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European Documentation and Information Centre

The European Documentation and Information Centre, abbreviated CEDI (French: Centre Européen de Documentation et d'Information), was a former think tank founded in 1952 on the occasion of an international congress held in Santander, Spain. The objective of the organization was to unite various European conservative and Christian Democratic political organizations which formed in several Western European states during postwar reconstruction, the emerging Cold War and the beginnings of what would later be called European integration. During the 1950s and the 1960s, the CEDI was an important contact pool for European politicians. During its early years the CEDI's ideology and program was dominated by its first president, Otto von Habsburg, son of the last emperor of Austria. It was dissolved in 1990 following the collapse of the Iron Curtain.


The Franco regime in Spain made use of the CEDI to get in contact with high-ranking persons of the political, military, economic and cultural life from Western Europe and thus end its post-war international isolation. By preaching the necessity of cultural exchange and the religious unity of the occident, the CEDI aimed at a political, military and economic inclusion of Spain into the beginning process of European Integration.

Organization and members

The annual congresses of the CEDI, which were nearly always held in Spain, brought together many office bearers and dignitaries of the conservative milieu. Besides the Spanish initiators – hereunder Franco’s foreign minister Alberto Martín Artajo, the director of the Institute for Hispanic Culture Alfredo Sánchez Bella and José Ignacio Escobar Kirkpatrick Marqués de Valdeiglesias – there was a strong support for CEDI’s activities in Germany, Austria and France. The expelled Austrian Heir Apparent Otto von Habsburg was the founding and, later on, honorary president of the organization. Germany was represented by high-ranking members of the Christian Democratic and Christian Social Union of Bavaria parties, as for example the ministers Hans-Joachim von Merkatz and Richard Jaeger. The French section of the Documentation Centre was led by the Count François de la Noë and Michel Habib-Deloncle.

Among the first British supporters were William Teeling, Sir Frederick Corfield MP and Sir John Rodgers MP, who even held CEDI’s international presidency from 1965 to 1967. Over the years, the Austrian secretary general Georg von Gaupp-Berghausen turned more and more out to be the actual organizational and programmatic head of the Documentation Centre.

Ambitions and ideology

Besides the proclaimed Catholic Christian heritage, the traditional connections of the European upper nobility, military contacts and common economic interests, it was above all a virulent anticommunism which was tying together the members of the Documentation Centre. The scientific lectures given at the annual meetings of the CEDI dealt with questions of principle concerning European Integration, the Cold War and other subjects of social and international relevance.

National sections

Apart from Spain, Germany and France, national sections emerged in and Belgium and Austria, some years later also in Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Sweden and Portugal. In Britain, the conservative "March Club" fulfilled the tasks of a national section since the beginning of the 1960s. Among the most prominent members of this British section were apart from Teeling, Corfield and Rodgers, Peter Agnew and Geoffrey Rippon who both were to become international presidents of the CEDI later on. It seems quite likely that the contacts provided by the Documentation Centre played a not unimportant role in negotiating Britain’s entry into the European Community, since Rippon was the head of the British government’s delegation.


When the CEDI became a civil law association in 1957, its head office was officially moved to Munich, Madrid remaining nevertheless a central branch office of the organization. With General Charles de Gaulle returning to the political stage in 1958, his fellows transformed the CEDI into an international forum in order to diffuse their conceptions of European politics. The cooperation between French Gaullists and German Christian Democrats has also been prepared by CEDI’s initiatives.

The Gaullist engagement weakening by the end of the 1960s, Spanish influence in the Documentation Centre increased again. CEDI evolved into an instrument of Spanish interests in Latin America, reached out for Africa and Asia, and finally turned toward the domain of development policies.

Nevertheless, the organization had transgressed the zenith of its diplomatic activities. The urgent necessity of recruiting new members was perceived, but the CEDI did not find any solution to solve these problems. The political transformation process in Spain by the middle of the 1970s deprived the CEDI of its last material and organizational basics.

Further reading
  • Conze, Vanessa: Das Europa der Deutschen. Ideen von Europa in Deutschland zwischen Reichstradition und Westorientierung (1920–1970), München 2005, p. 169–206.
  • Gunzález Cuevas, Pedro Carlos: Neoconservatismo e identidad europea. Una aproximación histórica, in: Spagna contemporanea 13 (1998), p. 41–60.
  • Weber, Petra-Maria: Spanische Deutschlandpolitik 1945–1958. Entsorgung der Vergangenheit, Saarbrücken/Fort Lauderdale 1992, p. 205–268.
  • Johannes Großmann: Die Internationale der Konservativen. Transnationale Elitenzirkel und private Außenpolitik in Westeuropa seit 1945, Munich 2014.
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NIOD Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies


The NIOD Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies (Dutch: NIOD Instituut voor Oorlogs-, Holocaust- en Genocidestudies) is an organisation in the Netherlands which maintains archives and carries out historical studies into the Second World War, the Holocaust and other genocides around the world, past and present. The institute was founded as a merger of the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation (Nederlands instituut voor oorlogsdocumentatie, NIOD, formerly Rijksinstituut voor oorlogsdocumentatie, RIOD) and the Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies (CHGS). It has been part of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen (Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences) since January 1, 1999. Duties The NIOD states its purpose as being: Collects, manages, opens up and makes accessible archives and collections about the Second World War. Conducts academic research and publishes about it. Gives information to government bodies and individuals. Stimulates and organises debates and ac ...more...

Simon Wiesenthal


Simon Wiesenthal (31 December 1908 – 20 September 2005) was a Jewish Austrian Holocaust survivor , Nazi hunter , and writer. He studied architecture and was living in Lwów at the outbreak of World War II . He survived the Janowska concentration camp (late 1941 to September 1944), the Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp (September to October 1944), the Gross-Rosen concentration camp , a death march to Chemnitz , Buchenwald , and the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp (February to 5 May 1945). After the war, Wiesenthal dedicated most of his life to tracking down and gathering information on fugitive Nazi war criminals so that they could be brought to trial. In 1947 he co-founded the Jewish Historical Documentation Centre in Linz , Austria, where he and others gathered information for future war crime trials and aided refugees in their search for lost relatives. He opened the Documentation Centre of the Association of Jewish Victims of the Nazi Regime in Vienna in 1961 and continued to try to locate missing Nazi ...more...

Centre d'étude des supports de publicité


The Centre d'étude des supports de publicité ( CESP ) is a Paris -based non-profit association of media and communications services in France . It is a french inter-professional body gathering the whole advertising market players concerned by studying audience of media: advertisers, agencies and media consulting houses, federation of ad purchasing space, medias and advertising sales houses. It is a center for documentation, information, training for professionals. Its missions are: conduct audit and labelize studies and researches on media and their audience. It brings its expertise both in France and internationally on works on media, on new tools and technics. At the international level, it is a member of several bodies: Esomar : The World Association of Research Professionals. EBU : Union Européenne Radio-Télévision Emro : Association of European Media Research Organisations I-JIC (previously EURO-JICs): Association internationale des organismes de certification et d’études des supports de publicité Refere ...more...



An e-GIF, or eGovernment Interoperability Framework, is a scheme for ensuring the inter-operation of computer-based systems. It is intended to resolve and prevent (or at least minimise) problems arising from incompatible content of different computer systems. An e-GIF may aim to facilitate government processes at local, national or international levels. International implementations About 30 countries and international bodies are known to have implemented some form of e-GIF, most, but not all, using the "e-GIF" acronym. Within the EU many of these were supported by the European Interoperability Framework (EIF) of the IDABC. These included Denmark, Greece, the United Kingdom and the Reach "Public Services Broker" in Ireland. In Africa COMESA and Ghana provide examples of similar initiatives, whilst Bhutan and Thailand are examples from Asia. New Zealand and Australia, similarly, implemented their own frameworks. In the United States the National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) shared similar aims. Aims ...more...

Slovak National Library


The official logo of SNL The Slovenská národná knižnica (in English: Slovak National Library) is a modern scientific, cultural, information and educational institution that serves all citizens of Slovakia and users from abroad. Slovak National Library is conservation and depositary library of Slovakia. SNL preferably collects, professionally processes, stores, protects and makes accessible domestic and foreign Slavic documents (documents related to Slovakia by author, language, place of printing, theme). Funds and collections of the Slovak National Library contain 4.9 million library items, 1.7 million archive documents and thousands of museum units. Slovak National Library, Martin Slovak National Library, Martin, detail Part of the SNL are also museums. Literary Museum collects objects related to Slovak literature, on which it presents a historical development of Slovak literature. Museum is also involved in presentation of the National Cemetery, gallery of graves of outstanding personalities fr ...more...

Icelandic passport


Icelandic passports are issued to citizens of Iceland for the purpose of international travel. Physical Appearance Icelandic passports are blue, with the Icelandic coat of arms emblazoned in the centre of the front cover. The words "ÍSLAND" (Icelandic), "ICELAND" (English) and "ISLANDE" (French) are inscribed above the coat of arms and the words "VEGABRÉF" (Icelandic), "PASSPORT" (English) and "PASSEPORT" (French) are inscribed below the coat of arms. Icelandic passports have the standard biometric symbol at the bottom. Vegabréf literally means "road letter" and is a word used in Scandinavia in historic centuries meaning internal passport. Identity Information Page The biodata page of the previous machine readable version The Icelandic passport includes the following data: Photo of Passport Holder Type (PA) Code (ISL) Passport No. Surname Given Names Nationality Height Date of Birth Personal code number Sex Place of Birth Date of Issue Date of Expiry Authority The information page e ...more...

List of cities by sunshine duration


The following is a list of cities by sunshine duration. Sunshine duration is a climatological indicator, measuring duration of sunshine in given period (usually, a day or a year) for a given location on Earth, typically expressed as an averaged value over several years. It is a general indicator of cloudiness of a location, and thus differs from insolation, which measures the total energy delivered by sunlight over a given period. Sunshine duration is usually expressed in hours per year, or in (average) hours per day. The first measure indicates the general sunniness of a location compared with other places, while the latter allows for comparison of sunshine in various seasons in the same location. Another often-used measure is percentage ratio of recorded bright sunshine duration and daylight duration in the observed period. An important use of sunshine duration data is to characterize the climate of sites, especially of health resorts. This also takes into account the psychological effect of strong solar ...more...

Netherlands Open Air Museum


The Netherlands Open Air Museum ( Dutch : Nederlands Openluchtmuseum ) is an open-air museum and park located near Arnhem with antique houses, farms and factories from different parts of the Netherlands . The Netherlands Open Air Museum is a national museum focusing on the culture associated with the everyday lives of ordinary people. History The museum was founded in 1912 and is situated in the woods near Arnhem. The museum park is 44 hectares in area and includes buildings from various places and historical periods. In 1987, the Dutch government was primed to shut down the museum, but in a demonstration of solidarity for the historic museum, Dutch crowds flooded the museum's doors, hoping to view the exhibits before they closed. The museum was allowed to remain open due to its unprecedented success during this time and was given greater autonomy over its organization. The museum also has a collection of historical clothing and jewellery. New indoor exhibition space was built in 1999–2000. The museum won t ...more...

Regional Representation of the European Commission in Bonn


Regional representation of the European Commission in Bonn, Bertha-von-Suttner-Platz 2-4 The regional representation of the European Commission in Bonn is part of the Commission representation in Germany. The main office is located in Berlin and another regional representation is in Munich. Dr. Stephan Koppelberg is in charge of the regional representation in Bonn since 2009, whereas Richard Kühnel leads the Commission representation office in Berlin. History The regional representation office has its origin as press liaison office of the European Coal and Steel Community, which was located in Luxembourg. The office in Bonn opened on 1 March 1954 as the very first branch office of the European institutions in Schulze-Delitzsch-Haus (Bonn), directed by the journalist Dr. Karl Mühlenbach. The next branches were opened in Rome and Paris The main task of the press liaison office was to maintain and strengthen contact to the press and other national sources of information. Present function and tasks The ...more...

Patent family


A patent family is "a set of patents taken in various countries to protect a single invention (when a first application in a country – the priority – is then extended to other offices)." In other words, a patent family is "the same invention disclosed by a common inventor(s) and patented in more than one country." Patent families can be regarded as a "fortuitous by-product of the concept of priorities for patent applications". Definitions The International Patent Documentation Centre (INPADOC), the European Patent Office (EPO) and WIPO recognize the following definitions of simple and extended patent families: Simple patent family: All patent documents have exactly the same priority date or combination of priority dates. Extended patent family: All patent documents are linked (directly or indirectly) via a priority document belonging to one patent family. The extended families allow for additional connectors to link other than strictly priority date. These include: domestic application numbers, countries ...more...

Richard Jaeger


Richard Jaeger (left) and the former President of the Federal Republic of Germany/Bundespräsident Karl Carstens (right). Richard Jaeger (16 February 1913 in Berlin – 15 May 1998 in Munich) was a German politician of the Christian Social Union of Bavaria. Under Ludwig Erhard's second ministry, he was Minister of Justice (26 October 1965 - 1 December 1966). Richard Jaeger (Minister of Justice), were a part of Hitler's paramilitary organization, the SA since 1933. From 1949 to 1980 Jaeger was a member of German Bundestag. From 1972 to 1974, Jaeger was President of the European Documentation and Information Centre (CEDI). He was married and had six children. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Richard Jaeger. Richard Jaeger (left) and the former President of the Federal Republic of Germany/Bundespräsident Karl Carstens (right). Richard Jaeger (16 February 1913 in Berlin – 15 May 1998 in Munich) was a German politician of the Christian Social Union of Bavaria. Under Ludwig Erhard's second minis ...more...

S. R. Ranganathan


Siyali Ramamrita Ranganathan (S.R.R.) ( listen  Tamil: சீர்காழி இராமாமிருதம் ரங்கநாதன்; 12 August 1892 – 27 September 1972) was a mathematician and librarian from India. His most notable contributions to the field were his five laws of library science and the development of the first major faceted classification system, the colon classification. He is considered to be the father of library science, documentation, and information science in India and is widely known throughout the rest of the world for his fundamental thinking in the field. His birthday is observed every year as the National Librarian's Day in India. He was a university librarian and professor of library science at Banaras Hindu University (1945–47) and professor of library science at the University of Delhi (1947–55). The last appointment made him director of the first Indian school of librarianship to offer higher degrees. He was president of the Indian Library Association from 1944 to 1953. In 1957 he was elected an honorary member of the ...more...

Federal Ministry of Health (Germany)


The Federal Ministry of Health (German: Bundesministerium für Gesundheit), abbreviated BMG, is a cabinet-level ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its headquarters are located in Bonn with a second major office in Berlin. It is the highest German federal government department responsible for health. The ministry is officially located in Bonn and with a second office, which houses the ministry's management, location in Berlin. History The Federal Ministry of Health was founded in 1961; in 1969 it was merged with the Federal Ministry for Family and Youth to create the new Federal Ministry for Youth, Family and Health. In 1991, the Federal Ministry of Health was restored. In 2002, it was expanded to include social affairs and renamed "Federal Ministry of Health and Social Security" (Bundesministerium für Gesundheit und Soziale Sicherung). It was headed by the Federal Minister for Health and Social Security. Its portfolio was a included one part of the former Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Aff ...more...



MoReq2 is short for “Model Requirements for the Management of Electronic Records”, second version. It consists of a formal requirements specification for a generic electronic records management system, accompanied by testing documentation and related information. Published in 2008 by the European Commission, it is intended for use across the European Union, but can be used elsewhere. MoReq2 is generally considered a de facto standard in Europe but it does not have any formal status as a standard. Purpose The MoReq2 specification is intended for users and suppliers of electronic records management systems and services, and educators. Its main intended usages are to serve as a basis for invitations to tender (also known as requests for proposal) and as a framework to guide development of new electronic records management systems. It can also be used to provide a basis for auditing existing electronic records management systems or services, and as a resource for academic or commercial trainers. Availability ...more...

Food composition data


Food composition data (FCD) are detailed sets of information on the nutritionally important components of foods and provide values for energy and nutrients including protein, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins and minerals and for other important food components such as fibre. The data are presented in food composition databases (FCDBs). In the UK, FCD is listed in tables known as The Chemical Composition of Foods, McCance and Widdowson (1940) and in the first edition the authors stated that: ‘A knowledge of the chemical composition of foods is the first essential in the dietary treatment of disease or in any quantitative study of human nutrition’. This demonstrates the main reason for establishing FCD at that time. To this day, food composition studies remain central to nutrition research into the role of food components and their interactions in health and disease. However, due to increasing levels of sophistication and complexity in nutrition science, there is a greater demand for complete, current and reliab ...more...

Palace of Versailles Research Centre


The Palace of Versailles Research Centre (in French: Centre de recherche du château de Versailles - CRCV) is the first research centre established in a French palace. It originated as part of a French government project called "Digital Great Versailles" (in French, "Grand Versailles Numérique") to improve public access to the Palace of Versailles . It is located in the Jussieu pavilion, near the Grand Trianon and the Petit Trianon , on the grounds of the Palace of Versailles, which is in the Île-de-France region of France. The Centre serves as a resource to scholars and curators researching European court culture of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. For example, such research would seek to explore the sites and expressions of power, such as those represented at Versailles and in other European courts of the same era, and join together researchers interested in this era. In addition to facilitating research, it also organises symposia and training activities such as seminars and summer schools. T ...more...

International Tracing Service


The International Tracing Service (ITS), in German Internationaler Suchdienst , in French Service International de Recherches in Bad Arolsen , Germany, is an internationally governed centre for documentation, information and research on Nazi persecution, forced labour and the Holocaust in Nazi Germany and its occupied regions. The archive contains about 30 million documents from concentration camps , details of forced labour , and files on displaced persons . ITS preserves the original documents and clarifies the fate of those persecuted by the Nazis. The archives have been accessible to researchers since 2007. History In 1943, the international section of the British Red Cross was asked by the Headquarters of the Allied Forces to set up a registration and tracing service for missing persons. The organization was formalized under the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Forces and named the Central Tracing Bureau on February 15, 1944. As the war unfolded, the bureau was moved from London to Versailles , ...more...

University of Luxembourg


Campus Limpertsberg The University of Luxembourg (Luxembourgish: Universitéit vu Lëtzebuerg; French: Université du Luxembourg), is a public research university with an international, multilingual and interdisciplinary character, situated on Belval Campus and in Luxembourg City, Luxembourg. Founded in 2003, the university has already built a reputation as being among the best young universities in the world. It was ranked 11th in the Times Higher Young University Rankings 2017, and 178th in the Times Higher World University Rankings 2016. The University offers many bilingual and multilingual study programmes in French, English and German, as well as several master courses and doctoral schools entirely taught in English. With 6,200 students from 120 countries and 250 academics from all over the globe, the university provides a cosmopolitan learning experience. Moreover, all Bachelor’s students have to spend a mandatory semester abroad, reflecting the importance attached to mobility. The University there ...more...

European Festivals Association


The European Festivals Association (EFA) is an umbrella group for various festivals in Europe and other countries. It supports artistic cooperation among festivals and offers programs for new festival and artistic managers. It represents more than 100 music, dance, theatre and multidisciplinary festivals along with national festival and cultural organizations from about thirty eight, mostly European, countries. The association is officially headquartered in Ghent, Belgium with an office in Brussels in the European House for Culture. It is governed by a General Assembly, which meets once a year. The current president is Darko Brlek from Ljubljana. Vice presidents are Jan Briers from Flanders and Michael Herrmann, founder and director of the Rheingau Musik Festival. For 2011, some of the projects include the Ars Nova meeting for new music experts in Belgium, a meeting of the Associations Collective and Affiliate Members, the General Assembly and Conference, the Ateliers for Young Festival Managers in Singapore ...more...

The Courier (ACP-EU)


The Courier logo. The Courier was an ACP-EU development magazine published by the Development Directorate General of the European Commission, focusing on ACP-EU Development Cooperation. Financed by the European Development Fund (EDF), it was published every two months, till it came to end in 2011. Its last edition was nr 24 covering months of July and August 2011. Its overall stated objective is to communicate, explain, promote and support the development objectives and principles of the Cotonou Agreement (art 5). History The decision by the European Community and African countries to create a joint publication on development dates back to first Yaoundé Convention of 1963, linking the six countries of the recently formed European Community (Treaty of Rome, 1957) with 18 countries of the African Associated States and Madagascar, which foresaw boosting the capacity of African states in the field of information. Originally entitled The ACP-EU Courier, the first issue of the magazine was published in 1970, ...more...

Open energy system models


Open energy system models are energy system models that are open source. Similarly open energy system data employs open data methods to produce and distribute datasets primarily for use by open energy system models. Energy system models are used to explore future energy systems and are often applied to questions involving energy and climate policy. The models themselves vary widely in terms of their type, design, programming, application, scope, level of detail, sophistication, and shortcomings. The open energy modeling projects listed here fall exclusively within the bottom-up paradigm, in which a model is a relatively literal representation of the underlying system. For many models, some form of mathematical optimization is used to inform the solution process. Several drivers favor the development of open models and open data. There is an increasing interest in making public policy energy models more transparent to improve their acceptance by policymakers and the public. There is also a desire to levera ...more...

Pharma Documentation Ring


The Pharma Documentation Ring ( P-D-R ), founded in 1958, is a think tank of information and knowledge-management professionals representing major research-based pharmaceutical companies. The association has 4 aims: Promote exchange of knowledge among members Encourage commercial development of new information services and systems Jointly assess new and existing products and services Provide a forum for the information industry History One of P-D-R's initial aims at its inception was to select and index relevant documents from the scientific literature, to write abstracts and index them based on agreed rules, and to distribute copies of the corresponding punched cards and microfilms to all cooperating members. Due to the limited space on a punched card, the P-D-R-affiliated companies developed fragment codes for chemical structures and biomedical terms allowing them to index all relevant aspects of the publications properly. The Ringcode was born and survived for several decades, even replacing more sophisti ...more...

Human trafficking in Europe


Human trafficking in Europe is a regional manifestation of the wider practice of trade in humans for the purposes of various forms of coercive exploitation. Human trafficking has existed for centuries all over the world, and follows from the earlier practice of slavery , which differed from human trafficking in that it was legally recognized and accepted. It has become an increasing concern for countries in Europe since the fall of Communism . The transition to a market economy in some countries has led to both opportunity and a loss of security for citizens of these countries. Economic hardship and promises of prosperity have left many people vulnerable to trafficking within their countries and to destinations in other parts of Europe and the world. Unique to the Balkans are some of the situations that support trafficking, such as organized crime, and the recruitment strategies that perpetuate it. While some generalizations can be made, the countries within this region face different challenges and are at v ...more...

Process safety management


Process safety management is a regulation, promulgated by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). A process is any activity or combination of activities including any use, storage, manufacturing, handling or the on-site movement of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs) as defined by OSHA and the Environmental Protection Agency. Fourteen elements of OSHA Process Safety Management Program. Definition Process safety management is an analytical tool focused on preventing releases of any substance defined as a "highly hazardous chemical" by the EPA or OSHA. Process Safety Management (PSM) refers to a set of interrelated approaches to managing hazards associated with the process industries and is intended to reduce the frequency and severity of incidents resulting from releases of chemicals and other energy sources (US OSHA 1993). These standards are composed of organizational and operational procedures, design guidance, audit programs, and a host of other methods. Elements of Process Sa ...more...

List of International Organization for Standardization standards


This is a list of published International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards and other deliverables. For a complete and up-to-date list of all the ISO standards, see the ISO catalogue. The standards are protected by copyright and most of them must be purchased. However, about 300 of the standards produced by ISO and IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC1) have been made freely and publicly available. ISO 1 – ISO 99 ISO 1:2016 Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Standard reference temperature for the specification of geometrical and dimensional properties ISO 2:1973 Textiles – Designation of the direction of twist in yarns and related products ISO 3:1973 Preferred numbers – Series of preferred numbers ISO 4:1997 Information and documentation – Rules for the abbreviation of title words and titles of publications ISO 5 Photography and graphic technology – Density measurements ISO 6:1993 Photography – Black-and-white pictorial still camera negative film/process systems – Determinati ...more...

Design Museum of Barcelona


The Museu del Disseny de Barcelona (Catalan naming, English: "Design Museum of Barcelona"), is a new center of Barcelona's Institute of Culture, which works to promote better understanding and good use of the design world, acting as a museum and laboratory. It focuses on 4 branches or design disciplines: space design, product design, information design and fashion. The Museum is the result of the merging of several previous existing museums, such as the Museu de les Arts Decoratives, the Museu Tèxtil i d'Indumentària and the Gabinet de les Arts Gràfiques collection. The opening of the new headquarters, located on Plaça de les Glòries, was set gradually during 2014. History Barcelona is a city historically linked to design, with old institutions such as the Foment de les Arts Decoratives. That is why the city of Barcelona was raised earlier in the decade of 2000 to create a single center, an integral space to allow the public to understand design in a broader consideration. It was decided to build a single ...more...

List of political parties in the Netherlands


Members of the four dominant Dutch political parties (PvdA, D66, CDA and VVD) in Ulft, shortly before the municipal elections of 2010 This article lists political parties in the Netherlands, which has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which any one party has little chance of gaining power alone, and parties often work with each other to form coalition governments. The lower house of the legislature, the House of Representatives, is elected by a national party-list system of proportional representation. There is no threshold for getting a seat, making it possible for a party to get a seat with only two-thirds percent of the vote—roughly one seat for every 67,000 votes. No party has won a majority of seats since 1897, and no party has even approached the seats needed for a majority since the current proportional representation system was implemented in 1918. All Dutch governments since then have been coalitions between two or more parties. However, there is a broad consensus on the ba ...more...

Geoffrey Rippon


Aubrey Geoffrey Frederick Rippon, Baron Rippon of Hexham, PC, QC (28 May 1924 – 28 January 1997) was a British Conservative politician. He is most known for drafting the European Communities Act 1972 which took the United Kingdom into the European Communities on 1 January 1973. He was Chairman of the European-Atlantic Group. Early life Born in Penn, Buckinghamshire, the son of the Somerset cricketer Sydney Rippon, Geoffrey Rippon was educated at King's College, Taunton, and Brasenose College, Oxford, where he was president of the University Conservative Association. He was called to the Bar in 1948 and was Mayor of Surbiton 1951–52 and a member of the London County Council from 1952. Parliamentary career After unsuccessfully contesting the seat of Shoreditch and Finsbury in both 1950 and 1951, he became MP for Norwich South in 1955. As Minister for Public Building and Works in 1962, Rippon controversially sought to demolish and redevelop the Italianate Foreign and Commonwealth Office main building desig ...more...

Grey literature


Grey literature (or gray literature) are materials and research produced by organizations outside of the traditional commercial or academic publishing and distribution channels. Common grey literature publication types include reports (annual, research, technical, project, etc.), working papers, government documents, white papers and evaluations. Organizations that produce grey literature include government departments and agencies, civil society or non-governmental organisations, academic centres and departments, and private companies and consultants. Grey literature may be made available to the public, or distributed privately within organizations or groups, and may lack a systematic means of distribution and collection. The standard of quality, review and production of grey literature can vary considerably. Grey literature may be difficult to discover, access, and evaluate, but this can be addressed through the formulation of sound search strategies. As early as 1898, in Henry James' novella The Turn of ...more...

Minefields in Croatia


Minefields in Croatia cover 423.80 square kilometres (163.63 square miles) of territory. The minefields (usually known as "mine suspected areas") are located in 61 cities and municipalities within 9 counties . These areas are thought to contain approximately 40,495 land mines, in addition to unexploded ordnance left over from the Croatian War of Independence . Land mines were used extensively during the war by all sides in the conflict; about 1.5 million were deployed. They were intended to strengthen defensive positions lacking sufficient weapons or manpower, but played a limited role in the fighting. After the war 13,000 square kilometres (5,000 square miles) of territory was initially suspected to contain mines, but this estimate was later reduced to 1,174 square kilometres (453 square miles) after physical inspection. As of 2013 demining programmes were coordinated through governmental bodies such as the Croatian Mine Action Centre, which was hiring private demining companies employing 632 deminers. As ...more...

Centre de Documentació i Museu de les Arts Escèniques


Museum hall The Centre de Documentació i Museu de les Arts Escèniques (Documentation Centre and Museum of the Performing Arts of the Institut del Teatre), also known as MAE, is a centre for information and research on the performing arts in Catalonia, Spain. The centre has an extensive library, an archive and collections from the Institut del Teatre, which specializes in theatre, dance, opera, zarzuela, music hall, magic and circus performances. Its major collections encompass Catalonia and the Spanish Golden Age. The centre also has posters, programmes, photographs, pictures, puppet theatres, set designs and costumes which are exhibited in temporary exhibitions and online, since it has no permanent exhibition space. The museum is a member of SIBMAS (Société Internationale des Bibliothèques et des Musées des Arts du Spectacle) and ENICPA (European Network of Information Centres of the Performing Arts), and is part of the ECLAP European Project. In Catalonia, it is involved with the Consortium of Academic Li ...more...

Helsinki University Library


Helsinki University Library is the largest multidisciplinary university library in Finland . Helsinki University Library is an independent institute of the University of Helsinki and open to all information seekers. Helsinki University Library includes the Main Library in the Kaisa House, Kumpula, Meilahti and Viikki Campus Libraries, as well as internal library services. The library offers information and library services in the fields of science of all four campuses of University of Helsinki. Key information About 1.9 million customers visit Helsinki University Library annually. There are about 40,400 active borrowers per year, and of them 11,000 are new customers. Everyone has the right to use the library, and persons over the age of 15 who live in Finland have the right to borrow books. Electronic materials are available for use to all customers in the library facilities and for the university community also online. The library offers its customers wide collections of printed and electronic materials. The ...more...

Centre for Equal Opportunities and Opposition to Racism


The Centre for Equal Opportunities and Opposition to Racism (CEOOR), also referred to as Centre for Equal Opportunities and Fight against Racism (CEOFR) or translated as Centre for Equal Opportunities and Struggle against Racism (Dutch: Unia (Interfederaal Gelijkekansencentrum), before: Centrum voor gelijkheid van kansen en voor racismebestrijding or CGKR, French: Centre pour l'égalité des chances et la lutte contre le racisme or CECLR) is a Belgian government agency under the responsibility of the Prime Minister of Belgium. Its director is Jozef De Witte. The Centre was founded in 1993 by an Act of the Belgian Chamber of People's Representatives. Tasks and goals The Centre lists as its principal tasks: Fighting Racism and Discrimination Spotlight on Integration Policy Foreigners' Rights and Recent Immigration Fighting Poverty Fighting Human Trafficking Training / Documentation / Information Campaigns The CEOOR has as its main goal to aid victims of discrimination, after an act of discrimination ha ...more...

Nordic Africa Institute


Nordic Africa Institute (Swedish: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet) serves as a research, documentation and information centre on modern Africa for the Nordic countries. The Institute also encourages research and studies on Africa. The institute was founded in 1962. The institute is financed jointly by the Nordic countries. Administratively, it functions as a Swedish government agency that answers to the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. It is located in Uppsala. The Nordic Africa Institute is part of AEGIS, a network of African Studies Centres in Europe, and organized its 4th international conference (ECAS) in 2011. The institute is headed by a Director, a position which is held by Iina Soiri since March 2013. See also Government agencies in Sweden. External links Official website AEGIS, network of African studies centres in Europe Nordic Africa Institute – via International Relations and Security Network (publications fulltext) Nordic Africa Institute (Swedish: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet) serves as a researc ...more...

System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe


The “System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe” (SIGLE) was established in 1980, two years after a seminar on grey literature organised by the European Commission in York (UK). Operated by a network of national information or document supply centres active in collecting and promoting grey literature, SIGLE was an on line, pan-European electronic bibliographic database and document delivery system. The objective was to provide access to European grey literature and to improve bibliographic coverage. From 1980 to 1985, SIGLE was funded by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). When CEC financial support ended in 1985, the national centres formed a network for the acquisition, identification and dissemination of grey literature called “European Association for Grey Literature Exploitation” or EAGLE, who became the producer of the SIGLE database. Input to the database ended in 2005 when the EAGLE General Assembly decided the liquidation of the network. In 2007, together with the last EAGL ...more...

International Council of Museums


The International Council of Museums ( ICOM ), created in 1946, is the only organisation of museums and museum professionals with a global scope, committed to the promotion and protection of natural and cultural heritage , present and future, tangible and intangible. With approximately 35,000 members in 137 countries, ICOM is a network of museum professionals acting in a wide range of museum- and heritage-related disciplines. Overview Created in 1946, ICOM is a non-governmental organisation maintaining formal relations with UNESCO and having a consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council . ICOM also partners with entities such as the World Intellectual Property Organization , INTERPOL , and the World Customs Organization in order to carry out its international public service missions, which include fighting illicit traffic in cultural goods and promoting risk management and emergency preparedness to protect world cultural heritage in the event of natural or man-made disasters. Co ...more...

Michele Greco


Michele Greco (Ciaculli, 12 May 1924 – Rome, 13 February 2008) was a member of the Sicilian Mafia , previously incarcerated for multiple murders . His nickname was "il Papa" (The Pope) because of his ability to mediate between different Mafia families. Greco was the head of the Sicilian Mafia Commission . Rise to power Michele Greco was part of the powerful Greco Mafia clan that ruled both in his native Ciaculli and in Croceverde Giardini , two suburbs close to Palermo . He took over the mandamento of Croceverde Giardini after his father Giuseppe Greco, "Piddu u tinenti", died. He was a cousin of Salvatore "Ciaschiteddu" Greco , the first "secretary" of the first Sicilian Mafia Commission that was formed somewhere in 1958. He and his brother Salvatore Greco operated low profile and were able to enter into relationships with businessmen, politicians, magistrates and law enforcement officials through their membership of Masonic lodges. Salvatore Greco's nickname was "The Senator" for his political connections. ...more...

Value measuring methodology


Value measuring methodology (or VMM) is a tool that helps financial planners balance both tangible and intangible values when making investment decisions, and monitor benefits. Formal methods to calculate the Return on investment (ROI) have been widely understood and used for a long time, but there was no easy and widely known way to provide a formal justification for decisions based on intangible values, which can include the reputation of an organization, the wellbeing of staff, or the impact on society or the environment at large. It was particularly difficult for decision makers to work through the trade-offs between costs and intangible benefits, especially for long-term investments by commercial organizations, and for governments and non-profit organizations who are primarily concerned with intangible values without wasting limited funds. Even within commercial organizations, units traditionally viewed as "cost centres" found it difficult to get acceptance of proposals for projects that would lead to g ...more...

University of Malta


The University of Malta ( Maltese : L-Università ta' Malta ) is the highest educational institution in Malta . It offers undergraduate bachelor's degrees , postgraduate master's degrees and postgraduate doctorates ( PhD ). It is a member of the European University Association , the European Access Network, Association of Commonwealth Universities , the Utrecht Network , the Santander Network , the Compostela Group , the European Association for University Lifelong Learning (EUCEN) and the International Student Exchange Programme (ISEP). In post-nominals the University's name is abbreviated as Melit; a shortened form of Melita (a Latinised form of the Greek Μελίτη). History The precursor to the University of Malta was the Collegium Melitense, a Jesuit college which was set up on 12 November 1592. This was originally located in an old house in Valletta, but a purpose-built collage was constructed between 1595 and 1597. This building is now known as the Old University Building or the Valletta Campus. The Jesu ...more...

IUCN Red List


The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the world's main authority on the conservation status of species. A series of Regional Red Lists are produced by countries or organizations, which assess the risk of extinction to species within a political management unit. The IUCN Red List is set upon precise criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. These criteria are relevant to all species and all regions of the world. The aim is to convey the urgency of conservation issues to the public and policy makers, as well as help the international community to try to reduce species extinction. According to IUCN (1996), the formally stated goals of the Red List are (1) to provide scientifically based information on the status of species and subspecies at a g ...more...

Aalborg University


Aalborg University ( AAU ) is a Danish public university with campuses in Aalborg , Esbjerg , and Copenhagen founded in 1974. The university awards bachelor's degrees , master's degrees , and Ph.D. degrees in a wide variety of subjects within humanities, social sciences, information technology, design, engineering, exact sciences, and medicine. History The idea of a university in the North Jutland region started in 1961 when the North Jutland Committee for higher education institutions was established. On 19th of August, 1969 the Aalborg University Association was founded and a planning group was established with Eigil Hastrup as chairman. The same year in December about 1,000 people from North Jutland demonstrated in front of the Folketinget (the Danish parliament) for their cause. In 1970, a law about the establishment of a university centre in Aalborg was passed in the Danish parliament. In 1972, it was decided that the first rector of the new university center should be the Swedish historian and professor ...more...

Aeronautical Information Service


The Aeronautical Information Service (AIS) is a service established in support of international civil aviation, whose objective is to ensure the flow of information necessary for the safety, regularity, and efficiency of international air navigation. The manner in which aeronautical information is gathered and managed is governed by Annex 15 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation (ICAO Annex 15), which defines how an aeronautical information service shall receive and/or originate, collate or assemble, edit, format, publish/store and distribute specified aeronautical information/data. The goal is to satisfy the need for uniformity and consistency in the provision of aeronautical information/data that is required for operational use by international civil aviation. ICAO Annex 15 specifies that aeronautical information should be published as an integrated aeronautical information package (IAIP), composed of the following elements: The Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP), including amendment ...more...

List of academic databases and search engines


This page contains a representative list of major databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in academic journals, repositories, archives, or other collections of scientific and other articles. As the distinction between a database and a search engine is unclear for these complex document retrieval systems, see: the general list of search engines for all-purpose search engines that can be used for academic purposes bibliographic databases for information about databases giving bibliographic information about finding books and journal articles. Note that "free" or "subscription" can refer both to the availability of the database or of the journal articles included. This has been indicated as precisely as possible in the lists below. Name Discipline(s) Description Access Cost Provider(s) Academic Search Multidisciplinary Several versions: Complete, Elite, Premier, and Alumni Edition Subscription EBSCO Publishing Aerospace & High Technology Database A ...more...

List of philosophical organizations


This is a list of philosophical organizations and societies. Academia Analitica American Association of Philosophy Teachers American Catholic Philosophical Association American Ethical Union American Philosophical Association American Philosophical Society American Society for Aesthetics American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy Animal Rights Cambridge Arché (research center) Aristotelian Society Association for Logic, Language and Information Association for Symbolic Logic Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness Australasian Association of Philosophy Batavian Society for Experimental Philosophy British Philosophical Association British Society for Ethical Theory British Society of Aesthetics Café Philosophique Cambridge Philosophical Society Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Access to Information, Privacy and Ethics Canadian Philosophical Association Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Mathematics Carnegie Council for Ethics in Interna ...more...

Wurzen Pass


The Wurzen Pass ( German : Wurzenpass , Slovene : Korensko sedlo ) is a mountain pass in a col of the Karawanken mountain range in the Southern Limestone Alps , on the border between Radendorf in the Austrian state of Carinthia and Kranjska Gora in Slovenia . It is named after the nearby village of Podkoren (Wurzen). The pass connects the Austrian B109 Wurzenpass Straße from Villach with the Slovenian highway No. 201 to the A2 motorway and Ljubljana . Though its elevation of 1,073 m (3,520 ft) is relatively moderate, the road contains numerous curves and includes several steep ascents with a maximum grade of 18 percent. History The Wurzenpass has been a historic crossing of the Karawanken, though the main trade route from the Duchy of Carinthia to Trieste , the Austrian Littoral and Carniola ran from Tarvisio along the Predil Pass and the high valley of Rateče that was much easier to traverse. Its importance increased with the lay out of a first paved road finished in 1734. During the Cold War the Austrian Ar ...more...

Information security


Information security, sometimes shortened to InfoSec, is the practice of preventing unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, inspection, recording or destruction of information. It is a general term that can be used regardless of the form the data may take (e.g., electronic, physical). Information security's primary focus is the balanced protection of the confidentiality, integrity and availability of data (also known as the CIA triad) while maintaining a focus on efficient policy implementation, all without hampering organization productivity. This is largely achieved through a multi-step risk management process that identifies assets, threat sources, vulnerabilities, potential impacts, and possible controls, followed by assessment of the effectiveness of the risk management plan. To standardize this discipline, academics and professionals collaborate and seek to set basic guidance, policies, and industry standards on password, antivirus software, firewall, encryption software, legal ...more...

University of Murcia


Murcia in Spain The University of Murcia (Spanish: Universidad de Murcia ) is the main university in Murcia , Spain . With 38,000 students, it is the largest university in the Región de Murcia . The University of Murcia is the third oldest university in Spain, after the University of Salamanca (1218 AD) and the University of Valladolid (1241 AD), and the thirteenth in the world. The University of Murcia was established in 1272 by the King Alfonso X of Castile under the Crown of Castile . The majority of the University's facilities and buildings are spread over two campuses: the older is La Merced, situated in the town centre, and the larger is Espinardo, just 5 km to the north of Murcia. A third campus for Medical and Health Studies is currently being built next to the suburban area known as Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de la Arrixaca, 5 km south of the city. A new campus had been made in San Javier too, that hosts the Sports Science faculty. Facilities The University of Murcia is an institution devoted to providi ...more...



The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter. It is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 195 member states and ten associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; national and regional offices also exist. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences, culture and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy, tech ...more...

Platform of European Memory and Conscience


The Platform of European Memory and Conscience is an educational project of the European Union bringing together government institutions and NGOs from EU countries active in research, documentation, awareness raising and education about the crimes of totalitarian regimes. Its membership include 55 government agencies and NGOs from 13 EU member states as well as from the United States , such as the Institute of National Remembrance , the Berlin-Hohenschönhausen Memorial , the Stasi Records Agency and the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation . The platform has offices in Prague and Brussels . The platform was founded in Prague on the occasion of the summit of Prime Ministers of the Visegrád Group on 14 October 2011. The signing ceremony took place in the Lichtenstein Palace under the auspices of Czech Prime Minister Petr Nečas , Polish Prime Minister and President of the European Council Donald Tusk , and Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán . Its goal is described as helping "prevent intolerance, extrem ...more...

Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael


The Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael or Clingendael Institute ( Dutch : Nederlands Instituut voor Internationale Betrekkingen Clingendael ) is an independent think tank and diplomatic academy which studies various aspects of international relations . The institute is based in Wassenaar in Huys Clingendael , a 17th-century manor house which is part of the Clingendael estate. Huys Clingendael Clingendael provides information, conducts research and develops training programmes for a large number of audiences, including Dutch diplomats and civil servants as well as representatives of foreign ministries, staff of the armed forces and employees of NGOs and the private sector. Clingendael also acts in an advisory capacity to the government, parliament and social organisations, organises conferences and seminars, maintains a library and documentation centre and publishes a Dutch-language monthly on international politics. As of 2012 the Institute is organised into two departments: Clingend ...more...

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