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European Documentation and Information Centre

The European Documentation and Information Centre, abbreviated CEDI (French: Centre Européen de Documentation et d'Information), was a former think tank founded in 1952 on the occasion of an international congress held in Santander, Spain. The objective of the organization was to unite various European conservative and Christian Democratic political organizations which formed in several Western European states during postwar reconstruction, the emerging Cold War and the beginnings of what would later be called European integration. During the 1950s and the 1960s, the CEDI was an important contact pool for European politicians. During its early years the CEDI's ideology and program was dominated by its first president, Otto von Habsburg, son of the last emperor of Austria. It was dissolved in 1990 following the collapse of the Iron Curtain.


The Franco regime in Spain made use of the CEDI to get in contact with high-ranking persons of the political, military, economic and cultural life from Western Europe and thus end its post-war international isolation. By preaching the necessity of cultural exchange and the religious unity of the occident, the CEDI aimed at a political, military and economic inclusion of Spain into the beginning process of European Integration.

Organization and members

The annual congresses of the CEDI, which were nearly always held in Spain, brought together many office bearers and dignitaries of the conservative milieu. Besides the Spanish initiators – hereunder Franco’s foreign minister Alberto Martín Artajo, the director of the Institute for Hispanic Culture Alfredo Sánchez Bella and José Ignacio Escobar Kirkpatrick Marqués de Valdeiglesias – there was a strong support for CEDI’s activities in Germany, Austria and France. The expelled Austrian Heir Apparent Otto von Habsburg was the founding and, later on, honorary president of the organization. Germany was represented by high-ranking members of the Christian Democratic and Christian Social Union of Bavaria parties, as for example the ministers Hans-Joachim von Merkatz and Richard Jaeger. The French section of the Documentation Centre was led by the Count François de la Noë and Michel Habib-Deloncle.

Among the first British supporters were William Teeling, Sir Frederick Corfield MP and Sir John Rodgers MP, who even held CEDI’s international presidency from 1965 to 1967. Over the years, the Austrian secretary general Georg von Gaupp-Berghausen turned more and more out to be the actual organizational and programmatic head of the Documentation Centre.

Ambitions and ideology

Besides the proclaimed Catholic Christian heritage, the traditional connections of the European upper nobility, military contacts and common economic interests, it was above all a virulent anticommunism which was tying together the members of the Documentation Centre. The scientific lectures given at the annual meetings of the CEDI dealt with questions of principle concerning European Integration, the Cold War and other subjects of social and international relevance.

National sections

Apart from Spain, Germany and France, national sections emerged in and Belgium and Austria, some years later also in Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Sweden and Portugal. In Britain, the conservative "March Club" fulfilled the tasks of a national section since the beginning of the 1960s. Among the most prominent members of this British section were apart from Teeling, Corfield and Rodgers, Peter Agnew and Geoffrey Rippon who both were to become international presidents of the CEDI later on. It seems quite likely that the contacts provided by the Documentation Centre played a not unimportant role in negotiating Britain’s entry into the European Community, since Rippon was the head of the British government’s delegation.


When the CEDI became a civil law association in 1957, its head office was officially moved to Munich, Madrid remaining nevertheless a central branch office of the organization. With General Charles de Gaulle returning to the political stage in 1958, his fellows transformed the CEDI into an international forum in order to diffuse their conceptions of European politics. The cooperation between French Gaullists and German Christian Democrats has also been prepared by CEDI’s initiatives.

The Gaullist engagement weakening by the end of the 1960s, Spanish influence in the Documentation Centre increased again. CEDI evolved into an instrument of Spanish interests in Latin America, reached out for Africa and Asia, and finally turned toward the domain of development policies.

Nevertheless, the organization had transgressed the zenith of its diplomatic activities. The urgent necessity of recruiting new members was perceived, but the CEDI did not find any solution to solve these problems. The political transformation process in Spain by the middle of the 1970s deprived the CEDI of its last material and organizational basics.

Further reading
  • Conze, Vanessa: Das Europa der Deutschen. Ideen von Europa in Deutschland zwischen Reichstradition und Westorientierung (1920–1970), München 2005, p. 169–206.
  • Gunzález Cuevas, Pedro Carlos: Neoconservatismo e identidad europea. Una aproximación histórica, in: Spagna contemporanea 13 (1998), p. 41–60.
  • Weber, Petra-Maria: Spanische Deutschlandpolitik 1945–1958. Entsorgung der Vergangenheit, Saarbrücken/Fort Lauderdale 1992, p. 205–268.
  • Johannes Großmann: Die Internationale der Konservativen. Transnationale Elitenzirkel und private Außenpolitik in Westeuropa seit 1945, Munich 2014.
Continue Reading...
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International Council of Museums


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Grey literature (or gray literature ; see spelling differences ) are materials and research produced by organizations outside of the traditional commercial or academic publishing and distribution channels. Common grey literature publication types include reports ( annual , research, technical , project, etc.), working papers , government documents, white papers and evaluations . Organizations that produce grey literature include government departments and agencies, civil society or non-governmental organisations , academic centres and departments, and private companies and consultants. Grey literature may be made available to the public, or distributed privately within organizations or groups, and may lack a systematic means of distribution and collection. The standard of quality, review and production of grey literature can vary considerably. Grey literature may be difficult to discover, access, and evaluate, but this can be addressed through the formulation of sound search strategies. As early as 1898, in H ...more...

Palace of Versailles Research Centre


The Palace of Versailles Research Centre (in French: Centre de recherche du château de Versailles - CRCV) is the first research centre established in a French palace. It originated as part of a French government project called "Digital Great Versailles" (in French, "Grand Versailles Numérique") to improve public access to the Palace of Versailles . It is located in the Jussieu pavilion, near the Grand Trianon and the Petit Trianon , on the grounds of the Palace of Versailles, which is in the Île-de-France region of France. The Centre serves as a resource to scholars and curators researching European court culture of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. For example, such research would seek to explore the sites and expressions of power, such as those represented at Versailles and in other European courts of the same era, and join together researchers interested in this era. In addition to facilitating research, it also organises symposia and training activities such as seminars and summer schools. T ...more...

Process safety management


Process safety management is a regulation, promulgated by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). A process is any activity or combination of activities including any use, storage, manufacturing, handling or the on-site movement of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs) as defined by OSHA and the Environmental Protection Agency . Fourteen elements of OSHA Process Safety Management Program. Definition Process safety management is an analytical tool focused on preventing releases of any substance defined as a "highly hazardous chemical" by the EPA or OSHA. Process Safety Management (PSM) refers to a set of interrelated approaches to managing hazards associated with the process industries and is intended to reduce the frequency and severity of incidents resulting from releases of chemicals and other energy sources (US OSHA 1993). These standards are composed of organizational and operational procedures, design guidance, audit programs, and a host of other methods. Elements of Process Safety Man ...more...

University of Malta


The University of Malta ( Maltese : L-Università ta' Malta ) is the highest educational institution in Malta . It offers undergraduate bachelor's degrees , postgraduate master's degrees and postgraduate doctorates ( PhD ). It is a member of the European University Association , the European Access Network, Association of Commonwealth Universities , the Utrecht Network , the Santander Network , the Compostela Group , the European Association for University Lifelong Learning (EUCEN) and the International Student Exchange Programme (ISEP). In post-nominals the University's name is abbreviated as Melit; a shortened form of Melita (a Latinised form of the Greek Μελίτη). Administration Quad open space The administrative set up of the university comprises academic and administrative and technical staff members who are appointed or elected to the governing bodies of the University. The principal officers of the University are the Chancellor, the Pro-Chancellor, the Rector, the Pro-Rectors, the Secretary, the Registr ...more...

Centre de Documentació i Museu de les Arts Escèniques


Museum hall The Centre de Documentació i Museu de les Arts Escèniques (Documentation Centre and Museum of the Performing Arts of the Institut del Teatre), also known as MAE , is a centre for information and research on the performing arts in Catalonia , Spain . The centre has an extensive library, an archive and collections from the Institut del Teatre , which specializes in theatre , dance , opera , zarzuela , music hall , magic and circus performances. Its major collections encompass Catalonia and the Spanish Golden Age . The centre also has posters, programmes, photographs, pictures, puppet theatres, set designs and costumes which are exhibited in temporary exhibitions and online, since it has no permanent exhibition space. The museum is a member of SIBMAS (Société Internationale des Bibliothèques et des Musées des Arts du Spectacle) and ENICPA (European Network of Information Centres of the Performing Arts), and is part of the ECLAP European Project. In Catalonia, it is involved with the Consortium of A ...more...

Centre for Equal Opportunities and Opposition to Racism


The Centre for Equal Opportunities and Opposition to Racism ( CEOOR ), also referred to as Centre for Equal Opportunities and Fight against Racism ( CEOFR ) or translated as Centre for Equal Opportunities and Struggle against Racism ( Dutch : Unia (Interfederaal Gelijkekansencentrum) , before: Centrum voor gelijkheid van kansen en voor racismebestrijding or CGKR, French : Centre pour l'égalité des chances et la lutte contre le racisme or CECLR) is a Belgian government agency under the responsibility of the Prime Minister of Belgium . Its director is Jozef De Witte . The Centre was founded in 1993 by an Act of the Belgian Chamber of People's Representatives . Tasks and goals The Centre lists as its principal tasks: Fighting Racism and Discrimination Spotlight on Integration Policy Foreigners' Rights and Recent Immigration Fighting Poverty Fighting Human Trafficking Training / Documentation / Information Campaigns The CEOOR has as its main goal to aid victims of discrimination, after an act of discrimination ha ...more...

List of philosophical organizations


This is a list of philosophical organizations and societies. Academia Analitica American Association of Philosophy Teachers American Catholic Philosophical Association American Ethical Union American Philosophical Association American Philosophical Society American Society for Aesthetics American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy Animal Rights Cambridge Arché (research center) Aristotelian Society Association for Logic, Language and Information Association for Symbolic Logic Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness Australasian Association of Philosophy Batavian Society for Experimental Philosophy British Philosophical Association British Society for Ethical Theory British Society of Aesthetics Café Philosophique Cambridge Philosophical Society Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Access to Information, Privacy and Ethics Canadian Philosophical Association Canadian Society for History and Philosophy of Mathematics Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs Center for ...more...

Michele Greco


Michele Greco (Ciaculli, 12 May 1924 – Rome, 13 February 2008) was a member of the Sicilian Mafia , previously incarcerated for multiple murders . His nickname was "il Papa" (The Pope) because of his ability to mediate between different Mafia families. Greco was the head of the Sicilian Mafia Commission . Rise to power Michele Greco was part of the powerful Greco Mafia clan that ruled both in his native Ciaculli and in Croceverde Giardini , two suburbs close to Palermo . He took over the mandamento of Croceverde Giardini after his father Giuseppe Greco, "Piddu u tinenti", died. He was a cousin of Salvatore "Ciaschiteddu" Greco , the first "secretary" of the first Sicilian Mafia Commission that was formed somewhere in 1958. He and his brother Salvatore Greco operated low profile and were able to enter into relationships with businessmen, politicians, magistrates and law enforcement officials through their membership of Masonic lodges. Salvatore Greco's nickname was "The Senator" for his political connections. ...more...

List of academic databases and search engines


This page contains a representative list of major databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in academic journals , repositories , archives, or other collections of scientific and other articles. As the distinction between a database and a search engine is unclear for these complex document retrieval systems , see: the general list of search engines for all-purpose search engines that can be used for academic purposes bibliographic databases for information about databases giving bibliographic information about finding books and journal articles. Note that "free" or "subscription" can refer both to the availability of the database or of the journal articles included. This has been indicated as precisely as possible in the lists below. Name Discipline(s) Description Access Cost Provider(s) Academic Search Multidisciplinary Several versions: Complete, Elite, Premier, and Alumni Edition Subscription EBSCO Publishing Aerospace & High Technology Database Aero ...more...

Design Museum of Barcelona


The Museu del Disseny de Barcelona (Catalan naming, English: "Design Museum of Barcelona"), is a new center of Barcelona 's Institute of Culture, which works to promote better understanding and good use of the design world, acting as a museum and laboratory. It focuses on 4 branches or design disciplines: space design, product design , information design and fashion . The Museum is the result of the merging of several previous existing museums, such as the Museu de les Arts Decoratives , the Museu Tèxtil i d'Indumentària and the Gabinet de les Arts Gràfiques collection. The opening of the new headquarters, located on Plaça de les Glòries , was set gradually during 2014. History Barcelona is a city historically linked to design , with old institutions such as the Foment de les Arts Decoratives . That is why the city of Barcelona was raised earlier in the decade of 2000 to create a single center, an integral space to allow the public to understand design in a broader consideration. It was decided to build a si ...more...

Federal Ministry of Health (Germany)


The Federal Ministry of Health ( German : Bundesministerium für Gesundheit ), abbreviated BMG , is a cabinet-level ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany . Its headquarters are located in Bonn with a second major office in Berlin . It is the highest German federal government department responsible for health . The ministry is officially located in Bonn and with a second office, which houses the ministry's management, location in Berlin . History The Federal Ministry of Health was founded in 1961; in 1969 it was merged with the Federal Ministry for Family and Youth to create the new Federal Ministry for Youth, Family and Health. In 1991, the Federal Ministry of Health was restored. In 2002, it was expanded to include social affairs and renamed "Federal Ministry of Health and Social Security" ( Bundesministerium für Gesundheit und Soziale Sicherung ). It was headed by the Federal Minister for Health and Social Security . Its portfolio was a included one part of the former Federal Ministry of Labour and Soc ...more...

Aalborg University


Aalborg University ( AAU ) is a Danish public university with campuses in Aalborg , Esbjerg , and Copenhagen founded in 1974. The university awards bachelor's degrees , master's degrees , and Ph.D. degrees in a wide variety of subjects within humanities, social sciences, information technology, design, engineering, exact sciences, and medicine. History The idea of a university in the North Jutland region started in 1961 when the North Jutland Committee for higher education institutions was established. On 19th of August, 1969 the Aalborg University Association was founded and a planning group was established with Eigil Hastrup as chairman. The same year in December about 1,000 people from North Jutland demonstrated in front of the Folketinget (the Danish parliament) for their cause. In 1970, a law about the establishment of a university centre in Aalborg was passed in the Danish parliament. In 1972, it was decided that the first rector of the new university center should be the Swedish historian and professor ...more...

European Festivals Association


The European Festivals Association ( EFA ) is an umbrella group for various festivals in Europe and other countries. It supports artistic cooperation among festivals and offers programs for new festival and artistic managers. It represents more than 100 music, dance, theatre and multidisciplinary festivals along with national festival and cultural organizations from about thirty eight, mostly European, countries. The association is officially headquartered in Ghent, Belgium with an office in Brussels in the European House for Culture. It is governed by a General Assembly, which meets once a year. The current president is Darko Brlek from Ljubljana . Vice presidents are Jan Briers from Flanders and Michael Herrmann , founder and director of the Rheingau Musik Festival . For 2011, some of the projects include the Ars Nova meeting for new music experts in Belgium, a meeting of the Associations Collective and Affiliate Members, the General Assembly and Conference, the Ateliers for Young Festival Managers in S ...more...

Athens University of Economics and Business


Athens University of Economics and Business ( AUEB ; Greek : Οικονομικό Πανεπιστήμιο Αθηνών , Oikonomiko Panepistimio Athinon, abbrev. ΟΠΑ, OPA ) was founded in 1920 in Athens , Greece . Its buildings are housed on Patision Street . Before 1989, the university was known in Greek as the Supreme School of Economics and Business (Ανωτάτη Σχολή Οικονομικών και Εμπορικών Επιστημών, Anotati Scholi Oikonomikon kai Emborikon Epistimon, abbrev. ΑΣΟΕΕ, ASOEE ). Though the university of business's official name has changed, it is still known popularly in Greek by this former acronym. History The main building of Athens University of Economics and Business. Backview of the building. The Athens University of Economics and Business (AUEB) was founded in 1920 under the name of Athens School of Commercial Studies. It was renamed in 1926 as the Athens School of Economics and Business, a name that was retained until 1989 when it assumed its present name, the Athens University of Economics and Business. It is the third oldest u ...more...

Platform of European Memory and Conscience


The Platform of European Memory and Conscience is an educational project of the European Union bringing together government institutions and NGOs from EU countries active in research, documentation, awareness raising and education about the crimes of totalitarian regimes. Its membership include 55 government agencies and NGOs from 13 EU member states as well as from the United States , such as the Institute of National Remembrance , the Berlin-Hohenschönhausen Memorial , the Stasi Records Agency and the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation . The platform has offices in Prague and Brussels . The platform was founded in Prague on the occasion of the summit of Prime Ministers of the Visegrád Group on 14 October 2011. The signing ceremony took place in the Lichtenstein Palace under the auspices of Czech Prime Minister Petr Nečas , Polish Prime Minister and President of the European Council Donald Tusk , and Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán . Its goal is described as helping "prevent intolerance, extrem ...more...



The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO ; French : Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture ) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris . Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law , and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter . It is the successor of the League of Nations ' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation . UNESCO has 195 member states and ten associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; national and regional offices also exist. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education , natural sciences , social / human sciences , culture and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include ...more...

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List of political parties in the Netherlands


Members of the four dominant Dutch political parties (PvdA, D66, CDA and VVD) in Ulft , shortly before the municipal elections of 2010 This article lists political parties in the Netherlands , which has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which any one party has little chance of gaining power alone, and parties often work with each other to form coalition governments . The lower house of the legislature, the House of Representatives , is elected by a national party-list system of proportional representation . There is no threshold for getting a seat, making it possible for a party to get a seat with only two-thirds percent of the vote—roughly one seat for every 67,000 votes. Since this system was implemented in 1918, no party has even approached the seats needed for an outright majority. However, there is a broad consensus on the basic principles of the political system, and all parties must adjust their goals to some extent in order to have a realistic chance at being part of the governm ...more...

IUCN Red List


The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List ), founded in 1964, is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species . The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the world's main authority on the conservation status of species. A series of Regional Red Lists are produced by countries or organizations, which assess the risk of extinction to species within a political management unit. The IUCN Red List is set upon precise criteria to evaluate the extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. These criteria are relevant to all species and all regions of the world. The aim is to convey the urgency of conservation issues to the public and policy makers, as well as help the international community to try to reduce species extinction. According to IUCN (1996), the formally stated goals of the Red List are (1) to provide scientifically based information on the status of species and subspecies at a ...more...

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