Fast Universal Digital Computer M-2

The M-2 (Russian: М-2)[1] was a computer developed at the Laboratory of Electrical Systems in the Institute of Energy of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The successor to the M-1, it was developed in 1952 by a team of engineers led by I.S. Brook (or Bruk).[2] The computer was developed and assembled in the period between April and December 1952. In 1953 M-2 became fully operational and was used for solving applied problems on round-the-clock basis,[3] mostly having to do with nuclear fission and rocket design.

M-2 was the basis for several other Soviet computers, some of them developed at other research institutes.

References
  1. This letter "M" is in Russian alphabet, have different Unicode code than in English alphabet (affects search).
  2. "The Fast Universal Digital Computer M-2. Russian Virtual Computer Museum. English version. Articles". Computer-museum.ru. Retrieved 2012-12-01.
  3. Malinovsky 2010, pp. 71-72.
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Fast Universal Digital Computer M-2

topic

Fast Universal Digital Computer M-2

The M-2 (Russian: М-2)[1] was a computer developed at the Laboratory of Electrical Systems in the Institute of Energy of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The successor to the M-1, it was developed in 1952 by a team of engineers led by I.S. Brook (or Bruk).[2] The computer was developed and assembled in the period between April and December 1952. In 1953 M-2 became fully operational and was used for solving applied problems on round-the-clock basis,[3] mostly having to do with nuclear fission and rocket design. M-2 was the basis for several other Soviet computers, some of them developed at other research institutes. References This letter "M" is in Russian alphabet, have different Unicode code than in English alphabet (affects search). "The Fast Universal Digital Computer M-2. Russian Virtual Computer Museum. English version. Articles". Computer-museum.ru. Retrieved 2012-12-01. Malinovsky 2010, pp. 71-72. Malinovsky, Boris Nikolaevich (2010). "Pioneers Of Soviet Computing". archive.org. Retrieved ...more...

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M2

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M2

M2, M-2, M.2 or M02 may refer to: Places British NVC community M2, a mire biological community in the United Kingdom Messier 2 (M2), a globular cluster in the constellation Aquarius People m² (artist), an ambient project of Mathis Mootz (The Panacea) Brands and enterprises M2 (game developer) M2 (Mazda), a short-lived marketing approach by Mazda to create and sell exclusive Mazda-based vehicles for sale in Japan M2, a nightclub in Shanghai, China, ranked as no. 38 in the world by DJ Magazine Leica M2, a 35 mm rangefinder camera introduced in 1957 M2 Group Computing M2, the CPU used in the Electronika 60 computer M.2, a specification for internally mounted expansion cards Fast Universal Digital Computer M-2, an early Russian digital computer (1957) Macaulay2, a free computer algebra system Memory Stick Micro (M2), a removable flash memory card format Modula-2 (M2), a computer programming language Opera Mail, an e-mail and news client in the Opera web browser Panasonic M ...more...



Computer

topic

Computer

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Modern computers have the ability to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs. These programs enable computers to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. Computers are used as control systems for a wide variety of industrial and consumer devices. This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls, factory devices such as industrial robots and computer-aided design, and also general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones. Early computers were only conceived as calculating devices. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calcu ...more...

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List of The Fast and the Furious characters

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List of The Fast and the Furious characters

The Fast and the Furious is an American action film series, centered around cars produced by Neal H. Moritz and distributed by Universal Pictures. Consisting of eight films and two short films, the following is a list of characters from The Fast and the Furious. Characters table Key Main Indicates character had a main role in the film Archive Indicates the character only appears in archive footage Cameo Indicates the character had a minor or cameo appearance Photo Indicates that the character had a non-physical picture appearance Character Portrayed by Film The Fast and the Furious(2001) The Turbo Charged Prelude for 2 Fast 2 Furious(2003) 2 Fast 2 Furious(2003) The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift(2006) Los Bandoleros(2009) Fast & Furious(2009) Fast Five(2011) Fast & Furious 6(2013) Furious 7(2015) The Fate of the Furious(2017) Principal characters Dominic Toretto Vin Diesel Main Archive Cameo Main Brian O'Conner Paul Walke ...more...

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The Fast and the Furious

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The Fast and the Furious

The Fast and the Furious (colloquial: Fast & Furious) is an American franchise based on a series of action films that is largely concerned with illegal street racing, heists and espionage, and includes material in various other media that depicts characters and situations from the films. Distributed by Universal Pictures, the series was established with the 2001 film titled The Fast and the Furious; this was followed by seven sequels, two short films that tie into the series, and as of May 2017,[1] it has become Universal's biggest franchise of all time, currently the sixth-highest-grossing film series of all time with a combined gross of over $5 billion.[2] Films Film Release date Director Screenwriter(s) Story by Producers Status The Fast and the Furious June 22, 2001 Rob Cohen Gary Scott Thompson and Erik Bergquist and David Ayer Gary Scott Thompson Neal H. Moritz Released 2 Fast 2 Furious June 6, 2003 John Singleton Michael Brandt & Derek Haas Michael Brandt  ...more...

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Word (computer architecture)

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Word (computer architecture)

In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design. A word is a fixed-sized piece of data handled as a unit by the instruction set or the hardware of the processor. The number of bits in a word (the word size, word width, or word length) is an important characteristic of any specific processor design or computer architecture. The size of a word is reflected in many aspects of a computer's structure and operation; the majority of the registers in a processor are usually word sized and the largest piece of data that can be transferred to and from the working memory in a single operation is a word in many (not all) architectures. The largest possible address size, used to designate a location in memory, is typically a hardware word (here, "hardware word" means the full-sized natural word of the processor, as opposed to any other definition used). Modern processors, including embedded systems, usually have a word size of 8, 16, 24, 32, or 64 bits, while modern general purpose ...more...

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Fast & Furious 6

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Fast & Furious 6

Fast & Furious 6 (alternatively known as Furious 6 or Fast Six)[3] is a 2013 American action film directed by Justin Lin and written by Chris Morgan. It is the sixth installment in The Fast and the Furious franchise. The film stars Vin Diesel, Paul Walker, Dwayne Johnson, Michelle Rodriguez, Jordana Brewster, Tyrese Gibson, Chris "Ludacris" Bridges, Sung Kang, Luke Evans, Gina Carano, Gal Gadot, and John Ortiz. Fast & Furious 6 follows a professional criminal gang led by Dominic Toretto (Diesel) who have retired following their successful heist in Fast Five (2011), but remain wanted fugitives. U.S. Diplomatic Security Service (DSS) agent Luke Hobbs (Johnson) offers to clear the group's criminal records and allow them to return home in exchange for helping him to take down a skilled mercenary organization led by Owen Shaw (Evans), one member of which is Toretto's presumed-dead lover Letty Ortiz (Rodriguez). Fast & Furious 6 was in development by February 2010 as the first film in the series to ...more...

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Kaissa

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Kaissa

Kaissa (Russian: Каисса) was a chess program developed in the Soviet Union in the 1960s. It was named so after Caissa, the goddess of chess. Kaissa became the first world computer chess champion in 1974 in Stockholm. History By 1967, a computer program by Georgy Adelson-Velsky, Vladimir Arlazarov, Alexander Bitman and Anatoly Uskov on the M-2 computer[1] in Alexander Kronrod’s laboratory at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics had defeated Kotok-McCarthy running on the IBM 7090 at Stanford University. By 1971, Mikhail Donskoy joined with Arlazarov and Uskov to program its successor on an ICL System 4/70 at the Institute of Control Sciences.[2][3] In 1972 the program played a correspondence match against readers of popular Russian newspaper, Komsomolskaya Pravda. The readers won, 1½-½. It was the journalists of Komsomolskaya Pravda who gave the program its name, Kaissa. Kaissa became the first world computer chess champion in 1974 in Stockholm. The program won all four games and finished f ...more...

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CP/M-86

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CP/M-86

CP/M-86 was a version of the CP/M operating system that Digital Research (DR) made for the Intel 8086 and Intel 8088. The system commands are the same as in CP/M-80. Executable files used the relocatable .CMD file format.[nb 1] Digital Research also produced a multi-user multitasking operating system compatible with CP/M-86, MP/M-86, which later evolved into Concurrent CP/M-86. When an emulator was added to provide PC DOS compatibility, the system was renamed Concurrent DOS, which later became Multiuser DOS, of which REAL/32 is the latest incarnation. The DOS Plus, FlexOS, and DR DOS families of operating systems started as derivations of Concurrent DOS as well. IBM PC When IBM contacted other companies to obtain components for the IBM PC, the as-yet unreleased CP/M-86 was its first choice for an operating system because CP/M had the most applications at the time. Negotiations between Digital Research and IBM quickly deteriorated over IBM's non-disclosure agreement and its insistence on a one-time fee rathe ...more...

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USB

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USB

USB-A 3.1 Gen 1 (3.0) ports USB (abbreviation of Universal Serial Bus), is an industry standard that establishes specifications for cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication, and power supply between personal computers and their peripheral devices.[3] There have been three generations of USB specifications: USB 1.x USB 2.0, with multiple updates and additions USB 3.x Released in 1996, the USB standard is currently maintained by the USB Implementers Forum (USB IF). Overview USB was designed to standardize the connection of peripherals like keyboards, pointing devices, digital still and video cameras, printers, portable media players, disk drives and network adapters to personal computers, both to communicate and to supply electric power. It has largely replaced interfaces such as serial ports and parallel ports, and has become commonplace on a wide range of devices. USB connectors have been increasingly replacing other types for battery chargers of portable devices. Receptacle ...more...

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Computer music

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Computer music

Computer music is the application of computing technology in music composition, to help human composers create new music or to have computers independently create music, such as with algorithmic composition programs. It includes the theory and application of new and existing computer software technologies and basic aspects of music, such as sound synthesis, digital signal processing, sound design, sonic diffusion, acoustics, and psychoacoustics. The field of computer music can trace its roots back to the origins of electronic music, and the very first experiments and innovations with electronic instruments at the turn of the 20th century. In the 2000s, with the widespread availability of relatively affordable home computers that have a fast processing speed, and the growth of home recording using digital audio recording systems ranging from Garageband to Protools, the term is sometimes used to describe music that has been created using digital technology. History CSIRAC, Australia's first digital comput ...more...

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History of computing hardware

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History of computing hardware

Computing hardware is a platform for information processing. Parts from four early computers, 1962. From left to right: ENIAC board, EDVAC board, ORDVAC board, and BRLESC-I board, showing the trend toward miniaturization. The history of computing hardware covers the developments from early simple devices to aid calculation to modern day computers. Before the 20th century, most calculations were done by humans. Early mechanical tools to help humans with digital calculations, such as the abacus, were called "calculating machines", called by proprietary names, or referred to as calculators. The machine operator was called the computer. The first aids to computation were purely mechanical devices which required the operator to set up the initial values of an elementary arithmetic operation, then manipulate the device to obtain the result. Later, computers represented numbers in a continuous form, for instance distance along a scale, rotation of a shaft, or a voltage. Numbers could also be represented in the ...more...

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Vladimir Arlazarov

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Vladimir Arlazarov

Vladimir L’vovich Arlazarov (Russian Арлазаров Владимир Львович) is a Russian computer scientist born in Moscow. Research work In 1965 at Alexander Kronrod’s laboratory at the Moscow Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Vladimir Arlazarov co-developed the ITEP Chess Program, together with Georgy Adelson-Velsky, Anatoly Uskov and Alexander Zhivotovsky, advised by Russian chess master Alexander Bitman and three-time world champion Mikhail Botvinnik. At the end of 1966 a four game match began between the Kotok-McCarthy-Program, running on an IBM 7090 computer, and the ITEP Chess Program on a Soviet M-20 computer. The match played over nine months was won 3-1 by the ITEP program, despite playing on slower hardware. By 1971, Mikhail Donskoy joined with Arlazarov and Uskov to program its successor on an ICL System 4/70 at the Institute of Control Sciences, called Kaissa, which became the first World Computer Chess Champion in 1974 in Stockholm. Arlazarov is one of the inventors of the Met ...more...

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Computer data storage

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Computer data storage

1 GiB of SDRAM mounted in a personal computer. An example of primary storage. 15 GiB PATA hard disk drive (HDD) from 1999; when connected to a computer it serves as secondary storage. 160 GB SDLT tape cartridge, an example of off-line storage. When used within a robotic tape library, it is classified as tertiary storage instead. Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data. It is a core function and fundamental component of computers.[1]:15–16 The central processing unit (CPU) of a computer is what manipulates data by performing computations. In practice, almost all computers use a storage hierarchy,[1]:468–473 which puts fast but expensive and small storage options close to the CPU and slower but larger and cheaper options farther away. Generally the fast volatile technologies (which lose data when off power) are referred to as "memory", while slower persistent technologies are referre ...more...

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Furious 7

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Furious 7

Furious 7 (alternatively known as Fast & Furious 7 and Fast 7)[4] is a 2015 American action film directed by James Wan and written by Chris Morgan. It is the seventh installment in The Fast and the Furious franchise. The film stars Vin Diesel, Paul Walker, Dwayne Johnson, Michelle Rodriguez, Tyrese Gibson, Chris "Ludacris" Bridges, Jordana Brewster, Djimon Hounsou, Kurt Russell, and Jason Statham. Furious 7 follows Dominic Toretto (Diesel), Brian O'Conner (Walker), and the rest of their team, who have returned to the United States to live normal lives after securing amnesty for their past crimes in Fast & Furious 6 (2013), until Deckard Shaw (Statham), a rogue special forces assassin seeking to avenge his comatose younger brother, puts the team in danger once again. With the previous three installments set between 2 Fast 2 Furious (2003) and The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift (2006), Furious 7 is the first installment in the franchise to take place after Tokyo Drift. The film also marks the fina ...more...

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Quantum computing

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Quantum computing

The Bloch sphere is a representation of a qubit, the fundamental building block of quantum computers. Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement.[1] A quantum computer is a device that performs quantum computing. They are different from binary digital electronic computers based on transistors. Whereas common digital computing requires that the data be encoded into binary digits (bits), each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1), quantum computation uses quantum bits, which can be in superpositions of states. A quantum Turing machine is a theoretical model of such a computer, and is also known as the universal quantum computer. The field of quantum computing was initiated by the work of Paul Benioff[2] and Yuri Manin in 1980,[3] Richard Feynman in 1982,[4] and David Deutsch in 1985.[5] As of 2018, the development of actual quantum computers is still in its infancy, but experiments have been carried out in which quantum comput ...more...

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Embedded system

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Embedded system

An embedded system on a plug-in card with processor, memory, power supply, and external interfaces An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.[1][2] It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today.[3] Ninety-eight percent of all microprocessors are manufactured as components of embedded systems.[4] Examples of properties of typical embedded computers when compared with general-purpose counterparts are low power consumption, small size, rugged operating ranges, and low per-unit cost. This comes at the price of limited processing resources, which make them significantly more difficult to program and to interact with. However, by building intelligence mechanisms on top of the hardware, taking advantage of possible existing sensors and the existence of a network of embedded units, one can both optim ...more...

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AUTOSAR

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Fast Five

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Fast Five

Fast Five (alternatively known as Fast & Furious 5[1] or Fast & Furious 5: Rio Heist[4]) is a 2011 American action film directed by Justin Lin and written by Chris Morgan. It is the fifth installment in The Fast and the Furious franchise. It was released first in Australia on April 20, 2011, and then in the United States on April 29, 2011. Fast Five follows Dominic Toretto (Vin Diesel), Brian O'Conner (Paul Walker), and Mia Toretto (Jordana Brewster) as they plan a heist to steal $100 million from corrupt businessman Hernan Reyes (Joaquim de Almeida) while being pursued for arrest by U.S. Diplomatic Security Service (DSS) agent Luke Hobbs (Dwayne Johnson). While developing Fast Five, Universal Studios deliberately departed from the street racing theme prevalent in previous films in the series, to transform the franchise into a heist action series involving cars. By doing so, they hoped to attract wider audiences that might otherwise be put off by a heavy emphasis on cars and car culture. Fast Five ...more...

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Glossary of computer hardware terms

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Glossary of computer hardware terms

This is a glossary of terms relating to computer hardware – physical computer hardware, architectural issues, and peripherals. A accelerator a microprocessor, ASIC or expansion card designed to offload a specific task from the CPU, often containing fixed function hardware; a common example is a Graphics processing unit. accumulator a register in a CPU in which intermediate arithmetic and logic results are stored. address the unique integer number that specifies a memory location in an address space address space a mapping of logical addresses into physical memory or other memory mapped devices. AI accelerator an accelerator aimed running artificial neural networks or other machine learning and machine vision algorithms (either training or deployment), e.g. Movidius Myriad 2, TrueNorth, Tensor processing unit etc. ATX Advanced Technology extended - a motherboard form factor specification developed by Intel in 1995 to improve on previous DE factor standards like the AT form factor. AT The dimens ...more...

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List of computer-animated films

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List of computer-animated films

A computer-animated film is a feature film that has been computer-animated to appear three-dimensional. While traditional 2D animated films are now made primarily with the help of computers, the technique to render realistic 3D computer graphics (CG), or 3D computer-generated imagery (CGI), is unique to computers. This is a list of theatrically released feature films that are entirely computer-animated. Released filmsEdit Release date listed is the first public theatrical screening of the completed film. This may mean that the dates listed here may not be representative of when the film came out in your resident country, or when it was widely released in the United States. The country or countries listed reflects the places where the production companies for each title are based. This means that the countries listed for a film might not reflect the location where the film was shot or the countries where the film received a theatrical release. If a title is a multi-country production, the country listed fi ...more...

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Digital signature

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Digital signature

In this example the message is only signed and not encrypted. 1) Alice signs a message with her private key. 2) Bob can verify that Alice send the message and that the message has not been modified. A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for presenting the authenticity of digital messages or documents. A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender (authentication), that the sender cannot deny having sent the message (non-repudiation), and that the message was not altered in transit (integrity).[1] Digital signatures are a standard element of most cryptographic protocol suites, and are commonly used for software distribution, financial transactions, contract management software, and in other cases where it is important to detect forgery or tampering. Explanation Digital signatures are often used to implement electronic signatures, a broader term that refers to any electronic data that carries the intent of a signature,[2] but not all elec ...more...

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Rebecca Allen (artist)

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Rebecca Allen (artist)

Rebecca Allen (born 1954) is an international artist inspired by a variety of media to create work from 3-D computer graphics, animation, music videos, video games, performance works, artificial life systems, multisensory interfaces, interactive installations, virtual and mixed reality.[1] A pioneer in the field of computer art, her work addresses humanizing technology.[2][3] Biography Allen received her B.F.A. at Rhode Island School of Design in 1975[4] and her M.S. in architecture machine group (predecessor to MIT Media Lab) from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1980.[5] She is currently professor at, and was founding chair of, the UCLA Department of Design Media Arts.[6] She worked at New York Institute of Technology's Computer Graphics Laboratory. Fast Company named Allen one of the Most Creative People in Business for 2010.[7] She helped pioneer computer art by creating one of the first music videos to use 3D graphics, for the 1986 Musique Non-Stop by Kraftwerk.[2][4] Allen has collaborated wi ...more...

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Educational technology

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Educational technology

Educational technology is "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources".[1] Educational technology is the use of both physical hardware and educational theoretics. It encompasses several domains including learning theory, computer-based training, online learning, and where mobile technologies are used, m-learning. Accordingly, there are several discrete aspects to describing the intellectual and technical development of educational technology: Educational technology as the theory and practice of educational approaches to learning. Educational technology as technological tools and media that assist in the communication of knowledge, and its development and exchange. Educational technology for learning management systems (LMS), such as tools for student and curriculum management, and education management information systems (EMIS). Educational technology as back-office management, such ...more...

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UNIVAC I

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UNIVAC I

UNIVAC I operator's console UNIVAC I at Franklin Life Insurance Company The UNIVAC I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer I) was the first commercial computer produced in the United States.[1] It was designed principally by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly, the inventors of the ENIAC. Design work was started by their company, Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation (EMCC), and was completed after the company had been acquired by Remington Rand (which later became part of Sperry, now Unisys). In the years before successor models of the UNIVAC I appeared, the machine was simply known as "the UNIVAC".[2] The first Univac was accepted by the United States Census Bureau on March 31, 1951, and was dedicated on June 14 that year.[3][4] The fifth machine (built for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission) was used by CBS to predict the result of the 1952 presidential election. With a sample of just 1% of the voting population it famously predicted an Eisenhower landslide while the conventional wisdom favored Stevenson.[5] ...more...

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Digital native

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Digital native

A child using a tablet The term digital native describes a person that grows-up in the digital age, rather than acquiring familiarity with digital systems as an adult, as a digital immigrant. Both terms were used as early as 1996 as part of the Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace.[1] They were popularized by education consultant Marc Prensky in his 2001 article entitled Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants, in which he relates the contemporary decline in American education to educators' failure to understand the needs of modern students.[2] His article posited that "the arrival and rapid dissemination of digital technology in the last decade of the 20th century" had changed the way students think and process information, making it difficult for them to excel academically using the outdated teaching methods of the day. In other words, children raised in a digital, media-saturated world, require a media-rich learning environment to hold their attention, and Prensky dubbed these children "digital nati ...more...

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Turing machine

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Turing machine

Classes of automata A Turing machine is a mathematical model of computation that defines an abstract machine,[1] which manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules.[2] Despite the model's simplicity, given any computer algorithm, a Turing machine capable of simulating that algorithm's logic can be constructed.[3] The machine operates on an infinite[4] memory tape divided into discrete cells.[5] The machine positions its head over a cell and "reads" (scans)[6] the symbol there. Then, as per the symbol and its present place in a finite table[7] of user-specified instructions, the machine (i) writes a symbol (e.g., a digit or a letter from a finite alphabet) in the cell (some models allowing symbol erasure or no writing),[8] then (ii) either moves the tape one cell left or right (some models allow no motion, some models move the head),[9] then (iii) (as determined by the observed symbol and the machine's place in the table) either proceeds to a subsequent instruction or halts the compu ...more...

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IBM Personal Computer

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IBM Personal Computer

The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform. It is IBM model number 5150, and was introduced on August 12, 1981. It was created by a team of engineers and designers under the direction of Don Estridge of the IBM Entry Systems Division in Boca Raton, Florida. The generic term "personal computer" ("PC") was in use years before 1981, applied as early as 1972 to the Xerox PARC's Alto, but because of the success of the IBM Personal Computer, the term "PC" came to also mean more specifically a desktop microcomputer compatible with IBM's Personal Computer branded products. Since the machine was based on open architecture,[1][2] within a short time of its introduction, third-party suppliers of peripheral devices, expansion cards, and software proliferated; the influence of the IBM PC on the personal computer market was substantial in standardizing a platform for personal computers. "IBM compatible" became an important crit ...more...

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Flip-flop (electronics)

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Flip-flop (electronics)

An animated interactive SR latch (R1, R2 = 1 kΩ R3, R4 = 10 kΩ). An SR latch, constructed from a pair of cross-coupled NOR gates. In electronics, a flip-flop or latch is a circuit that has two stable states and can be used to store state information. A flip-flop is a bistable multivibrator. The circuit can be made to change state by signals applied to one or more control inputs and will have one or two outputs. It is the basic storage element in sequential logic. Flip-flops and latches are fundamental building blocks of digital electronics systems used in computers, communications, and many other types of systems. Flip-flops and latches are used as data storage elements. A flip-flop is a device which stores a single bit (binary digit) of data; one of its two states represents a "one" and the other represents a "zero". Such data storage can be used for storage of state, and such a circuit is described as sequential logic in electronics. When used in a finite-state machine, the output and next state depend ...more...

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Logic gate

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Logic gate

In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output. Depending on the context, the term may refer to an ideal logic gate, one that has for instance zero rise time and unlimited fan-out, or it may refer to a non-ideal physical device[1] (see Ideal and real op-amps for comparison). Logic gates are primarily implemented using diodes or transistors acting as electronic switches, but can also be constructed using vacuum tubes, electromagnetic relays (relay logic), fluidic logic, pneumatic logic, optics, molecules, or even mechanical elements. With amplification, logic gates can be cascaded in the same way that Boolean functions can be composed, allowing the construction of a physical model of all of Boolean logic, and therefore, all of the algorithms and mathematics that can be described with Boolean logic. Logic circuits include such devices as multiplexers, regi ...more...

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Hash-based cryptography

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Hash-based cryptography

Hash-based cryptography is the generic term for constructions of cryptographic primitives based on the security of hash functions. So far, hash-based cryptography is limited to digital signatures schemes such as the Merkle signature scheme. Hash-based signature schemes combine a one-time signature scheme with a Merkle tree structure. Since a one-time signature scheme key can only sign a single message securely, it is practical to combine many such keys within a single, larger structure. A Merkle tree structure is used to this end. In this hierarchical data structure, a hash function and concatenation are used repeatedly to compute tree nodes. Lamport signatures are an example of a one-time signature scheme that can be combined with a Merkle tree structure. Hash-based cryptography is a type of post-quantum cryptography. History Ralph Merkle invented hash-based signatures in 1979. The XMSS (eXtended Merkle Signature Scheme)[1] and SPHINCS[2][3] hash-based signature schemes were introduced in 2011 and 2015, re ...more...

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Digital humanities

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Digital humanities

Example of a textual analysis program being used to study a novel, with Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice in Voyant Tools Digital humanities (DH) is an area of scholarly activity at the intersection of computing or digital technologies and the disciplines of the humanities. It includes the systematic use of digital resources in the humanities, as well as the reflection on their application.[1][2] DH can be defined as new ways of doing scholarship that involve collaborative, transdisciplinary, and computationally engaged research, teaching, and publishing.[3] It brings digital tools and methods to the study of the humanities with the recognition that the printed word is no longer the main medium for knowledge production and distribution.[3] By producing and using new applications and techniques, DH makes new kinds of teaching and research possible, while at the same time studying and critiquing how these impact cultural heritage and digital culture.[2] Thus, a distinctive feature of DH is its cultivation of ...more...

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Digital subscriber line

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Digital subscriber line

Digital subscriber line (DSL; originally digital subscriber loop) is a family of technologies that are used to transmit digital data over telephone lines. In telecommunications marketing, the term DSL is widely understood to mean asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL), the most commonly installed DSL technology, for Internet access. DSL service can be delivered simultaneously with wired telephone service on the same telephone line since DSL uses higher frequency bands for data. On the customer premises, a DSL filter on each non-DSL outlet blocks any high-frequency interference to enable simultaneous use of the voice and DSL services. The bit rate of consumer DSL services typically ranges from 256 kbit/s to over 100 Mbit/s in the direction to the customer (downstream), depending on DSL technology, line conditions, and service-level implementation. Bit rates of 1 Gbit/s have been reached.[1] In ADSL, the data throughput in the upstream direction (the direction to the service provider) is lower, hence the ...more...

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The Fate of the Furious

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The Fate of the Furious

The Fate of the Furious (alternatively known as Fast & Furious 8 and Fast 8, and often stylized as F8) is a 2017 American action film directed by F. Gary Gray and written by Chris Morgan. It is the eighth installment in The Fast and the Furious franchise. The film stars Vin Diesel, Dwayne Johnson, Jason Statham, Michelle Rodriguez, Tyrese Gibson, Chris "Ludacris" Bridges, Scott Eastwood, Nathalie Emmanuel, Elsa Pataky, Kurt Russell and Charlize Theron. The Fate of the Furious follows Dominic Toretto (Diesel), who has settled down with his wife Letty Ortiz (Rodriguez), until cyberterrorist Cipher (Theron) coerces him into working for her and turns him against his team, forcing them to find Dom and take down Cipher. The Fate of the Furious marks the first installment in the franchise since Tokyo Drift (2006) not to feature both Paul Walker, who died in a single-vehicle crash during the filming of Furious 7 (2015) on November 30, 2013,[3] and Jordana Brewster.[4] Script rewrites to the seventh installment ...more...

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Western Digital

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Western Digital

Western Digital Corporation (abbreviated WDC, commonly shortened to Western Digital or WD) is an American computer data storage company and one of the largest computer hard disk drive manufacturers in the world, along with its main competitor Seagate Technology.[2] Western Digital Corporation has a long history in the electronics industry as an integrated circuit maker and a storage products company. Western Digital was founded on April 23, 1970, by Alvin B. Phillips, a Motorola employee, as General Digital, initially (and briefly) a manufacturer of MOS test equipment. It rapidly became a speciality semiconductor maker, with start-up capital provided by several individual investors and industrial giant Emerson Electric. Around July 1971, it adopted its current name and soon introduced its first product, the WD1402A UART. History 1970s Initially financed with start-up capital provided by investors and Emerson Electric Company, WDC made its money by selling calculator chips through the early years of the 197 ...more...

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Jurassic Park (film)

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Jurassic Park (film)

Jurassic Park is a 1993 American science-fiction adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and produced by Kathleen Kennedy and Gerald R. Molen. The first installment in the Jurassic Park franchise, it is based on the 1990 novel of the same name by Michael Crichton and a screenplay written by Crichton and David Koepp. The film is set on the fictional island of Isla Nublar, located off Central America's Pacific Coast near Costa Rica, where billionaire philanthropist John Hammond and a small team of genetic scientists have created a wildlife park of cloned dinosaurs. When industrial sabotage leads to a catastrophic shutdown of the park's power facilities and security precautions, a small group of visitors, along with Hammond's grandchildren, struggle to survive and escape the perilous island. Before Crichton's novel was published, four studios put in bids for its film rights. With the backing of Universal Studios, Spielberg acquired the rights for $1.5 million before its publication in 1990; Crichton was hir ...more...

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Digital divide

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Digital divide

A digital divide is an economic and social inequality with regard to access to, use of, or impact of information and communication technologies (ICT).[1] The divide within countries (such as the digital divide in the United States) may refer to inequalities between individuals, households, businesses, or geographic areas, usually at different socioeconomic levels or other demographic categories. The divide between differing countries or regions of the world is referred to as the global digital divide,[1][2] examining this technological gap between developing and developed countries on an international scale.[3] Definitions and usage The term digital divide describes a gap in terms of access to and usage of information and communication technology. It was traditionally considered to be a question of having or not having access,[4] but with a global mobile phone penetration of over 95%,[5] it is becoming a relative inequality between those who have more and less bandwidth[6] and more or fewer skills.[7][8][9] ...more...

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Despicable Me 2

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Despicable Me 2

Despicable Me 2 is a 2013 American 3D computer-animated comedy film and the sequel to the 2010 animated film Despicable Me. Produced by Illumination Entertainment for Universal Pictures and animated by Illumination Mac Guff, the film was directed by Pierre Coffin and Chris Renaud, and written by Cinco Paul and Ken Daurio. Steve Carell, Russell Brand, Miranda Cosgrove, Elsie Fisher, and Dana Gaier reprise their roles as Gru, Dr. Nefario, Margo, Agnes, and Edith respectively. Kristen Wiig, who played Miss Hattie in the first film, voices agent Lucy Wilde, while Ken Jeong, who played the Talk Show Host, voices Floyd Eagle-san. New cast members include Benjamin Bratt as Eduardo "El Macho" Pérez and Steve Coogan as Silas Ramsbottom, head of the fictional Anti-Villain League (AVL). Despicable Me 2 premiered on June 5, 2013 in Australia and was released in the United States on July 3, 2013. It received generally positive reviews from critics and grossed over $970.8 million worldwide against a budget of $76 million. ...more...

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Russ Simmons' Movie Reviews

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Revolvy User Former super villain Gru and his loveable minions return in “Despicable Me 2,” a worthy sequel to the 2010 animated favorite. This time out Gru is working with the Anti-Villain League to locate a bad guy intent on using a stolen formula that turns animals into violent mutants. The filmmakers have packed the movie with clever sight gags, making good use of 3-D technology. Plus, the script has charm and good humor to spare and Steve Carell, Kristen Wiig and Benjamin Bratt provide solid voice work. Plus, the songs by Pharrell Willams are guaranteed to make you "Happy." Stick through the closing credits from some additional minion mayhem. 4 out of 5 stars.


MIDI

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MIDI

Example of music created in MIDI format Using MIDI, a single controller (often a keyboard, as pictured here) can play multiple instruments, which makes stage setups much more portable. This system fits into a single rack case, but prior to the advent of MIDI, it would have required four separate full-size keyboard instruments, plus outboard mixing and effects units. MIDI (; short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a technical standard that describes a communications protocol, digital interface, and electrical connectors that connect a wide variety of electronic musical instruments, computers, and related music and audio devices.[1] A single MIDI link can carry up to sixteen channels of information, each of which can be routed to a separate device. MIDI carries event messages that specify notation, pitch, velocity, vibrato, panning, and clock signals (which set tempo). For example, a MIDI keyboard or other controller might trigger a sound module to generate sound produced by a keyboard amplifier ...more...

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Universal Display Corporation

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Universal Display Corporation

Universal Display Corporation (Nasdaq symbol OLED) is a developer and manufacturer of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) technologies and materials as well as provider of services to the display and lighting industries. It is also an OLED research company. Founded in 1994, the company currently owns or has exclusive, co-exclusive or sole license rights with respect to more than 3,000 issued and pending patents worldwide for the commercialization of phosphorescent based OLEDs and also flexible, transparent and stacked OLEDs - for both display and lighting applications. Its phosphorescent OLED technologies and materials are licensed and supplied to companies such as Samsung, LG, AU Optronics CMEL, Pioneer, Panasonic Idemitsu OLED lighting and Konica Minolta. UDC is working with many other companies, including Sony, DuPont and Novaled. Back in 2009 UDC claimed that "virtually all AMOLEDs on the market use our technology". Based in Ewing, New Jersey, with international offices in Ireland, South Korea, Hong Kon ...more...

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Computer mouse

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Computer mouse

A computer mouse with the most common features: two buttons (left and right) and a scroll wheel, which can also act as a third button. A computer mouse is a hand-held pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface. This motion is typically translated into the motion of a pointer on a display, which allows a smooth control of the graphical user interface. The first public demonstration of a mouse controlling a computer system was in 1968. Originally wired to a computer, many modern mice are cordless, relying on short-range radio communication with the connected system. Mice originally used a ball rolling on a surface to detect motion, but modern mice often have optical sensors that have no moving parts. In addition to moving a cursor, computer mice have one or more buttons to allow operations such as selection of a menu item on a display. Mice often also feature other elements, such as touch surfaces and "wheels", which enable additional control and dimensional input. Naming The e ...more...

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Coordinated Universal Time

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Coordinated Universal Time

Current UTC July 16, 2018 08:36:18 (UTC) – Refresh World map of current time zones Coordinated Universal Time (abbreviated to UTC) is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude,[1] and does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with Greenwich Mean Time (GMT),[2] but GMT is no longer precisely defined by the scientific community. The first Coordinated Universal Time was informally adopted on 1 January 1960,[3] but the official abbreviation of UTC and the official English name of Coordinated Universal Time (along with the French equivalent), was not adopted until 1967.[4] The system was adjusted several times, including a brief period where time coordination radio signals broadcast both UTC and "Stepped Atomic Time (SAT)" until a new UTC was adopted in 1970 and implemented in 1972. This change also adopted leap seconds to simplify future adjustments. This CCIR Reco ...more...

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Shutterstock

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Shutterstock

Shutterstock is an American stock photography, stock footage, stock music, and editing tools provider[3] headquartered in New York City.[4] Founded in 2003 by programmer and photographer Jon Oringer,[5] Shutterstock maintains a library of around 200 million royalty-free stock photos,[6] vector graphics, and illustrations,[7] with around 10 million video clips and music tracks available for licensing.[7] Originally a subscription site only,[8] Shutterstock expanded beyond subscriptions into a la carte pricing in 2008,[9] and has been publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange[10] since 2012.[10][11] Since its founding Shutterstock has acquired a handful of other companies, starting with Bigstock in 2009[12] and followed by digital asset management software provider Webdam in 2014.[13] After acquiring Rex Features and PremiumBeat in 2015,[14][15] Shutterstock signed a partnership agreement with the Associated Press[7] and most recently acquired Flashstock in 2017. It also has licensing deals with companies ...more...

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Laptop

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Laptop

A modern-day Lenovo laptop A laptop, also called a notebook computer or just notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid. The "clamshell" is opened up to use the computer. Laptops are folded shut for transportation, and thus are suitable for mobile use.[1] Its name comes from "lap", as it was deemed to be placed for use on a person's lap. Although originally there was a distinction between laptops and notebooks, the former being bigger and heavier than the latter, as of 2014, there is often no longer any difference.[2] Laptops are commonly used in a variety of settings, such as at work, in education, in playing games, Internet surfing, for personal multimedia and general home computer use. Laptops combines the components, inputs, outputs, and capabilities of a desktop computer, including the display scr ...more...

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Digital imaging

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Digital imaging

Digital imaging or digital image acquisition is the creation of a digitally encoded representation of the visual characteristics of an object,[1] such as a physical scene or the interior structure of an object. The term is often assumed to imply or include the processing, compression, storage, printing, and display of such images. A key advantage of a digital image, versus an analog image such as a film photograph, is the ability make copies and copies of copies digitally indefinitely without any loss of image quality. Digital imaging can be classified by the type of electromagnetic radiation or other waves whose variable attenuation, as they pass through or reflect off objects, conveys the information that constitutes the image. In all classes of digital imaging, the information is converted by image sensors into digital signals that are processed by a computer and made output as a visible-light image. For example, the medium of visible light allows digital photography (including digital videography) with v ...more...

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Alexander Brudno

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Alexander Brudno

Alexander Brudno Alexander L'vovich Brudno (Russian: Александр Львович Брудно) (January 10, 1918 – December 1, 2009)[1] was a Russian computer scientist, best known for fully describing the alpha-beta pruning algorithm.[2] From 1991 until his death he lived in Israel. Biography Brudno developed the "mathematics/machine interface" for the M-2 computer constructed in 1952 at the Krzhizhanovskii laboratory of the Institute of Energy of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the Soviet Union.[3][4] He was a great friend of Alexander Kronrod. Brudno's work on alpha-beta pruning was published in 1963 in Russian and English. The algorithm was used in computer chess program written by Vladimir Arlazarov and others at the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEF or ITEP). According to Monty Newborn and the Computer History Museum, the algorithm was used later in Kaissa the world computer chess champion in 1974. In 1980, Brudno became a founder and scientific director of the first Russian school for y ...more...

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Home computer

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Home computer

Children playing Paperboy on an Amstrad CPC 464 in 1988 Most home computers, such as this Tandy Color Computer 3, featured a version of the BASIC programming language. The sometimes-sprawling nature of the well-outfitted home computer system is very much in evidence. A TI 99/4 with expansion modules attached. No more than a few expansion options were practical with this type of arrangement. Home computers were a class of microcomputers entering the market in 1977, and becoming common during the 1980s. They were marketed to consumers as affordable and accessible computers that, for the first time, were intended for the use of a single nontechnical user. These computers were a distinct market segment that typically cost much less than business, scientific or engineering-oriented computers of the time such as the IBM PC,[1] and were generally less powerful in terms of memory and expandability. However, a home computer often had better graphics and sound than contemporary business computers. Their m ...more...

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Computer program

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Computer program

C-language "Hello, World" source code. This first known "Hello, world" snippet from the seminal book The C Programming Language originates from Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie in 1974. A computer program is a sequence of instructions[1] for performing a task designed to solve specific problems. Each program instruction is designed to be executable by a computer; computers require the capacity to execute programs in order to function. The instructions of a computer program are often specified by a computer programmer. A computer programmer does this by means of the application of a programming language. From the program in its human-readable form of source code, a compiler can derive machine code, which are computer program instructions that—as a result of being specified in a language that a computer can understand—are able to be directly executed by the computer they have been provided to. Alternatively, a computer program may be executed with the aid of an interpreter. The method applied by a computer ...more...

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Computer virus

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Computer virus

Hex dump of the Blaster worm, showing a message left for Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates by the worm's programmer A computer virus is a type of malicious software that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code.[1] When this replication succeeds, the affected areas are then said to be "infected" with a computer virus.[2][3][4] Virus writers use social engineering deceptions and exploit detailed knowledge of security vulnerabilities to initially infect systems and to spread the virus. The vast majority of viruses target systems running Microsoft Windows,[5][6][7] employing a variety of mechanisms to infect new hosts,[8] and often using complex anti-detection/stealth strategies to evade antivirus software.[9][10][11][12] Motives for creating viruses can include seeking profit (e.g., with ransomware), desire to send a political message, personal amusement, to demonstrate that a vulnerability exists in software, for sabotage and denial of service, or simply ...more...

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Von Neumann architecture

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Von Neumann architecture

Von Neumann architecture scheme The von Neumann architecture, which is also known as the von Neumann model and Princeton architecture, is a computer architecture based on the 1945 description by the mathematician and physicist John von Neumann and others in the First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC.[1] This describes a design architecture for an electronic digital computer with parts consisting of a processing unit containing an arithmetic logic unit and processor registers; a control unit containing an instruction register and program counter; a memory to store both data and instructions; external mass storage; and input and output mechanisms.[1][2] The meaning has evolved to be any stored-program computer in which an instruction fetch and a data operation cannot occur at the same time because they share a common bus. This is referred to as the von Neumann bottleneck and often limits the performance of the system.[3] The design of a von Neumann architecture machine is simpler than that of a Harvard architec ...more...

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List of PlayStation 2 games

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List of PlayStation 2 games

This is a list of games for the PlayStation 2 video game system. Title names may be different for each region due to the first language spoken. Games This video game-related list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. There are currently 2529 games on this list.               Title Developer Publisher First released JP EU / PAL NA ¡Qué pasa Neng! El videojuego Mere Mortals Phoenix Games 2006-12-11EU ✔ .hack//frägment CyberConnect2 Bandai 2005-11-23JP ✔ .hack//G.U.vol.1//Rebirth •.hack//G.U. Vol. 1: SaitanJP CyberConnect2 Bandai 2006-05-18JP ✔ ✔ .hack//G.U.vol.2//Reminisce •.hack//G.U. Vol. 2: Kimi Omou KoeJP CyberConnect2 Namco Bandai Games 2007-05-08NA ✔ ✔ .hack//G.U.vol.3//Redemption•.hack//G.U. Vol. 3: Aruku Youna Hayasa deJP CyberConnect2 Namco Bandai Games 2007-01-08 NA ✔ ✔ .hack//Infection Part 1•.hack//Kansen Kakudai Vol. 1JP CyberConnect2 Bandai 2002-06-20JP ✔ ✔ ✔ .hack//Mutation CyberConnect2 Bandai 2002-0 ...more...

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