) is a family of technologies that are used to transmit digital data over telephone lines . In telecommunications marketing, the term DSL is widely understood to mean asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL), the most commonly installed DSL technology, for Internet access . DSL service can be delivered simultaneously with wired telephone service on the same telephone line since DSL uses higher frequency bands for data. On the customer premises, a DSL filter on each non-DSL outlet blocks any high-frequency interference to enable simultaneous use of the voice and DSL services. The bit rate of consumer DSL services typically ranges from 256 kbit/s to over 100 Mbit/s in the direction to the customer ( downstream ), depending on DSL technology, line conditions, and service-level implementation. Bit rates of 1  Gbit/s have been reached in trials, but most homes are likely to be limited to 500-800 Mbit/s. In ADSL, the data throughput in the upstrea ...more...

Telecommunications in Tanzania


Telecommunications in Tanzania include radio, television, fixed and mobile telephones, and the Internet available in mainland Tanzania and the semiautonomous Zanzibar archipelago . Regulation and licensing In 2005, mainland Tanzania, but not the semiautonomous Zanzibar archipelago, modified its licensing system for electronic communications, modelling it on the approach successfully pioneered in Malaysia in the late 1990s where traditional "vertical" licenses (the right to operate a telecom or a broadcasting network, and right to provide services on that network) are replaced by "horizontal" licenses (the right to operate telecom and broadcasting networks, with a separate license required to provide services on each network). Called the "Converged Licensing Framework (CLF)", this reform was the first of its kind put into practice on the African continent, and allows investors to concentrate on their area of expertise (i.e. network facility, network services, application services, and content services) across ...more...

Internet in Malaysia


From its beginnings in 1995, the Internet in Malaysia has become the main platform for free discussion in Malaysia 's otherwise tightly controlled media environment. As of Q1 2017, Malaysia has broadband penetration rates of 103.6% (per 100 inhabitants) and 81.8% (per 100 households). History The year 1995 is considered the beginning of the Internet age in Malaysia. The growth in the number of Internet hosts in Malaysia began around 1996. The country's first search engine and web portal company, Cari Internet , was also founded that year. According to the first Malaysian Internet survey conducted from October to November 1995 by MIMOS and Beta Interactive Services, one out of every thousand Malaysians had access to the Internet (20,000 Internet users out of a population of 20 million). In 1998, this number grew to 2.6% of the population. The total number of computer units sold, which was 467,000 in 1998 and 701,000 in 2000 indicated an increasing growth. In 2005 the National Public Policy Workshop (NPPW) p ...more...

Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution


Early industrialised region at Barmen in the Wupper Valley , 1870 - painting by August von Wille Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution in Britain was centred in south Lancashire and the towns on both sides of the Pennines . In Germany it was concentrated in the Wupper Valley , Ruhr Region and Upper Silesia, while in the United States it was in New England . The four key drivers of the Industrial Revolution were textile manufacturing , iron founding , steam power and cheap labour . Before the 18th century, the manufacture of cloth was performed by individual workers, in the premises in which they lived and goods were transported around the country by packhorses or by river navigations and contour-following canals that had been constructed in the early 18th century. In the mid-18th century, artisans were inventing ways to become more productive. Silk , wool , and fustian fabrics were being eclipsed by cotton which became the most important textile. Innovations in carding and spinning enabled by a ...more...

Bristol, Virginia


State Street separates Virginia (left) and Tennessee (right). Bristol is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia . As of the 2010 census , the population was 17,835. It is the twin city of Bristol, Tennessee , just across the state line, which runs down the middle of its main street, State Street. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Bristol, Virginia, with neighboring Washington County, Virginia , for statistical purposes. Bristol is a principal city of the Kingsport – Bristol –Bristol, TN-VA Metropolitan Statistical Area , which is a component of the Johnson City –Kingsport–Bristol, TN-VA Combined Statistical Area – commonly known as the " Tri-Cities " region. History Evan Shelby first appeared in what is now the Bristol area around 1765. In 1766, Shelby, moved his family and settled at a place called Big Camp Meet (now Bristol, Tennessee/Virginia). It is said that Cherokee Indians once inhabited the area and the Indian village was named, according to legend, because numerous de ...more...

Sanitarium Health and Wellbeing Company


The Sanitarium Health and Wellbeing Company is the trading name of two sister food companies ( Australian Health and Nutrition Association Ltd and New Zealand Health Association Ltd ). Both are wholly owned by the Seventh-day Adventist Church . Founded in Melbourne , Victoria , in 1898, Sanitarium has factories in a number of locations across Australia and New Zealand , producing a large range of breakfast cereals and vegetarian products. All the food products it manufactures and markets are plant derived or vegetarian . Its flagship product is Weet-Bix , a top seller in the Australian and New Zealand breakfast cereal markets. Sanitarium has produced and marketed many food products throughout its 100+ year history, including peanut butter, vegetarian meals, snacks, and beverages. The company also operated health food shops in a number of cities, closing them in the 1980s. History Sanitarium factory at Cooranbong, New South Wales During his time in Australia, pioneer Adventist Ellen G. White 's son Willie con ...more...



Metso is a Finnish industrial machinery company focusing on providing technology and services for mining , aggregates , and oil and gas , recycling , pulp and paper and other process industries. The company employs 11,000 people in 50 countries. Metso’s shares are listed on the NASDAQ OMX Helsinki, Finland. History Metso was created through the merger of Valmet and Rauma Oy in 1999. In 2013, Metso demerged into two separate companies: Metso Corporation and Valmet Corporation. 1990s Metso was created on July 1, 1999 through the merger of Valmet, a paper and board machine supplier, and Rauma, which focused on fiber technology, rock crushing and flow control solutions. In 1998 Rauma’s businesses included: Timberjack forest machines Sunds Defibrator fiber technology equipment Nordberg rock crushers Neles Controls valve-control systems The new company had overlapping operations and to some extent the same customer base too. The purpose of the merger was the will to grow particularly in process technology. For a bi ...more...

Health impact of asbestos


Figure A shows the location of the lungs, airways, pleura, and diaphragm in the body. Figure B shows lungs with asbestos-related diseases, including pleural plaque, lung cancer, asbestosis, plaque on the diaphragm, and mesothelioma. Left-sided mesothelioma (seen on the right of the picture): chest CT All types of asbestos fibers are known to cause serious health hazards in humans. Amosite and crocidolite are considered the most hazardous asbestos fiber types; however, chrysotile asbestos has also produced tumors in animals and is a recognized cause of asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma in humans, and mesothelioma has been observed in people who were occupationally exposed to chrysotile, family members of the occupationally exposed, and residents who lived close to asbestos factories and mines. During the 1980s and again in the 1990s it was suggested at times that the process of making asbestos cement could "neutralize" the asbestos, either via chemical processes or by causing cement to attach to the fi ...more...

National Optical Fibre Network


The National Optical Fibre Network (NOFN) is a project initiated in 2011 and funded by Universal Service Obligation Fund to provide broadband connectivity to over two lakh (200,000) Gram panchayats of India at an initial cost of ₹20,000 crore ($3 billion). It aimed at using existing fiber optical network of Central utilities - BSNL , RailTel and Power Grid - to provide internet connectivity to gram panchayats. The project intended to enable the government of India to provide e-services and e-applications nationally. A special purpose vehicle Bharat Broadband Network Limited (BBNL) was created as a Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) under the Companies Act of 1956 for the execution of the project. The GPON order for BBNL to connect 200,000 villages was awarded to United Telecoms Limited (UTL). It was estimated to be completed by the end of 2013, but was revised to September 2015 by the UPA government. . Implementation The Indian government approved a cabinet note on the scheme to create the National Optical Fibe ...more...

Jazz Pakistan


Jazz ( Urdu : جاز ‬ ‎) is the largest mobile network in Pakistan formed by the merger of Mobilink and Warid . It provides a range of services for prepaid and postpaid customers to individual and corporate clients. Its Head Office is located in Islamabad, and the current CEO is Aamir Ibrahim. History Jazz was formerly known as Mobilink (PMCL), however in November 2015, it announced a merger with WaridTel Pakistan, both companies re-launched under the 'Jazz' brand name. Both merged companies now collectively serve 53 million subscribers in Pakistan with 37.5% of the total market share. Network Jazz has over 8500 active cell sites in the country, with over 6500 kilometers of Fiber Optic cable laid. Huawei , Nokia-Siemens , Alcatel and ZTE are the primary vendors for networking equipment at Jazz, including Radio Base Stations , Microwave equipment and network switches . Over 20 cities are also covered under Jazz's recently launched LTE service as well. Jazz uses Ericsson for its intelligent networks and Acision ...more...

Orange Polska


Orange Polska (formerly Telekomunikacja Polska ) is a Polish telecommunications provider established in December 1991. It is a public company traded on the Warsaw Stock Exchange , with a controlling stake owned by Orange S.A. , the latter controlling over 50% of this stake by 2002. It operates the following services: PSTN , ISDN , GSM 900/1800 network, ADSL , IDSL , Frame Relay , ATM and Inmarsat . History The company was established in December 1991 as a joint stock company of the State Treasury, following the division of the communist era state-owned entity Polish Post, Telegraph and Telephone. On January 1, 1992, the company was created under the name of 'TPSA'. The company changed its ownership structure in 1998 and began trading on the Warsaw Stock Exchange in 2000. In the same year, the Treasury sold a 35% stake in TPSA to a consortium of France Télécom and Kulczyk Holding , with the consortium increasing its stake by a further 12.5% in 2001. On 21 December 2007 company was fined PLN 75 million (approxi ...more...

Public switched telephone network


The public switched telephone network ( PSTN ) is the aggregate of the world's circuit-switched telephone networks that are operated by national, regional, or local telephony operators, providing infrastructure and services for public telecommunication . The PSTN consists of telephone lines , fiber optic cables , microwave transmission links, cellular networks , communications satellites , and undersea telephone cables , all interconnected by switching centers , thus allowing most telephones to communicate with each other. Originally a network of fixed-line analog telephone systems, the PSTN is now almost entirely digital in its core network and includes mobile and other networks, as well as fixed telephones. The technical operation of the PSTN adheres to the standards created by the ITU-T . These standards allow different networks in different countries to interconnect seamlessly. The E.163 and E.164 standards provide a single global address space for telephone numbers. The combination of the interconnected ...more...

Utility pole


A utility pole is a column or post used to support overhead power lines and various other public utilities, such as electrical cable , fibre optic cable , and related equipment such as transformers and street lights . It can be referred to as a transmission pole , telephone pole , telecommunication pole, power pole , hydro pole , telegraph pole , or telegraph post , depending on its application. A stobie pole is a multi-purpose pole made of two steel joists held apart by a slab of concrete in the middle, generally found in South Australia . Electrical wires and cables are routed overhead on utility poles as an inexpensive way to keep them insulated from the ground and out of the way of people and vehicles. Utility poles can be made of wood, metal, concrete, or composites like fiberglass . They are used for two different types of power lines; subtransmission lines which carry higher voltage power between substations, and distribution lines which distribute lower voltage power to customers. The first poles were ...more...

Underground storage tank


An Underground storage tank (UST) is, according to United States federal regulations, a storage tank , not including any underground piping connected to the tank, that has at least 10 percent of its volume underground. A horizontal cylindrical steel tank with a factory applied coating and galvanic anodes prior to installation underground. Definition in U.S. federal law "Underground storage tank" or "UST" means any one or combination of tanks including connected underground pipes that is used to contain regulated substances, and the volume of which including the volume of underground pipes is 10 percent or more beneath the surface of the ground. This does not include, among other things, any farm or residential tank of 1,100 gallons or less capacity used for storing motor fuel for noncommercial purposes, tanks for storing heating oil for consumption on the premises, or septic tanks . For USTs in service in the United States the EPA and states collectively require tank operators to take financial responsibilit ...more...

Neuf Cegetel


Neuf Cegetel was a French wireline telecommunications service provider and a mobile virtual network operator (MVNO). It offered various telecommunications services to consumers, enterprises and wholesale customers, ranking second in the country in annual revenues. It was legally established in 2005 following the completion of the merger between Neuf Telecom (formerly known as LDCOM) and Cegetel. As of June 2008, the company became a wholly owned subsidiary of SFR , and the brand disappeared commercially. History Origins LDCOM (the future Neuf Telecom) was established by the Louis Dreyfus Group in 1998, at the time of telecommunications deregulation, with a mission "to rapidly gain access to a network, penetrate into the center of the major urban areas, provide means of interconnection with the motorway networks, and offer the possibility of competitive long-distance links". At first it was present on the wholesale market only, providing services such as national and metro fiber networks, colocation and hostin ...more...



Mesothelioma is a type of cancer that develops from the thin layer of tissue that covers many of the internal organs (known as the mesothelium ). The most common area affected is the lining of the lungs and chest wall . Less commonly the lining of the abdomen and rarely the sac surrounding the heart , or the sac surrounding the testis may be affected. Signs and symptoms of mesothelioma may include shortness of breath due to fluid around the lung , a swollen abdomen, chest wall pain, cough, feeling tired, and weight loss. These symptoms typically come on slowly. More than 80% of mesothelioma cases are caused by exposure to asbestos . The greater the exposure the greater the risk. As of 2013 about 125 million people have been exposed to asbestos at work. High rates of disease occur in people who mine asbestos, produce products from asbestos, work with asbestos products, live with asbestos workers, or work in buildings containing asbestos. Asbestos exposure and the onset of cancer are generally separa ...more...

Telephone plug


A telephone plug is a type of connector used to connect a telephone set to the telephone wiring inside a building, establishing a connection to a telephone network. It is inserted into its counterpart, a telephone jack , commonly affixed to a wall or baseboard. The standard for telephone plugs varies from country to country, though the RJ11 modular connector has become by far the most common. A connection standard, such as RJ11, specifies not only the physical aspects of an electrical connector , but also the pinout , i.e. the assignment or function of each contact. Modular connectors are specified for the registered jack (RJ) series of connectors, as well as for Ethernet and other connectors, such as 4P4C (4 position, 4 contacts) modular connectors, the de facto standard on handset cords, often improperly referred to as RJ connectors. History Historically telephones were typically owned by the telephone company and were usually permanently wired to the telephone line . However, for many installations it ...more...

Internet in Denmark


In an international context Denmark is viewed as a somewhat peculiar country when it comes to internet access. The former state owned telephone company TDC owns the entire last mile infrastructure in terms of copper telephone lines and the vast majority of the coaxial cable infrastructure as well. Even though the Danish telecommunications infrastructure is very heavily dominated by one company, Danish internet customers still enjoy fair prices and a wide availability of different next generation access internet connections in comparison with most other EU countries. Furthermore, TDCs de facto monopoly on last mile infrastructure has come under attack. In the last decade regional power companies have formed national business alliances aimed at implementing FTTH for private and business end users. In 2012 Denmark was ranked third by OECD in terms of wired broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants (see the bar chart below). The same year 99,9 % of all households and companies were able to connect to the int ...more...

Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya


Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya (informally abbreviated DAVV ), is a State University whose jurisdiction was initially restricted to Indore city. Later on, its jurisdiction was extended to seven tribal dominated districts of Indore division namely, Jhabua , Alirajpur , Dhar , Khargone , Khandwa , Burhanpur and Barwani . It is thus catering to the educational needs of the most industrially developed district of Madhya Pradesh , Indore on one hand and to the seven tribal and rural backward districts of the State on the other. History Statue of Her Highness Maharani Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Ahilya Bai Sahiba at Datta Temple, Sahastra Dhara, Jalkoti Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya formerly University of Indore was established in 1964 by an Act of Legislature of Madhya Pradesh . His Excellency Dr. Zakir Hussain , then Vice President of India, inaugurated the university in 1964. The jurisdiction of the university was limited to Indore district . In 1988, the university was renamed after the Holkar Maharani ' Devi Ahil ...more...

Uttar Pradesh Textile Technology Institute


A view of Lal Imli factory Uttar Pradesh Textile Technology Institute (earlier known as Government Central Textile Institute), Kanpur is a premier Textile Institute of North India offering professional degrees of Bachelors and Masters of Technology, in branches of Textile Technology, Textile Chemistry and Man Made Fibre Technology, to students selected through a State Entrance Exam (UPSEE) conducted by Uttar Pradesh Technical University, every year. It made a modest start in 1914. About In 1937, Government Central Textile Institute came into existence in its present form by merger of two premier textile institutes: one at Kanpur and the other at Roorkee, i.e., Department of Textile Technology, Thomson Civil Engineering College of Roorkee. Diploma programmes were started in Textile Manufacture and Chemical Technology. In 1958/59 four-year degree programmes in Textile Technology & Textile Chemistry were started. Initially the institute was affiliated to Agra University. On establishment of the universit ...more...

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