Quizzes Lists Topics

European Documentation and Information Centre

The European Documentation and Information Centre, abbreviated CEDI (French: Centre Européen de Documentation et d'Information), was a former think tank founded in 1952 on the occasion of an international congress held in Santander, Spain. The objective of the organization was to unite various European conservative and Christian Democratic political organizations which formed in several Western European states during postwar reconstruction, the emerging Cold War and the beginnings of what would later be called European integration. During the 1950s and the 1960s, the CEDI was an important contact pool for European politicians. During its early years the CEDI's ideology and program was dominated by its first president, Otto von Habsburg, son of the last emperor of Austria. It was dissolved in 1990 following the collapse of the Iron Curtain.

Backgrounds

The Franco regime in Spain made use of the CEDI to get in contact with high-ranking persons of the political, military, economic and cultural life from Western Europe and thus end its post-war international isolation. By preaching the necessity of cultural exchange and the religious unity of the occident, the CEDI aimed at a political, military and economic inclusion of Spain into the beginning process of European Integration.

Organization and members

The annual congresses of the CEDI, which were nearly always held in Spain, brought together many office bearers and dignitaries of the conservative milieu. Besides the Spanish initiators – hereunder Franco’s foreign minister Alberto Martín Artajo, the director of the Institute for Hispanic Culture Alfredo Sánchez Bella and José Ignacio Escobar Kirkpatrick Marqués de Valdeiglesias – there was a strong support for CEDI’s activities in Germany, Austria and France. The expelled Austrian Heir Apparent Otto von Habsburg was the founding and, later on, honorary president of the organization. Germany was represented by high-ranking members of the Christian Democratic and Christian Social Union of Bavaria parties, as for example the ministers Hans-Joachim von Merkatz and Richard Jaeger. The French section of the Documentation Centre was led by the Count François de la Noë and Michel Habib-Deloncle.

Among the first British supporters were William Teeling, Sir Frederick Corfield MP and Sir John Rodgers MP, who even held CEDI’s international presidency from 1965 to 1967. Over the years, the Austrian secretary general Georg von Gaupp-Berghausen turned more and more out to be the actual organizational and programmatic head of the Documentation Centre.

Ambitions and ideology

Besides the proclaimed Catholic Christian heritage, the traditional connections of the European upper nobility, military contacts and common economic interests, it was above all a virulent anticommunism which was tying together the members of the Documentation Centre. The scientific lectures given at the annual meetings of the CEDI dealt with questions of principle concerning European Integration, the Cold War and other subjects of social and international relevance.

National sections

Apart from Spain, Germany and France, national sections emerged in and Belgium and Austria, some years later also in Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Sweden and Portugal. In Britain, the conservative "March Club" fulfilled the tasks of a national section since the beginning of the 1960s. Among the most prominent members of this British section were apart from Teeling, Corfield and Rodgers, Peter Agnew and Geoffrey Rippon who both were to become international presidents of the CEDI later on. It seems quite likely that the contacts provided by the Documentation Centre played a not unimportant role in negotiating Britain’s entry into the European Community, since Rippon was the head of the British government’s delegation.

Development

When the CEDI became a civil law association in 1957, its head office was officially moved to Munich, Madrid remaining nevertheless a central branch office of the organization. With General Charles de Gaulle returning to the political stage in 1958, his fellows transformed the CEDI into an international forum in order to diffuse their conceptions of European politics. The cooperation between French Gaullists and German Christian Democrats has also been prepared by CEDI’s initiatives.

The Gaullist engagement weakening by the end of the 1960s, Spanish influence in the Documentation Centre increased again. CEDI evolved into an instrument of Spanish interests in Latin America, reached out for Africa and Asia, and finally turned toward the domain of development policies.

Nevertheless, the organization had transgressed the zenith of its diplomatic activities. The urgent necessity of recruiting new members was perceived, but the CEDI did not find any solution to solve these problems. The political transformation process in Spain by the middle of the 1970s deprived the CEDI of its last material and organizational basics.

Further reading
  • Conze, Vanessa: Das Europa der Deutschen. Ideen von Europa in Deutschland zwischen Reichstradition und Westorientierung (1920–1970), München 2005, p. 169–206.
  • Gunzález Cuevas, Pedro Carlos: Neoconservatismo e identidad europea. Una aproximación histórica, in: Spagna contemporanea 13 (1998), p. 41–60.
  • Weber, Petra-Maria: Spanische Deutschlandpolitik 1945–1958. Entsorgung der Vergangenheit, Saarbrücken/Fort Lauderdale 1992, p. 205–268.
  • Johannes Großmann: Die Internationale der Konservativen. Transnationale Elitenzirkel und private Außenpolitik in Westeuropa seit 1945, Munich 2014.
Continue Reading...
Content from Wikipedia Licensed under CC-BY-SA.

SCADPlus

topic

SCADPlus is an information portal maintained by the European Commission , providing public access to European Union initiatives and policies. The information is of a general nature and not intended for legal or technical research purposes. In its disclaimer the Commission states that "it cannot be guaranteed that a document available on-line exactly reproduces an officially adopted text. Only European Union legislation published in paper editions of the Official Journal of the European Union is deemed authentic." Advisory services on how to use the information on SCADPlus are available at the 400 European Documentation Centres across the European Union . As of middle 2007, some 2,500 fact sheets, divided into 32 subject areas, summarize EU legislation of the Activities of the EU . They should provide a complete summary of the latest legislative developments and are available in four languages of the EU: English, French, German and Spanish. Some 1,000 fact sheets with general interest information are also av ...more...



Patent family

topic

A patent family is "a set of patents taken in various countries to protect a single invention (when a first application in a country – the priority  – is then extended to other offices )." In other words, a patent family is "the same invention disclosed by a common inventor(s) and patented in more than one country." Patent families can be regarded as a "fortuitous by-product of the concept of priorities for patent applications". Definitions The International Patent Documentation Centre ( INPADOC ), the European Patent Office (EPO) and WIPO recognize the following definitions of simple and extended patent families: Simple patent family : All patent documents have exactly the same priority date or combination of priority dates. Extended patent family : All patent documents are linked (directly or indirectly) via a priority document belonging to one patent family. The extended families allow for additional connectors to link other than strictly priority date. These include: domestic application numbers, countr ...more...



European Institute of Cultural Routes

topic

The European Institute of Cultural Routes is a non-profit association based in Luxembourg whose aim is to help the Council of Europe , as a technical body, in the establishment of European Cultural Routes . It was established in 1998 and its role is: to examine applications for new projects; to monitor activities in the field and co-ordinate the work of partner organizations; to disseminate and archive information documents. The Council of Europe: The European Institute of Cultural Routes The European Institute of Cultural Routes (EICR) was established as a European public service and technical body as part of a political agreement between the Council of Europe and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (Ministry of Culture, Further Education and Research). Since 1988 the Institute has worked in close collaboration with the Council of Europe in carrying out its responsibilities, namely to ensure the continuity and development of the programme of the Cultural Routes in the 51 signatory countries of the European Cultura ...more...



MoReq2

topic

MoReq2 is short for “Model Requirements for the Management of Electronic Records”, second version. It consists of a formal requirements specification for a generic electronic records management system , accompanied by testing documentation and related information. Published in 2008 by the European Commission , it is intended for use across the European Union , but can be used elsewhere. MoReq2 is generally considered a de facto standard in Europe but it does not have any formal status as a standard. Purpose The MoReq2 specification is intended for users and suppliers of electronic records management systems and services, and educators. Its main intended usages are to serve as a basis for invitations to tender (also known as requests for proposal ) and as a framework to guide development of new electronic records management systems. It can also be used to provide a basis for auditing existing electronic records management systems or services, and as a resource for academic or commercial trainers. Availability ...more...



Regional Representation of the European Commission in Bonn

topic

Regional representation of the European Commission in Bonn, Bertha-von-Suttner-Platz 2-4 The regional representation of the European Commission in Bonn is part of the Commission representation in Germany. The main office is located in Berlin and another regional representation is in Munich. Dr. Stephan Koppelberg is in charge of the regional representation in Bonn since 2009, whereas Richard Kühnel leads the Commission representation office in Berlin. History The regional representation office has its origin as press liaison office of the European Coal and Steel Community , which was located in Luxembourg. The office in Bonn opened on 1 March 1954 as the very first branch office of the European institutions in Schulze-Delitzsch-Haus (Bonn), directed by the journalist Dr. Karl Mühlenbach. The next branches were opened in Rome and Paris The main task of the press liaison office was to maintain and strengthen contact to the press and other national sources of information. Present function and tasks The region ...more...



Süddeutsche Zeitung

topic

The Süddeutsche Zeitung ( German for South German Newspaper), published in Munich , Bavaria , is the largest daily newspaper in Germany . History On 6 October 1945, five months after the end of World War II in Germany, the SZ was the first newspaper to receive a license from the U.S. military administration of Bavaria. The first issue was published the same evening, allegedly printed from the repurposed presses that had printed Mein Kampf. The first article begins with: The front page of the first issue can be read here (PDF) . A reversal in ad sales in the early 2000s was so severe that it brought the paper to the brink of bankruptcy in October 2002. The Süddeutsche survived through a 150 million euro investment by a new shareholder, a regional newspaper chain called Südwestdeutsche Medien. Over a period of three years, the newspaper underwent a reduction in its staff, from 425, to 307, the closing of a regional edition in Düsseldorf, and the scrapping of a section devoted to news from Berlin. In spring ...more...



Michele Greco

topic

Michele Greco (Ciaculli, 12 May 1924 – Rome, 13 February 2008) was a member of the Sicilian Mafia , previously incarcerated for multiple murders . His nickname was "il Papa" (The Pope) because of his ability to mediate between different Mafia families. Greco was the head of the Sicilian Mafia Commission . Rise to power Michele Greco was part of the powerful Greco Mafia clan that ruled both in his native Ciaculli and in Croceverde Giardini , two suburbs close to Palermo . He took over the mandamento of Croceverde Giardini after his father Giuseppe Greco, "Piddu u tinenti", died. He was a cousin of Salvatore "Ciaschiteddu" Greco , the first "secretary" of the first Sicilian Mafia Commission that was formed somewhere in 1958. He and his brother Salvatore Greco operated low profile and were able to enter into relationships with businessmen, politicians, magistrates and law enforcement officials through their membership of Masonic lodges. Salvatore Greco's nickname was "The Senator" for his political connections. ...more...



Helsinki University Library

topic

Helsinki University Library is the largest multidisciplinary university library in Finland . Helsinki University Library is an independent institute of the University of Helsinki and open to all information seekers. Helsinki University Library includes the Main Library in the Kaisa House, Kumpula, Meilahti and Viikki Campus Libraries, as well as internal library services. The library offers information and library services in the fields of science of all four campuses of University of Helsinki. Key information About 1.9 million customers visit Helsinki University Library annually. There are about 40,400 active borrowers per year, and of them 11,000 are new customers. Everyone has the right to use the library, and persons over the age of 15 who live in Finland have the right to borrow books. Electronic materials are available for use to all customers in the library facilities and for the university community also online. The library offers its customers wide collections of printed and electronic materials. The ...more...



E-GIF

topic

An e-GIF , or eGovernment Interoperability Framework, is a scheme for ensuring the inter-operation of computer-based systems. It is intended to resolve and prevent (or at least minimise) problems arising from incompatible content of different computer systems. An e-GIF may aim to facilitate government processes at local, national or international levels. International implementations About 30 countries and international bodies are known to have implemented some form of e-GIF, most, but not all, using the "e-GIF" acronym. Within the EU many of these were supported by the European Interoperability Framework (EIF) of the IDABC . These included Denmark , Greece , the United Kingdom and the Reach "Public Services Broker" in Ireland . In Africa COMESA and Ghana provide examples of similar initiatives, whilst Bhutan and Thailand are examples from Asia. New Zealand and Australia , similarly, implemented their own frameworks. In the United States the National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) shared similar aim ...more...



Icelandic passport

topic

Icelandic passports are issued to citizens of Iceland for the purpose of international travel. Physical Appearance Icelandic passports are blue , with the Icelandic coat of arms emblazoned in the centre of the front cover. The words "ÍSLAND" ( Icelandic ), "ICELAND" ( English ) and "ISLANDE" ( French ) are inscribed above the coat of arms and the words "VEGABRÉF" ( Icelandic ), "PASSPORT" ( English ) and "PASSEPORT" ( French ) are inscribed below the coat of arms. Icelandic passports have the standard biometric symbol at the bottom. Vegabréf literally means "road letter" and is a word used in Scandinavia in historic centuries meaning internal passport . Identity Information Page The biodata page of the previous machine readable version The Icelandic passport includes the following data: Photo of Passport Holder Type (PA) Code (ISL) Passport No. Surname Given Names Nationality Height Date of Birth Personal code number Sex Place of Birth Date of Issue Date of Expiry Authority The information page ends with the ...more...



IUCN Red List

topic

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List ), founded in 1964, is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species . The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the world's main authority on the conservation status of species. A series of Regional Red Lists are produced by countries or organizations, which assess the risk of extinction to species within a political management unit. The IUCN Red List is set upon precise criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. These criteria are relevant to all species and all regions of the world. The aim is to convey the urgency of conservation issues to the public and policy makers, as well as help the international community to try to reduce species extinction. According to IUCN (1996), the formally stated goals of the Red List are (1) to provide scientifically based information on the status of species and subspecies at a ...more...



Richard Jaeger

topic

Richard Jaeger (left) and the former President of the Federal Republic of Germany/Bundespräsident Karl Carstens (right). Richard Jaeger (16 February 1913 in Berlin – 15 May 1998 in Munich ) was a German politician of the Christian Social Union of Bavaria . Under Ludwig Erhard 's second ministry, he was Minister of Justice (26 October 1965 - 1 December 1966). Richard Jaeger (Minister of Justice), were a part of Hitler's paramilitary organization, the SA since 1933. From 1949 to 1980 Jaeger was a member of German Bundestag . From 1972 to 1974, Jaeger was President of the European Documentation and Information Centre (CEDI) . He was married and had six children. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Richard Jaeger . Richard Jaeger (left) and the former President of the Federal Republic of Germany/Bundespräsident Karl Carstens (right). Richard Jaeger (16 February 1913 in Berlin – 15 May 1998 in Munich ) was a German politician of the Christian Social Union of Bavaria . Under Ludwig Erhard 's second ministry, he ...more...



The Courier (ACP-EU)

topic

The Courier logo. The Courier was an ACP-EU development magazine published by the Development Directorate General of the European Commission, focusing on ACP-EU Development Cooperation . Financed by the European Development Fund (EDF), it was published every two months, till it came to end in 2011. Its last edition was nr 24 covering months of July and August 2011. Its overall stated objective is to communicate, explain, promote and support the development objectives and principles of the Cotonou Agreement (art 5). History The decision by the European Community and African countries to create a joint publication on development dates back to first Yaoundé Convention of 1963, linking the six countries of the recently formed European Community ( Treaty of Rome , 1957) with 18 countries of the African Associated States and Madagascar, which foresaw boosting the capacity of African states in the field of information. Originally entitled The ACP-EU Courier, the first issue of the magazine was published in 1970, b ...more...



Nordic Africa Institute

topic

Nordic Africa Institute ( Swedish : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet ) serves as a research, documentation and information centre on modern Africa for the Nordic countries . The Institute also encourages research and studies on Africa. The institute was founded in 1962. The institute is financed jointly by the Nordic countries. Administratively, it functions as a Swedish government agency that answers to the Ministry for Foreign Affairs . It is located in Uppsala . The Nordic Africa Institute is part of AEGIS , a network of African Studies Centres in Europe, and organized its 4th international conference (ECAS) in 2011. The institute is headed by a Director, a position which is held by Iina Soiri since March 2013. See also Government agencies in Sweden . External links Official website AEGIS, network of African studies centres in Europe Nordic Africa Institute – via International Relations and Security Network (publications fulltext) Nordic Africa Institute ( Swedish : Nordiska Afrikainstitutet ) serves as a researc ...more...



Simon Wiesenthal

topic

Simon Wiesenthal (31 December 1908 – 20 September 2005) was a Jewish Austrian Holocaust survivor , Nazi hunter , and writer. He studied architecture and was living in Lwów at the outbreak of World War II . He survived the Janowska concentration camp (late 1941 to September 1944), the Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp (September to October 1944), the Gross-Rosen concentration camp , a death march to Chemnitz , Buchenwald , and the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp (February to 5 May 1945). After the war, Wiesenthal dedicated most of his life to tracking down and gathering information on fugitive Nazi war criminals so that they could be brought to trial. In 1947 he co-founded the Jewish Historical Documentation Centre in Linz , Austria, where he and others gathered information for future war crime trials and aided refugees in their search for lost relatives. He opened the Documentation Centre of the Association of Jewish Victims of the Nazi Regime in Vienna in 1961 and continued to try to locate missing Nazi ...more...



Grey literature

topic

Grey literature (or gray literature ; see spelling differences ) are materials and research produced by organizations outside of the traditional commercial or academic publishing and distribution channels. Common grey literature publication types include reports ( annual , research, technical , project, etc.), working papers , government documents, white papers and evaluations . Organizations that produce grey literature include government departments and agencies, civil society or non-governmental organisations , academic centres and departments, and private companies and consultants. Grey literature may be made available to the public, or distributed privately within organizations or groups, and may lack a systematic means of distribution and collection. The standard of quality, review and production of grey literature can vary considerably. Grey literature may be difficult to discover, access, and evaluate, but this can be addressed through the formulation of sound search strategies. As early as 1898, in H ...more...



Process safety management

topic

Process safety management is a regulation, promulgated by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). A process is any activity or combination of activities including any use, storage, manufacturing, handling or the on-site movement of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs) as defined by OSHA and the Environmental Protection Agency . Fourteen elements of OSHA Process Safety Management Program. Definition Process safety management is an analytical tool focused on preventing releases of any substance defined as a "highly hazardous chemical" by the EPA or OSHA. Process Safety Management (PSM) refers to a set of interrelated approaches to managing hazards associated with the process industries and is intended to reduce the frequency and severity of incidents resulting from releases of chemicals and other energy sources (US OSHA 1993). These standards are composed of organizational and operational procedures, design guidance, audit programs, and a host of other methods. Elements of Process Safety Man ...more...



Information security

topic

Information security , sometimes shortened to InfoSec , is the practice of preventing unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, inspection, recording or destruction of information . It is a general term that can be used regardless of the form the data may take (e.g. electronic, physical). The chief area of concern for the field of information security is the balanced protection of the Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability of data, also known as the CIA Triad, while maintaining a focus on efficient policy implementation and no major hampering of organization productivity. To standardize this discipline, academics and professionals collaborate and seek to set basic guidelines and policies on password , antivirus software , firewall , encryption software , legal liability and user/administrator training standards. Overview IT security Sometimes referred to as computer security , information technology security (IT security) is information security applied to technology (most often s ...more...



University of Murcia

topic

Murcia in Spain The University of Murcia (Spanish: Universidad de Murcia ) is the main university in Murcia , Spain . With 38,000 students, it is the largest university in the Región de Murcia . The University of Murcia is the third oldest university in Spain, after the University of Salamanca (1218 AD) and the University of Valladolid (1241 AD), and the thirteenth in the world. The University of Murcia was established in 1272 by the King Alfonso X of Castile under the Crown of Castile . The majority of the University's facilities and buildings are spread over two campuses: the older is La Merced, situated in the town centre, and the larger is Espinardo, just 5 km to the north of Murcia. A third campus for Medical and Health Studies is currently being built next to the suburban area known as Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de la Arrixaca, 5 km south of the city. A new campus had been made in San Javier too, that hosts the Sports Science faculty. Facilities The University of Murcia is an institution devoted to providi ...more...



Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe

topic

The Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe ( German : Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas ), also known as the Holocaust Memorial (German: Holocaust-Mahnmal), is a memorial in Berlin to the Jewish victims of the Holocaust , designed by architect Peter Eisenman and engineer Buro Happold . It consists of a 19,000 m (4.7-acre) site covered with 2,711 concrete slabs or " stelae ", arranged in a grid pattern on a sloping field. The stelae are 2.38 m (7 ft 10 in) long, 0.95 m (3 ft 1 in) wide and vary in height from 0.2 to 4.7 m (7.9 in to 15 ft 5.0 in). They are organized in rows, 54 of them going north–south, and 87 heading east–west at right angles but set slightly askew. An attached underground "Place of Information" ( German : Ort der Information ) holds the names of approximately 3 million Jewish Holocaust victims, obtained from the Israeli museum Yad Vashem . Building began on April 1, 2003, and was finished on December 15, 2004. It was inaugurated on May 10, 2005, sixty years after the end of W ...more...



Defence Research and Development Organisation

topic

DRDO Bhawan, New Delhi , The Headquarters of DRDO A view of DRDO Bhavan The Defence Research and Development Organisation ( DRDO ) is an agency of the Republic of India , charged with the military 's research and development , headquartered in New Delhi , India. It was formed in 1958 by the merger of the Technical Development Establishment and the Directorate of Technical Development and Production with the Defence Science Organisation. It is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Defence , Government of India . With a network of 52 laboratories, which are engaged in developing defence technologies covering various fields, like aeronautics, armaments, electronics, land combat engineering, life sciences, materials, missiles, and naval systems, DRDO is India's largest and most diverse research organisation. The organisation includes around 5,000 scientists belonging to the Defence Research & Development Service (DRDS) and about 25,000 other scientific, technical and supporting personnel. Histo ...more...



Pakistan Press Foundation

topic

The Pakistan Press Foundation (PPF) was established in 1967 by the news agency Pakistan Press International and operated until 1974, when it had to suspend operations due to the political environment then prevailing in the country. It was reactivated in 1992 and has since been involved in assisting the development of independent media in Pakistan by conducting training programmes for journalists, carrying out projects in research and documentation, and campaigning to defend and promote freedom of the press . PPF regularly organizes training programmes and seminars on issues facing the Pakistani media. The organization has worked for the improvement of professional skills, and in helping to raise journalists’ awareness of professional, social, political and human-rights issues. The PPF collaborates with many local and international organizations, including the Council of Pakistan Newspaper Editors (CPNE), All Pakistan Newspaper Society (APNS), Asia Foundation , Panos South Asia, IFEX , Free Voice, UNESCO , Com ...more...



List of cities by sunshine duration

topic

The following is a list of cities by sunshine duration . Sunshine duration is a climatological indicator, measuring duration of sunshine in given period (usually, a day or a year) for a given location on Earth, typically expressed as an averaged value over several years. It is a general indicator of cloudiness of a location, and thus differs from insolation , which measures the total energy delivered by sunlight over a given period. Sunshine duration is usually expressed in hours per year, or in (average) hours per day. The first measure indicates the general sunniness of a location compared with other places, while the latter allows for comparison of sunshine in various seasons in the same location. Another often-used measure is percentage ratio of recorded bright sunshine duration and daylight duration in the observed period. An important use of sunshine duration data is to characterize the climate of sites, especially of health resorts. This also takes into account the psychological effect of strong solar ...more...



Centre for Equal Opportunities and Opposition to Racism

topic

The Centre for Equal Opportunities and Opposition to Racism ( CEOOR ), also referred to as Centre for Equal Opportunities and Fight against Racism ( CEOFR ) or translated as Centre for Equal Opportunities and Struggle against Racism ( Dutch : Unia (Interfederaal Gelijkekansencentrum) , before: Centrum voor gelijkheid van kansen en voor racismebestrijding or CGKR, French : Centre pour l'égalité des chances et la lutte contre le racisme or CECLR) is a Belgian government agency under the responsibility of the Prime Minister of Belgium . Its director is Jozef De Witte . The Centre was founded in 1993 by an Act of the Belgian Chamber of People's Representatives . Tasks and goals The Centre lists as its principal tasks: Fighting Racism and Discrimination Spotlight on Integration Policy Foreigners' Rights and Recent Immigration Fighting Poverty Fighting Human Trafficking Training / Documentation / Information Campaigns The CEOOR has as its main goal to aid victims of discrimination, after an act of discrimination ha ...more...



List of political parties in the Netherlands

topic

This article lists political parties in the Netherlands . The Netherlands has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which any one party has little chance of gaining power alone, and parties often work with each other to form coalition governments . The lower house of the legislature, the House of Representatives , is elected by a national party-list system of proportional representation . There is no threshold for getting a seat, making it possible for a party to get a seat with only two-thirds percent of the vote—roughly one seat for every 60,000 votes. Since this system was implemented in 1918, no party has even approached the seats needed for an outright majority. However, there is a broad consensus on the basic principles of the political system, and all parties must adjust their goals to some extent in order to have a realistic chance at being part of the government. Parliamentary parties Political parties represented in the States General of the Netherlands Political party Ideology Po ...more...



Medical record

topic

The terms medical record , health record , and medical chart are used somewhat interchangeably to describe the systematic documentation of a single patient 's medical history and care across time within one particular health care provider's jurisdiction. The medical record includes a variety of types of "notes" entered over time by health care professionals, recording observations and administration of drugs and therapies, orders for the administration of drugs and therapies, test results, x-rays, reports, etc. The maintenance of complete and accurate medical records is a requirement of health care providers and is generally enforced as a licensing or certification prerequisite. The terms are used for both the physical folder that exists for each individual patient and for the body of information found therein. Medical records have traditionally been compiled and maintained by health care providers, but advances in online data storage have led to the development of personal health records (PHR) that are main ...more...



Palace of Versailles Research Centre

topic

The Palace of Versailles Research Centre (in French: Centre de recherche du château de Versailles - CRCV) is the first research centre established in a French palace. It originated as part of a French government project called "Digital Great Versailles" (in French, "Grand Versailles Numérique") to improve public access to the Palace of Versailles . It is located in the Jussieu pavilion, near the Grand Trianon and the Petit Trianon , on the grounds of the Palace of Versailles, which is in the Île-de-France region of France. The Centre serves as a resource to scholars and curators researching European court culture of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. For example, such research would seek to explore the sites and expressions of power, such as those represented at Versailles and in other European courts of the same era, and join together researchers interested in this era. In addition to facilitating research, it also organises symposia and training activities such as seminars and summer schools. T ...more...



Wurzen Pass

topic

The Wurzen Pass ( German : Wurzenpass , Slovene : Korensko sedlo ) is a mountain pass in a col of the Karawanken mountain range in the Southern Limestone Alps , on the border between Radendorf in the Austrian state of Carinthia and Kranjska Gora in Slovenia . It is named after the nearby village of Podkoren (Wurzen). The pass connects the Austrian B109 Wurzenpass Straße from Villach with the Slovenian highway No. 201 to the A2 motorway and Ljubljana . Though its elevation of 1,073 m (3,520 ft) is relatively moderate, the road contains numerous curves and includes several steep ascents with a maximum grade of 18 percent. History The Wurzenpass has been a historic crossing of the Karawanken, though the main trade route from the Duchy of Carinthia to Trieste , the Austrian Littoral and Carniola ran from Tarvisio along the Predil Pass and the high valley of Rateče that was much easier to traverse. Its importance increased with the lay out of a first paved road finished in 1734. During the Cold War the Austrian Ar ...more...



List of International Organization for Standardization standards

topic

This is a list of published International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables. For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue. The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC 's Joint Technical Committee 1 ( JTC1 ) have been made freely and publicly available. ISO 1 – ISO 99 ISO 1 :2016 Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Standard reference temperature for the specification of geometrical and dimensional properties ISO 2 :1973 Textiles – Designation of the direction of twist in yarns and related products ISO 3 :1973 Preferred numbers – Series of preferred numbers ISO 4 :1997 Information and documentation – Rules for the abbreviation of title words and titles of publications ISO 5 Photography and graphic technology – Density measurements ISO 6 :1993 Photography – Black-and-white pictorial still camera negative film/process systems – Determinatio ...more...



Geoffrey Rippon

topic

Aubrey Geoffrey Frederick Rippon, Baron Rippon of Hexham , PC , QC (28 May 1924 – 28 January 1997) was a British Conservative politician. He is most known for drafting the European Communities Act 1972 which took the United Kingdom into the European Communities on 1 January 1973. He was Chairman of the European-Atlantic Group . Early life Born in Penn , Buckinghamshire , the son of the Somerset cricketer Sydney Rippon , Geoffrey Rippon was educated at King's College, Taunton , and Brasenose College, Oxford , where he was president of the University Conservative Association . He was called to the Bar in 1948 and was Mayor of Surbiton 1951–52 and a member of the London County Council from 1952. Parliamentary career After unsuccessfully contesting the seat of Shoreditch and Finsbury in both 1950 and 1951 , he became MP for Norwich South in 1955 . As Minister for Public Building and Works in 1962, Rippon controversially sought to demolish and redevelop the Italianate Foreign and Commonwealth Office main building ...more...



Sanjoy Bandopadhyay

topic

Sanjoy Bandopadhyay (born September 16, 1954) is a Bengali Hindustani classical sitar player. He is primarily a disciple of Radhika Mohan Maitra and Bimalendu Mukherjee. His performance is a unique synthesis of Senia-Shahjehanpur, Rampur-Senia and Etawah gharana. Works He is Chair Professor (Ustad Allauddin Khan Chair) at the Department of Instrumental Music , of Rabindra Bharati University , Kolkata India . He is also the Director, S.M. Tagore Centre of Documentation & Research of Languishing & Obsolescent Musical Instruments. This centre is created for ethnological mapping of the world through obsolescent musical instruments. The project will run with scholars support from all over the world. Professor Bandopadhyay visited the University of Illinois at Urban Champaign as George A. Miller Visiting Professor (October 2005). In the same year he also visited the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada as Distinguished India Focus Visitor. He visited the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs [USA ...more...



Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael

topic

The Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael or Clingendael Institute ( Dutch : Nederlands Instituut voor Internationale Betrekkingen Clingendael ) is an independent think tank and diplomatic academy which studies various aspects of international relations . The institute is based in Wassenaar in Huys Clingendael , a 17th-century manor house which is part of the Clingendael estate. Huys Clingendael Clingendael provides information, conducts research and develops training programmes for a large number of audiences, including Dutch diplomats and civil servants as well as representatives of foreign ministries, staff of the armed forces and employees of NGOs and the private sector. Clingendael also acts in an advisory capacity to the government, parliament and social organisations, organises conferences and seminars, maintains a library and documentation centre and publishes a Dutch-language monthly on international politics. As of 2012 the Institute is organised into two departments: Clingend ...more...



Federal Ministry of Health (Germany)

topic

The Federal Ministry of Health ( German : Bundesministerium für Gesundheit ), abbreviated BMG , is a cabinet-level ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany . Its headquarters are located in Bonn with a second major office in Berlin . It is the highest German federal government department responsible for health . The ministry is officially located in Bonn and with a second office, which houses the ministry's management, location in Berlin . History The Federal Ministry of Health was founded in 1961; in 1969 it was merged with the Federal Ministry for Family and Youth to create the new Federal Ministry for Youth, Family and Health. In 1991, the Federal Ministry of Health was restored. In 2002, it was expanded to include social affairs and renamed "Federal Ministry of Health and Social Security" ( Bundesministerium für Gesundheit und Soziale Sicherung ). It was headed by the Federal Minister for Health and Social Security . Its portfolio was a included one part of the former Federal Ministry of Labour and Soc ...more...



Health informatics

topic

Electronic patient chart from a health information system Health informatics (also called health care informatics , healthcare informatics , medical informatics , nursing informatics , clinical informatics , or biomedical informatics ) is informatics in health care . It is a multidisciplinary field that uses health information technology (HIT) to improve health care via any combination of higher quality, higher efficiency (spurring lower cost and thus greater availability), and new opportunities. The disciplines involved include information science , computer science , social science , behavioral science , management science , and others. The NLM defines health informatics as "the interdisciplinary study of the design, development, adoption and application of IT-based innovations in healthcare services delivery, management and planning". It deals with the resources, devices, and methods required to optimize the acquisition, storage, retrieval, and use of information in health and biomedicine. Health informa ...more...



Slovak National Library

topic

The official logo of SNL The Slovenská národná knižnica (in English : Slovak National Library) is a modern scientific, cultural, information and educational institution that serves all citizens of Slovakia and users from abroad. Slovak National Library is conservation and depositary library of Slovakia . SNL preferably collects, professionally processes, stores, protects and makes accessible domestic and foreign Slavic documents (documents related to Slovakia by author, language, place of printing, theme). Funds and collections of the Slovak National Library contain 4.9 million library items, 1.7 million archive documents and thousands of museum units. Slovak National Library, Martin Slovak National Library, Martin, detail Part of the SNL are also museums. Literary Museum collects objects related to Slovak literature, on which it presents a historical development of Slovak literature. Museum is also involved in presentation of the National Cemetery, gallery of graves of outstanding personalities from Slovak c ...more...



Value measuring methodology

topic

Value measuring methodology (or VMM) is a tool that helps financial planners balance both tangible and intangible values when making investment decisions , and monitor benefits. Formal methods to calculate the Return on investment (ROI) have been widely understood and used for a long time, but there was no easy and widely known way to provide a formal justification for decisions based on intangible values, which can include the reputation of an organization, the wellbeing of staff, or the impact on society or the environment at large. It was particularly difficult for decision makers to work through the trade-offs between costs and intangible benefits, especially for long-term investments by commercial organizations, and for governments and non-profit organizations who are primarily concerned with intangible values without wasting limited funds. Even within commercial organizations, units traditionally viewed as "cost centres" found it difficult to get acceptance of proposals for projects that would lead to g ...more...



Food composition data

topic

Food composition data (FCD) are detailed sets of information on the nutritionally important components of foods and provide values for energy and nutrients including protein, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins and minerals and for other important food components such as fibre. The data are presented in food composition databases (FCDBs). In the UK , FCD is listed in tables known as The Chemical Composition of Foods, McCance and Widdowson (1940) and in the first edition the authors stated that: ‘A knowledge of the chemical composition of foods is the first essential in the dietary treatment of disease or in any quantitative study of human nutrition’. This demonstrates the main reason for establishing FCD at that time. To this day, food composition studies remain central to nutrition research into the role of food components and their interactions in health and disease. However, due to increasing levels of sophistication and complexity in nutrition science, there is a greater demand for complete, current and reliabl ...more...



Austrian Resistance

topic

Sign of the Austrian resistance movement at the St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna The Austrian Resistance to Nazi rule was launched in response to the Anschluss in 1938. The members of the Resistance, limited primarily to adherents of the restoration of the Habsburg dynasty and the political left , operated in isolation from the Austrian mainstream during the war years. Other strands of Austrian resistance included Catholics and monarchists. However, it is notable that several Austrian nationalists, some of them even with fascist sympathies, also resisted, opposed to the destruction of the Austrian state. The most prominent unifying symbol was former Crown Prince, Otto von Habsburg . Formation The movement had a prehistory of socialist and communist activism against the era of Austrofascism from 1934. Although the Austrofascist regime was itself intensely hostile to Nazism, especially after the Austrian Nazis' failed coup attempt in 1934, known as the July Putsch . The sign of the Austrian resistance was O5, wh ...more...



Information retrieval

topic

Information retrieval ( IR ) is the activity of obtaining information resources relevant to an information need from a collection of information resources. Searches can be based on full-text or other content-based indexing. Information retrieval is the science of searching for information in a document, searching for documents themselves, and also searching for metadata that describe data, and for databases of texts, images or sounds. Automated information retrieval systems are used to reduce what has been called information overload . Many universities and public libraries use IR systems to provide access to books, journals and other documents. Web search engines are the most visible IR applications . Overview An information retrieval process begins when a user enters a query into the system. Queries are formal statements of information needs, for example search strings in web search engines. In information retrieval a query does not uniquely identify a single object in the collection. Instead, several objec ...more...



Aeronautical Information Service

topic

The Aeronautical Information Service (AIS) is a service established in support of international civil aviation, whose objective is to ensure the flow of information necessary for the safety, regularity, and efficiency of international air navigation. The manner in which aeronautical information is gathered and managed is governed by Annex 15 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation ( ICAO Annex 15), which defines how an aeronautical information service shall receive and/or originate, collate or assemble, edit, format, publish/store and distribute specified aeronautical information/data. The goal is to satisfy the need for uniformity and consistency in the provision of aeronautical information/data that is required for operational use by international civil aviation. ICAO Annex 15 specifies that aeronautical information should be published as an integrated aeronautical information package (IAIP), composed of the following elements: The Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP), including amendment se ...more...



Pharma Documentation Ring

topic

The Pharma Documentation Ring ( P-D-R ), founded in 1958, is a think tank of information and knowledge-management professionals representing major research-based pharmaceutical companies. The association has 4 aims: Promote exchange of knowledge among members Encourage commercial development of new information services and systems Jointly assess new and existing products and services Provide a forum for the information industry History One of P-D-R's initial aims at its inception was to select and index relevant documents from the scientific literature, to write abstracts and index them based on agreed rules, and to distribute copies of the corresponding punched cards and microfilms to all cooperating members. Due to the limited space on a punched card, the P-D-R-affiliated companies developed fragment codes for chemical structures and biomedical terms allowing them to index all relevant aspects of the publications properly. The Ringcode was born and survived for several decades, even replacing more sophisti ...more...



Wiki

topic

'> Interview with Ward Cunningham , inventor of the wiki A wiki (  (   listen ) WIK -ee ) is a website on which users collaboratively modify content and structure directly from the web browser . In a typical wiki, text is written using a simplified markup language and often edited with the help of a rich-text editor . A wiki is run using wiki software , otherwise known as a wiki engine. A wiki engine is a type of content management system , but it differs from most other such systems, including blog software , in that the content is created without any defined owner or leader, and wikis have little implicit structure, allowing structure to emerge according to the needs of the users. There are dozens of different wiki engines in use, both standalone and part of other software, such as bug tracking systems . Some wiki engines are open source , whereas others are proprietary . Some permit control over different functions (levels of access); for example, editing rights may permit changing, adding or removing mat ...more...



UN/CEFACT

topic

UN/CEFACT is the United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business. It was established as an intergovernmental body of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe ( UNECE ) in 1996 and evolved from UNECE’s long tradition of work in trade facilitation which began in 1957. UN/CEFACT’s goal is, “Simple, Transparent and Effective Processes for Global Commerce.” It aims to help business, trade and administrative organizations from developed, developing and transition economies to exchange products and services effectively. To this end, it focuses on simplifying national and international transactions by harmonizing processes, procedures and information flows related to these transactions, rendering these more efficient and streamlined, with the ultimate goal of contributing to the growth of global commerce. Trade facilitation and electronic business UN/CEFACT focusses on two main areas of activity to make international trade processes more efficient and streamlined, namely: trade facilitat ...more...



International Capital Market Association

topic

The International Capital Market Association or ICMA is a self-regulatory organization and trade association for participants in the capital markets . Despite the name suggesting a global outlook, it has a European focus. It was formed in July 2005 by the merger of the International Primary Market Association and the International Securities Market Association (formerly the International Association of Bond Dealers ). ICMA stated aims are to promote high standards of market practice, appropriate regulation, trade support, education and communication. It produces standard documentation for transactions such as equity and debt issuance and repos . ICMA market conventions and standards have been the pillars of the international debt market for almost 40 years, providing the self-regulatory framework of rules governing market practice which have facilitated the orderly functioning and impressive growth of the market. History The International Capital Market Association was formed in July 2005 from the merger I ...more...



Jason Farradane

topic

Jason Farradane , born Jason Lewkowitsch (29 September 1906 – 27 June 1989) was a British librarian of Polish descent. Life The son of the chemical engineer Julius Lewkowitsch , Farradane graduated in chemistry in 1929 at what is now Imperial College and started work in industry as a chemist and documentalist. After working in research at the Ministry of Supply and the Admiralty during World War II , he first made an impact with a paper on the scientific approach to documentation at a Royal Society Scientific Information Conference in 1948. He was instrumental in establishing the Institute of Information Scientists in 1958 and the first academic courses in information science in 1963 at what eventually became City University, London and where he became Director of the Centre for Information Science in 1966. Of Central European origin, his commitment to science was reflected in the name he created for himself - a combination of Faraday and Haldane , two scientists he particularly admired. On the research sid ...more...



List of philosophical organizations

topic

This is a list of philosophical organizations and societies. Academia Analitica American Association of Philosophy Teachers American Catholic Philosophical Association American Ethical Union American Philosophical Association American Philosophical Society American Society for Aesthetics American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy Animal Rights Cambridge Arché (research center) Aristotelian Society Association for Logic, Language and Information Association for Symbolic Logic Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness Australasian Association of Philosophy Batavian Society for Experimental Philosophy British Philosophical Association British Society for Ethical Theory British Society of Aesthetics Café Philosophique Cambridge Philosophical Society Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Access to Information, Privacy and Ethics Canadian Philosophical Association Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Mathematics Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs Center for ...more...



Centre de Documentació i Museu de les Arts Escèniques

topic

Museum hall The Centre de Documentació i Museu de les Arts Escèniques (Documentation Centre and Museum of the Performing Arts of the Institut del Teatre), also known as MAE , is a centre for information and research on the performing arts in Catalonia , Spain . The centre has an extensive library, an archive and collections from the Institut del Teatre , which specializes in theatre , dance , opera , zarzuela , music hall , magic and circus performances. Its major collections encompass Catalonia and the Spanish Golden Age . The centre also has posters, programmes, photographs, pictures, puppet theatres, set designs and costumes which are exhibited in temporary exhibitions and online, since it has no permanent exhibition space. The museum is a member of SIBMAS (Société Internationale des Bibliothèques et des Musées des Arts du Spectacle) and ENICPA (European Network of Information Centres of the Performing Arts), and is part of the ECLAP European Project. In Catalonia, it is involved with the Consortium of A ...more...



System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe

topic

The “System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe” (SIGLE) was established in 1980, two years after a seminar on grey literature organised by the European Commission in York (UK). Operated by a network of national information or document supply centres active in collecting and promoting grey literature, SIGLE was an on line, pan-European electronic bibliographic database and document delivery system. The objective was to provide access to European grey literature and to improve bibliographic coverage. From 1980 to 1985, SIGLE was funded by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). When CEC financial support ended in 1985, the national centres formed a network for the acquisition, identification and dissemination of grey literature called “ European Association for Grey Literature Exploitation ” or EAGLE, who became the producer of the SIGLE database. Input to the database ended in 2005 when the EAGLE General Assembly decided the liquidation of the network. In 2007, together with the last EAGLE ...more...



Netherlands Open Air Museum

topic

The Netherlands Open Air Museum ( Dutch : Nederlands Openluchtmuseum ) is an open-air museum and park located near Arnhem with antique houses, farms and factories from different parts of the Netherlands . The Netherlands Open Air Museum is a national museum focusing on the culture associated with the everyday lives of ordinary people. History The museum was founded in 1912 and is situated in the woods near Arnhem. The museum park is 44 hectares in area and includes buildings from various places and historical periods. In 1987, the Dutch government was primed to shut down the museum, but in a demonstration of solidarity for the historic museum, Dutch crowds flooded the museum's doors, hoping to view the exhibits before they closed. The museum was allowed to remain open due to its unprecedented success during this time and was given greater autonomy over its organization. The museum also has a collection of historical clothing and jewellery. New indoor exhibition space was built in 1999–2000. The museum won t ...more...



European Festivals Association

topic

The European Festivals Association ( EFA ) is an umbrella group for various festivals in Europe and other countries. It supports artistic cooperation among festivals and offers programs for new festival and artistic managers. It represents more than 100 music, dance, theatre and multidisciplinary festivals along with national festival and cultural organizations from about thirty eight, mostly European, countries. The association is officially headquartered in Ghent, Belgium with an office in Brussels in the European House for Culture. It is governed by a General Assembly, which meets once a year. The current president is Darko Brlek from Ljubljana . Vice presidents are Jan Briers from Flanders and Michael Herrmann , founder and director of the Rheingau Musik Festival . For 2011, some of the projects include the Ars Nova meeting for new music experts in Belgium, a meeting of the Associations Collective and Affiliate Members, the General Assembly and Conference, the Ateliers for Young Festival Managers in S ...more...




Next Page
Javascript Version
Revolvy Server https://www.revolvy.com