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European Documentation and Information Centre

The European Documentation and Information Centre, abbreviated CEDI (French: Centre Européen de Documentation et d'Information), was a former think tank founded in 1952 on the occasion of an international congress held in Santander, Spain. The objective of the organization was to unite various European conservative and Christian Democratic political organizations which formed in several Western European states during postwar reconstruction, the emerging Cold War and the beginnings of what would later be called European integration. During the 1950s and the 1960s, the CEDI was an important contact pool for European politicians. During its early years the CEDI's ideology and program was dominated by its first president, Otto von Habsburg, son of the last emperor of Austria. It was dissolved in 1990 following the collapse of the Iron Curtain.

Backgrounds

The Franco regime in Spain made use of the CEDI to get in contact with high-ranking persons of the political, military, economic and cultural life from Western Europe and thus end its post-war international isolation. By preaching the necessity of cultural exchange and the religious unity of the occident, the CEDI aimed at a political, military and economic inclusion of Spain into the beginning process of European Integration.

Organization and members

The annual congresses of the CEDI, which were nearly always held in Spain, brought together many office bearers and dignitaries of the conservative milieu. Besides the Spanish initiators – hereunder Franco’s foreign minister Alberto Martín Artajo, the director of the Institute for Hispanic Culture Alfredo Sánchez Bella and José Ignacio Escobar Kirkpatrick Marqués de Valdeiglesias – there was a strong support for CEDI’s activities in Germany, Austria and France. The expelled Austrian Heir Apparent Otto von Habsburg was the founding and, later on, honorary president of the organization. Germany was represented by high-ranking members of the Christian Democratic and Christian Social Union of Bavaria parties, as for example the ministers Hans-Joachim von Merkatz and Richard Jaeger. The French section of the Documentation Centre was led by the Count François de la Noë and Michel Habib-Deloncle.

Among the first British supporters were William Teeling, Sir Frederick Corfield MP and Sir John Rodgers MP, who even held CEDI’s international presidency from 1965 to 1967. Over the years, the Austrian secretary general Georg von Gaupp-Berghausen turned more and more out to be the actual organizational and programmatic head of the Documentation Centre.

Ambitions and ideology

Besides the proclaimed Catholic Christian heritage, the traditional connections of the European upper nobility, military contacts and common economic interests, it was above all a virulent anticommunism which was tying together the members of the Documentation Centre. The scientific lectures given at the annual meetings of the CEDI dealt with questions of principle concerning European Integration, the Cold War and other subjects of social and international relevance.

National sections

Apart from Spain, Germany and France, national sections emerged in and Belgium and Austria, some years later also in Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Sweden and Portugal. In Britain, the conservative "March Club" fulfilled the tasks of a national section since the beginning of the 1960s. Among the most prominent members of this British section were apart from Teeling, Corfield and Rodgers, Peter Agnew and Geoffrey Rippon who both were to become international presidents of the CEDI later on. It seems quite likely that the contacts provided by the Documentation Centre played a not unimportant role in negotiating Britain’s entry into the European Community, since Rippon was the head of the British government’s delegation.

Development

When the CEDI became a civil law association in 1957, its head office was officially moved to Munich, Madrid remaining nevertheless a central branch office of the organization. With General Charles de Gaulle returning to the political stage in 1958, his fellows transformed the CEDI into an international forum in order to diffuse their conceptions of European politics. The cooperation between French Gaullists and German Christian Democrats has also been prepared by CEDI’s initiatives.

The Gaullist engagement weakening by the end of the 1960s, Spanish influence in the Documentation Centre increased again. CEDI evolved into an instrument of Spanish interests in Latin America, reached out for Africa and Asia, and finally turned toward the domain of development policies.

Nevertheless, the organization had transgressed the zenith of its diplomatic activities. The urgent necessity of recruiting new members was perceived, but the CEDI did not find any solution to solve these problems. The political transformation process in Spain by the middle of the 1970s deprived the CEDI of its last material and organizational basics.

Further reading
  • Conze, Vanessa: Das Europa der Deutschen. Ideen von Europa in Deutschland zwischen Reichstradition und Westorientierung (1920–1970), München 2005, p. 169–206.
  • Gunzález Cuevas, Pedro Carlos: Neoconservatismo e identidad europea. Una aproximación histórica, in: Spagna contemporanea 13 (1998), p. 41–60.
  • Weber, Petra-Maria: Spanische Deutschlandpolitik 1945–1958. Entsorgung der Vergangenheit, Saarbrücken/Fort Lauderdale 1992, p. 205–268.
  • Johannes Großmann: Die Internationale der Konservativen. Transnationale Elitenzirkel und private Außenpolitik in Westeuropa seit 1945, Munich 2014.
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Simon Wiesenthal

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Center of Contemporary Jewish Documentation

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Richard Jaeger

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Regional Representation of the European Commission in Bonn

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Romani people

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Value measuring methodology

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Food composition data

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Patent family

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Group of Seven

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IUCN Red List

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Slovak National Library

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The official logo of SNL The Slovenská národná knižnica (in English : Slovak National Library) is a modern scientific, cultural, information and educational institution that serves all citizens of Slovakia and users from abroad. Slovak National Library is conservation and depositary library of Slovakia . SNL preferably collects, professionally processes, stores, protects and makes accessible domestic and foreign Slavic documents (documents related to Slovakia by author, language, place of printing, theme). Funds and collections of the Slovak National Library contain 4.9 million library items, 1.7 million archive documents and thousands of museum units. Slovak National Library, Martin Slovak National Library, Martin, detail Part of the SNL are also museums. Literary Museum collects objects related to Slovak literature, on which it presents a historical development of Slovak literature. Museum is also involved in presentation of the National Cemetery, gallery of graves of outstanding personalities from Slovak c



Netherlands Open Air Museum

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The Netherlands Open Air Museum ( Dutch : Nederlands Openluchtmuseum ) is an open-air museum and park located near Arnhem with antique houses, farms and factories from different parts of the Netherlands . The Netherlands Open Air Museum is a national museum focusing on the culture associated with the everyday lives of ordinary people. History The museum was founded in 1912 and is situated in the woods near Arnhem. The museum park is 44 hectares in area and includes buildings from various places and historical periods. In 1987, the Dutch government was primed to shut down the museum, but in a demonstration of solidarity for the historic museum, Dutch crowds flooded the museum's doors, hoping to view the exhibits before they closed. The museum was allowed to remain open due to its unprecedented success during this time and was given greater autonomy over its organization. The museum also has a collection of historical clothing and jewellery. New indoor exhibition space was built in 1999–2000. The museum won t



Bolanle Awe

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Open University

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The Open University ( OU ) is a public distance learning and research university, and one of the biggest universities in the UK for undergraduate education. The majority of the OU's undergraduate students are based throughout the United Kingdom and principally study off- campus ; many of its courses (both undergraduate and postgraduate ) can also be studied anywhere in the world. There are also a number of full-time postgraduate research students based on the 48- hectare university campus where they use the OU facilities for research, as well as more than 1000 members of academic and research staff and over 2500 administrative, operational and support staff. The OU was established in 1969 and the first students enrolled in January 1971. The University administration is based at Walton Hall , Milton Keynes , in Buckinghamshire , but has regional centres in each of its thirteen regions around the United Kingdom. It also has offices and regional examination centres in many other European countries. The univ



List of philosophical organizations

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Ana Brnabić

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Ana Brnabić ( Serbian Cyrillic : Ана Брнабић , pronounced  ; born 28 September 1975) is a Serbian politician who has been the Prime Minister of Serbia since 29 June 2017, becoming the first woman and first openly gay person to hold the office. She was previously the Minister of Public Administration and Local Self-Government of Serbia from 11 August 2016 until 29 June 2017, under Prime Minister Aleksandar Vučić and Acting Prime Minister Ivica Dačić . After Vučić was inaugurated as the President of Serbia on 31 May 2017, he proposed Brnabić as his successor in June. Her government was voted into office on 29 June 2017 by a majority of 157 out of 250 Members of the National Assembly of Serbia . Brnabić is the fifth openly LGBT head of government in Europe and the world (following Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir , Elio Di Rupo , Xavier Bettel and Leo Varadkar ), the first openly LGBT head of government in Eastern Europe and the second female LGBT head of government overall. Biography Brnabić holds an MBA diploma of the



UNITED for Intercultural Action

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UNITED for Intercultural Action is a European network against nationalism , racism , fascism and in support of migrants and refugees , in which over 560 organisations from 48 European countries cooperate. UNITED was founded in 1992 (officially registered as charitable organisation under Dutch law in 1993) and provides a forum for active solidarity and cooperation between a wide variety of organisations in Europe and their activists across European borders. UNITED defines itself as pan-European tool to strengthen and cross-link grassroots organisations and their actions to improve their socio-political impact. The idea of the UNITED network was born by participants of two anti-racist European youth seminars in Strasbourg in 1992. At these occasions, the need for a European-wide info- and networking system was expressed against the background of the most violent and massive xenophobic riots that took place in Germany after the Second World War : the riot of Rostock-Lichtenhagen August 22–24, 1992. The work of



Icelandic passport

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Icelandic passports are issued to citizens of Iceland for the purpose of international travel. Physical Appearance Icelandic passports are blue , with the Icelandic coat of arms emblazoned in the centre of the front cover. The words "ÍSLAND" ( Icelandic ), "ICELAND" ( English ) and "ISLANDE" ( French ) are inscribed above the coat of arms and the words "VEGABRÉF" ( Icelandic ), "PASSPORT" ( English ) and "PASSEPORT" ( French ) are inscribed below the coat of arms. Icelandic passports have the standard biometric symbol at the bottom. Vegabréf literally means "road letter" and is a word used in Scandinavia in historic centuries meaning internal passport . Identity Information Page The biodata page of the previous machine readable version The Icelandic passport includes the following data: Photo of Passport Holder Type (PA) Code (ISL) Passport No. Surname Given Names Nationality Height Date of Birth Personal code number Sex Place of Birth Date of Issue Date of Expiry Authority The information page ends with the



Medieval cuisine

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Medieval cuisine includes the foods, eating habits, and cooking methods of various European cultures during the Middle Ages , a period roughly dating from the 5th to the 15th century. During this period, diets and cooking changed less across Europe than they did in the far briefer early modern period that followed, when those changes helped lay the foundations for modern European cuisine . Cereals remained the most important staple during the early Middle Ages as rice was a late introduction to Europe, and the potato was only introduced in 1536, with a much later date for widespread consumption. Barley , oat and rye among the poor, and wheat for the governing classes, were eaten as bread , porridge , gruel and pasta by all of society's members. Fava beans and vegetables were important supplements to the cereal-based diet of the lower orders. ( Phaseolus beans, today the " common bean ", were of New World origin and were introduced after the Columbian Exchange in the 16th century.) Meat was more expensive and



Torture

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A variety of torture instruments. Many, including the large Iron Maiden of Nuremberg , were never used for torture. Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim. Torture, by definition, is a knowing and intentional act ; deeds which unknowingly or negligently inflict pain without a specific intent to do so are not typically considered torture. Torture has been carried out or sanctioned by individuals, groups, and states throughout history from ancient times to modern day, and forms of torture can vary greatly in duration from only a few minutes to several days or longer. Reasons for torture can include punishment , revenge , political re-education , deterrence , coercion of the victim or a third party, interrogation to extract information or a confession irrespective of whether it is false , or simply the sadistic gratification of those carrying out or observ



Automotive industry in North Korea

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The automotive industry in North Korea is a branch of the national economy, with much-lower production than that in South Korea . North Korean motor vehicle production is geared towards the Korean People's Army , industrial and construction goals; there is little car ownership by private citizens. In addition to cars and trucks, North Korea produces buses, trolleybuses and trams. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) is not involved with the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles (OICA) or any other United Nations industrial committee, so information about its motor vehicle industry is limited. The OICA does not publicize figures for automobile production in the DPRK. As reported by a limited number of observers with firsthand knowledge, North Korea has the capability to produce 40,000 to 50,000 vehicles a year; however, within the past few years only a few thousand vehicles have been produced due to its ongoing economic crisis and recent sanctions. History The North Korean aut



Design Museum of Barcelona

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The Museu del Disseny de Barcelona (Catalan naming, English: "Design Museum of Barcelona"), is a new center of Barcelona 's Institute of Culture, which works to promote better understanding and good use of the design world, acting as a museum and laboratory. It focuses on 4 branches or design disciplines: space design, product design , information design and fashion . The Museum is the result of the merging of several previous existing museums, such as the Museu de les Arts Decoratives , the Museu Tèxtil i d'Indumentària and the Gabinet de les Arts Gràfiques collection. The opening of the new headquarters, located on Plaça de les Glòries , was set gradually during 2014. History Barcelona is a city historically linked to design , with old institutions such as the Foment de les Arts Decoratives . That is why the city of Barcelona was raised earlier in the decade of 2000 to create a single center, an integral space to allow the public to understand design in a broader consideration. It was decided to build a si



Historical Archives of the European Union

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The Historical Archives of the European Union (HAEU), located in Florence ( Italy ), is the official archives for the historical documents of the Institutions of the European Union . It is also a research centre dedicated to the archival preservation and study of European integration and is part of the European University Institute (EUI). Logo of the Historical Archives of the European Union Legal Basis and History The Historical Archives of the European Union was established in 1983 following the regulation by the Council of the European Communities and the decision by the Commission of the European Communities to open their historical archives to the public. A subsequent agreement in 1984 between the Commission of the European Communities and the EUI laid the groundwork for establishing the Archives in Florence, and the HAEU opened its doors to researchers and the public in 1986. In 2011 a Framework Partnership Agreement between the EUI and the European Commission reinforced the Historical Archives’ role



House of European History

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The House of European History ( HEH ) is a museum in Brussels , Belgium that focuses on the history of Europe since 1789. It is an initiative by the European Parliament and opened on 6 May 2017. As a cultural institution and exhibition centre, the House of European History intends to promote the understanding of European history and European integration , through a permanent exhibition and temporary and travelling exhibitions. It houses a collection of objects and documents representative of European history, educational programs , cultural events and publications , as well as a wide range of online content. It is located in the Eastman Building near the Leopold Park in Brussels, close to the European institutions . Origins The idea of creating a museum dedicated to European history was launched on 13 February 2007 by President Hans-Gert Pöttering in his inaugural speech as president of the European Parliament . One of the key objectives of the project was to be "to enable Europeans of all generations to lea



Group of Eight

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The G8 (reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to Russia 's suspension) was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014, with participation from the world′s major highly industrialized economies in countries that viewed themselves as democracies . The forum originated with a 1975 summit hosted by France that brought together representatives of six governments: France , Germany , Italy , Japan , the United Kingdom , and the United States , thus leading to the name Group of Six or G6 . The summit came to be known as the Group of Seven , or G7 , in 1976 with the addition of Canada . Russia was added to the political forum from 1997, which the following year became known as the G8. In March 2014 Russia was suspended following the annexation of Crimea , whereupon the group's name reverted to the G7. The European Union was represented at the G8 since the 1980s as a "nonenumerated" participant, but originally could not host or chair summits. The 40th summit was the first time the European Union was a



List of political parties in the Netherlands

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This article lists political parties in the Netherlands . The Netherlands has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which any one party has little chance of gaining power alone, and parties often work with each other to form coalition governments . The lower house of the legislature, the House of Representatives , is elected by a national party-list system of proportional representation . There is no threshold for getting a seat, making it possible for a party to get a seat with only two-thirds percent of the vote—roughly one seat for every 60,000 votes. Since this system was implemented in 1918, no party has even approached the seats needed for an outright majority. However, there is a broad consensus on the basic principles of the political system, and all parties must adjust their goals to some extent in order to have a realistic chance at being part of the government. Parliamentary parties Political parties represented in the States General of the Netherlands Political party Ideology Po



Rakhine State

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Rakhine State ( Burmese : ရခိုင်ပြည်နယ် ; MLCTS : ra.hkuing pranynay , Rakhine pronunciation ; Burmese pronunciation:  ; formerly Arakan ) is a state in Myanmar (Burma). Situated on the western coast, it is bordered by Chin State to the north, Magway Region , Bago Region and Ayeyarwady Region to the east, the Bay of Bengal to the west, and the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh to the northwest. It is located approximately between latitudes 17°30' north and 21°30' north and east longitudes 92°10' east and 94°50' east. The Arakan Mountains , rising to 3,063 metres (10,049 ft) at Victoria Peak , separate Rakhine State from central Burma. Off the coast of Rakhine State there are some fairly large islands such as Cheduba and Myingun Island . Rakhine State has an area of 36,762 square kilometres (14,194 sq mi) and its capital is Sittwe . Etymology The term Rakhine is believed to have been derived from the Pali word Rakkhapura (Sanskrit Raksapura), meaning "Land of Ogres " ( Rakshas ), possibly a pejorative referrin



Centre d'étude des supports de publicité

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The Centre d'étude des supports de publicité ( CESP ) is a Paris -based non-profit association of media and communications services in France . References External links Official website Pubard.com, French Wiki website about advertising The Centre d'étude des supports de publicité ( CESP ) is a Paris -based non-profit association of media and communications services in France . References External links Official website Pubard.com, French Wiki website about advertising



Canada Permanent Resident Card

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The Permanent Resident card (PR card; commonly and originally referred to as the " Maple Leaf Card ") is an identification document for permanent residents of Canada (formerly known as landed immigrants). It was introduced on 28 June 2002 upon the implementation of Canada 's Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA). Like Canadian passports , all PR cards are issued by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) and are the property of the Canadian Crown . It is the primary method by which Canadian permanent residents can prove their status and is the only document that allows permanent residents to return to Canada by air. Starting from 10 November 2016, all travellers to Canada (except for Canadian citizens, U.S. citizens and nationals, permanent residents and travellers with a valid Canadian visa) are required to have an Electronic Travel Authorization (eTA) before boarding a flight to Canada. Hence permanent residents, including those from one of the visa-free countries (except the U.S.), need



Aeronautical Information Service

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The Aeronautical Information Service (AIS) is a service established in support of international civil aviation, whose objective is to ensure the flow of information necessary for the safety, regularity, and efficiency of international air navigation. The manner in which aeronautical information is gathered and managed is governed by Annex 15 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation ( ICAO Annex 15), which defines how an aeronautical information service shall receive and/or originate, collate or assemble, edit, format, publish/store and distribute specified aeronautical information/data. The goal is to satisfy the need for uniformity and consistency in the provision of aeronautical information/data that is required for operational use by international civil aviation. ICAO Annex 15 specifies that aeronautical information should be published as an integrated aeronautical information package (IAIP), composed of the following elements: The Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP), including amendment se



E-GIF

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An e-GIF , or eGovernment Interoperability Framework, is a scheme for ensuring the inter-operation of computer-based systems. It is intended to resolve and prevent (or at least minimise) problems arising from incompatible content of different computer systems. An e-GIF may aim to facilitate government processes at local, national or international levels. International implementations About 30 countries and international bodies are known to have implemented some form of e-GIF, most, but not all, using the "e-GIF" acronym. Within the EU many of these were supported by the European Interoperability Framework (EIF) of the IDABC . These included Denmark , Greece , the United Kingdom and the Reach "Public Services Broker" in Ireland . In Africa COMESA and Ghana provide examples of similar initiatives, whilst Bhutan and Thailand are examples from Asia. New Zealand and Australia , similarly, implemented their own frameworks. In the United States the National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) shared similar aim



British Museum

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The centre of the museum was redeveloped in 2001 to become the Great Court , surrounding the original Reading Room . The British Museum , located in the Bloomsbury area of London , United Kingdom , is a public institution dedicated to human history , art and culture . Its permanent collection, numbering some 8 million works, is among the largest and most comprehensive in existence and originates from all continents, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginnings to the present. The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of the physician and scientist Sir Hans Sloane . The museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759, in Montagu House , on the site of the current building. Its expansion over the following two and a half centuries was largely a result of an expanding British colonial footprint and has resulted in the creation of several branch institutions, the first being the British Museum of Natural History in South Kensington in 1881 (




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