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European Documentation and Information Centre

The European Documentation and Information Centre, abbreviated CEDI (French: Centre Européen de Documentation et d'Information), was a former think tank founded in 1952 on the occasion of an international congress held in Santander, Spain. The objective of the organization was to unite various European conservative and Christian Democratic political organizations which formed in several Western European states during postwar reconstruction, the emerging Cold War and the beginnings of what would later be called European integration. During the 1950s and the 1960s, the CEDI was an important contact pool for European politicians. During its early years the CEDI's ideology and program was dominated by its first president, Otto von Habsburg, son of the last emperor of Austria. It was dissolved in 1990 following the collapse of the Iron Curtain.

Backgrounds

The Franco regime in Spain made use of the CEDI to get in contact with high-ranking persons of the political, military, economic and cultural life from Western Europe and thus end its post-war international isolation. By preaching the necessity of cultural exchange and the religious unity of the occident, the CEDI aimed at a political, military and economic inclusion of Spain into the beginning process of European Integration.

Organization and members

The annual congresses of the CEDI, which were nearly always held in Spain, brought together many office bearers and dignitaries of the conservative milieu. Besides the Spanish initiators – hereunder Franco’s foreign minister Alberto Martín Artajo, the director of the Institute for Hispanic Culture Alfredo Sánchez Bella and José Ignacio Escobar Kirkpatrick Marqués de Valdeiglesias – there was a strong support for CEDI’s activities in Germany, Austria and France. The expelled Austrian Heir Apparent Otto von Habsburg was the founding and, later on, honorary president of the organization. Germany was represented by high-ranking members of the Christian Democratic and Christian Social Union of Bavaria parties, as for example the ministers Hans-Joachim von Merkatz and Richard Jaeger. The French section of the Documentation Centre was led by the Count François de la Noë and Michel Habib-Deloncle.

Among the first British supporters were William Teeling, Sir Frederick Corfield MP and Sir John Rodgers MP, who even held CEDI’s international presidency from 1965 to 1967. Over the years, the Austrian secretary general Georg von Gaupp-Berghausen turned more and more out to be the actual organizational and programmatic head of the Documentation Centre.

Ambitions and ideology

Besides the proclaimed Catholic Christian heritage, the traditional connections of the European upper nobility, military contacts and common economic interests, it was above all a virulent anticommunism which was tying together the members of the Documentation Centre. The scientific lectures given at the annual meetings of the CEDI dealt with questions of principle concerning European Integration, the Cold War and other subjects of social and international relevance.

National sections

Apart from Spain, Germany and France, national sections emerged in and Belgium and Austria, some years later also in Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Sweden and Portugal. In Britain, the conservative "March Club" fulfilled the tasks of a national section since the beginning of the 1960s. Among the most prominent members of this British section were apart from Teeling, Corfield and Rodgers, Peter Agnew and Geoffrey Rippon who both were to become international presidents of the CEDI later on. It seems quite likely that the contacts provided by the Documentation Centre played a not unimportant role in negotiating Britain’s entry into the European Community, since Rippon was the head of the British government’s delegation.

Development

When the CEDI became a civil law association in 1957, its head office was officially moved to Munich, Madrid remaining nevertheless a central branch office of the organization. With General Charles de Gaulle returning to the political stage in 1958, his fellows transformed the CEDI into an international forum in order to diffuse their conceptions of European politics. The cooperation between French Gaullists and German Christian Democrats has also been prepared by CEDI’s initiatives.

The Gaullist engagement weakening by the end of the 1960s, Spanish influence in the Documentation Centre increased again. CEDI evolved into an instrument of Spanish interests in Latin America, reached out for Africa and Asia, and finally turned toward the domain of development policies.

Nevertheless, the organization had transgressed the zenith of its diplomatic activities. The urgent necessity of recruiting new members was perceived, but the CEDI did not find any solution to solve these problems. The political transformation process in Spain by the middle of the 1970s deprived the CEDI of its last material and organizational basics.

Further reading
  • Conze, Vanessa: Das Europa der Deutschen. Ideen von Europa in Deutschland zwischen Reichstradition und Westorientierung (1920–1970), München 2005, p. 169–206.
  • Gunzález Cuevas, Pedro Carlos: Neoconservatismo e identidad europea. Una aproximación histórica, in: Spagna contemporanea 13 (1998), p. 41–60.
  • Weber, Petra-Maria: Spanische Deutschlandpolitik 1945–1958. Entsorgung der Vergangenheit, Saarbrücken/Fort Lauderdale 1992, p. 205–268.
  • Johannes Großmann: Die Internationale der Konservativen. Transnationale Elitenzirkel und private Außenpolitik in Westeuropa seit 1945, Munich 2014.
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European Documentation and Information Centre

topic

The European Documentation and Information Centre , abbreviated CEDI ( French : Centre Européen de Documentation et d'Information ), was a former think tank founded in 1952 on the occasion of an international congress held in Santander , Spain . The objective of the organization was to unite various European conservative and Christian Democratic political organizations which formed in several Western European states during postwar reconstruction, the emerging Cold War and the beginnings of what would later be called European integration . During the 1950s and the 1960s, the CEDI was an important contact pool for European politicians. During its early years the CEDI's ideology and program was dominated by its first president, Otto von Habsburg , son of the last emperor of Austria. It was dissolved in 1990 following the collapse of the Iron Curtain . Backgrounds The Franco regime in Spain made use of the CEDI to get in contact with high-ranking persons of the political, military, economic and cultural life from



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List of information schools

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This list of information schools includes members of the iSchools organization. iSchools organization This iSchools organization reflects a consortium of over 80 information schools in a dozen countries. iSchools promote an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the opportunities and challenges of information management, with a core commitment to concepts like universal access and user-centered organization of information. The field is concerned broadly with questions of design and preservation across information spaces, from digital and virtual spaces such as online communities, social networking, the World Wide Web, and databases to physical spaces such as libraries, museums, collections, and other repositories. Degree programs at iSchools include course offerings in areas such as information architecture , design, policy, and economics; knowledge management , user experience design, and usability ; preservation and conservation ; librarianship and library administration; the sociology of information;



ITIL

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ITIL , formally an acronym for Information Technology Infrastructure Library , is a set of detailed practices for IT service management (ITSM) that focuses on aligning IT services with the needs of business. In its current form (known as ITIL 2011), ITIL is published as a series of five core volumes, each of which covers a different ITSM lifecycle stage. Although ITIL underpins ISO/IEC 20000 (previously BS 15000), the International Service Management Standard for IT service management, there are some differences between the ISO 20000 standard and the ITIL framework. ITIL describes processes, procedures, tasks, and checklists which are not organization-specific, but can be applied by an organization for establishing integration with the organization's strategy, delivering value, and maintaining a minimum level of competency. It allows the organization to establish a baseline from which it can plan, implement, and measure. It is used to demonstrate compliance and to measure improvement. Since July 2013, ITIL ha



List of cities by sunshine duration

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The following is a list of cities by sunshine duration . Sunshine duration is a climatological indicator, measuring duration of sunshine in given period (usually, a day or a year) for a given location on Earth, typically expressed as an averaged value over several years. It is a general indicator of cloudiness of a location, and thus differs from insolation , which measures the total energy delivered by sunlight over a given period. Sunshine duration is usually expressed in hours per year, or in (average) hours per day. The first measure indicates the general sunniness of a location compared with other places, while the latter allows for comparison of sunshine in various seasons in the same location. Another often-used measure is percentage ratio of recorded bright sunshine duration and daylight duration in the observed period. An important use of sunshine duration data is to characterize the climate of sites, especially of health resorts. This also takes into account the psychological effect of strong solar



Interparliamentary EU Information Exchange

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IPEX , the InterParliamentary EU information eXchange , is a platform for the exchange of information between EU national parliaments as well as the European Parliament concerning issues related to the European Union , especially in light of the provisions of the Treaty of Lisbon . The Treaty of Lisbon explicitly sets out the role of the national parliaments in the Protocol on the role of national Parliaments in the European Union and in the Protocol on the application of the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality . History and Role IPEX came about as the result of a recommendation made by the Conference of the Speakers of the European Union Parliaments in Rome in 2000. In accordance with the Guidelines for interparliamentary cooperation , agreed in The Hague in 2004, the official launch of the website took place in June 2006 during the EU Speakers Conference in Copenhagen. The website was later redesigned, launching its new format in 2011. IPEX aims to support: the Speakers Conference; the Confere



Safety data sheet

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An example SDS in a US format provides guidance for handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and properties. A safety data sheet ( SDS ), material safety data sheet ( MSDS ), or product safety data sheet ( PSDS ) is an important component of product stewardship , occupational safety and health , and spill-handling procedures. SDS formats can vary from source to source within a country depending on national requirements. SDSs are a widely used system for cataloging information on chemicals , chemical compounds , and chemical mixtures . SDS information may include instructions for the safe use and potential hazards associated with a particular material or product. The SDS should be available for reference in the area where the chemicals are being stored or in use. There is also a duty to properly label substances on the basis of physico-chemical, health or environmental risk. Labels can include hazard symbols such as the European Union standard symbols. A SDS for a substance is not prim



Nokia

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Nokia Corporation ( Finnish : Nokia , Finnish pronunciation:  , UK : , US : ), stylised as NOKIA , is a Finnish multinational communications , information technology and consumer electronics company, founded in 1865. Nokia's headquarters are in Espoo , Uusimaa , in the greater Helsinki metropolitan area. In 2016, Nokia employed approximately 101,000 people across over 100 countries, did business in more than 130 countries, and reported annual revenues of around €23.6 billion. Nokia is a public limited company listed on the Helsinki Stock Exchange and New York Stock Exchange . It is the world's 415th-largest company measured by 2016 revenues according to the Fortune Global 500 , and is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index . The company has had various industries in its 152-year history. It was founded as a pulp mill , but since the 1990s focuses on large-scale telecommunications infrastructures , technology development and licensing. Nokia is also a major contributor to the mobile telephony



S. R. Ranganathan

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Siyali Ramamrita Ranganathan (S.R.R.) (   listen   Tamil : சீர்காழி இராமாமிருதம் ரங்கநாதன் , Hindi : शियाली राममृत रंगनाथन ; 12 August 1892 – 27 September 1972) was a mathematician and librarian from India . His most notable contributions to the field were his five laws of library science and the development of the first major faceted classification system, the colon classification . He is considered to be the father of library science , documentation , and information science in India and is widely known throughout the rest of the world for his fundamental thinking in the field. His birthday is observed every year as the National Library Day in India. He was a university librarian and professor of library science at Banaras Hindu University (1945–47) and professor of library science at the University of Delhi (1947–55). The last appointment made him director of the first Indian school of librarianship to offer higher degrees. He was president of the Indian Library Association from 1944 to 1953. In 1957 he



Simple Knowledge Organization System

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Simple Knowledge Organization System ( SKOS ) is a W3C recommendation designed for representation of thesauri , classification schemes , taxonomies , subject-heading systems , or any other type of structured controlled vocabulary . SKOS is part of the Semantic Web family of standards built upon RDF and RDFS , and its main objective is to enable easy publication and use of such vocabularies as linked data . History DESIRE II project (1997–2000) The most direct ancestor to SKOS was the RDF Thesaurus work undertaken in the second phase of the EU DESIRE project . Motivated by the need to improve the user interface and usability of multi-service browsing and searching, a basic RDF vocabulary for Thesauri was produced. As noted later in the SWAD-Europe workplan, the DESIRE work was adopted and further developed in the SOSIG and LIMBER projects. A version of the DESIRE/SOSIG implementation was described in W3C's QL'98 workshop, motivating early work on RDF rule and query languages: A Query and Inference Service fo



International Soil Reference and Information Centre

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(ISRIC - World Soil Information) Mission ISRIC - World Soil Information is an independent, science-based foundation. The institute was founded in 1966 following a recommendation of the International Society of Soil Science (ISSS, now International Union of Soil Sciences | (IUSS)) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) . It has a mission to serve the international community with information about the world’s soil resources to help addressing major global issues . Main focus areas Recent developments at ISRIC are succinctly described in a series of Annual Highlights. Together with partners, ISRIC produces, gathers, compiles and serves quality-assessed soil information at global, national and regional levels. ISRIC stimulate the use of this information to address global challenges through capacity building, awareness raising and direct cooperation with users and clients. Details re provided on the following website website . Data holdings and webservices Our reference c



Wiki

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'> Interview with Ward Cunningham , inventor of the wiki A wiki ( WIK -ee ) is a website on which users collaboratively modify content and structure directly from the web browser . In a typical wiki, text is written using a simplified markup language and often edited with the help of a rich-text editor . A wiki is run using wiki software , otherwise known as a wiki engine. A wiki engine is a type of content management system , but it differs from most other such systems, including blog software , in that the content is created without any defined owner or leader, and wikis have little implicit structure, allowing structure to emerge according to the needs of the users. There are dozens of different wiki engines in use, both standalone and part of other software, such as bug tracking systems . Some wiki engines are open source , whereas others are proprietary . Some permit control over different functions (levels of access); for example, editing rights may permit changing, adding or removing material. Others



UNESCO

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO ) ( French : Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture ) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris . Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law , and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter . It is the successor of the League of Nations ' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation . UNESCO has 195 member states and ten associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; national and regional offices also exist. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: [education], natural sciences , social / human sciences , culture and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO inc



European institutions in Strasbourg

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Plaque commemorating the first session of the Council of Europe Assembly in the grand aula of Strasbourg University There are a range of European institutions in Strasbourg (France), the oldest of which dates back to 1815. In all, there are more than twenty different institutions based in the Alsatian city. Due to this concentration Strasbourg is a claimant to the title of "capital of Europe". Area The European Quarter is spread over an area covering the districts of Wacken, Orangerie and Robertsau in the north-west of the city and comprising the intersection of the River Ill and the Marne-Rhine Canal . The first specific European building in the area was the Council of Europe 's House of Europe in 1949, with the Rhine Commission being located towards the centre of the city. The Audiovisual Observatory and the Institute for Human Rights are the only institutions in the quarter to have moved into pre-existing premises: a 1900 villa and an 18th-century former postal relay station and inn turned conventual bui



University of Luxembourg

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Campus Limpertsberg   The  University of Luxembourg  (Luxembourgish: Universitéit vu Lëtzebuerg ; French:  Université du Luxembourg ), is a  public   research university  with a distinctly international, multilingual and interdisciplinary character, situated on Belval Campus and in Luxembourg City , Luxembourg .  Founded in 2003, the university has already built a reputation as being among the best young universities in the world. It was ranked 11th in the Times Higher Young University Rankings 2017, and 178 in the Times Higher World University Rankings 2016. The University offers many bilingual and multilingual study programmes in French, English and German, as well as several master courses and doctoral schools entirely taught in English. With 6,200 students from 120 countries and 250 academics from all over the globe, the university provides a cosmopolitan learning experience. Moreover, all Bachelor’s students have to spend a mandatory semester abroad, reflecting the importance attached to mobility. The U



Medical record

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The terms medical record , health record , and medical chart are used somewhat interchangeably to describe the systematic documentation of a single patient 's medical history and care across time within one particular health care provider's jurisdiction. The medical record includes a variety of types of "notes" entered over time by health care professionals, recording observations and administration of drugs and therapies, orders for the administration of drugs and therapies, test results, x-rays, reports, etc. The maintenance of complete and accurate medical records is a requirement of health care providers and is generally enforced as a licensing or certification prerequisite. The terms are used for both the physical folder that exists for each individual patient and for the body of information found therein. Medical records have traditionally been compiled and maintained by health care providers, but advances in online data storage have led to the development of personal health records (PHR) that are main



Sanjoy Bandopadhyay

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Sanjoy Bandopadhyay (born September 16, 1954) is a Bengali Hindustani classical sitar player. He is primarily a disciple of Radhika Mohan Maitra and Bimalendu Mukherjee. His performance is a unique synthesis of Senia-Shahjehanpur, Rampur-Senia and Etawah gharana. Works He is Chair Professor (Ustad Allauddin Khan Chair) at the Department of Instrumental Music , of Rabindra Bharati University , Kolkata India . He is also the Director, S.M. Tagore Centre of Documentation & Research of Languishing & Obsolescent Musical Instruments. This centre is created for ethnological mapping of the world through obsolescent musical instruments. The project will run with scholars support from all over the world. Professor Bandopadhyay visited the University of Illinois at Urban Champaign as George A. Miller Visiting Professor (October 2005). In the same year he also visited the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada as Distinguished India Focus Visitor. He visited the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs [USA



Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe

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The Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe ( German : Denkmal für die ermordeten Juden Europas ), also known as the Holocaust Memorial (German: Holocaust-Mahnmal), is a memorial in Berlin to the Jewish victims of the Holocaust , designed by architect Peter Eisenman and engineer Buro Happold . It consists of a 19,000 m (4.7-acre) site covered with 2,711 concrete slabs or " stelae ", arranged in a grid pattern on a sloping field. The stelae are 2.38 m (7 ft 10 in) long, 0.95 m (3 ft 1 in) wide and vary in height from 0.2 to 4.7 m (7.9 in to 15 ft 5.0 in). They are organized in rows, 54 of them going north–south, and 87 heading east–west at right angles but set slightly askew. An attached underground "Place of Information" ( German : Ort der Information ) holds the names of approximately 3 million Jewish Holocaust victims, obtained from the Israeli museum Yad Vashem . Building began on April 1, 2003, and was finished on December 15, 2004. It was inaugurated on May 10, 2005, sixty years after the end of W



Centre Georges Pompidou

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Centre Georges Pompidou ( French pronunciation: ​ , commonly shortened to Centre Pompidou and also known as the Pompidou Centre in English, is a complex building in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement of Paris , near Les Halles , rue Montorgueil , and the Marais . It was designed in the style of high-tech architecture by the architectural team of Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano , along with Gianfranco Franchini . It houses the Bibliothèque publique d'information (Public Information Library), a vast public library; the Musée National d'Art Moderne , which is the largest museum for modern art in Europe; and IRCAM , a centre for music and acoustic research. Because of its location, the Centre is known locally as Beaubourg ( IPA:  ). It is named after Georges Pompidou , the President of France from 1969 to 1974 who commissioned the building, and was officially opened on 31 January 1977 by President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing . As of 2006, the Centre Pompidou has had over 180 million visitors since 1977




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