The European Documentation and Information Centre, abbreviated CEDI (French: Centre Européen de Documentation et d'Information), was a former think tank founded in 1952 on the occasion of an international congress held in Santander, Spain. The objective of the organization was to unite various European conservative and Christian Democratic political organizations which formed in several Western European states during postwar reconstruction, the emerging Cold War and the beginnings of what would later be called European integration. During the 1950s and the 1960s, the CEDI was an important contact pool for European politicians. During its early years the CEDI's ideology and program was dominated by its first president, Otto von Habsburg, son of the last emperor of Austria. It was dissolved in 1990 following the collapse of the Iron Curtain.
The Franco regime in Spain made use of the CEDI to get in contact with high-ranking persons of the political, military, economic and cultural life from Western Europe and thus end its post-war international isolation. By preaching the necessity of cultural exchange and the religious unity of the occident, the CEDI aimed at a political, military and economic inclusion of Spain into the beginning process of European Integration.
The annual congresses of the CEDI, which were nearly always held in Spain, brought together many office bearers and dignitaries of the conservative milieu. Besides the Spanish initiators – hereunder Franco’s foreign minister Alberto Martín Artajo, the director of the Institute for Hispanic Culture Alfredo Sánchez Bella and José Ignacio Escobar Kirkpatrick Marqués de Valdeiglesias – there was a strong support for CEDI’s activities in Germany, Austria and France. The expelled Austrian Heir Apparent Otto von Habsburg was the founding and, later on, honorary president of the organization. Germany was represented by high-ranking members of the Christian Democratic and Christian Social Union of Bavaria parties, as for example the ministers Hans-Joachim von Merkatz and Richard Jaeger. The French section of the Documentation Centre was led by the Count François de la Noë and Michel Habib-Deloncle.
Among the first British supporters were William Teeling, Sir Frederick Corfield MP and Sir John Rodgers MP, who even held CEDI’s international presidency from 1965 to 1967. Over the years, the Austrian secretary general Georg von Gaupp-Berghausen turned more and more out to be the actual organizational and programmatic head of the Documentation Centre.
Besides the proclaimed Catholic Christian heritage, the traditional connections of the European upper nobility, military contacts and common economic interests, it was above all a virulent anticommunism which was tying together the members of the Documentation Centre. The scientific lectures given at the annual meetings of the CEDI dealt with questions of principle concerning European Integration, the Cold War and other subjects of social and international relevance.
Apart from Spain, Germany and France, national sections emerged in and Belgium and Austria, some years later also in Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Sweden and Portugal. In Britain, the conservative "March Club" fulfilled the tasks of a national section since the beginning of the 1960s. Among the most prominent members of this British section were apart from Teeling, Corfield and Rodgers, Peter Agnew and Geoffrey Rippon who both were to become international presidents of the CEDI later on. It seems quite likely that the contacts provided by the Documentation Centre played a not unimportant role in negotiating Britain’s entry into the European Community, since Rippon was the head of the British government’s delegation.
When the CEDI became a civil law association in 1957, its head office was officially moved to Munich, Madrid remaining nevertheless a central branch office of the organization. With General Charles de Gaulle returning to the political stage in 1958, his fellows transformed the CEDI into an international forum in order to diffuse their conceptions of European politics. The cooperation between French Gaullists and German Christian Democrats has also been prepared by CEDI’s initiatives.
The Gaullist engagement weakening by the end of the 1960s, Spanish influence in the Documentation Centre increased again. CEDI evolved into an instrument of Spanish interests in Latin America, reached out for Africa and Asia, and finally turned toward the domain of development policies.
Nevertheless, the organization had transgressed the zenith of its diplomatic activities. The urgent necessity of recruiting new members was perceived, but the CEDI did not find any solution to solve these problems. The political transformation process in Spain by the middle of the 1970s deprived the CEDI of its last material and organizational basics.
Simon Wiesenthal (31 December 1908 – 20 September 2005) was a Jewish Austrian Holocaust survivor , Nazi hunter , and writer. He studied architecture and was living in Lwów at the outbreak of World War II . He survived the Janowska concentration camp (late 1941 to September 1944), the Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp (September to October 1944), the Gross-Rosen concentration camp , a death march to Chemnitz , Buchenwald , and the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp (February to 5 May 1945). After the war, Wiesenthal dedicated most of his life to tracking down and gathering information on fugitive Nazi war criminals so that they could be brought to trial. In 1947 he co-founded the Jewish Historical Documentation Centre in Linz , Austria, where he and others gathered information for future war crime trials and aided refugees in their search for lost relatives. He opened the Documentation Centre of the Association of Jewish Victims of the Nazi Regime in Vienna in 1961 and continued to try to locate missing Nazi
The Pharma Documentation Ring ( P-D-R ), founded in 1958, is a think tank of information and knowledge-management professionals representing major research-based pharmaceutical companies. The Association has 4 aims: Promote exchange of knowledge among members Encourage commercial development of new information services and systems Jointly assess new and existing products and services Provide a forum for the information industry History One of P-D-R's initial aims at its inception was to select and index relevant documents from the scientific literature, to write abstracts and index them based on agreed rules, and to distribute copies of the corresponding punched cards and microfilms to all cooperating members. Due to the limited space on a punched card, the P-D-R-affiliated companies developed fragment codes for chemical structures and biomedical terms allowing them to index all relevant aspects of the publications properly. The Ringcode was born and survived for several decades, even replacing more sophisti
The Center for Contemporary Jewish Documentation is an independent French organization founded by Isaac Schneersohn in Grenoble , France in 1943 during the Second World War to preserve the evidence of Nazi war crimes for future generations. After the Liberation , the center was moved to Paris in 1944 where it remains today. The goal of the CDJC is to conduct research, publish documentation, pursue Nazi war criminals , seek restitution for victims of the Nazis, and to maintain a large archive of Holocaust materials, especially those concerning events affecting French Jewry. Part of the efforts of the CDJC include providing educational materials to students and teachers, guided museum visits and field trips, participation in international conferences, activities and commemorations, maintaining monuments and sites like the Mémorial de la Shoah and the monument at Drancy , and most importantly collecting and disseminating documentation about the Holocaust in their extensive archives. Background While the Secon
Helsinki University Library is the largest multidisciplinary university library in Finland . Helsinki University Library is an independent institute of the University of Helsinki and open to all information seekers. Helsinki University Library includes the Main Library in the Kaisa House, Kumpula, Meilahti and Viikki Campus Libraries, as well as internal library services. The library offers information and library services in the fields of science of all four campuses of University of Helsinki. Key information About 1.9 million customers visit Helsinki University Library annually. There are about 40,400 active borrowers per year, and of them 11,000 are new customers. Everyone has the right to use the library, and persons over the age of 15 who live in Finland have the right to borrow books. Electronic materials are available for use to all customers in the library facilities and for the university community also online. The library offers its customers wide collections of printed and electronic materials. The
Swiss longsword , 15th or 16th century A sword is a bladed weapon intended for slashing or thrusting that is longer than a knife or dagger . The precise definition of the term varies with the historical epoch or the geographical region under consideration. A sword consists of a long blade attached to a hilt . The blade can be straight or curved. Thrusting swords have a pointed tip on the blade, and tend to be straighter; slashing swords have sharpened cutting edge on one or both sides of the blade, and are more likely to be curved. Many swords are designed for both thrusting and slashing. Historically, the sword developed in the Bronze Age , evolving from the dagger ; the earliest specimens date to about 1600 BC. The later Iron Age sword remained fairly short and without a crossguard. The spatha , as it developed in the Late Roman army , became the predecessor of the European sword of the Middle Ages, at first adopted as the Migration period sword , and only in the High Middle Ages , developed into the classi
Sign of the Austrian resistance movement at the St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna The Austrian Resistance to Nazi rule was launched in response to the Anschluss in 1938. The members of the Resistance, limited primarily to adherents of the restoration of the Habsburg dynasty and the political left , operated in isolation from the Austrian mainstream during the war years. Other strands of Austrian resistance included Catholics and monarchists. However, it is notable that several Austrian nationalists, some of them even with fascist sympathies, also resisted, opposed to the destruction of the Austrian state. The most prominent unifying symbol was former Crown Prince, Otto von Habsburg . Formation The movement had a prehistory of socialist and communist activism against the era of Austrofascism from 1934. Although the Austrofascist regime was itself intensely hostile to Nazism, especially after the Austrian Nazis' failed coup attempt in 1934, known as the July Putsch . The sign of the Austrian resistance was O5, wh
Henri La Fontaine ( French pronunciation: ; 22 April 1854 – 14 May 1943), was a Belgian international lawyer and president of the International Peace Bureau . He received the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1913 because " he was the effective leader of the peace movement in Europe". Biography La Fontaine was born in Brussels on 22 April 1854 and studied law at the Free University of Brussels (now split into the Université libre de Bruxelles and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel ). He was admitted to the bar in 1877 and established a reputation as an authority on international law . He and his sister Léonie La Fontaine were early advocates for women's rights and suffrage , founding in 1890 the Belgian League for the Rights of Women . In 1893, he became professor of international law at the Free University of Brussels and two years later was elected to the Belgian Senate as a member of the Socialist Party. He served as vice chairman of the Senate from 1919 to 1932. La Fontaine took an early interest in the Internation
This is a list of published International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables. For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue. The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC 's Joint Technical Committee 1 ( JTC1 ) have been made freely and publicly available. ISO 1 – ISO 99 ISO 1 :2016 Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Standard reference temperature for the specification of geometrical and dimensional properties ISO 2 :1973 Textiles – Designation of the direction of twist in yarns and related products ISO 3 :1973 Preferred numbers – Series of preferred numbers ISO 4 :1997 Information and documentation – Rules for the abbreviation of title words and titles of publications ISO 5 Photography and graphic technology – Density measurements ISO 6 :1993 Photography – Black-and-white pictorial still camera negative film/process systems – Determinatio
The Geological Survey of Belgium (GSB) is a Belgian federal research institute for Belgian geology . It is a department of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences . The institute is as a resource centre and project partner which produces maps , books and databases of Belgian geology. The GSB is a member of the European Geological Surveys network. History The institute was founded in 1896 and includes a Documentation Center for Earth Sciences on geological and hydrogeological data and a Research and Development department. See also BELSPO Geographical Information System (GIS) International Union of Geological Sciences References Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Belgium Geological Survey of Belgium - Marine Geology Group Museum of the Geological Survey of Belgium (GSB) External links Geological Survey of Belgium The Geological Survey of Belgium (GSB) is a Belgian federal research institute for Belgian geology . It is a department of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences . The institute is a
Library at Melk Abbey in Austria The Halifax Central Library , a modern city library A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. A library's collection can include books , periodicals , newspapers , manuscripts , films , maps , prints , documents , microform , CDs , cassettes , videotapes , DVDs , Blu-ray Discs , e-books , audiobooks , databases , and other formats. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items. In Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē (Greek: βιβλιοθήκη): derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e.g. French bibliothèque. The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing —the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer , some dating back to 2600 B
Electronic patient chart from a health information system Health informatics (also called health care informatics , healthcare informatics , medical informatics , nursing informatics , clinical informatics , or biomedical informatics ) is informatics in health care . It is a multidisciplinary field that uses health information technology (HIT) to improve health care via any combination of higher quality, higher efficiency (spurring lower cost and thus greater availability), and new opportunities. The disciplines involved include information science , computer science , social science , behavioral science , management science , and others. The NLM defines health informatics as "the interdisciplinary study of the design, development, adoption and application of IT-based innovations in healthcare services delivery, management and planning". It deals with the resources, devices, and methods required to optimize the acquisition, storage, retrieval, and use of information in health and biomedicine. Health informa
Richard Jaeger (left) and the former President of the Federal Republic of Germany/Bundespräsident Karl Carstens (right). Richard Jaeger (16 February 1913 in Berlin – 15 May 1998 in Munich ) was a German politician of the Christian Social Union of Bavaria . Under Ludwig Erhard 's second ministry, he was Minister of Justice (26 October 1965 - 1 December 1966). Richard Jaeger (Minister of Justice), were a part of Hitler's paramilitary organization, the SA since 1933. From 1949 to 1980 Jaeger was a member of German Bundestag . From 1972 to 1974, Jaeger was President of the European Documentation and Information Centre (CEDI) . He was married and had six children. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Richard Jaeger . Richard Jaeger (left) and the former President of the Federal Republic of Germany/Bundespräsident Karl Carstens (right). Richard Jaeger (16 February 1913 in Berlin – 15 May 1998 in Munich ) was a German politician of the Christian Social Union of Bavaria . Under Ludwig Erhard 's second ministry, he
Regional representation of the European Commission in Bonn, Bertha-von-Suttner-Platz 2-4 The regional representation of the European Commission in Bonn is part of the Commission representation in Germany. The main office is located in Berlin and another regional representation is in Munich. Dr. Stephan Koppelberg is in charge of the regional representation in Bonn since 2009, whereas Richard Kühnel leads the Commission representation office in Berlin. History The regional representation office has its origin as press liaison office of the European Coal and Steel Community , which was located in Luxembourg. The office in Bonn opened on 1 March 1954 as the very first branch office of the European institutions in Schulze-Delitzsch-Haus (Bonn), directed by the journalist Dr. Karl Mühlenbach. The next branches were opened in Rome and Paris The main task of the press liaison office was to maintain and strengthen contact to the press and other national sources of information. Present function and tasks The region
The Association Antigone is a non-governmental association whose head office is in Rome. It deals with the protection of civil rights and the guarantee of the penal system. Particularly, it fosters processing and debates on the model of criminal and procedural law in Italy and its evolution. It collects and dissiminates information about prison life, it is responsible for the preparation of draft laws and the definition of possible lines of amendments in pending approval. Moreover, it promotes campaigns of information and awareness on issues or particular aspects, however, always related to the legal culture of our country. Antigone has been granted the status of non-profit organization of social utility. The association also develops its own activities thanks to a network of regional offices : Abruzzo, Calabria, Campania, Emilia Romagna, Lombardy, the Marches, Apulia, Piedmont, Sicily, Tuscany, Umbria, Veneto. The national organs of the Association are : the shareholders Assembly, the president, the directiv
Paul Marie Ghislain Otlet ( ; French: ; 23 August 1868 – 10 December 1944) was a Belgian author, entrepreneur, visionary, lawyer and peace activist; he is one of several people who have been considered the father of information science , a field he called "documentation". Otlet created the Universal Decimal Classification , one of the most prominent examples of faceted classification . Otlet was responsible for the widespread adoption in Europe of the standard American 3x5 inch index card used until recently in most library catalogs around the world (by now largely displaced by the advent of the online public access catalog (OPAC)). Otlet wrote numerous essays on how to collect and organize the world's knowledge, culminating in two books, the Traité de Documentation (1934) and Monde: Essai d'universalisme (1935). In 1907, following a huge international conference, Otlet and Henri La Fontaine created the Central Office of International Associations, which was renamed to the Union of International Associations
The University of Malta ( Maltese : L-Università ta' Malta ) is the highest educational institution in Malta . It offers undergraduate bachelor's degrees , postgraduate master's degrees and postgraduate doctorates ( PhD ). It is a member of the European University Association , the European Access Network, Association of Commonwealth Universities , the Utrecht Network , the Santander Network , the Compostela Group , the European Association for University Lifelong Learning (EUCEN) and the International Student Exchange Programme (ISEP). In post-nominals the University's name is abbreviated as Melit; a shortened form of Melita (a Latinised form of the Greek Μελίτη). Administration Quad open space The administrative set up of the university comprises academic and administrative and technical staff members who are appointed or elected to the governing bodies of the University. The principal officers of the University are the Chancellor, the Pro-Chancellor, the Rector, the Pro-Rectors, the Secretary, the Registr
MoReq2 is short for “Model Requirements for the Management of Electronic Records”, second version. It consists of a formal requirements specification for a generic electronic records management system , accompanied by testing documentation and related information. Published in 2008 by the European Commission , it is intended for use across the European Union , but can be used elsewhere. MoReq2 is generally considered a de facto standard in Europe but it does not have any formal status as a standard. Purpose The MoReq2 specification is intended for users and suppliers of electronic records management systems and services, and educators. Its main intended usages are to serve as a basis for invitations to tender (also known as requests for proposal ) and as a framework to guide development of new electronic records management systems. It can also be used to provide a basis for auditing existing electronic records management systems or services, and as a resource for academic or commercial trainers. Availability
DOGE ( French : Documentation en Gestion des Entreprises ) is an academic bibliographic database, which is maintained by INIST (Institute of Scientific and Technical Information), French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), in collaboration with the "Réseau d’Information en Gestion des Entreprises" (Information Network for Business Management) – under the coordination of the Institut Européen de Données Financières, EUROFIDAI (European Financial data Institute), and the CNRS Department of Humanities and Social Sciences (SHS). DOGE covers research documents in all aspects of business management with special emphasis on European literature. See also DOGE's page on the INIST official website INIST ( official website ) EUROFIDAI Homepage DOGE ( French : Documentation en Gestion des Entreprises ) is an academic bibliographic database, which is maintained by INIST (Institute of Scientific and Technical Information), French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), in collaboration with the "Réseau
Hakim Mohammed Said ( Urdu : حکیم محمد سعید ; 9 January 1920 – 17 October 1998, NI , PhD) was a medical researcher , scholar, philanthropist, and a Governor of Sindh Province , Pakistan from 1993 until 1996. Said was one of Pakistan's most prominent medical researchers in the field of Eastern medicines. He established the Hamdard Foundation in 1948, prior to his settlement in West Pakistan . In a few years time, the herbal medical products of the Hamdard Foundation became household names in Pakistan. Hakim Mohammed Said authored and compiled about 200 books in medicine, philosophy, science, health, religion, natural medicine, literary, social, and travelogues. In 1981, Said became one of the founding member of the World Cultural Council , a non-profit international organization, based in Mexico . On 17 October 1998, Said was assassinated by a group of unknown assailants while he was on his way to attend a medical experiment at the Hamdard Laboratories in Karachi . His killing prompted Prime Minister of Pakis
Prof. ARD Prasad at OSOD Workshop Dr A.R.D. Prasad is an Indian Library and Information Science Academics , Information professional and Information scientist . Dr Prasad teaches at Documentation Research and Training Centre ( DRTC ), Bangalore as Professor of Library and Information Science and at present he is Head of DRTC , which is India's only "proper" ischool with a very strong research program. His areas of specialisation include Artificial intelligence -Applications in LIS, Natural language processing , Digital Libraries, Hypertext and Multimedia applications, Institutional repository , Open-source software used in Libraries, Open Access to Information, Semantic Web Technology, Free and open source software etc. His other area of interests are Mythology, Buddhism, Philosophy and Indian History. He is pioneer in promotion and development of Open-source software used in Libraries and Information Centres in India, Open access (publishing) and Open Access movement . He is visiting Faculty of University of
Process safety management is a regulation, promulgated by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). A process is any activity or combination of activities including any use, storage, manufacturing, handling or the on-site movement of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs) as defined by OSHA and the Environmental Protection Agency . Fourteen elements of OSHA Process Safety Management Program. Definition Process safety management is an analytical tool focused on preventing releases of any substance defined as a "highly hazardous chemical" by the EPA or OSHA. Process Safety Management (PSM) refers to a set of interrelated approaches to managing hazards associated with the process industries and is intended to reduce the frequency and severity of incidents resulting from releases of chemicals and other energy sources (US OSHA 1993). These standards are composed of organizational and operational procedures, design guidance, audit programs, and a host of other methods. Elements of Process Safety Man
The Romani (also spelled Romany ; , ), or Roma , are a traditionally nomadic ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent , from the Indian states of Rajasthan , Haryana , and Punjab and Sindh . A recent DNA study conducted by Indian and Estonian research facilities shows that the Roman/Romani/Gypsy and Sinti people originate from the Untouchable Dalit community from India. The Romani are widely known among English-speaking people by the exonym Gypsies (or Gipsies), which some people consider pejorative due to its connotations of illegality and irregularity. They are a dispersed people, but their most concentrated populations are located in Europe, especially Central , Eastern and Southern Europe (including Turkey , Spain and Southern France ). The Romani originated in Northern India and arrived in Mid-West Asia , and Europe around 1,000 years ago. They have been associated with another Indo-Aryan group, the Dom people : the
Value measuring methodology (or VMM) is a tool that helps financial planners balance both tangible and intangible values when making investment decisions , and monitor benefits. Formal methods to calculate the Return on investment (ROI) have been widely understood and used for a long time, but there was no easy and widely known way to provide a formal justification for decisions based on intangible values, which can include the reputation of an organization, the wellbeing of staff, or the impact on society or the environment at large. It was particularly difficult for decision makers to work through the trade-offs between costs and intangible benefits, especially for long-term investments by commercial organizations, and for governments and non-profit organizations who are primarily concerned with intangible values without wasting limited funds. Even within commercial organizations, units traditionally viewed as "cost centres" found it difficult to get acceptance of proposals for projects that would lead to g
Food composition data (FCD) are detailed sets of information on the nutritionally important components of foods and provide values for energy and nutrients including protein, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins and minerals and for other important food components such as fibre. The data are presented in food composition databases (FCDBs). In the UK , FCD is listed in tables known as The Chemical Composition of Foods, McCance and Widdowson (1940) and in the first edition the authors stated that: ‘A knowledge of the chemical composition of foods is the first essential in the dietary treatment of disease or in any quantitative study of human nutrition’. This demonstrates the main reason for establishing FCD at that time. To this day, food composition studies remain central to nutrition research into the role of food components and their interactions in health and disease. However, due to increasing levels of sophistication and complexity in nutrition science, there is a greater demand for complete, current and reliabl
A patent family is "a set of patents taken in various countries to protect a single invention (when a first application in a country – the priority – is then extended to other offices )." In other words, a patent family is "the same invention disclosed by a common inventor(s) and patented in more than one country." Patent families can be regarded as a "fortuitous by-product of the concept of priorities for patent applications". Definitions The International Patent Documentation Centre ( INPADOC ), the European Patent Office (EPO) and WIPO recognize the following definitions of simple and extended patent families: Simple patent family : All patent documents have exactly the same priority date or combination of priority dates. Extended patent family : All patent documents are linked (directly or indirectly) via a priority document belonging to one patent family. The extended families allow for additional connectors to link other than strictly priority date. These include: domestic application numbers, countr
Flags of G7 members as seen at University Avenue in Toronto . The Group of 7 ( G7 ) is a group consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. The European Union is also represented within the G7. These countries are the seven major advanced economies as reported by the International Monetary Fund : the G7 countries represent more than 64% of the net global wealth ($263 trillion). A very high net national wealth and a very high Human Development Index are the main requirements to be a member of this group. The G7 countries also represent 46% of the global GDP evaluated at market exchange rates and 32% of the global purchasing power parity GDP. The 43rd G7 summit was held in Taormina ( ME ), Italy in May 2017. History The G7 originates with the Group of Six . It was founded ad hoc in 1975, consisting of finance ministers and central bank governors from France, West Germany , Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States, when Giscard d'Estaing invited th
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List ), founded in 1964, is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species . The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the world's main authority on the conservation status of species. A series of Regional Red Lists are produced by countries or organizations, which assess the risk of extinction to species within a political management unit. The IUCN Red List is set upon precise criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. These criteria are relevant to all species and all regions of the world. The aim is to convey the urgency of conservation issues to the public and policy makers, as well as help the international community to try to reduce species extinction. According to IUCN (1996), the formally stated goals of the Red List are (1) to provide scientifically based information on the status of species and subspecies at a
The official logo of SNL The Slovenská národná knižnica (in English : Slovak National Library) is a modern scientific, cultural, information and educational institution that serves all citizens of Slovakia and users from abroad. Slovak National Library is conservation and depositary library of Slovakia . SNL preferably collects, professionally processes, stores, protects and makes accessible domestic and foreign Slavic documents (documents related to Slovakia by author, language, place of printing, theme). Funds and collections of the Slovak National Library contain 4.9 million library items, 1.7 million archive documents and thousands of museum units. Slovak National Library, Martin Slovak National Library, Martin, detail Part of the SNL are also museums. Literary Museum collects objects related to Slovak literature, on which it presents a historical development of Slovak literature. Museum is also involved in presentation of the National Cemetery, gallery of graves of outstanding personalities from Slovak c
The Netherlands Open Air Museum ( Dutch : Nederlands Openluchtmuseum ) is an open-air museum and park located near Arnhem with antique houses, farms and factories from different parts of the Netherlands . The Netherlands Open Air Museum is a national museum focusing on the culture associated with the everyday lives of ordinary people. History The museum was founded in 1912 and is situated in the woods near Arnhem. The museum park is 44 hectares in area and includes buildings from various places and historical periods. In 1987, the Dutch government was primed to shut down the museum, but in a demonstration of solidarity for the historic museum, Dutch crowds flooded the museum's doors, hoping to view the exhibits before they closed. The museum was allowed to remain open due to its unprecedented success during this time and was given greater autonomy over its organization. The museum also has a collection of historical clothing and jewellery. New indoor exhibition space was built in 1999–2000. The museum won t
Bolanle Awe (born 26 January 1933) is a Nigerian history professor. Life Awe was born in Nigeria in 1933. She attended Holy Trinity School, Imofe- Ilesha , St James Primary School, Okebola, Ibadan , and St Anne's School, Ibadan. She took her A-levels at the Perse School in Cambridge. She went to St Andrews University in Scotland where she obtained a masters in history, before taking a doctorate in history at Oxford University . Awe then returned to Nigeria, where she became a lecturer at the University of Ibadan . She rose to be a professor at the same university. She was one of the historians who allowed their evidence to include oral traditions . This meant that she was able to trace back histories before the arrival of Europeans. She was also active in idetifying how the role of women in history was being overlooked and she co-founded the Women's Research and Documentation Centre (WORDOC) to promote the coordination of women's studies research and new methodologies to study Nigerian women. In 1982 she w
The Open University ( OU ) is a public distance learning and research university, and one of the biggest universities in the UK for undergraduate education. The majority of the OU's undergraduate students are based throughout the United Kingdom and principally study off- campus ; many of its courses (both undergraduate and postgraduate ) can also be studied anywhere in the world. There are also a number of full-time postgraduate research students based on the 48- hectare university campus where they use the OU facilities for research, as well as more than 1000 members of academic and research staff and over 2500 administrative, operational and support staff. The OU was established in 1969 and the first students enrolled in January 1971. The University administration is based at Walton Hall , Milton Keynes , in Buckinghamshire , but has regional centres in each of its thirteen regions around the United Kingdom. It also has offices and regional examination centres in many other European countries. The univ
This is a list of philosophical organizations and societies. Academia Analitica American Association of Philosophy Teachers American Catholic Philosophical Association American Ethical Union American Philosophical Association American Philosophical Society American Society for Aesthetics American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy Animal Rights Cambridge Arché (research center) Aristotelian Society Association for Logic, Language and Information Association for Symbolic Logic Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness Australasian Association of Philosophy Batavian Society for Experimental Philosophy British Philosophical Association British Society for Ethical Theory British Society of Aesthetics Café Philosophique Cambridge Philosophical Society Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Access to Information, Privacy and Ethics Canadian Philosophical Association Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Mathematics Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs Center for
Ana Brnabić ( Serbian Cyrillic : Ана Брнабић , pronounced ; born 28 September 1975) is a Serbian politician who has been the Prime Minister of Serbia since 29 June 2017, becoming the first woman and first openly gay person to hold the office. She was previously the Minister of Public Administration and Local Self-Government of Serbia from 11 August 2016 until 29 June 2017, under Prime Minister Aleksandar Vučić and Acting Prime Minister Ivica Dačić . After Vučić was inaugurated as the President of Serbia on 31 May 2017, he proposed Brnabić as his successor in June. Her government was voted into office on 29 June 2017 by a majority of 157 out of 250 Members of the National Assembly of Serbia . Brnabić is the fifth openly LGBT head of government in Europe and the world (following Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir , Elio Di Rupo , Xavier Bettel and Leo Varadkar ), the first openly LGBT head of government in Eastern Europe and the second female LGBT head of government overall. Biography Brnabić holds an MBA diploma of the
UNITED for Intercultural Action is a European network against nationalism , racism , fascism and in support of migrants and refugees , in which over 560 organisations from 48 European countries cooperate. UNITED was founded in 1992 (officially registered as charitable organisation under Dutch law in 1993) and provides a forum for active solidarity and cooperation between a wide variety of organisations in Europe and their activists across European borders. UNITED defines itself as pan-European tool to strengthen and cross-link grassroots organisations and their actions to improve their socio-political impact. The idea of the UNITED network was born by participants of two anti-racist European youth seminars in Strasbourg in 1992. At these occasions, the need for a European-wide info- and networking system was expressed against the background of the most violent and massive xenophobic riots that took place in Germany after the Second World War : the riot of Rostock-Lichtenhagen August 22–24, 1992. The work of
Icelandic passports are issued to citizens of Iceland for the purpose of international travel. Physical Appearance Icelandic passports are blue , with the Icelandic coat of arms emblazoned in the centre of the front cover. The words "ÍSLAND" ( Icelandic ), "ICELAND" ( English ) and "ISLANDE" ( French ) are inscribed above the coat of arms and the words "VEGABRÉF" ( Icelandic ), "PASSPORT" ( English ) and "PASSEPORT" ( French ) are inscribed below the coat of arms. Icelandic passports have the standard biometric symbol at the bottom. Vegabréf literally means "road letter" and is a word used in Scandinavia in historic centuries meaning internal passport . Identity Information Page The biodata page of the previous machine readable version The Icelandic passport includes the following data: Photo of Passport Holder Type (PA) Code (ISL) Passport No. Surname Given Names Nationality Height Date of Birth Personal code number Sex Place of Birth Date of Issue Date of Expiry Authority The information page ends with the
Medieval cuisine includes the foods, eating habits, and cooking methods of various European cultures during the Middle Ages , a period roughly dating from the 5th to the 15th century. During this period, diets and cooking changed less across Europe than they did in the far briefer early modern period that followed, when those changes helped lay the foundations for modern European cuisine . Cereals remained the most important staple during the early Middle Ages as rice was a late introduction to Europe, and the potato was only introduced in 1536, with a much later date for widespread consumption. Barley , oat and rye among the poor, and wheat for the governing classes, were eaten as bread , porridge , gruel and pasta by all of society's members. Fava beans and vegetables were important supplements to the cereal-based diet of the lower orders. ( Phaseolus beans, today the " common bean ", were of New World origin and were introduced after the Columbian Exchange in the 16th century.) Meat was more expensive and
A variety of torture instruments. Many, including the large Iron Maiden of Nuremberg , were never used for torture. Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim. Torture, by definition, is a knowing and intentional act ; deeds which unknowingly or negligently inflict pain without a specific intent to do so are not typically considered torture. Torture has been carried out or sanctioned by individuals, groups, and states throughout history from ancient times to modern day, and forms of torture can vary greatly in duration from only a few minutes to several days or longer. Reasons for torture can include punishment , revenge , political re-education , deterrence , coercion of the victim or a third party, interrogation to extract information or a confession irrespective of whether it is false , or simply the sadistic gratification of those carrying out or observ
The automotive industry in North Korea is a branch of the national economy, with much-lower production than that in South Korea . North Korean motor vehicle production is geared towards the Korean People's Army , industrial and construction goals; there is little car ownership by private citizens. In addition to cars and trucks, North Korea produces buses, trolleybuses and trams. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) is not involved with the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles (OICA) or any other United Nations industrial committee, so information about its motor vehicle industry is limited. The OICA does not publicize figures for automobile production in the DPRK. As reported by a limited number of observers with firsthand knowledge, North Korea has the capability to produce 40,000 to 50,000 vehicles a year; however, within the past few years only a few thousand vehicles have been produced due to its ongoing economic crisis and recent sanctions. History The North Korean aut
The Museu del Disseny de Barcelona (Catalan naming, English: "Design Museum of Barcelona"), is a new center of Barcelona 's Institute of Culture, which works to promote better understanding and good use of the design world, acting as a museum and laboratory. It focuses on 4 branches or design disciplines: space design, product design , information design and fashion . The Museum is the result of the merging of several previous existing museums, such as the Museu de les Arts Decoratives , the Museu Tèxtil i d'Indumentària and the Gabinet de les Arts Gràfiques collection. The opening of the new headquarters, located on Plaça de les Glòries , was set gradually during 2014. History Barcelona is a city historically linked to design , with old institutions such as the Foment de les Arts Decoratives . That is why the city of Barcelona was raised earlier in the decade of 2000 to create a single center, an integral space to allow the public to understand design in a broader consideration. It was decided to build a si
The Historical Archives of the European Union (HAEU), located in Florence ( Italy ), is the official archives for the historical documents of the Institutions of the European Union . It is also a research centre dedicated to the archival preservation and study of European integration and is part of the European University Institute (EUI). Logo of the Historical Archives of the European Union Legal Basis and History The Historical Archives of the European Union was established in 1983 following the regulation by the Council of the European Communities and the decision by the Commission of the European Communities to open their historical archives to the public. A subsequent agreement in 1984 between the Commission of the European Communities and the EUI laid the groundwork for establishing the Archives in Florence, and the HAEU opened its doors to researchers and the public in 1986. In 2011 a Framework Partnership Agreement between the EUI and the European Commission reinforced the Historical Archives’ role
The House of European History ( HEH ) is a museum in Brussels , Belgium that focuses on the history of Europe since 1789. It is an initiative by the European Parliament and opened on 6 May 2017. As a cultural institution and exhibition centre, the House of European History intends to promote the understanding of European history and European integration , through a permanent exhibition and temporary and travelling exhibitions. It houses a collection of objects and documents representative of European history, educational programs , cultural events and publications , as well as a wide range of online content. It is located in the Eastman Building near the Leopold Park in Brussels, close to the European institutions . Origins The idea of creating a museum dedicated to European history was launched on 13 February 2007 by President Hans-Gert Pöttering in his inaugural speech as president of the European Parliament . One of the key objectives of the project was to be "to enable Europeans of all generations to lea
The G8 (reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to Russia 's suspension) was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014, with participation from the world′s major highly industrialized economies in countries that viewed themselves as democracies . The forum originated with a 1975 summit hosted by France that brought together representatives of six governments: France , Germany , Italy , Japan , the United Kingdom , and the United States , thus leading to the name Group of Six or G6 . The summit came to be known as the Group of Seven , or G7 , in 1976 with the addition of Canada . Russia was added to the political forum from 1997, which the following year became known as the G8. In March 2014 Russia was suspended following the annexation of Crimea , whereupon the group's name reverted to the G7. The European Union was represented at the G8 since the 1980s as a "nonenumerated" participant, but originally could not host or chair summits. The 40th summit was the first time the European Union was a
This article lists political parties in the Netherlands . The Netherlands has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which any one party has little chance of gaining power alone, and parties often work with each other to form coalition governments . The lower house of the legislature, the House of Representatives , is elected by a national party-list system of proportional representation . There is no threshold for getting a seat, making it possible for a party to get a seat with only two-thirds percent of the vote—roughly one seat for every 60,000 votes. Since this system was implemented in 1918, no party has even approached the seats needed for an outright majority. However, there is a broad consensus on the basic principles of the political system, and all parties must adjust their goals to some extent in order to have a realistic chance at being part of the government. Parliamentary parties Political parties represented in the States General of the Netherlands Political party Ideology Po
Rakhine State ( Burmese : ရခိုင်ပြည်နယ် ; MLCTS : ra.hkuing pranynay , Rakhine pronunciation ; Burmese pronunciation: ; formerly Arakan ) is a state in Myanmar (Burma). Situated on the western coast, it is bordered by Chin State to the north, Magway Region , Bago Region and Ayeyarwady Region to the east, the Bay of Bengal to the west, and the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh to the northwest. It is located approximately between latitudes 17°30' north and 21°30' north and east longitudes 92°10' east and 94°50' east. The Arakan Mountains , rising to 3,063 metres (10,049 ft) at Victoria Peak , separate Rakhine State from central Burma. Off the coast of Rakhine State there are some fairly large islands such as Cheduba and Myingun Island . Rakhine State has an area of 36,762 square kilometres (14,194 sq mi) and its capital is Sittwe . Etymology The term Rakhine is believed to have been derived from the Pali word Rakkhapura (Sanskrit Raksapura), meaning "Land of Ogres " ( Rakshas ), possibly a pejorative referrin
The Centre d'étude des supports de publicité ( CESP ) is a Paris -based non-profit association of media and communications services in France . References External links Official website Pubard.com, French Wiki website about advertising The Centre d'étude des supports de publicité ( CESP ) is a Paris -based non-profit association of media and communications services in France . References External links Official website Pubard.com, French Wiki website about advertising
The Permanent Resident card (PR card; commonly and originally referred to as the " Maple Leaf Card ") is an identification document for permanent residents of Canada (formerly known as landed immigrants). It was introduced on 28 June 2002 upon the implementation of Canada 's Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA). Like Canadian passports , all PR cards are issued by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) and are the property of the Canadian Crown . It is the primary method by which Canadian permanent residents can prove their status and is the only document that allows permanent residents to return to Canada by air. Starting from 10 November 2016, all travellers to Canada (except for Canadian citizens, U.S. citizens and nationals, permanent residents and travellers with a valid Canadian visa) are required to have an Electronic Travel Authorization (eTA) before boarding a flight to Canada. Hence permanent residents, including those from one of the visa-free countries (except the U.S.), need
The Aeronautical Information Service (AIS) is a service established in support of international civil aviation, whose objective is to ensure the flow of information necessary for the safety, regularity, and efficiency of international air navigation. The manner in which aeronautical information is gathered and managed is governed by Annex 15 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation ( ICAO Annex 15), which defines how an aeronautical information service shall receive and/or originate, collate or assemble, edit, format, publish/store and distribute specified aeronautical information/data. The goal is to satisfy the need for uniformity and consistency in the provision of aeronautical information/data that is required for operational use by international civil aviation. ICAO Annex 15 specifies that aeronautical information should be published as an integrated aeronautical information package (IAIP), composed of the following elements: The Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP), including amendment se
An e-GIF , or eGovernment Interoperability Framework, is a scheme for ensuring the inter-operation of computer-based systems. It is intended to resolve and prevent (or at least minimise) problems arising from incompatible content of different computer systems. An e-GIF may aim to facilitate government processes at local, national or international levels. International implementations About 30 countries and international bodies are known to have implemented some form of e-GIF, most, but not all, using the "e-GIF" acronym. Within the EU many of these were supported by the European Interoperability Framework (EIF) of the IDABC . These included Denmark , Greece , the United Kingdom and the Reach "Public Services Broker" in Ireland . In Africa COMESA and Ghana provide examples of similar initiatives, whilst Bhutan and Thailand are examples from Asia. New Zealand and Australia , similarly, implemented their own frameworks. In the United States the National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) shared similar aim
The centre of the museum was redeveloped in 2001 to become the Great Court , surrounding the original Reading Room . The British Museum , located in the Bloomsbury area of London , United Kingdom , is a public institution dedicated to human history , art and culture . Its permanent collection, numbering some 8 million works, is among the largest and most comprehensive in existence and originates from all continents, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginnings to the present. The British Museum was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of the physician and scientist Sir Hans Sloane . The museum first opened to the public on 15 January 1759, in Montagu House , on the site of the current building. Its expansion over the following two and a half centuries was largely a result of an expanding British colonial footprint and has resulted in the creation of several branch institutions, the first being the British Museum of Natural History in South Kensington in 1881 (