Fiber to the premises by country

This article lists the deployment of fiber to the premises, fiber to the home and fiber to the building by country.

Africa
Kenya

In Kenya, the home entertainment and communication services provider, Zuku, offers fiber-based Triple-Play bundle (Broadband Internet, TV and phone) packages at speeds of 1, 10, 20 and 50 Mbit/s[1] in most areas of Nairobi and Mombasa.[2]

Another fiber service is Faiba provided by Jamii Telecommunications Ltd.(JTL).[3] They offer packages at speeds of 30, 50, 75 and 125 Mbit/s for residential customers[4] and 15, 25, 40, 60, 75 and 100 Mbit/s for businesses.[5]

34 out of the 47 counties of Kenya have been connected to the National Optical Fibre Backbone Infrastructure (NOFBI).[6][7][8]

Mauritius

As of September 2017, in terms of FTTH/B penetration, Mauritius was ranked 8th in the global ranking worldwide.[9] In Mauritius, the two ISPs that are currently providing FTTH are My.T and Bharat Telecom[10] with download speed of 10, 20, 30 and 100 Mbit/s.[11]

South Africa

Link Africa (formerly i3 Africa) announced plans to construct a FTTH network in South Africa covering 2.5 million premises in six cities (Durban, Cape Town, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, Bloemfontein, and Pretoria) by 2016 with minimum connection speeds of 100Mbit/s. The "open-access" network will allow third-party Internet service providers (ISPs) to sell services. Link Africa will not sell services directly to customers.[12] Telkom, South Africa's primary fixed line operator, currently has 10, 20, 40 and 100Mbit/s commercial FTTH service being installed in residential and commercial sites since December 2014.[13]

Tanzania

In Tanzania, Spark is the first ISP to offer FTTH to home users in the city of Dar es Salaam, their packages offer speeds of 2, 4 and 10 Mbit/s.[14]

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe operator TelOne is rolling out FTTH.[15]

Asia
Brunei

Telekom Brunei Berhad, the incumbent telecommunications operator in Brunei, commenced construction of a FTTH network in 2010 to replace their copper infrastructure, contracting with Huawei for construction. It will offer initial speeds up to 150Mbit/s.[16]

China

80% of China's broadband connection are by Fiber by the end of 2016 making China the world leader in FTTP.[17]

During APOC 2003 (Asia-Pacific Optical and Wireless Communications) held in Wuhan, Chinese telecom experts discussed FTTH in China. Topics included FTTH opportunities and challenges, FTTH applications, FTTH network architecture and cost analysis.

Hong Kong

As of April 2006, Hong Kong Broadband Network (HKBN, Chinese: 香港寬頻網絡有限公司), wholly owned subsidiary of City Telecom (H.K.) Limited, was offering its customers Internet access via fiber to the building and FTTH. Speeds ranged from 10-1000 Mbit/s, although the speed to non-Hong Kong destinations was capped at 20 Mbit/s.

In October 2007, the largest telecom company in Hong Kong, PCCW Limited (Chinese: 電訊盈科有限公司), the holding company of HKT Group Holdings Limited, a Hong Kong-based Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) company, started to offer both 100 Mbit/s and 1000 Mbit/s FTTH Internet consumer plans.

India

Fiber service is available from several providers:

Railwire, a subsidiary of Railtel owned by the Indian railways (government) is providing FTTH services in India.

India's first FTTH network was launched in December 2008 by New Delhi based Radius Infratel Private Limited. TTN Broadband First company to provide FTTH at Bangalore in 2010, Having 10000 and plus customers since 2014.

Beam Fiber or ACT Fibernet supplies FTTX services across the city of Hyderabad[18] with plans ranging from 1Mbit/s to 1Gbit/s as of April 2017.

Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), a state-owned telecommunications company, launched an FTTH service in Jaipur in late 2010.

Airtel[19] offers FTTH in a few areas of Delhi NCR. Nextra Teleservices offers FTTH in certain areas of Delhi NCR including Noida and Gurgaon.

An FTTH-based network project was commissioned at INS Shivaji, Lonavla on 29 Jul 2013.

FTTH services were launched in Chennai in the year May 2013 by OODOO communications[20]

FTTH services were launched in Indore in 2015..

Spectra provides FTTH for 100 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s in many cities like Gurgaon, Bangalore, Chennai, Mumbai, Pune etc.[21]

Reliance Industries Limited venture called Reliance Jio is to launch an FTTH service of up to speeds of 1 Gigabit per second in the top 100 cities of India.[22][23]

Indonesia

Telkom Indonesia Develop Fiber Internet IndiHome a Triple Play services which consists of Fiber Internet or High Speed Internet (Fast Internet), Interactive TV (UseeTV) and Phone (Home Phone). For most parts of Indonesia, IndiHome will be served by using 100% Fiber, FTTH network uses Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON) based networking technology.

Biznet Networks deployed FTTH service in Indonesia, the first in Southeast Asia. Biznet Metro's FTTH network uses Gigabit Ethernet Passive Optical Network (GE-PON) based networking technology. Supported by Nokia Siemens, the network is capable of delivering Triple Play services that consist of data (Internet or intranet), voice (VoIP), and video (interactive TV and multimedia) in a single infrastructure. This network is capable of supporting up to 1 Gbyte/s data transfer.

First Media, a company born from Lippo group's new $650 million investment in Internet in Indonesia, as well as cable television, began offering FTTH (using coaxial cable, not Optical fiber), branded as FastNet, on 8 September.

Japan

FTTH was introduced in 1999 and substantial growth began in 2001. In 2003–2004, FTTH accelerated, while DSL stagnated. DSL peaked in March 2006. 10.5 million FTTH connections were reported in September 2007.[24] On 17 September 2008, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications reported that FTTH connections (13.08 million connections) eclipsed DSL (12.29 million connections and declining) and became the most popular method of broadband connection at 45% of the total.[25]

FTTH started with a 10 Mbit/s (end-user rate) passive optical network (PON) by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) and 100 Mbit/s (end-user rate) with GEPON (Gigabit Ethernet-PON) or broadband PON in 2006. PON is NTT's major FTTH system but some competitive services offer 1 Gbit/s (at end-user rate) with SS (Single Star).

Major application services on fiber include voice over IP, video-IP telephony, IPTV (IP television), and general Internet access services.

As of April 2013, Sony ISP, known as So-Net, released a new fibre service to Tokyo for small businesses and homes and also made it available to six surrounding prefectures. It offered speeds of 2Gbit/s Download and 1Gbit/s Upload, which was until December 2014 the world's fastest home internet connection, since bettered by a Minneapolis, Minnesota service.

Malaysia

Telekom Malaysia (TM) officially launched FTTH on 24 March 2010. TM High Speed Broadband (HSBB) was released to end users in stages. The deployment from start to the connection of the first end user to the fiber network took only 18 months, which is the fastest ever in the world. The product name is UniFi and it initially offers speeds of 5, 10 and 20 Mbit/s under the VIP5, VIP10 and VIP20 brand name.[26] The packages were later revised to UniFi Advance (30 and 50Mbit/s) and UniFi Pro (100Mbit/s).[27] The fiber network is also leased out to competitors Maxis Communications and Packet One Networks. Maxis Communications offers speed of 10, 20 and 30 Mbit/s under the Maxis Home Broadband brand,[28] while Packet One Networks offers speeds identical to that of UniFi, but with a WiMAX USB modem and mobile bundled under the Fiber by P1 brand.[29] The network also carries two IPTV providers, HyppTV and Astro IPTV. The former is only available bundled with UniFi while the latter is only available bundled with Maxis Broadband.

TIME Fibre Broadband which is Officially launched on 2 February 2010 is a true fibre optic connectivity to home with speeds of 100Mbit/s, 300Mbit/s, 500Mbit/s. Time offer the FTTx services to the apartment Condominium residential only.

Pakistan

FTTH services entered Pakistan in July 2002 by NayaTel. Currently, FTTH services by Nayatel covers most parts of the twin cities Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Nayatel launched its operations in Faisalabad in November 2016.[30] The FTTH plans by Nayatel range from 3 Mbit/s to 10 Mbit/s.[31] Nayatel also provides PSTN and IPTV.

PTCL started offering FTTH services in Karachi and have expanded to Lahore and Islamabad/Rawalpindi.[32] The FTTH plans range from 8 Mbit/s to 100 Mbit/s.[33]

In 2015, FiberLink started offering its GPON services to the public. It is currently only available in Karachi and Lahore. Its plans range from 10 Mbit/s, up to 200 Mbit/s.[34]

StormFiber, a subsidiary of CyberNet, also offers FTTH services to customers in Karachi and Lahore. StormFiber provides TriplePlay Services which include high speed Fiber Broadband, IPTV and PSTN. Their plans range from 2 Mbit/s to 30 Mbit/s.[35]

Wateen, previously known for its WiMax network in Pakistan, has stopped offering WiMax and shifted its focus to its fiber network, under the name WiFibre. They offer HFC/GPON services in areas of Karachi, Lahore and Multan.[36]

Optix, which is powered by Multinet, has recently started its operations for FTTH in Karachi and Lahore. It offers TriplePlay plans with Phone service, TV and Internet, with speeds of 5 Mbit/s, 10 Mbit/s and 20 Mbit/s.[37]

Transworld Associates, commonly referred to as TWA owns a submarine communications cable linking Pakistan to the Middle East. In 2015, it started offering its own FTTH services to residents of DHA Phase 5 and 6 in Karachi. It offers only one plan of 30 Mbit/s, which can be taken as a standalone internet-only plan or with a combination of their Digital TV service.[38]

BrainNET is one of the oldest Internet Service Providers of Pakistan, which has recently upgraded its network infrastructure in Lahore to offer Fiber Broadband, it has plans ranging from 3 Mbit/s to 30 Mbit/s, it also offers phone services along with the internet plan. Currently they are only operating in Lahore and Multan.[39]

Philippines

FTTH services are offered by the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT), Converge ICT Solutions and Globe Telecom Wireless Link Technoligies, Inc .

Initial tests done by PLDT showed download speeds of up to 94.86 Mbit/s and upload rates of 69.39 Mbit/s. Pilot areas for PLDT's service included Bonifacio Global City in Taguig, Forbes Park, Urdaneta Village, Dasmariñas Village in Makati City, Ayala Heights in Quezon City, Wack Wack in San Juan, Valle Verde in Mandaluyong and certain areas covered by PLDT in Subic and Clark freeports.[40]

As of 2015, the maximum plan for their connection is now at 1Gbit/s, while plans for lower speeds are scheduled for upgrades in the near future. As of 2017, they are aggressively increasing network presence in an attempt to improve internet speed and services, decried as one of the worst in Asia, apart from rivalry from other companies.

Globe Telecom deployed GPON pilot projects in 2009 for areas in Bonifacio Global City, Forbes park, Bel-Air and Urdaneta Village. After a hiatus in deployment, Globe is now rolling out FTTH services prominently in Metro Manila, and other nearby areas. Subsidiaries under Globe such as BayanTel now have fiber optic plans under the Globe branding.

Converge ICT offers similar Fiber Optic connectivity and is progressively rolling out services. They are initially available in Manila and neighboring cities. They are notable for offering 25 Mbit/s for PHP 1,500, with comparable if not better service.

Singapore

Multiple Internet service providers offer FTTH plans from 100Mbit/s to 10Gbit/s.There are six main players providing FTTH services in Singapore. Among them four ISPs offer speeds up to 10 Gigabit per second speeds (Viewqwest, SuperInternet, M1 and Singtel). M1 and Singtel use XG-PON for FTTH services (10 Gbit/s download and 2.5 Gbit/s upload speeds) whereas SuperInternet uses Optical Ethernet technology and ViewQwest has Metro Ethernet as the technology for FTTH (10Gbit/s symmetrical).[41][42][43][44][45][46] MyRepublic and StarHub are the other ISPs that offer speeds up to 1 Gbit/s.[47][48]

South Korea

FTTP in South Korea is offered by various Internet service providers including KT (formerly Korea Telecom), SK Broadband (formerly Hanaro Telecom) and LG U+ (formerly LG Powercom). The connection speed for both downloading and uploading is set to be 100 Mbit/s.

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka Telecom offers FTTH/FTTB in Sri Lanka. In April 2014, Sri Lankan operator Sri Lanka Telecom launched a 100 Mbit/s FTTH service.[49]

Taiwan

Chunghwa Telecom offers FTTB in Taiwan. Taiwan had the world's fourth highest FTTB penetration rate.

Thailand
Uzbekistan

Beeline Uzbekistan offers service in Tashkent, Zarafshan and Uchquduq with bandwidth of 100 Mbit/s for TAS-IX and 2 Mbit/s for other connections. UzOnline, a state-run ISP, and Sarkor Telecom also offer service in Tashkent.

Europe
Andorra

Andorra Telecom operates a country-wide fiber optic network delivering internet, TV, movies on demand and telephone service.[50] Internet access operates at 100 Mbit/s. The FTTH network is being used to replace copper loops, with telephony only subscribers being offered FTTH boxes to replace their copper PSTN line. Almost 100% of the country is covered. Andorra has some remote residences situated beyond the distance supported by DSL.

Bulgaria

As of Nov 2017 Mobiltel became a major provider, covering more than 40 major markets with max speeds of 1 Gbit/s via GPON.[51]

Vivacom is expanding coverage for Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna, Burgas and Stara Zagora and 20 smaller markets with speeds up to 1 Gbit/s.[52]

FTTH in Bulgaria is being deployed by Coolbox (formerly ITD Network). Covering 3 markets as of 2017.

Other ISP's that were used local area networks to deliver broadband are upgrading their networks and now offer fiber-to-the-curb. FTTH is now available in most cities with population over 10,000 offered by variety of local players.

Croatia

The first provider to offer FTTH in Croatia was Vodatel. In September 2006, Vodatel service was available in Zagreb. The service offered symmetrical 2/5/10 Mbit/s speeds in Triple Play packages. As of mid 2009 T-com.hr partly equipped a 28 floor building in Rijeka with fiber. The building was a test site and the service was initially offered free of charge.

Cyprus

In 2007, the largest telecommunication provider in Cyprus, the Cyprus Telecommunication Authority (CYTA), signed a contract with Ericsson for a rollout of FTTH.[53]

Czech Republic

FTTH services include in Prague, a FTTH 1/10/100 Mbit/s service called ViaGia provided by T-Systems is available in newer homes built by CentralGroup. UPC provides Triple Play Services over FTTH in new buildings.[54]

In December 2013, Czech operator CentroNet, a.s. launched a 1Gbit/s FTTH service in Prague.[55]

In Brno, SMART Company offers service branded NETBOX.[56] Other networks operate in Brno, Frýdek-Místek, Šumperk and Most.

Denmark

As of 2006, FTTH was being installed in Denmark in the northern parts of Zealand north and west of Copenhagen. The installation was being performed by the power company DONG Energy as part of a project to convert their airborne power infrastructure into one consisting of underground cables. Their plans called for a completion date of 2010, after which they expected to expand FTTH installation to areas that fell outside of the scope of the power infrastructure conversion project. However, DONG Energy does not provide access to Internet, television, or telephone services by themselves – other providers rent the cable to provide the end customer with anything ranging from simple POTS-like telephony to triple play. As of 2014, FTTH is available through Waoo which is a consortium of 13 regional electric companies throughout the country. Stofa also offers fiber to the home service. Several apartment complexes also offer FTTH. DONG Energy sold its fiber to TDC which leases access to Waoo.

Estonia

As of 2010, FTTH networks are fully developed and commercially available in select locations in Estonia. Speeds up to 300 Mbit/s downstream and 300 Mbit/s upstream are commercially available for €33 a month. The same network delivers digital television and is usually marketed as a "home package" (Internet, digital television and landline phone). The price for ADSL2 connection operating at 12/1 Mbit/s is €21 a month. In all cases, TV and Internet share the overall bandwidth, so the more active TV tuners in use at a given time, the less bandwidth is available for Internet use. Since 2013 AS Starman has been offering connections with 200 Mbit/s downstream and 20 Mbit/s upstream, at a cost of approximately €26 per month.

Finland

TeliaSonera offers FTTH in some urban areas of Finland, launching a 1 Gbit/s service for €99 per month.[57] Anvia provides FTTH in some areas of Vaasa and surroundings.[58]

DNA offers FTTH and coaxial 1 Gbit/s services in most urban areas of Finland for €49.90 per month.[3][4]

France

France had 4 million FTTH homes in 2015, and will increase this to 20 million FTTH homes in 2022. Deployments include:

  • In June 2006, Orange launched a test program for FTTH in some arrondissements of Paris. It proposed up to 2.5 Gbit/s downstream and 1.2 Gbit/s upstream per 30 users using PON for €70 a month.
  • On 1 March 2007, Orange released their first commercial FTTH offer in Paris at €45 a month for a 100 Mbit/s Internet connection (flat rate) and a set of services including telephone over IP and television. The fiber installation is free.
  • In September 2006, Free announced a €30 a month triple play offer including 100 Mbit/s Internet connection, free phone calls to 42 countries and high-definition television. The roll-out of this service was planned for May 2007, but wide offering was postponed to September. It will be available first in Paris, then other French towns including Montpellier, Lyon and Valenciennes as well as certain Paris suburbs.
  • A residential fibre service had been deployed in the 15th Arrondissement (borough) of Paris by Cité Fibre. Bandwidth allocated to each user was 100 Mbit/s with 30 Mbit/s reserved for Internet traffic. The package included digital television and VoIP telephone services along with unlimited Internet starting at €49 per month. The 15th Arrondissement was probably selected for its comparatively high residential population. Cité Fibre was bought by Free in October 2006 and merged into Free's own FTTH project.
  • In 2003 Erenis launched an offer of FTTB at 100 Mbit/s in January 2007 including triple play. Erenis was bought by Neuf on 2 April 2007 and this company is planning to offer a 50 Mbit/s triple play service for €29.90 starting at once.[59]
  • In July 2007 Neuf announced it will only use FTTH in new deployments and that the existing Erenis FTTB users would be switched to FTTH at some time in the future. Neuf also acquired Mediafibre, a company which sold fibre optic access is Pau, France, in January 2007.
  • In La Réunion island: in June 2013, Zeop launched a 35Mbit/s FTTH service on a first zone on the island. In April 2014, the bandwidth has been upgraded up to 100Mbit/s.[60][61][62][63]
  • In October 2013 Free and SFR have upgraded their FTTH bandwidth to 1000 Mbit/s download and 200 Mbit/s upload.
  • In April 2014, Orange commercialised a higher package with 500 Mbit/s download and 200 Mbit/s upload. Bouygues Telecom, who tested FTTH in some cities since 2012, officially announced 1000/200 FTTH packages at 25,99 €/month in November. There are available in the biggest French cities for now.

The ARCEP (Electronic Communications and Postal services Regulation Authority) announced in September 2014 3.7 million homes were able to subscribe to FTTH.

Georgia

FTTH networks in Georgia (country) are being quickly deployed growing from just 11% coverage in 2011 to 49% by the end of 2016 with 25% of households having service subscription. Speeds up to 100 Mbit/s downstream and 100 Mbit/s upstream are commercially available for 100 GEL a month, but entry packages start at 10 GEL a month. Fixed broadband market is dominated by two biggest players Silknet and MagtiCom (who in 2016 acquired biggest fixed player Caucasus Online).

Greece

In September 2008, Transport and Communications Minister Kostas Hatzidakis announced plans to provide FTTH to 2 million homes in Athens, Thessaloniki and 50 other cities across Greece by 2013, at a cost of €2.1 billion and at speeds of "at least" 100 Mbit/s.[64] Starting 2016 no Greek ISP offers more than 50Mbit/s of download speed, with the exception of one ISP announcing plans for 100Mbit/s towards the end of 2016 in some location.

Hungary

In 2009, Magyar Telekom was the largest FTTH provider in the country. Fiber-optic services are available in the inner districts of Budapest and other major cities such as Győr and Sopron. By 2011 the fiber-optic network will be extended to 800,000 households.

Iceland

FTTH is being deployed by Gagnaveita Reykjavikur (GR), a subsidiary of Orkuveita Reykjavíkur (Reykjavik Power Company). By March 2006, they had begun connecting the towns of Seltjarnarnes, Akranes and parts of the Capital Region. At that time they expected to have 50% of Reykjavik connected by 2008 and all of the Capital Region, Seltjarnes, Akranes, Mosfellsbær, Þorlákshöfn and Hveragerði connected by 2012. However, deployment in other areas was pending waiting for agreements with city officials. GR only owned the FTTH network; ISP services were provided by HIVE, Skýrr and Vortex. As of July 2006, VoIP service were available from HIVE. By March 2007, Vodafone Iceland was providing ISP and VoIP services and had introduced video via its Digital Iceland broadcasting system, while Skýrr had stopped providing ISP services. The FTTH connections were 100 Mbit/s, but as of January 2015 all new connections are 1Gbit/s. As of October 2016 there are 6 different ISP offer internet services ranging from 10Mbit/s to 1Gbit/s using the GR FTTH network.

In March 2006, the monthly cost of FTTH was 1.990 ISK (approx 26 US dollars), not including any services. This was somewhat more expensive than having a phone line in the house which at the time cost 1.340 ISK (approx 18 US dollars) but because the service providers need less equipment to provide services on the FTTH network the total price of services (access network price+service price) was similar. By June 2009, the monthly cost of FTTH had risen to 2.390 ISK (approx 19 US dollars at the time), not including any services. By comparison, having a phone line in the house had dropped to 1.147 ISK (approx $9 US dollars) by that time. Still total service prices for consumers has remained similar.

Other smaller FTTH providers are Míla which operates in recently developed areas in the Capital Region, Gagnveita Skagafjarðar which operates in Sauðárkrókur and Tengir in Akureyri and its vicinity.

Ireland

OpenEir, the wholesale arm of Eir, Ireland's largest telecommunications company, is rolling out an FTTH network. This service provides up to 1Gbit/s down and 100 Mbit/s up.[65] and is in addition to a very widespread FTTC network, which offers speeds of 100Mbit/s down and 30Mbit/s. The FTTC network was built with enough fibre to each cabinet to future-proof them for eventual FTTH deployment.

Siro, a joint venture between the state owned power company ESB Group and Vodafone Ireland, is also rolling out 1 Gbit/s FTTH download and 150Mbit/s upload to 500,000 properties in Ireland by 2018.[66] This network uses ESB's physical electrical distribution network to carry fibres through ducts and on poles directly into homes and offices.

Both of these networks are being operated on a wholesale basis and end users can select from a range of different ISPs and IP television providers and a wide range of service for residential and business users.

Ireland's FTTH rollout faces particular challenges as the country's housing stock has a high percentage of individual homes built at quite low density. This necessitates far more civil engineering works to bring fibre to every home than would be the case in a country with a predominance of dense apartment type developments. However, this is being overcome using innovative solutions like running fibre through existing power line ducts and using mixtures of underground and arial cable.

Italy

In Italy, FTTH has been deployed by FASTWEB since 1999 in selected areas of Milan, Rome, Naples, Genova, Bologna and a few other cities, however they aren't planning to deploy any more FTTP as DSL deployment is far cheaper. Where FTTP is available, they have offered a triple play service on a 10/10 Mbit/s Internet connection since 2010. Fastweb started offering FTTP customers the option to upgrade to 100/50 Mbit/s at a small additional fee. Telecom Italia announced, in March 2008, they would deploy FTTH in 140,000 homes in Milan, by the end of 2008 and in 10 cities the following year at speeds up to 1 Gbit/s. As of November 2015 the state-of-the-art internet connection is represented by Vodafone fibre, the availability of which is limited to some areas of Milan and Bologna, reaching speeds of 1 Gbit/s in download and 200 Mbit/s in upload. This is a FTTH, just like the 100/50 connections provided by Fastweb in a bunch of cities. Most of other connections advertised as fibre are actually FTTC / VDSL (Telecom Italia is currently offering 30/3 and 50/10 connections, whereas Fastweb goes up to 200/20 and Vodafone reaches 100/20). As it might be expected, the real speed is about 20% less than the advertised speed in the case of FTTC. Fiber for Italy initiative: The initiative has the stated goal of offering 100 Mbit/s symmetrical connections to 10 million Italian subscribers across 15 cities by 2018 and up to 1Gbit/s for business customers.[67][68] It involves operators Wind, Tele2, Vodafone, and Fastweb. An ongoing pilot project in the Italian capital Rome delivers symmetrical speeds of up to 100 Mbit/s to small businesses. Telecom Italia (the largest Italian operator) is not a participant in the Fiber for Italy program, but has independently committed to provide ultra-highspeed broadband up to 100 Mbit/s symmetrical connections to 50 percent of the country's population (138 cities) by 2018.[69] Both Fiber for Italy participants and Telecom Italia are working with Advanced Digital Broadcast to provide residential gateway technology with embedded fiber termination. Since 2006, Television Sierre SA[70] deploys a FTTH network in most municipalities in the district of Sierre, Switzerland. Triple Play services are offered to the public under the brand Vario.[71]

Latvia

In Q1 2009, Lattelecom launched FTTH services with up to 100 Mbit/s speeds, initially available in Riga. By November 2009, the speed was increased to 500 Mbit/s in selected areas, however by October 2013 it was increased to 1 Gbit/s. In Q1 2013, the company's FTTH service covered 450,000 households across Latvia.[72][73]

Lithuania

FTTH is provided in all major and smaller cities (~30 of them) of Lithuania, mainly by Telia and some smaller local providers. Teo LT is a former state telecom operator now owned by TeliaSonera and according to the local regulatory agency their data communications business accounts for ~69% of the total data service revenue in Lithuania for 2009. They sell FTTH under the brand ZEBRA, there were 63,000 subscribers connected via FTTH at the end of 2009,[74] and there are plans for most residents in the three largest cities, Vilnius (95%), Kaunas (70%) and Klaipėda (95%), to be able to connect to FTTH by the end of 2010. According to the FTTH European Rankings] of the FTTH Council Europe published 24 February 2010, Lithuania leads Europe in FTTH connectivity with 18% penetration, followed by Sweden, Norway and Slovenia.[75]

Macedonia

In Macedonia, as of 2015 Makedonski Telekom is the largest among the various FTTH providers in the country. Fiber-optic services are currently available in the larger cities in the country, as well as some rural areas. The service offers symmetrical 40/50/60/1000 Mbit/s speeds in triple play and double play packages.[76]

Moldova

In Moldova FTTx has been deployed by StarNet and Arax since 2006 and Moldtelecom since 2008 in the city of Chișinău at first and other towns and regional centers later. Since then the network grew fast due to healthy competition between two top ISP's in the country – StarNet and Moldtelecom. The result of this competition is that in 2013 FTTx became the dominant access technology in the country and it remains so to this day, holding nearly 60% of the broadband market in 2017.[77] There are multiple local and only two country-wide ISP's (StarNet and Moldtelecom) that offer Internet access via FTTx. StarNet and Moldtelecom both offer 100/100Mbit (and higher) Internet connection via FTTx in cities of Chișinău and Bălți as well as all other large towns and regional centers with prices of around €10 per month.[78][79]

Montenegro

Montenegring Agency for Electronic Communications and Postal Services started reporting about number of FTTx connections for the first time in September 2011. In January 2015 13.16% of all Internet connections in Montenegro (cellular network excluded) were FTTx connections.[80] By connection type, ADSL was leading with 71.17% usage rate. Of all FTTx connections 62.31% were FTTH, 36.22% were FTTB and 1.47% were FTTC.[81] Crnogorski Telekom which is part of Deutsche Telekom group is holding majority of the FTTx market. Crnogorski Telekom is providing FFTx services only in form of FTTH connections and it is only FTTH service provider in country. FTTB connections are offered by Cable television service providers.

Netherlands

In The Netherlands in the city of Eindhoven and a nearby village of Nuenen, there is a large network with 15 000 connections. Triple play is offered. Houses and companies are connected with single-mode fibre. The network is owned by the members themselves, who formed a corporation. The first European FTTH project was also in Eindhoven in a neighborhood known as the "Vlinderflats". This was a multi-mode fibre but was in 2005 changed to single-mode fibre. FTTH resulted in new broadband services; the inhabitants started their own broadband TV station called VlinderTV.

Since October 2006 fibre optic connections are being deployed in the city of Amsterdam. In the first phase of the deployment there are some 40,000 connections planned with the first ones being available for connection to end users in February 2007. The network is rolled out in the boroughs of Zeeburg, Oost and Osdorp. The owner of the network is GNA CV, the operator is BBned, a subsidiary of Telecom Italia. BBned operates as a non-discriminating wholesaler of capacity to service providers. This setup, with a structural separation of ownership of the network and the delivery of services, ensures that the network is open to all.

Also, another company is building new FTTH networks in Arnhem, Nijmegen, Amersfoort, Hilversum, Soest, Leiden and Utrecht. These networks are almost completed. The first home was connected around March 2005. If all goes according to plan, the last home in these networks will be connected in June 2007. These networks also provide triple play services. Internet connection speed varies from 24, 48 and 100 Mbit/s (up and down).

The city of Deventer will be the first city in The Netherlands which will be fully connected with FTTH, at the end of 2009. Already in the first quarter of 2009, more than half of the roughly 100,000 citizens are able to use the FTTH services. Single play, double play and triple play are offered, with speeds of 35 and 50 Mbit/s. In the near future, these speeds will be upgraded to 50 and 100 Mbit/s respectively.[82]

In the last couple of years a wide deployment has been undertaken by Dutch firm Reggefiber. However, in 2013 Reggefiber was acquired by KPN and rollouts have been significantly less since then.

Norway

A lot of compaines currently provide FTTH/FTTP in Norway for consumers and businesses.[83] The maximum speed offered is 10Gbits symmetrical.

Poland

As of February 2017, Orange delivers FTTH to 0.1 million Polish customers and plans to expand this number to 3.5 million households.[84]

Portugal

Vodafone are rolling our FTTH to 2.75 million homes (2/3 of the country) by the end of 2016.

ZON was created from TVCabo's spin-off from Portugal Telecom. Subsequently, a large group of smaller cable operators was bought into the new company. TVTEL was the first Portuguese ISP to offer FTTH services initially in Oeiras (near Lisbon) and also in Porto, Pluricanal is another ISP that offers this kind of access in some neighborhoods on the outskirts of Lisbon. Both TVTel and Pluricanal are now a part of ZON. ZON based its current expansion program not on the FTTH network, but in upgrading the HFC (cable) network to Eurodocsys3.0 at 200 Mbit/s on cable and 1 Gbit/s using FTTH.

But since 2012, ZON has been acquired by NOS [85]

Sonaecom with Optimus Clix Fibra[86] was the arguably the first to invest in a large-scale fiber optical network, to cover 1,000,000 people by 2011, the triple-play packages includes maximum speeds of 360/36 Mbit/s (down/upstream), TV with +150 channels over FTTH and IPTV. The company was first to offer such service in Portugal. Currently after ZON and NOS were merged , they have about 4 million customers and now offering up to 1000/100 Mbit/s (down/upstream), TV with +150 channels with 4K ability over FTTH and IPTV.

Portugal Telecom launched the FTTH service in May 2009, Meo Fibra[87] offers a triple-play service at a maximum speed (for now) of 1000/200 Mbit/s (download/upload), more than 200 TV channels over IPTV and VoIP phone; the coverage is still limited, but the expansion of the fiber is still underway across the country. They are planning to finish the expansion by 2020. A special notice should be mentioned about the late development of PT FTTH network since due to previous "unbundling" problems of the copper DSL network only after getting a guarantee from the respective authorities (Anacom) that they would not be mandated to give free/open access to other companies in their network.

Romania

In Romania, FTTH was first deployed in Timişoara by RDS. Currently, it is available in every major city. The name of the service is FiberLink. There are 4 subscription plans: FiberLink 100, FiberLink 300, FiberLink 500 and FiberLink 1000. For Home use, it is available since 2007, first only in some regions, but quickly expanded. All major operators, RCS&RDS, UPC, and Telekom are providing FTTH, with speed up to 1000 Mbps, but not in all counties and not in all cities and part of the counties sometimes not even in some cities or part of some cities. Offered only in big cities and the surroundings. To the present day, RCS&RDS is the biggest FTTH provider, mounting ONT equipment to the final user destination, followed by UPC and Telekom. In some regions, FTTH may be available but with smaller bandwidth than in big cities ( mainly in some rural areas were FTTH may be only up to 20 Mbps and analogue television in some isolated zones, sometimes even very small towns). Except major operators, some smaller providers of Internet & CATV are implementing or beginning to implement FTTH or had it implemented. It is used for Internet, Cable Television, IP TV, and fixed telephone. Speed reaches up to 1 Gbps at the user, HD channels over CATV or IPTV and analogue CATV, and telephony ( even IP telephony). FTTH is used both for business and home use services.

Russia

In Russia the ER-Telecom company started construction of the FTTH network, "Universal City Telecommunication Network" (UCTN), in Perm. The following services are offered over UCTN:

  • Cable Television «Divan-TV»
  • High-speed broadband Internet Access «DOM.RU»
  • IP-telephony «GORSVYAZ»
  • Services for corporations («home office» service, videoconference connection, telemetry collecting service etc.).
Serbia

In Serbia Targo Telekom offers FTTH access to residents in Stara Pazova and New Belgrade. The offer includes both Internet access and television. Speed ranges from 10/5Mbit/s, 20/10Mbit/s, 40/20Mbit/s, 80/40Mbit/s and 120/60Mbit/s. Thunder and Warp plans include speeds of up to 2.5/1.5Gbit/s.[88]

Serbia Broadband has also announced plans to connect 50,000[89] residential customers to its FTTH service called Fiber Power by the end of the year.

Slovakia

In Slovakia FTTH was first deployed in Bratislava, Piešťany and Trnava by Orange. End user speed is 70/8 Mbit/s (down/up). The service is Orange Doma.

FTTx connectivity is available in Michalovce by GeCom, s.r.o, which offers FTTB+ETTH variant at speeds up to 33/33 Mbit/s (down/up).

FTTx connectivity is available in Košice by Antik computers and communications, which offers FTTH variant speeds up to 1000/1000 Mbit/s (down/up).

In 2010 coverage was up to 310,000 households, almost 19% of the country. At the end of 2011 the major operators (Orange, Deutsche Telekom) covered up to 350,000 households. Since 2013 Orange has offered 250/250 Mbit/s. Another ISPs, Bonet and Vnet offer symmetrical 1 Gbit/s for only €25/€22 respectively .[90][91]

Kosovo

In Kosovo, FTTN (N=Neighborhood) has been deployed by Telecom Kosovo since 2000 in selected areas of Pristina, Peja, Prizren, Mitrovica, Ferizaj, Gjilan and other cities in Kosovo. More than 800 km connects 50 locations in MASH topology, in 2010 Telecom Kosovo introduced Triple-Play for its customers.

Slovenia

In Slovenia, FTTH was first deployed in Kranj by T-2. Currently optical fiber infrastructure for FTTH is being built by Gratel and Telekom Slovenije in Šenčur, Ljubljana, Koper, Portorož, Novo Mesto, Murska Sobota, Maribor, Slovenska Bistrica, Velenje, Nova Gorica and Jesenice. The plan by both companies is to cover all the major and smaller towns first before they roll out fiber to suburbs. T-2 FTTH speed ranges from 10/10Mbit/s (€23/month), 20/20Mbit/s (€30/month), 50/50Mbit/s (€41/month), 100/10Mbit/s (€29/month), 100/100Mbit/s (€51/month), 200/200Mbit/s (€200/month), 500/500Mbit/s (€500/month), and up to 1 Gbit/s (€1,000/month). Telekom Slovenije (national ISP) offers FTTH speeds from 20/20Mbit/s (€33/month), 60/60Mbit/s (€87/month) and 100/100Mbit/s (€147).

In mid 2011, T-2 finished negotiations with Gratel to greatly expand FTTH penetration in its home city Maribor, where the T-2's main offices are located. The expanditure is rumored to connect more than 25,000 new households including skyscrapers in the city's south center area Tabor (the right/south side of the river). The construction started immediately and is continuing rapidly.[92]

Spain

Spain will have completely converted its telephone network to FTTH by 2020.[93] In 2015 it had 10 million homes connected with FTTH.

In Spain the first FTTH network commercially deployed is in the mining valleys of Asturias. The network has an Open Access FTTH Network architecture allowing end users to select from several different service providers called Red Asturcón.[94]

The Guifi.net Foundation is providing Fiber from the Farms (FFTF) in Gurb (Catalonia), a FFTH service, symmetric at 1 Gbit/s in both the downstream and upstream directions.[95]

Telefónica-Movistar is also providing GPON-based FTTH services, ranging from 50 Mbit/s (downstream) and 5 Mbit/s (upstream) to 100 and 10 Mbit/s.

Movistar now offers 300Mbit/s symmetric in more than 16 million households and businesses all over the country planning to reach 100% coverage by 2020. From 2016 FTTH lines surpassed ADSL customers with more than 3 million. Movistar is also the major carrier in all technologies according to the Spanish regulator, CNMC.[96]

Now 2018 Vodafone offers 1Gbps por 65 euros a month

Sweden

Sweden has a vast number of installed FTTH connections both in rural and suburban areas. Municipalities and private companies are using blown fiber and cable in metro networks. For metro networks, fibre cable are used with fibre counts ranging from eight to 96 SM and blown fibre with bundles of 8 fibers or less, for connecting houses and apartments. Competitors to Telia, the Swedish incumbent, helped to drive the early development of fiberbased broadband installations made by Bredbandsbolaget and others. For instance by municipality owned power companies and housing corporations.

Stokab, Stockholm's city-owned network company, is the owner of one of the largest dark fiber city networks in Europe. Ribbon cables, new micro cables and blown fiber used by Stokab, are facilitating the installation. New smart network designs, cuts construction costs and eliminates the need to dig up streets and sidewalks to connect building properties one by one. Stokab installs a fibre optic cable from its metro network into the basement of a building where it terminates all the fibres from the street. From the termination box Stokab then installs a multiduct with micro ducts that goes through all the basements on the block to form a ring. Each building has a ‘delivery point’ from which Stokab can connect a micro duct when the building owner wants fibre.

Stokab connected 10 city blocks in central Stockholm during 2006, each with about 250 apartments. Stokab plans to connect 100 more blocks in 2007–2008. Some of the biggest scale projects are now built in Stockholm, where housing corporations use micro duct to blow cable and fiber to connect tenants. In Stockholm, housing corporations (Svenska Bostäder, Stockholmshem, Familjebostäder) will connect more than 100,000 apartments over the coming years forming the worlds largest Open Fiber To The Home network. Tenants can choose among competing service providers of Internet, telephony and TV.

The dominating active FTTH technology used in Sweden is AON, some few PON based projects are also up and running. A standard for national certification of fiber installers has been formed in order to keep high installation quality and lower maintenance costs. As of March 2009, Sweden has 8% of households connected with fiber, making Sweden number one in Europe FTTH-wise.

In Autumn 2010, Sweden is due to launch 1 Gbit/s in some areas for 999SEK per month.[97]

Switzerland

In Switzerland, fiber is available in major cities and some other municipalities.[98] In 2013, most fiber users had 100 Mbit/s connections, and by the end of 2013, 700,000 fiber customers were eligible for gigabit FTTH access through Swisscom. By 2015, 1 million of Swisscom's customers had FTTH, 500,000 had FTTS or FTTB, with a further 800,000 customers having at least 100 Mbit/s through vectored DSL. 80% of households are scheduled to have at least 100 Mbit/s by 2020, however it is not yet clear which technology will be used.[99] Swisscom is currently the leading investor having invested 1.75 billion CHF in 2013, however there are currently over 80 other registered fiber optic providers, composed of national providers, and smaller community/regional ones that also plan to expand the fiber network.[100]

Swiss ISP Offers 10 Gbps Broadband, TV & Phone for 50eur/month

Turkey

In Turkey, Tellcom started its FTTB service "QuikNET" on December 2007. The initial tariff had 100/100 Mbit/s service at a price of 109 TL/month (~=73 $/month).[101]

Superonline (an ADSL operator) acquired Tellcom on 5 January 2009 and continued the fiber internet service on highly populated buildings, along with its ADSL service. The name of the fiber Internet service is "Superonline Fiber Internet". Currently offered tariffs are 10/1 Mbit/s (99 TL/month ~= 65 $/month), 20/5 Mbit/s (199TL ~= 135 $/month), 50/5 Mbit/s (399TL ~= 265 $/month and 100/5 Mbit/s (599TL ~=400 $/month). Tariffs include low priced fiber packages with download quotas and after quota limits are reached, extra downloads cost fees depending on the amount of the download (9.4 TL / GB =~ 6.$3 / GB). Finally there are packages with "fair use policy" which limit the fiber speed to 512/128 kbit/s once download caps are reached. The download caps are set at 5 times the download speed and 10 times the upload speed in terms of GB (As an example, 10/1 Mbit/s "fair use" tariff has 50 GB/10 GB fair usage quotas).[102]

Superonline's "fair use policy" tariffs, price increases for the unlimited tariffs (73 $/month to 400 $/month for the 100 Mbit unlimited tariff) and the reduced upload speeds from symmetrical upload speed to 5 Mbit upload speed have created a controversy[103] among its users and a protest group was formed condemning Superonline for its actions.[104]

Superonline announced on its April 2010 monthly bill[105] that after 15 June 2010, all upload speeds will be decreased to 1 Mbit/s for the fiber internet tariffs. This includes the 20/5 Mbit/s, 50/5 Mbit/s, and 100/5 Mbit/s tariffs, thus after 15 June 2010, these tariffs will be 20/1 Mbit/s, 50/1 Mbit/s and, 100/1 Mbit/s. The 100/1 service with a download to upload ratio of 100:1 is the most asymmetrical fiber connection in the world. However, on 15 May 2010, Superonline sent an e-mail to its customers stating that the announcement on the bills was a "technical glitch" which should be ignored. This incident decreased Superonline's credibility among its fiber internet customers.

Superonline announced on 9 July 2010 that customers would be discriminated according to their internet service starting dates. Customers who started using fiber internet before 15 March 2010 will not be affected by the "fair usage policy", thus they will be able to download unlimited data while paying half the price of unlimited tariffs or in other words paying the same price as a fair usage limited user and downloading unlimited data.[106]

Superonline tariffs in 2013 are 25/5, 50/5, 100/5 and 1000/20Mbit/s. The cheapest prices are 49 TL ($27) for 25Mbit/s, 89 TL ($45) for 50Mbit/s, 109 TL ($55) for 100Mbit/s and 999TL ($504) for 1Gbit/s.[107] The 1Gbit/s packet is unlimited in any means. The fair usage policy affects all packages except the 1Gbit/s tariff. The company has been heavily criticised for fair usage policy. The network's main drawback is it is coverage. No significant expansions were made by far. Although residents can fill the form for the fibre coverage, there is really low chance that this will affect future plans of the company.

Ukraine

In Ukraine the first FTTH project was launched in Odessa in 2006 by Comstar-Ukraine, LLC, a local branch of Comstar-UTS, Russia. The project aimed to prepare a basic network for TriplePlay service deployment. Along with the broadband internet service on April 2008 Comstar-Ukraine presented to the market the first Ukraine commercial IPTV project, which presently supports HDTV and Dolby 5.1 sound.

Later in 2007 a FTTP project in Kyiv was deployed by Svitonline/Golden Telecom. Svitonline proposed tariffs: "Hourly": 20₴ (€2,70)/month, 25 hours included, ₴1 (€0,01)./hour above included. "Standard": 80₴ (€10,81)/month, 11 GiBs included, ₴0,01 (€0,001)/MiB above included. "Unlimited": 200₴ (€27)/month. Speed for all of the tariffs is 100 Mbit/s.

As of 2015, nationwide FTTH GPON network is operated by Velton Telecom, which offers SLA for rates of 10, 25 and 50 MBit/s, and non-SLA rates of 50 and 100 MBit/s, with an optional triple-play (telephony and IPTV) package.

United Kingdom (and dependencies)
United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom:

  • In 2008, H2O Networks, part of the i3 Group,[108] rolled out Fibrecity, offering Residential FTTH in Bournemouth, Northampton and Dundee.[109]
  • In 2011, KC (part of the KCOM Group) began deploying fibre to the premise to locations across its Hull and East Yorkshire network.
  • In October 2011, Hyperoptic launched a 1Gbit/sec FTTH service in London, which has since grown to include Birmingham, Eastbourne, Glasgow and Sheffield. Hyperoptic will have passed 500,000 homes by 2018.[110]
  • In October 2012, British operator Gigler launched a 1 Gbit/sec down and 500 Mbit/sec up FTTH service in Bournemouth using the CityFibre network.[111]
  • In North Lancashire farmers teamed up to create B4RN, offering 1 GB/s symmetrical FTTP connection to rural farms, offices and schools.[112]
  • CityFibre provide 1 Gbit/s FTTH connections in London, Birmingham, Glasgow and 39 other larger cities as of July 2018[113]
  • Gigaclear provide 1 Gbit/s FTTH connections in 16 counties (predominantly rural and suburban areas) as of July 2018[114]
  • CommunityFibre provide 1 Gbit/s FTTH connections in some social housing areas
  • Sky plc provide 1 Gbit/s connections in York[115]
  • TalkTalk provide 1 Gbit/s connections in York[115]
  • In 2009, BT announced that its internal network division, Openreach, would connect 2.5 million British homes to ultra-fast FTTP by 2012 and 25% of UK premises following that. However, by the end of September 2015 only 250,000 homes had been connected;[116] the full rollout has not yet happened.[117] Later, in 2014, Openreach began offering installation of a 330Mbit/s FTTP service called Fibre On Demand ("FTTPoD") to most UK premises, but soon stopped taking orders for the product as orders were proving to take far more time and cost far more money than had been planned. Openreach started favouring FTTC and G.Fast technology (which is constrained to a maximum of 330Mbit/s download, at short distances in optimum conditions, by the copper/aluminium telephone lines used),[118] due to the significantly lower costs. In 2017 it reopened ordering for FTTPoD and expanded availability to virtually all premises connected to a telephone exchange which supports FTTC; however, given the pricing was nearly an order of magnitude higher than previously, and contract terms were extremely lengthy at 36 months, this made it virtually impossible to obtain for consumers.
  • The failure of BT Openreach to offer FTTH to any but a handful of customers, and millions of complaints regarding poor service since it was functionally separated from the main BT operation in 2005, had led nearly all UK ISPs to call for it to be completely split from BT. Ofcom, the UK's telecom regulator, consulted on the proposal and, after informal negotiations with BT failed, stated that it would force BT to divest Openreach into a separately-owned company. However, soon after this was announced, BT expressed its willingness to do more voluntarily; it later agreed with Ofcom to separate Openreach into a different legal company (Openreach Limited), but still owned by BT's parent holding company, BT Group plc. In December 2015, Ofcom revealed that BT's FTTP network passed only 200,000 premises (less than the 1% of the UK's houses and businesses), whilst other ISPs passed more than 200,000. Still, only 2% of the UK was able to receive FTTP.[119]
  • In 2016, hybrid-fibre-coaxial operator Virgin Media started its Project Lightning effort to spend £3bn to expand its network by 25% (4 million premises),[120] using a roughly 50:50 proportion of coaxial and FTTP technologies. This was designed to bring its urban-based network to more urban and suburban properties, and especially new-build areas. However, the project has suffered a number of setbacks and delays, such as poor contractor work quality, community resistance and misleading corporate statements, and is now on hold.
  • In July 2018, the EU reported that the UK had achieved 2.3% coverage in 2017, up from 1.8% in 2016.[121]
Jersey

In July 2018, JT deactivated their Copper broadband lines, with all connections being fibre-to-the-home with the lowest rate starting from 2500Mbit/s downstream, 50Mbit/s upstream). Landline only lines would continue to be switched over to Fibre.

Middle East
Israel

Israel's state-owned electricity company is deploying a FTTP network across the country. Target maximum speeds are between 100Mbit/s and 1Gbit/s. The network will be funded 49% by the Government electric company, and 51% by private sector partners. Construction will begin in 2012, with a target of 10% coverage by 2013 and 66% by 2019.[122] Currently (Dec 2016) the company has only thousands of subscribers and experiences significant difficulties.[123]

Jordan

Jordan Cable Services (JCS) was founded in 2003 as a private company and it has a view to realize a cable TV and Internet network using FTTH technology in Jordan. On 11 April 2007 Jordan Cable TV and Internet Services obtained from the Telecommunications Regulatory Commission the individual license to build communications networks.

Kuwait

In 2005 the Kuwait Ministry of Communications (MOC) selected Alcatel to supply a gigabit passive optical network (GPON) that will allow the MOC to offer triple-play services (voice, video and data) to subscribers via a fiber to the user (FTTU) architecture.[124]

In South Surra, in four cities, Alsalam, Hutteen, Alshuhada, and future Seddeek. The project started in 2003 and service is complete, but with many errors in installations (mixed up phone numbers, inactive additional services like CallerId). The equipment is from Alcatel. A typical installation has four RJ32 female sockets and two RJ45 female sockets. Starting on 2 May 2007 Internet service is offered for premises with fibre.[125]

Lebanon

In Lebanon in April 2009, Minister of Communications Gebran Bassil unveiled a study calling for FTTH to be provided to 40,000 subscribers residing on Hamra Street and to 35,000 others residing in Achrafieh, both located in Beirut. If approved by the cabinet, the system will take 10 months to complete and would make Internet access speeds of 70 Mbit/s possible.[126]

Qatar

Qatar’s government established Qatar National Broadband Network (Qnbn), a shareholding company wholly owned by the government, with a mandate to accelerate the rollout of a nationwide, open, and accessible high-speed (100+ Mbit/s) broadband Fiber to the Home (FTTH) network infrastructure. Qnbn focuses solely on the deployment of a passive network infrastructure, providing equal and open access to operators to offer choice for the end-user and efficiently leveraging existing and new infrastructure in Qatar. Qnbn operates within the existing laws and under license conditions issued by Supreme Council of Information and Communication Technology (ictQATAR).[127][128][129]

Saudi Arabia

The Saudi Telecom Company (STC) and Mobily offer up to 200Mbit/s FTTH connections in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.[130]

United Arab Emirates

The UAE has 100% FTTP coverage, with 1 million homes connected to FTTP. Etisalat became the first FTTH/B operator in the United Arab Emirates in September 2002. The network initially served subscribers within Emaar Properties PJSC developments such as Dubai Marina, Emirates Lakes, Hills, Springs, and the Arabian Ranches

Du, the other UAE telecom operator, only uses FTTH/B. Subscribers are offered voice, IPTV and broadband Internet. All services are transported over IP.

North America
Canada

In Canada:

  • Telus in BC and Alberta has been doing FTTH since around 2010 and has been converting towns over from copper pair to full FTTH with currently available speeds up to 1000/250 in some areas.
  • O-NET, by Olds Fibre, Ltd., is Canada's first community-owned Gigabit FTTH and FTTB carrier in Canada. Gigabit download and upload speeds are provided throughout the community of Olds, Alberta, on a community-owned GPON and Active-E fibre infrastructure. Costs for Gigabit services, unbundled, are approximately $100/month for residential users. Other available services include IPTV, Remote-Storage DVR, Home Phone, Long-Distance, and Wholesale Gateway and Data Centre services.
  • Novus provides FTTB services in Vancouver, British Columbia to apartment buildings. The carrier provides TV (cable, digital, and HD), digital phone, and 35/10, 100/100, 300/300 and 1000/1000 Internet access with lifetime of free installation to residential customers and the same to SOHO and business customers in its service area,[131]
  • Urbanfibre offers 1000/1000 FTTB to apartments, with custom plans available for business[132]
  • Fibrestream offers services to condominium buildings in the Greater Toronto Area and Ottawa. Speeds range from 50 to 500 Mbit/s uplink and downlink. The service is only available in condominium buildings in which fibrestream installed its equipment, and buildings which were built after 2000 and have over 200 units are eligible to request installation.[133]
  • Wightman Telecom offers FTTH in Mount Forest, Harriston, Listowel, Hanover, Walkerton, Fergus and Elora in southwestern Ontario. Services include phone, symmetric 50 Mbit/s Internet access, and digital TV (SD and HD) services. There is no fibre installation fee for subscribes during the initial installation period in an area.[134]
  • Hurontel Telecommunications Co-operative Limited is offering FTTH services in Goderich, Ripley, Ontario, and Lucknow in Ontario and is extending service to Huron-Kinloss, Kincardine, and Ashfield-Colborne-West Wawanosh, including Port Albert, Dungannon, and the Point Clark.[135]
  • Saugeen Driftwood offer's FTTH services in the Saugeen First Nation. The Project is funded by Broadband Canada, OMAFRA, Aboriginal Affairs, and The Saugeen Band Council and built using Zhone equipment providing 10 Mbit/s symmetrical (Up and down) Internet access.
  • Bell Aliant is offering FTTH which they call Bell Fibe and state it's Canada's first 100% fibre-to-the home network to cover an entire city. Available in the Halifax, Kentville, Wolfville, Truro, New Glasgow, and Sydney areas of Nova Scotia; Fredericton, Saint John, Shediac, Miramichi, Bathurst, and Moncton areas of New Brunswick; Charlottetown and Summerside on Prince Edward Island (PEI); and St. John's, Mount Pearl, Paradise, Conception Bay South, Corner Brook, and Grand Falls-Windsor in Newfoundland and Labrador. Speeds range from 100 Mbit/s to 1 Gbit/s download and 50 Mbit/s to 100 Mbit/s upload.[136]
  • Eastlink, a direct competitor to Bell Aliant, in most of its service territory, offers fibre-only service to apartment buildings already served with fibre to every apartment, and to corporate and other campuses. It offers comparable service speeds to Bell Aliant using fibre that generally comes further out towards the subscriber than in Bell copper DSL areas, but which completes the connection using coax. Eastlink operates fibre networks on PEI,[137] in NB and NS.
  • The Atlantic First Nation Fibre Optic Project reaches every First Nation in Atlantic Canada and offers fibre to some multi-unit residential and all office buildings in native sovereign territories.[138]
  • Execulink Telecom offers FTTP service in select areas of southern Ontario, phone and television services can be bundled with Fibre Internet Access.[139]
  • SaskTel is offering FTTP in Saskatchewan called infiNET. It is available in parts (complete coverage by 2023) of Saskatoon, Regina, Estevan, Moose Jaw, Prince Albert, Rosthern (pilot project), Swift Current, Weyburn, Yorkton. New Development in Dundurn, Kindersley, Lloydminster, Martensville, Pilot Butte, Warman, White City/Emerald Park. Coming soon to The Battlefords. SaskTel offers speed packages varying from 20/5 to 300/40 with an add-on package available to "Double Up" a users upload speed.
  • WTC Communications of Westport, Ontario has completed full fibre-to-the-home installations in Inverary and Newboro and is completing construction of a full FTTP network in Perth. WTC offers phone, internet access, and IPTV over their fibre network.[5]
  • High Speed Crow, one of the largest wireless internet service providers in Winnipeg and rural Manitoba, has started deploying a rural FTTP network with up to 1000/1000 speeds.

Bell Canada uses the Alcatel-Lucent 7330 ISAM video-ready access device, and provides Internet service via FTTH to 940 Mbit/s.[140]

Dominican Republic

In the Dominican Republic:

  • Claro offers Fibre to the Premises to multiple areas in Santo Domingo and Santiago de los Caballeros and is in the process of rolling out to more areas in these cities.[141]
  • Tricom is in the process of rolling out a fibre network in the country, focusing on the Northern and Eastern regions of the country as well as San Cristóbal.[142]
Mexico

In Mexico:

  • Axtel offers FTTH under the name Axtel X-tremo, providing service in Guadalajara, Monterrey, and Mexico City at speeds up to 200 Mbit/s. In 2012 there were 61,000 customers using FTTH technology.[143]
  • TotalPlay offers FTTH in all major markets at speeds up to 500 Mbit/s.[144]
  • Telmex Fibra Optica offers FTTH at speeds up to 200 Mbit/s.[145]
  • In 2011, Mexican operator Telmex launched the FTTH service for its customers in Mexico City, and in other major cities in Mexico.
United States

In the United States:

South America
Argentina

In Argentina, since its launch in 2000 the telecommunications firm IPlan[163] has offered a fiber optic backbone throughout the city of Buenos Aires, and extending into the provincial capitals of Rosario, La Plata, and Córdoba. They provide Internet, telephone, and value-added services using Cisco's Long Reach Ethernet and Catalyst switches. IPlan's network reaches over 3,000 connected buildings.[164] Retail FTTH is offered from 100 MBit/Sec to 500 MBit/Sec along the northern corridor of the city of Buenos Aires.[165]

Other providers of FTTH or Fiber to the premises include Claro,[166] Metrotel,[167] Sion Business,[168] and Phonevision.[169] Providers offer simetric connections of up to 100Mbit/s, for as little as 35 USD for a 30Mbit/s connection and as much as 100USD for an asymmetric 100Mbit/s one and 250USD for a symmetric one.

Moreover, state-owned company ArSat has been building a national public access fiber backbone that will cross the whole country. The first half of the backbone will be done by late 2013, while the whole program will be finished by 2015 (16,000 km of fiber optics, for a total backbone of more than 60,000 km), providing subsidized fiber access to disenfranchised communities and ensuring fiber access to most of the country.[170]

Brazil

In Brazil:

  • Vivo, a company acquired by Telefónica in 2013, launched in São Paulo, its FTTH service in 3Q 2007 with initial speeds of 30, 60, and 100 Mbit/s downstream, and 5 Mbit/s upstream. Also available is an IPTV on-demand service and a convergent POTS and mobile pack. In June 2007 Telefónica was reported to have fibre coverage of a potential 400,000 households with 20,000 signed up for service. By the end of 2011, Telefónica plannied to increase coverage to roughly one million households and boost its FTTH user base to 70,000, with a long term plan to have one million fibre customers before 2015.[171] Currently Vivo offers plans with speeds up to 200 Mbit/s and 100 Mbit/s upstream.
  • The second provider to offer FTTH is Brasil Telecom (bought by Oi Telecomunicações in January 2009), offering speeds up to 100 Mbit/s downstream and 5 Mbit/s upstream. The service is now marketed in ten states. Oi is now offering its own FTTH operation, in its original service area, completing the Brasil Telecom operation. Oi planned to finish 2011 with 30,000 households connected to its FTTH network.[172]
  • Global Village Telecom (GVT) launched, in August 2009, FTTH service in 56 cities, including the major markets of Porto Alegre, Curitiba, Belo Horizonte, and Salvador. GVT offer speeds up to 100 Mbit/s downstream and 10 Mbit/s upstream. In October 2010 GVT reported a broadband subscriber base of one million users, around 60% of whom are hooked up to 10Mbit/s or higher Internet connection.[173]
  • TIM Brasil launched in 2012 its FTTC service called Live Tim, in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, currently offering speeds up to 50 Mbit/s downstream and 35 Mbit/s upstream.
  • Net Serviços de Comunicação launched in 2014 its FTTH service Net Vírtua in addition to its cable service in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, offering speeds up to 500 Mbit/s downstream and 100 Mbit/s upstream.
  • "Reabra - Brazilian Open Access Network" is the first open access network in Brazil. It's offering FTTH/B footprint to several providers challenging big Telcos with aggressive speed/price offer. First to offer residential symmetric gigabit connections, initiating deployment in the city of São Paulo.
  • Many smaller ISPs are deploying FTTH service on small and medium cities.[174]
Chile

In Chile:

  • The first provider to offer FTTH was GTD-Manquehue (a subsidiary of Grupo GTD) in a 2006 pilot. This service offers symmetrical 100 Mbit/s and is available only in some sectors of the capital city Santiago. In 2008, following the success of the FTTH pilot, Gtd Manquehue committed to deploy a commercial FTTH network, in certain areas of Vitacura, Santiago. The network will enable Gtd Manquehue to migrate its traditional voice services to Voice over IP (VoIP) and to deliver advanced services such as High Definition Television (HDTV), IP Television (IPTV), Video on Demand (VoD) and high speed Internet access. The network is based on GPON technology (Passive Optical Network Gigabit-capable).[175]
  • The second provider is Surnet (a subsidiary of Grupo GTD) that offers Triple Play Plans with speeds up to 100 Mbit/s. This service is available in the major cities of the southern regions of Chile.
Colombia

In December 2013, Colombian operator ETB launched FTTH service in Bogotá D.C. including Internet and IPTV services.[176]

Ecuador

In Ecuador:

  • Telconet[177] is the company that owns most of the fiber infrastructure in Ecuador. They've been offering services for around 18 years. Their clients are mainly big and medium companies that need fiber internet. This company works with Ecuador's government.
  • Netlife[178] is a company operating in Ecuador selling FTTH internet to individuals and very small companies. They use Telconet's fiber infrastructure and other equipment in order to provide their service.
Peru

In Peru, Misticom deployed the first FTTH network in 2013. Starting from the city of Arequipa, the company is also expanding into Lima and the provinces. Misticom operates a 10 Gigabit GPON network with end user speeds ranging from 6 Mbit/s to 100 Mbit/s. The company provides both business and residential services. Misticom is also the country's first IPTV provider.

Uruguay

State telecommunications company Antel started deploying FTTH in Montevideo in 2012, aiming to switch 240,000 clients that year with a cost of US$180 million.[179] Previous DSL subscribers keep their contract, or may switch to faster Internet Vera plans: 120/12 Mbit/s for US$65/month, 80/10 Mbit/s for US$52/month, 50/10 Mbit/s for US$40/month, or 20/2 Mbit/s for US$28/month, with lower speeds after a 350 / 250 / 200 GB cap.[180] IP television, voice over IP and connections in the department capitals are expected for 2013 and 2014.

Oceania
Australia

The first FTTH network deployed in Australia was delivered in 2001 by Bright Telecommunications – a subsidiary of Western Power, the state power company owned by the Government of Western Australia. Bright Telecommunications initially deployed Fibre to the Curb by Marconi and a point-to-point FTTH solution from Entrasys, but later progressed to a GEPON product from Alloptic. Bright telecommunications was sold to Silk Telecom (now Nextgen Networks) in 2007.

Between 2007 and 2013 the Australian (Labor) Government initiated, and were in the process of rolling out, a A$36.9 billion open-access National Broadband Network comprising GPON-based FTTP services to 93% of the Australian population at speeds up to 1 Gbit/s, with the remainder of the population to be serviced by fixed-wireless and satellite technologies. The network was to be built and operated by a Government Business Enterprise, NBN Co Limited. The Labor Government's plan was for most the money to required build the NBN to be borrowed, which would then be paid off over 30 years by NBNco using the money it received from each subscriber as part of the fees paid to the commercial Retail Service Providers (RSPs) that sell services over the NBN, with the Labor Government projecting a 7% return on investment for the Government over the 30 years.[181]

Construction began with trial sites in Tasmania in 2009, with the first services commencing in July 2010. The network was scheduled for completion in December 2021.[182][183] The Tasmanian NBN trial sites were operated by Opticomm on behalf of NBN Co.[184]

Under this NBN, customers would have been able to access 5 speed tiers, starting with 12/1Mbit/s, 25/5Mbit/s, 25/10Mbit/s, 50/20Mbit/s and going up to 100/40Mbit/s.[185] Future upgrades to 1000/400Mbit/s are possible with the same network, but with upgrades to the transmission technology at either end of the connection.

Prior to 7 September 2013 Federal Election, the incoming Liberal National Party (LNP) Prime Minister, Tony Abbott declared that "We are absolutely confident 25 megs is going to be enough — more than enough — for the average household" promising to terminate the roll-out of the NBN CO's FTTH network in favour of upgrading Telstra's DSL network.[186]

The Coalition (LNP) government elected in 2013 changed the rollout to include Fibre to the Node (FTTN), Fibre to the Basement (FTTB), and Hybrid Fibre Coax (HFC) as part of the LNP Government's so-called Multi Technology Mix (MTM). FTTH will be serviced to 22%, primary Greenfield developments, or areas with serviceable copper or business areas. FTTN, FTTB and HFC will be deployed to 71%. Wireless and satellite will serve the remaining 7% of the population who are located in remote/regional areas and are unable to be serviced by FTTP, FTTN, FTTB or HFC.[187]

FTTB Rollout in Australia: National broadband companies TPG Telecom and iiNet, as well as the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission, have published extensive submissions to the Federal Government supporting the right for commercial telcos to deploy their own Fibre to the Basement (FTTB) infrastructure throughout Australia in competition with the coalition’s National Broadband Network (NBN) project, rejecting the idea that such planned investments should be blocked or otherwise regulated to support National Broadband Network Co’s finances.[188]

New Zealand

In 2009, the Government announced a NZ$1.35 billion public-private Ultra-Fast Broadband partnership with four companies to roll out fibre-to-the-home connection in all main towns and cities with population over 10,000. The programme aims to deliver ultra-fast broadband capable of at least 50 Mbit/s upload and 100Mbit/s download to 75% of New Zealanders by 2019. FTTH will also be rolled out to large users (including hospitals and schools) outside these areas.[189] Chorus, responsible for the majority of the rollout, later announced the introduction of a 200Mbit/s and later a gigabit offer in 2016.[190]

Chorus' fibre offerings includes a Gigabit option. Chorus held a competition to name a "Gigatown" where they would provide the winning town with Gigabit residential fibre. This competition was won by Dunedin in November 2014, although as of October 2016 gigabit services are available across all of Chorus' nationwide UFB network. Residential Gigabit fibre broadband has also been deployed by Ultra Fast Fibre in the several cities which they provide with UFB.[191]

As of March 2018, the original UFB project is 89% complete, with fibre available to 1,300,914 households and businesses, of which 550,314 (42.3%) have connected.[192]

In August 2017 the NZ government announced an expansion of the UFB programme to cover smaller towns and communities. By the end of 2022, 87% of the New Zealand population will be able to receive fibre-to-the-premises broadband at Gigabit speeds.[193]

Telecom New Zealand (Now Spark), the major telecommunications company in New Zealand, started a FTTP trial dubbed Next Generation Broadband (NGB) in Flat Bush, a new subdivision in South Auckland in May 2006. The NGB provides up to 30 Mbit/s downstream speeds over a Passive Optical Network (PON) with the only cost to the customers during the trial being a NZ$50 activation fee.[194] This trial network was merged into the UFB network in 2013.[195] Vector Communications provides business grade FTTP in wider regions of Auckland CBD and Wellington CBD, and extended network of over 770 km. FTTP services are available from Citylink in Wellington and the pricing makes it suitable for businesses only.

See also
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  194. "Telecom to learn from small fibre to houses pilot", Juha Saarinen and Stephen Bell, Computerworld New Zealand, 2 September 2006
  195. "Fibre Subdivisions". Chorus. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
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Fiber to the premises by country

topic

Fiber to the premises by country

This article lists the deployment of fiber to the premises, fiber to the home and fiber to the building by country. Africa Kenya In Kenya, the home entertainment and communication services provider, Zuku, offers fiber-based Triple-Play bundle (Broadband Internet, TV and phone) packages at speeds of 1, 10, 20 and 50 Mbit/s[1] in most areas of Nairobi and Mombasa.[2] Another fiber service is Faiba provided by Jamii Telecommunications Ltd.(JTL).[3] They offer packages at speeds of 30, 50, 75 and 125 Mbit/s for residential customers[4] and 15, 25, 40, 60, 75 and 100 Mbit/s for businesses.[5] 34 out of the 47 counties of Kenya have been connected to the National Optical Fibre Backbone Infrastructure (NOFBI).[6][7][8] Mauritius As of September 2017, in terms of FTTH/B penetration, Mauritius was ranked 8th in the global ranking worldwide.[9] In Mauritius, the two ISPs that are currently providing FTTH are My.T and Bharat Telecom[10] with download speed of 10, 20, 30 and 100 Mbit/s.[11] South Africa Link Af ...more...

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Fiber to the x

topic

Fiber to the x

A schematic illustrating how FTTX architectures vary with regard to the distance between the optical fibre and the end user. The building on the left is the central office; the building on the right is one of the buildings served by the central office. Dotted rectangles represent separate living or office spaces within the same building. Fibre to the x (FTTX) or fibre in the loop is a generic term for any broadband network architecture using optical fibre to provide all or part of the local loop used for last mile telecommunications. As fibre optic cables are able to carry much more data than copper cables, especially over long distances, copper telephone networks built in the 20th century are being replaced by fibre. FTTX is a generalization for several configurations of fibre deployment, arranged into two groups: FTTP/FTTH/FTTB (Fibre laid all the way to the premises/home/building) and FTTC/N (fibre laid to the cabinet/node, with copper wires completing the connection). Residential areas already served b ...more...

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Fiber to the premises in the United States

topic

Fiber to the premises in the United States

This article describes fiber to the premises in the United States. In the United States, the largest fiber to the premises (FTTP) deployment to date is Verizon's FiOS, which covers 32 million people in Northeastern United States. Verizon is the only Regional Bell Operating Company thus far to deploy FTTP on a large scale. Verizon's initial FTTP offering was based on broadband passive optical network (BPON) technology. Verizon has already upgraded to Gigabit PON or GPON, a faster optical access technology capable of providing 1Gbit/s speeds to consumers. Lightower has the second most available fiber network, with 19 million people in the Northeast and the Midwest. Frontier is available to 10 million people across the country, and Monmouth is available to 8 million people in New Jersey. By company Open-access networks Company Region(s) Notes Allband Multimedia Curran, Michigan Serves certain rural areas of Alcona, Alpena, and Montmorency counties in Michigan with the first all fiber to the home (FT ...more...

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Optical fiber connector

topic

Optical fiber connector

LC (top) and ST (bottom) optical fiber connectors, both with protective caps in place. An optical fiber connector terminates the end of an optical fiber, and enables quicker connection and disconnection than splicing. The connectors mechanically couple and align the cores of fibers so light can pass. Better connectors lose very little light due to reflection or misalignment of the fibers. In all, about 100 different types of fiber optic connectors have been introduced to the market.[1] Application Optical fiber connectors are used to join optical fibers where a connect/disconnect capability is required. Due to the polishing and tuning procedures that may be incorporated into optical connector manufacturing, connectors are often assembled onto optical fiber in a supplier’s manufacturing facility. However, the assembly and polishing operations involved can be performed in the field, for example, to terminate long runs at a patch panel. Optical fiber connectors are used in telephone exchanges, for customer ...more...

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Global Internet usage

topic

Global Internet usage

Global Internet usage refers to the number of people who use the Internet worldwide, which can be displayed using tables, charts, maps and articles which contain more detailed information on a wide range of usage measures. Internet users As of June 2017, 51% of the world's population has internet access.[1] In 2015, the International Telecommunication Union estimated about 3.2 billion people, or almost half of the world's population, would be online by the end of the year. Of them, about 2 billion would be from developing countries, including 89 million from least developed countries.[2][3] Internet users per 100 inhabitants Source: International Telecommunications Union.[4][5]   Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunications Union.[9]     Number of Internet users in 2012 Source: International Telecommunications Union.[9] These maps illustrate the growth in the percentage of individuals using the Internet from 1990 ...more...

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List of terrestrial fibre optic cable projects in Africa

topic

List of terrestrial fibre optic cable projects in Africa

This is a list of terrestrial fibre optic cable projects in Africa. While submarine communications cables are used to connect countries and continents to the Internet, terrestrial fibre optic cables are used to extend this connectivity to landlocked countries or urban centers within a country with submarine cable access. While in most of the world a large number of such cables exist, often amounting to robust Internet backbones, the lack of such high-speed cables poses a great problem for most African countries. The construction of both submarine cables and their terrestrial extensions is thus considered an important step to economic growth and development to many African countries. Countries Algeria Operator Map KML Summary Algeria Telecom map Algeria Telecom completes its part of the Algeria to Nigeria optical network.[1] Angola Operator Map KML Summary Angola Telecom map kml Unitel Zap Fibra Benin Operator Map KML Summary Benin Telecoms map Phase3 See entry for Phase3 ...more...

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Fiber-optic communication

topic

Fiber-optic communication

An optical fiber junction box. The yellow cables are single mode fibers; the orange and blue cables are multi-mode fibers: 62.5/125 µm OM1 and 50/125 µm OM3 fibers, respectively. Stealth installing a 432-count dark fiber cable underneath the streets of Midtown Manhattan, New York City Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber. The light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave that is modulated to carry information.[1] Fiber is preferred over electrical cabling when high bandwidth, long distance, or immunity to electromagnetic interference are required. Optical fiber is used by many telecommunications companies to transmit telephone signals, Internet communication, and cable television signals. Researchers at Bell Labs have reached internet speeds of over 100 petabit×kilometer per second using fiber-optic communication.[2] Background First developed in the 1970s, fiber-optics have revolutionized the tele ...more...

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10G-PON

topic

10G-PON

10G-PON (also known as XG-PON) is a 2010 computer networking standard for data links, capable of delivering shared Internet access rates up to 10 Gbit/s (gigabits per second) over existing dark fiber. This is the ITU-T's next generation standard following on from G-PON or Gigabit-capable PON. Optical fibre is shared by many subscribers in a network known as FTTx in a way that centralises most of the telecommunications equipment, often displacing copper phone lines that connect premises to the phone exchange. Passive optical network (PON) architecture has become a cost-effective way to meet performance demands in access networks, and sometimes also in large optical local networks for "Fibre-to-the-desk". Passive optical networks are used for the "Fibre-to-the-home" or "Fibre-to-the-premises" last mile with splitters that connect each central transmitter to many subscribers. The 10 Gbit/s shared capacity is the downstream speed broadcast to all users connected to the same PON, and the 2.5 Gbit/s upstream speed ...more...

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Internet in Brazil

topic

Internet in Brazil

The Internet in Brazil was launched in 1988. In 2011 Brazil ranked fifth in the world with nearly 89 million Internet users, 45% of the population.[1] In 2010 Brazil ranked 9th in the world with 13,266,310 fixed broadband subscriptions, 6.8 per 100 residents.[2] History In 1988 the National Research Network (RNP), was formed by the academic communities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.[3] Since its beginnings, including its introduction to the general public in 1995, the Brazilian Internet depended strongly on efforts led by the Federal Government through the Ministry of Communications, the state-owned communications company Embratel and its holding, Telebras.[4] This changed in 1998, as a result of the privatization of Telebras, and the blossoming of private companies, such as Telefónica, Telemar and Brasil Telecom. With the surge of competition for customers, coupled with government-imposed requirements, came improvements in cost, quality, and availability of the Internet to Brazilians. ADSL was successf ...more...

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Internet access

topic

Internet access

Internet access is the ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the Internet using computer terminals, computers, and other devices; and to access services such as email and the World Wide Web. Various technologies, at a wide range of speeds have been used by Internet service providers (ISPs) to provide this service. Internet access was once rare, but has grown rapidly. In 1995, only 0.04 percent of the world's population had access, with well over half of those living in the United States,[1] and consumer use was through dial-up. By the first decade of the 21st century, many consumers in developed nations used faster broadband technology, and by 2014, 41 percent of the world's population had access,[2] broadband was almost ubiquitous worldwide, and global average connection speeds exceeded 1 Mbit/s.[3]. History The Internet developed from the ARPANET, which was funded by the US government to support projects within the government and at universities and research laboratories in the US – but ...more...

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The Fiber Optic Association

topic

The Fiber Optic Association

The Fiber Optic Association (FOA) Logo The Fiber Optic Association (FOA) is an international professional society of fiber optics. The FOA was founded in 1995 by a group of trainers from industry, government and education who wanted to create industry standards for training and certifying fiber optic technicians. The FOA is a not-for-profit 501 (c)6 organization based in California, USA, that has over 200 affiliated training organizations in over 40 countries. FOA approves fiber optic training organizations and certifies their instructors who train designers, installers and operators of all types of fiber optic networks. FOA programs are used by many organizations, companies and trade unions to train and certify their workers. History At the 1994 Fiber U Conference[1] in Boston, the instructors decided that it was time to create a professional society for fiber optics. The instructors represented a number of fiber optic manufacturers including 3M, Siecor/Corning, Panduit and Fotec,[2] two universities whi ...more...

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Hybrid fibre-coaxial

topic

Hybrid fibre-coaxial

Hybrid fiber-coaxial (HFC) is a telecommunications industry term for a broadband network that combines optical fiber and coaxial cable. It has been commonly employed globally by cable television operators since the early 1990s. In a hybrid fiber-coaxial cable system, the television channels are sent from the cable system's distribution facility, the headend, to local communities through optical fiber subscriber lines. At the local community, a box called an optical node translates the signal from a light beam to radio frequency (RF), and sends it over coaxial cable lines for distribution to subscriber residences. The fiberoptic trunk lines provide adequate bandwidth to allow future expansion and new bandwidth-intensive services. Description A common HFC architecture The fiber optic network extends from the cable operators' master headend, sometimes to regional headends, and out to a neighborhood's hubsite, and finally to a coaxial cable node which serves anywhere from 25 to 2000 homes. A master headend ...more...

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Outline of the Internet

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Outline of the Internet

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Internet. Internet – worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of interconnected smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked Web pages and other documents of the World Wide Web. Essence of the Internet Computer network, Computer networking – Internetworking – Packet switching – Wide area network – data transmission – Internet features Hosting – File hosting – Web hosting E-mail hosting DNS hosting Game servers Wiki farms World Wide Web – Websites – Web applications – Webmail – Online shopping – Online auctions – Webcomics – Wikis – Voice over IP IPTV Internet communic ...more...

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Last mile

topic

Last mile

The last mile or last kilometer is a colloquial phrase widely used in the telecommunications, cable television and internet industries to refer to the final leg of the telecommunications networks that deliver telecommunication services to retail end-users (customers). More specifically, the last mile refers to the portion of the telecommunications network chain that physically reaches the end-user's premises. Examples are the copper wire subscriber lines connecting landline telephones to the local telephone exchange; coaxial cable service drops carrying cable television signals from utility poles to subscribers' homes, and cell towers linking local cell phones to the cellular network. The word "mile" is used metaphorically; the length of the last mile link may be more or less than a mile. Because the last mile of a network to the user is conversely the first mile from the user's premises to the outside world when the user is sending data (sending an email, for example), the term first mile is also alternately ...more...

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AT&T U-verse

topic

AT&T U-verse

AT&T U-verse, commonly called U-verse, was an AT&T brand of triple-play telecommunications services, although the brand is now only used in reference to the IPTV service. Launched on June 26, 2006, U-verse included broadband Internet (now AT&T Internet or AT&T Fiber), IP telephone (now AT&T Phone), and IPTV (U-verse TV) services in 21 states.[2][3] In September 2016, AT&T announced that the "U-verse" brand would no longer apply to its broadband and phone services, renaming them "AT&T Internet" and "AT&T Phone", respectively.[4][5][6] History SBC announced its plans for a fiber-optic network and Internet Protocol television (IPTV) deployment in 2004 and unveiled the name "U-verse" (formerly "Project Lightspeed"[7]) for the suite of network services in 2005. Beta testing began in San Antonio in 2005 and AT&T U-verse was commercially launched June 26, 2006, in San Antonio. A few months later on November 30, 2006, the service was launched in Houston. In December 200 ...more...

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Cable television

topic

Cable television

A coaxial cable used to carry cable television onto subscribers' premises The bottom product is a set-top box, an electronic device which cable subscribers use to connect the cable signal to their television set. Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables. This contrasts with broadcast television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television; or satellite television, in which the television signal is transmitted by a communications satellite orbiting the Earth and received by a satellite dish on the roof. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone services, and similar non-television services may also be provided through these cables. Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have b ...more...

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Structured cabling

topic

Structured cabling

Data center. In telecommunications, structured cabling is building or campus cabling infrastructure that consists of a number of standardized smaller elements (hence structured) called subsystems. Overview Structured cabling network diagram. Structured cabling is the design and installation of a cabling systems that will support multiple hardware uses systems and be suitable for today’s needs and those of the future. With a correctly installed system, current and future requirements can be met, and hardware that is added in the future will be supported [1] Structured cabling design and installation is governed by a set of standards that specify wiring data centers, offices, and apartment buildings for data or voice communications using various kinds of cable, most commonly category 5e (Cat 5e), category 6 (Cat 6), and fiber optic cabling and modular connectors. These standards define how to lay the cabling in various topologies in order to meet the needs of the customer, typically using a central p ...more...

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Demarcation point

topic

Demarcation point

Old and new style demarcation points in a Canadian home built in 1945. A DSL splitter has been plugged into the modern demarc (on the right). One line passes through a DSL filter before going to the old demarc, and from there to the remainder of the house. In telephony, the demarcation point is the point at which the public switched telephone network ends and connects with the customer's on-premises wiring. It is the dividing line which determines who is responsible for installation and maintenance of wiring and equipment—customer/subscriber, or telephone company/provider. The demarcation point varies between countries and has changed over time. Demarcation point is sometimes abbreviated as demarc, DMARC, or similar. The term MPOE (minimum or main point of entry) is synonymous, with the added implication that it occurs as soon as possible upon entering the customer premises. A network interface device often serves as the demarcation point. History Prior to the Bell System divestiture on January 1, 1984, A ...more...

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Bharat Broadband Network

topic

Bharat Broadband Network

BharatNet, also Bharat Broadband Network Limited, is a Telecom infrastructure provider, set up by the government of India under Telecom department for the establishment, management and operation of National Optical Fibre Network to provide a minimum of 100 Mbps broadband connectivity all 250,000 Gram panchayats in the country, covering nearly 625,000 villages, to improve telecommunications in India and reach the campaign goal of Digital India.[1][2][3][4] The last mile connectivity with a total of 700,000 wifi hotspots to cover all 625,000 villages of India, by adding 2 to 5 wifi hotspots per gram panchayat and minimum one wifi hotspot per village, have been created by connecting high-speed 4G base tower stations of commercial telecom operators to BharatNet, whereby commercially non-viable wifi hotspots will be subsidised by the union government grant of ₹36,000 million (US$540 million or €460 million) to sustain the operation.[2][5][6] Government has discounted the bulk BharatNet bandwidth rates to the comme ...more...

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UniFi

topic

UniFi

UniFi (stylized as unifi) is a service by Telekom Malaysia, offering Internet access, VoIP and IPTV to residential and business customers in Malaysia through an optical fiber core network via FTTH for individual housing units and VDSL2 for multi-story buildings. The "Fi" in the name is known as fibre optics. The residential package, renamed as Advance plan, Pro plan, and Lite plan (formerly called VIP), which provides video or IP Television, Internet Access, and phone service. Background Initiated and signed in September 2008, the RM11.3 billion national HSBB (High-Speed Broadband) project is a PPP agreement between TM and the government to develop next generation HSBB infrastructure and services. TM invested RM8.9 billion and the government invested RM2.4 billion on an incurred claims basis based on project milestones reached by TM. unifi was launched on 24 March 2010. Other wireless broadband providers include P1 and YTL, which launched its WiMax wireless broadband in November 2010. The HSBB project, wh ...more...

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National Broadband Network

topic

National Broadband Network

The National Broadband Network (NBN) is an Australian national wholesale open-access data network project. It includes wired and radio communication components rolled out and operated by NBN Co Limited. Retail service providers (RSPs), typically Internet service providers, contract with NBN to access the network and sell fixed internet access to end users. Rationales for this national telecommunications infrastructure project included replacing the existing copper cable telephony network that is approaching end of life,[note 1] and the rapidly growing demand for internet access. As originally proposed, wired connections would have provided up to 100 Mbit/s, later increased to 1000 Mbit/s; after the election of the Abbott government in 2013 this was downgraded to a minimum of 25 Mbit/s.[1][2][3][4] The largest infrastructure project in Australia's history,[5] NBN was the subject of significant political contention and was an issue in federal elections.[6][7] The Liberal party initially stated that the Multi- ...more...

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Internet censorship and surveillance by country

topic

Internet censorship and surveillance by country

Internet censorship and surveillance by country (2017)[1][2][3][4][5]   Pervasive   Substantial   Selective   Little or none   Unclassified / No data This list of Internet censorship and surveillance by country provides information on the types and levels of Internet censorship and surveillance that is occurring in countries around the world. Classifications Detailed country by country information on Internet censorship and surveillance is provided in the Freedom on the Net reports from Freedom House, by the OpenNet Initiative, by Reporters Without Borders, and in the Country Reports on Human Rights Practices from the U.S. State Department Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. The ratings produced by several of these organizations are summarized below as well as in the Censorship by country article. Freedom on the Net reports The Freedom on the Net reports provide analytical reports and numerical ratings regarding the state of Internet freedom for countries worldwide.[6 ...more...

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Cochin Special Economic Zone

topic

Cochin Special Economic Zone

The Cochin Special Economic Zone (CSEZ) is a multi-product Special Economic Zone located at Kochi, Kerala. It is established in an area of 41.7 hectares (103.0 acres) in Kakkanad. It is a multi-product zone, with industrial units operating in Electronics Hardware, Engineering, Gem & Jewellery, IT & ITES, Agro & Food Processing, Textile & garments, Plastic & Rubber etc. Currently it has around 160 units operating employing more than 15,000 people.[1] In FY2011-12, the total exports from the zone stood at ₹ 29,961 crore, recording a 63% rise in exports compared to the previous financial year.[2] For the current financial year 2012-13, as on 30 September 2012, the total exports from CSEZ stand at ₹ 16,306 crore, ranking it the third among SEZs in the country.[3] CSEZ was originally started as one of the first Export Processing Zone in India, and was later converted into a Special Economic Zone in 2003, when that system was introduced.[4] It is operated by the Government of India, Mini ...more...

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Local loop

topic

Local loop

In telephony, the local loop (also referred to as a local tail, subscriber line, or in the aggregate as the last mile) is the physical link or circuit that connects from the demarcation point of the customer premises to the edge of the common carrier or telecommunications service provider's network. At the edge of the carrier access network in a traditional public telephone network, the local loop terminates in a circuit switch housed in an incumbent local exchange carrier or telephone exchange. Infrastructure Traditionally, the local loop was an electrical circuit in the form of a single pair of conductors from the telephone on the customer's premises to the local telephone exchange. Single-wire earth return lines had been used in some countries until the introduction of electric tramways from the 1900s made them unusable. Historically the first section was often an aerial open-wire line, with several conductors attached to porcelain insulators on cross-arms on "telegraph" poles. Hence party line service ...more...

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FiOS from Frontier

topic

FiOS from Frontier

Frontier FiOS, also known as FiOS from Frontier or simply FiOS, is a bundled Internet access, telephone, and television service that operates over a fiber-optic communications network in 7 states, including California, Texas, Florida, Indiana, South Carolina, Oregon, and Washington.[1][2] Service is offered in some areas of the United States by Frontier Communications in areas built out and formerly served by Verizon, using the same infrastructure as its Fios service and continuing to license the FiOS name from Verizon. Other service providers often use fiber optics in the network backbone and existing copper or coax infrastructure for residential users. Frontier's service began in 2009 with the acquisition of portions of Verizon's network, and networked areas expanded through 2015 through similar acquisitions, although some areas do not have service or cannot receive TV and phone service because of franchise agreements. History Background of FiOS (2005–2010) In September 2005, Verizon Communications, annou ...more...

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Internet service provider

topic

Internet service provider

Internet connectivity options from end-user to tier 3/2 ISPs An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet. Internet service providers may be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, non-profit, or otherwise privately owned. Internet services typically provided by ISPs include Internet access, Internet transit, domain name registration, web hosting, Usenet service, and colocation. Local ISP in Manhattan installing fiber for provisioning Internet access History The Internet (originally ARPAnet) was developed as a network between government research laboratories and participating departments of universities. Other companies and organizations joined by direct connection to the backbone, or by arrangements through other connected companies, sometime using dialup tools such as UUCP. By the late 1980s, a process was set in place towards public, commercial use of the Internet. The remaining restricti ...more...

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Wireless Internet service provider

topic

Wireless Internet service provider

Aspen Communication's wireless access point in Tyler, Texas An embedded RouterBoard 112 with U.FL-RSMA pigtail and R52 miniPCI Wi-Fi card widely used by WISPs in the Czech Republic Typical WISP Customer-premises equipment (CPE) installed on a residence. A wireless Internet service provider (WISP) is an Internet service provider with a network based on wireless networking. Technology may include commonplace Wi-Fi wireless mesh networking, or proprietary equipment designed to operate over open 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, 4.9, 5, 24, and 60 GHz bands or licensed frequencies in the UHF band (including the MMDS frequency band), LMDS, and other bands from 6Ghz to 80Ghz. In the US, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) released Report and Order, FCC 05-56 in 2005 that revised the FCC’s rules to open the 3650 MHz band for terrestrial wireless broadband operations.[1] On November 14, 2007 the Commission released Public Notice (DA 07-4605) in which the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau announced the start ...more...

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Novus Entertainment

topic

Novus Entertainment

Novus Entertainment (commonly known simply as Novus) is a Canadian telecommunications company providing television, digital phone, and high-speed Internet services via a fibre optic network. The company is licensed by the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission (the CRTC) as a Class 1 Broadcast Distribution Undertaking for both Metro Vancouver. Novus presently provides services to apartments, condominiums, and businesses in Metro Vancouver. Novus is one of the few broadband Internet carriers in Canada to offer a Fibre-to-the-Building (FTTB) network.[1] The company continues to expand its service in Metro Vancouver. Novus is also in the business of leasing dark fibre to other communications service providers and to businesses. Internet In July, 2011, Novus announced its 300 Mbit/s Internet service, claiming to be “Canada’s fastest Internet service” to go into effect July 2011. Due to its use of Metro Ethernet rather than DOCSIS or DSL technology, the carrier allows a direct RJ-45 connect ...more...

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Digital subscriber line

topic

Digital subscriber line

Digital subscriber line (DSL; originally digital subscriber loop) is a family of technologies that are used to transmit digital data over telephone lines. In telecommunications marketing, the term DSL is widely understood to mean asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL), the most commonly installed DSL technology, for Internet access. DSL service can be delivered simultaneously with wired telephone service on the same telephone line since DSL uses higher frequency bands for data. On the customer premises, a DSL filter on each non-DSL outlet blocks any high-frequency interference to enable simultaneous use of the voice and DSL services. The bit rate of consumer DSL services typically ranges from 256 kbit/s to over 100 Mbit/s in the direction to the customer (downstream), depending on DSL technology, line conditions, and service-level implementation. Bit rates of 1 Gbit/s have been reached.[1] In ADSL, the data throughput in the upstream direction (the direction to the service provider) is lower, hence the ...more...

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List of digital television deployments by country

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List of digital television deployments by country

This is a list of digital television deployments by country, which summarises the process and progress of transition from analogue to digital broadcasting. The transition to digital television is a process that is happening at different paces around the world. Although digital satellite television is now commonplace, the switch to digital cable and terrestrial television has taken longer. See also Digital terrestrial television. Not all countries are compatible within each standard DVB-T, ATSC (North America), DTMB (China), ISDB (of which there are two incompatible variations used in Japan and South America respectively). Countries that have adopted digital terrestrial recently may have a single MPEG4 based system for SD and HD, while countries with more established system may use MPEG2 for SD and MPEG4 for HD. There are also variations in middleware used. For example, Italy, Ireland and the UK are all DVB-T regions, but Ireland uses "MPEG4 + MHEG5 + DVB-T" for both SD and HD transmissions, while the UK use ...more...

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MCI Communications

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MCI Communications

MCI Communications Corp. was an American telecommunications company that was instrumental in legal and regulatory changes that led to the breakup of the AT&T monopoly of American telephony and ushered in the competitive long-distance telephone industry. It was headquartered in Washington, D.C.[1] Founded in 1963, it grew to be the second-largest long-distance provider in the U.S. It was purchased by WorldCom in 1998 and became MCI WorldCom, with the name afterwards being shortened to WorldCom in 2000. WorldCom's financial scandals and bankruptcy led that company to change its name in 2003 to MCI Inc. The MCI name disappeared in January 2006 after the company was bought by Verizon. History Founding MCI's second logo MCI was founded as Microwave Communications, Inc. on October 3, 1963 with John D. Goeken being named the company's first president. The initial business plan was for the company to build a series of microwave relay stations between Chicago, Illinois and St. Louis, Missouri. The relay sta ...more...

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Bristol, Virginia

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Bristol, Virginia

State Street separates Virginia (left) and Tennessee (right). Bristol is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,835.[6] It is the twin city of Bristol, Tennessee, just across the state line, which runs down the middle of its main street, State Street. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Bristol, Virginia, with neighboring Washington County, Virginia, for statistical purposes. Bristol is a principal city of the Kingsport–Bristol–Bristol, TN-VA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is a component of the Johnson City–Kingsport–Bristol, TN-VA Combined Statistical Area – commonly known as the "Tri-Cities" region. History Evan Shelby first appeared in what is now the Bristol area around 1765. In 1766, Shelby, moved his family and settled at a place called Big Camp Meet (now Bristol, Tennessee/Virginia). It is said that Cherokee Indians once inhabited the area and the Indian village was named, according to legend, because numerous deer and ...more...

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Utility pole

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Utility pole

Utility pole supporting wires for electrical power distribution, coaxial cable for cable television, and telephone cable. A pair of shoes can be seen hanging from the wires (center-left, far right) A utility pole is a column or post used to support overhead power lines and various other public utilities, such as electrical cable, fiber optic cable, and related equipment such as transformers and street lights. It can be referred to as a transmission pole, telephone pole, telecommunication pole, power pole, hydro pole,[1] telegraph pole, or telegraph post, depending on its application. A stobie pole is a multi-purpose pole made of two steel joists held apart by a slab of concrete in the middle, generally found in South Australia. Electrical wires and cables are routed overhead on utility poles as an inexpensive way to keep them insulated from the ground and out of the way of people and vehicles. Utility poles can be made of wood, metal, concrete, or composites like fiberglass. They are used for two different ...more...

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Telephone plug

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Telephone plug

A modular connector plug (6P6C) and socket (6P4C). A telephone plug is a type of connector used to connect a telephone set to the telephone wiring inside a building, establishing a connection to a telephone network. It is inserted into its counterpart, a telephone jack, commonly affixed to a wall or baseboard. The standard for telephone plugs varies from country to country, though the RJ11 modular connector has become by far the most common. A connection standard, such as RJ11, specifies not only the physical aspects of an electrical connector, but also the pinout, i.e. the assignment or function of each contact.[1] Modular connectors are specified for the registered jack (RJ) series of connectors, as well as for Ethernet and other connectors, such as 4P4C (4 position, 4 contacts) modular connectors, the de facto standard on handset cords,[2] often improperly[3][4] referred to as RJ connectors. History Historically telephones were typically owned by the telephone company and were usually permanently wired ...more...

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IPTV

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IPTV

Internet Protocol television (IPTV) is the delivery of television content over Internet Protocol (IP) networks. This is in contrast to delivery through traditional terrestrial, satellite, and cable television formats. Unlike downloaded media, IPTV offers the ability to stream the source media continuously. As a result, a client media player can begin playing the content (such as a TV channel) almost immediately. This is known as streaming media. Although IPTV uses the Internet protocol it is not limited to television streamed from the Internet, (Internet television). IPTV is widely deployed in subscriber-based telecommunications networks with high-speed access channels into end-user premises via set-top boxes or other customer-premises equipment. IPTV is also used for media delivery around corporate and private networks. IPTV in the telecommunications arena is notable for its ongoing standardisation process (e.g., European Telecommunications Standards Institute). IPTV services may be classified into three m ...more...

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Internet in Malaysia

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Internet in Malaysia

From its beginnings in 1995, the Internet in Malaysia has become the main platform for free discussion in Malaysia's otherwise tightly controlled media environment.[1] As of Q1 2017, Malaysia has broadband penetration rates of 103.6% (per 100 inhabitants) and 81.8% (per 100 households).[2] History The year 1995 is considered the beginning of the Internet age in Malaysia. The growth in the number of Internet hosts in Malaysia began around 1996. The country's first search engine and web portal company, Cari Internet, was also founded that year.[3] According to the first Malaysian Internet survey conducted from October to November 1995 by MIMOS and Beta Interactive Services, one out of every thousand Malaysians had access to the Internet (20,000 Internet users out of a population of 20 million).[4] In 1998, this number grew to 2.6% of the population. The total number of computer units sold, which was 467,000 in 1998 and 701,000 in 2000 indicated an increasing growth.[5][6] In 2005 the National Public Policy W ...more...

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Uttar Pradesh Textile Technology Institute

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Uttar Pradesh Textile Technology Institute

Lal Imli factory Uttar Pradesh Textile Technology Institute (earlier known as Government Central Textile Institute),[1][2] Kanpur is a premier textile institute of North India. It offers professional degrees of bachelor's and master's of Technology, in branches of Textile Technology, Textile Chemistry and Man Made Fibre Technology, to students selected through a State Entrance Exam (UPSEE) conducted by Uttar Pradesh Technical University every year.[3] It made a modest start in 1914.[4][5] About In 1937, Government Central Textile Institute came into existence in its present form by the merger of two premier textile institutes: one at Kanpur and the other at Roorkee, i.e., Department of Textile Technology, Thomson Civil Engineering College of Roorkee. Diploma programmes were started in Textile Manufacture and Chemical Technology.[6] In 1958/59 four-year degree programmes in Textile Technology and Textile Chemistry were started. Initially the institute was affiliated to Agra University. On establishment of ...more...

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Textile industry of India

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Telecommunications in Tanzania

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Telecommunications in Tanzania

Telecommunications in Tanzania include radio, television, fixed and mobile telephones, and the Internet available in mainland Tanzania and the semiautonomous Zanzibar archipelago. Regulation and licensing In 2005, mainland Tanzania, but not the semiautonomous Zanzibar archipelago, modified its licensing system for electronic communications, modelling it on the approach successfully pioneered in Malaysia in the late 1990s where traditional "vertical" licenses (the right to operate a telecom or a broadcasting network, and right to provide services on that network) are replaced by "horizontal" licenses (the right to operate telecom and broadcasting networks, with a separate license required to provide services on each network). Called the "Converged Licensing Framework (CLF)", this reform was the first of its kind put into practice on the African continent, and allows investors to concentrate on their area of expertise (i.e. network facility, network services, application services, and content services) across ...more...

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Public switched telephone network

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Public switched telephone network

The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the aggregate of the world's circuit-switched telephone networks that are operated by national, regional, or local telephony operators, providing infrastructure and services for public telecommunication. The PSTN consists of telephone lines, fiber optic cables, microwave transmission links, cellular networks, communications satellites, and undersea telephone cables, all interconnected by switching centers, thus allowing most telephones to communicate with each other. Originally a network of fixed-line analog telephone systems, the PSTN is now almost entirely digital in its core network and includes mobile[1] and other networks, as well as fixed telephones.[1] The technical operation of the PSTN adheres to the standards created by the ITU-T. These standards allow different networks in different countries to interconnect seamlessly. The E.163 and E.164 standards provide a single global address space for telephone numbers. The combination of the interconnected net ...more...

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PSTN Network

(Hessam)

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Telecommunications

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Underground storage tank

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Underground storage tank

An Underground storage tank (UST) is, according to United States federal regulations, a storage tank, not including any underground piping connected to the tank, that has at least 10 percent of its volume underground. A horizontal cylindrical steel tank with a factory applied coating and galvanic anodes prior to installation underground. Definition in U.S. federal law "Underground storage tank" or "UST" means any one or combination of tanks including connected underground pipes that is used to contain regulated substances, and the volume of which including the volume of underground pipes is 10 percent or more beneath the surface of the ground.[1] This does not include, among other things, any farm or residential tank of 1,100 gallons or less capacity used for storing motor fuel for noncommercial purposes, tanks for storing heating oil for consumption on the premises, or septic tanks. For USTs in service in the United States the EPA and states collectively require tank operators to take financial responsi ...more...

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Telecommunications in Lithuania

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Telecommunications in Lithuania

This article provides an overview of telecommunications in Lithuania, including radio, television, telephones, and the Internet. The Communications Regulatory Authority of the Republic of Lithuania (RRT) is Lithuania's independent communications-industry regulator. It was established under the Law on Telecommunications and the provisions of the European Union Directives to ensure that the industry remain competitive.[1] Radio Three radio networks operated by the public broadcaster (2007).[2] Many privately owned commercial broadcasters, many with repeater stations in various regions throughout the country (2007).[2] Radios: 1.9 million (1997). Television Three channels operated by the public broadcaster, with the third, a satellite channel, introduced in 2014.[2] Various privately owned commercial TV broadcasters operate national and multiple regional channels (2007).[2] Many privately owned local TV stations (2007).[2] Multi-channel cable and satellite TV services are available (2007).[2] ...more...

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Internet censorship by country

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CAT Telecom

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CAT Telecom

CAT Telecom Public Company Limited is the state-owned company that runs Thailand’s international telecommunications infrastructure, including its international gateways, satellite, and submarine cable networks connections. [2] Services Until recently, CAT had a monopoly on international telephony and CDMA mobile telephony. CAT partnered with TOT to provide the GSM mobile service Thai Mobile.[3] In partnership with Hutchison, it provided a CDMA2000 1x mobile service in 25 central provinces and operated its own CDMA2000 1xEV-DO in 51 provinces.[4] CAT provides data communications and applications services, such as leased line, Fiber-to-the-Premises, Gigabit Ethernet, xDSL, live TV broadcast, e-Commerce, e-Auction, and e-Security. History CAT or the Communications Authority of Thailand was established on August 14, 2003 by the government of previous Thai prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra. Plans were under way to privatize a portion of the state enterprise through an IPO in the Stock Exchange of Thailand but ...more...

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Companies started in 2003

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Metso

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Metso

Metso is a Finnish industrial machinery company focusing on providing technology and services for mining, aggregates, and oil and gas, recycling, pulp and paper and other process industries. The company employs over 12,000 people in 50 countries. Metso’s shares are listed on the NASDAQ OMX Helsinki, Finland.[1] History Metso was created through the merger of Valmet and Rauma Oy in 1999. In 2013, Metso demerged into two separate companies: Metso Corporation and Valmet Corporation. 1990s Metso was created on July 1, 1999 through the merger of Valmet, a paper and board machine supplier, and Rauma, which focused on fiber technology, rock crushing and flow control solutions. In 1998 Rauma’s businesses included: Timberjack forest machines Sunds Defibrator fiber technology equipment Nordberg rock crushers Neles Controls valve-control systems The new company had overlapping operations and to some extent the same customer base too. The purpose of the merger was the will to grow particularly in process tech ...more...

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Companies started in 1999

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Internet in Denmark

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Internet in Denmark

In an international context Denmark is viewed as a somewhat peculiar country when it comes to internet access. The former state owned telephone company TDC owns the entire last mile infrastructure in terms of copper telephone lines and the vast majority of the coaxial cable infrastructure as well.[3] Even though the Danish telecommunications infrastructure is very heavily dominated by one company, Danish internet customers still enjoy fair prices and a wide availability of different next generation access internet connections in comparison with most other EU countries.[1] Furthermore, TDCs de facto monopoly on last mile infrastructure has come under attack. In the last decade regional power companies have formed national business alliances aimed at implementing FTTH for private and business end users.[4][5] In 2012 Denmark was ranked third by OECD in terms of wired broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants (see the bar chart below).[6] The same year 99,9 % of all households and companies were able to conne ...more...

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Internet in Denmark

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Sanitarium Health and Wellbeing Company

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Sanitarium Health and Wellbeing Company

The Sanitarium Health and Wellbeing Company is the trading name of two sister food companies (Australian Health and Nutrition Association Ltd[1] and New Zealand Health Association Ltd).[2] Both are wholly owned by the Seventh-day Adventist Church.[3] Founded in Melbourne, Victoria, in 1898, Sanitarium has factories in Australia and New Zealand, producing a large range of breakfast cereals and vegetarian products. All the food products it manufactures and markets are plant derived or vegetarian. Its flagship product is Weet-Bix, sold in the Australian and New Zealand breakfast cereal markets. Sanitarium has produced and marketed many food products throughout its 120 year history, including peanut butter, vegetarian meals, snacks and beverages. The company operated health food shops in some cities, but closed them in the 1980s. History Sanitarium factory at Cooranbong, New South Wales During his time in Australia, pioneer Adventist Ellen G. White's son Willie convinced Seventh-day Adventist Edward Hal ...more...

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Companies started in 1898

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Mesothelioma

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Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma is a type of cancer that develops from the thin layer of tissue that covers many of the internal organs (known as the mesothelium).[9] The most common area affected is the lining of the lungs and chest wall.[1][3] Less commonly the lining of the abdomen and rarely the sac surrounding the heart,[10] or the sac surrounding the testis may be affected.[1][11] Signs and symptoms of mesothelioma may include shortness of breath due to fluid around the lung, a swollen abdomen, chest wall pain, cough, feeling tired, and weight loss.[1] These symptoms typically come on slowly.[2] More than 80% of mesothelioma cases are caused by exposure to asbestos.[3] The greater the exposure the greater the risk.[3] As of 2013 about 125 million people have been exposed to asbestos at work.[12] High rates of disease occur in people who mine asbestos, produce products from asbestos, work with asbestos products, live with asbestos workers, or work in buildings containing asbestos.[3] Asbestos exposure and the onset of can ...more...

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Rare diseases

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McDonald's

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McDonald's

McDonald's is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, California, United States. They rechristened their business as a hamburger stand. The first time a McDonald's franchise used the Golden Arches logo was in 1953 at a location in Phoenix, Arizona. In 1955, Ray Kroc, a businessman, joined the company as a franchise agent and proceeded to purchase the chain from the McDonald brothers. McDonald's had its original headquarters in Oak Brook, Illinois, but moved its global headquarters to Chicago in early 2018.[4][5][6] McDonald's is the world's largest restaurant chain by revenue[7], serving over 69 million customers daily in over 100 countries[8] across approximately 36,900 outlets as of 2016.[9] Although McDonald's is known for its hamburgers, they also sell cheeseburgers, chicken products, french fries, breakfast items, soft drinks, milkshakes, wraps, and desserts. In response to changing consumer tastes and a negative backlas ...more...

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my first folder

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General Trivia #9

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Jazz (mobile network operator)

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Jazz (mobile network operator)

Jazz (Urdu: جاز‬‎) is the largest mobile network in Pakistan formed by the merger of Mobilink and Warid.[1][2] It provides a range of services for prepaid and postpaid customers to individual and corporate clients. Its Head Office is located in Islamabad, and the current CEO is Aamir Ibrahim. History Jazz was formerly known as Mobilink (PMCL), however in November 2015, it announced a merger with WaridTel Pakistan, both companies re-launched under the 'Jazz' brand name. Both merged companies now collectively serve 55 million subscribers in Pakistan with 37% of the total market share. Network Jazz has over 8500 active cell sites in the country, with over 6500 kilometers of Fiber Optic cable laid. Huawei, Nokia-Siemens, Alcatel and ZTE are the primary vendors for networking equipment at Jazz, including Radio Base Stations, Microwave equipment and network switches. Over 20 cities are also covered under Jazz's recently launched LTE service as well. Jazz uses Ericsson for its intelligent networks and Acision fo ...more...

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Telecommunications companies of Pakistan

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Free (ISP)

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Free (ISP)

Free is a French telecommunications company, subsidiary of Iliad that provides voice, video, data, and Internet telecommunications to consumers in France. Its head office is in the 8th arrondissement of Paris. Free provides ISP services in France[1][2] and in the 30 OECD countries.[3] It was the first company to offer a "triple play" service in France[4][5][6] through its self-produced singular Freebox set-top box, claiming to have invented the box marketing concept in France in reference to all the other French ISPs who thereafter released "triple play" modems named to include the anglicism box as a suffix. These boxes provide comprehensive telecommunication services such as high-speed internet, telephone and digital television packages, leading Free to become the world's number one IPTV provider[7] offering almost systematically IPTV to subscribers and optimising it to be available on most landlines.[8][9] Developing its own 3G and 4G networks, Free Mobile was launched in 2012 and became the 4th mobile ne ...more...

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French business families

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Centrex

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Centrex

Typical standard phone used with Centrex. Note the "Recall" button and the Message Waiting Lamp. Centrex is a portmanteau of central exchange, a kind of telephone exchange. In the United Kingdom, British Telecom markets this service as FeatureLine (but refers to it internally as Centrex). Use of Centrex Centrex is a PBX-like service providing switching at the central office instead of at the customer's premises. Typically, the telephone company owns and manages all the communications equipment and software necessary to implement the Centrex service and then sells various services to the customer. No switching equipment resides on the customer's premises, as the service is supplied and managed directly from the phone company's exchange site, with lines being delivered to the premises either as individual lines over traditional copper pairs or by multiplexing a number of lines over a single fiber optic or copper link. In effect, Centrex provides an emulation of a hardware PBX, by using special software pr ...more...

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