Delhi Sultanate

The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu: دہلی سلطنت‬) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).[5][6] Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414),[7] the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526). The sultanate is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack by the Mongol Empire,[8] and enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana, who reigned from 1236 to 1240.[9]

Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former Turkic Mamluk slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi, and his Mamluk dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards, the Khalji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to conquer the whole of the Indian subcontinent. The sultanate reached the peak of its geographical reach during the Tughlaq dynasty, occupying most of the Indian subcontinent.[10] This was followed by decline due to Hindu reconquests, states such as the Vijayanagara Empire asserting independence, and new Muslim sultanates such as the Bengal Sultanate breaking off.[11][12]

During and in the Delhi Sultanate, there was a synthesis of Indian civilization with that of Islamic civilization, and the further integration of the Indian subcontinent with a growing world system and wider international networks spanning large parts of Afro-Eurasia, which had a significant impact on Indian culture and society, as well as the wider world.[13] The time of their rule included the earliest forms of Indo-Islamic architecture,[14][15] increased growth rates in India's population and economy,[16] and the emergence of the Hindi-Urdu language.[17] The Delhi Sultanate was also responsible for repelling the Mongol Empire's potentially devastating invasions of India in the 13th and 14th centuries.[18] However, the Delhi Sultanate also caused large scale destruction and desecration of temples in the Indian subcontinent.[19] In 1526, the Sultanate was conquered and succeeded by the Mughal Empire.

Background

The context behind the rise of the Delhi Sultanate in India was part of a wider trend affecting much of the Asian continent, including the whole of southern and western Asia: the influx of nomadic Turkic peoples from the Central Asian steppes. This can be traced back to the 9th century, when the Islamic Caliphate began fragmenting in the Middle East, where Muslim rulers in rival states began enslaving non-Muslim nomadic Turks from the Central Asian steppes, and raising many of them to become loyal military slaves called Mamluks. Soon, Turks were migrating to Muslim lands and becoming Islamicized. Many of the Turkic Mamluk slaves eventually rose up to become rulers, and conquered large parts of the Muslim world, establishing Mamluk Sultanates from Egypt to Afghanistan, before turning their attention to the Indian subcontinent.[18]

It is also part of a longer trend predating the spread of Islam. Like other settled, agrarian societies in history, those in the Indian subcontinent have been attacked by nomadic tribes throughout its long history. In evaluating the impact of Islam on the subcontinent, one must note that the northwestern subcontinent was a frequent target of tribes raiding from Central Asia in the pre-Islamic era. In that sense, the Muslim intrusions and later Muslim invasions were not dissimilar to those of the earlier invasions during the 1st millennium.[20]

By 962 AD, Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in South Asia were under a wave of raids from Muslim armies from Central Asia.[21] Among them was Mahmud of Ghazni, the son of a Turkic Mamluk military slave,[22] who raided and plundered kingdoms in north India from east of the Indus river to west of Yamuna river seventeen times between 997 and 1030.[23] Mahmud of Ghazni raided the treasuries but retracted each time, only extending Islamic rule into western Punjab.[24][25]

The wave of raids on north Indian and western Indian kingdoms by Muslim warlords continued after Mahmud of Ghazni.[26] The raids did not establish or extend permanent boundaries of their Islamic kingdoms. The Ghurid sultan Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori, commonly known as Muhammad of Ghor, began a systematic war of expansion into north India in 1173.[27] He sought to carve out a principality for himself by expanding the Islamic world.[23][28] Muhammad of Ghor sought a Sunni Islamic kingdom of his own extending east of the Indus river, and he thus laid the foundation for the Muslim kingdom called the Delhi Sultanate.[23] Some historians chronicle the Delhi Sultanate from 1192 due to the presence and geographical claims of Muhammad Ghori in South Asia by that time.[29]

Ghori was assassinated in 1206, by Ismāʿīlī Shia Muslims in some accounts or by Hindu Khokhars in others.[30] After the assassination, one of Ghori's slaves (or mamluks, Arabic: مملوك), the Turkic Qutb al-Din Aibak, assumed power, becoming the first Sultan of Delhi.[23]

Sultans of Delhi Sultanate
Sultans (Kings/Rulers) King in Death Note
Qutb-ud-din Aibak 1206 1210 First Sultan
Aram Shah 1210 1211
Iltutmish 1211 1236
Rukn-ud-din Firuz 1236 1236
Razia Sultan 1236 1240 Lady Ruler
Muiz ud din Bahram 1240 1243
Ala ud din Masud 1243 1249
Nasir ud din Mahmud 1249 1266
Ghiyas ud din Balban 1266 1287
Muiz ud din Qaiqabad 1287 1290
Jalaluddin Khilji 1290 1296
Alauddin Khilji 1296 1316
Shihabuddin Omar 1316 1316
Qutb-ud-din Mubarak 1316 1320
Khusrau Khan 1320 1321
DynastiesMamluk / Slave
Delhi Sultanate from 1206-1290 AD under the Mamluk dynasty.

Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former slave of Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori (known more commonly as Muhammad of Ghor), was the first ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. Aibak was of Cuman-Kipchak (Turkic) origin, and due to his lineage, his dynasty is known as the Mamluk (Slave) dynasty (not to be confused with the Mamluk dynasty of Iraq or the Mamluk dynasty of Egypt).[31] Aibak reigned as the Sultan of Delhi for four years, from 1206 to 1210.

After Aibak died, Aram Shah assumed power in 1210, but he was assassinated in 1211 by Shams ud-Din Iltutmish.[32] Iltutmish's power was precarious, and a number of Muslim amirs (nobles) challenged his authority as they had been supporters of Qutb al-Din Aibak. After a series of conquests and brutal executions of opposition, Iltutmish consolidated his power.[33] His rule was challenged a number of times, such as by Qubacha, and this led to a series of wars.[34] Iltumish conquered Multan and Bengal from contesting Muslim rulers, as well as Ranthambore and Siwalik from the Hindu rulers. He also attacked, defeated, and executed Taj al-Din Yildiz, who asserted his rights as heir to Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori.[35] Iltutmish's rule lasted till 1236. Following his death, the Delhi Sultanate saw a succession of weak rulers, disputing Muslim nobility, assassinations, and short-lived tenures. Power shifted from Rukn ud-Din Firuz to Razia Sultana and others, until Ghiyas ud-Din Balban came to power and ruled from 1266 to 1287.[34][35] He was succeeded by 17-year-old Muiz ud-Din Qaiqabad, who appointed Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khalji as the commander of the army. Khalji assassinated Qaiqabad and assumed power, thus ending the Mamluk dynasty and starting the Khalji dynasty.

Qutb al-Din Aibak initiated the construction of the Qutub Minar[36] and the Quwwat-ul-Islam (Might of Islam) Mosque, now a UNESCO world heritage site.[37] It was built from the remains of twenty seven demolished Hindu and Jain temples. The Qutub Minar Complex or Qutb Complex was expanded by Iltutmish, and later by Ala ud-Din Khalji (the second ruler of the Khalji dynasty) in the early 14th century.[37][38] During the Mamluk dynasty, many nobles from Afghanistan and Persia migrated and settled in India, as West Asia came under Mongol siege.[39]

Khalji
Alai Gate and Qutub Minar were built during the Mamluk and Khalji dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate.[37]

The Khalji dynasty was of Turko-Afghan heritage.[40][41][42][43] They were originally of Turkic origin.[44] They had long been settled in present-day Afghanistan before proceeding to Delhi in India. The name "Khalji" refers to an Afghan village or town known as Qalat-e Khalji (Fort of Ghilji).[45] Sometimes they were treated by others as ethnic Afghans due to their intermarraiges with local Afghans, adoption of Afghan habits and customs.[46][47] As a result of this, the dynasty is sometimes referred to as Turko-Afghan.[41][42][43] The dynasty later also had Indian ancestry, through Jhatyapali (daughter of Ramachandra of Devagiri), wife of Alauddin Khalji and mother of Shihabuddin Omar.[48]

The first ruler of the Khalji dynasty was Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khalji. Firuz Khalji had already gathered enough support among the Afghans for taking over the crown. [49] He came to power in 1290 after killing the last ruler of the Mamluk dynasty, Muiz ud-Din Qaiqabad, with the support of Afghan and Turkic nobles. He was around 70 years old at the time of his ascension, and was known as a mild-mannered, humble and kind monarch to the general public.[50][51] Jalal ud-Din Firuz was of Turko Afghan origin,[52][53][54] and ruled for 6 years before he was murdered in 1296 by his nephew and son-in-law Juna Muhammad Khalji,[55] who later came to be known as Ala ud-Din Khalji.

Ala ud-Din began his military career as governor of Kara province, from where he led two raids on Malwa (1292) and Devagiri (1294) for plunder and loot. His military campaigning returned to these lands as well other south Indian kingdoms after he assumed power. He conquered Gujarat, Ranthambore, Chittor, and Malwa.[56] However, these victories were cut short because of Mongol attacks and plunder raids from the northwest. The Mongols withdrew after plundering and stopped raiding northwest parts of the Delhi Sultanate.[57]

After the Mongols withdrew, Ala ud-Din Khalji continued expanding the Delhi Sultanate into southern India with the help of generals such as Malik Kafur and Khusro Khan. They collected lots of war booty (anwatan) from those they defeated.[58] His commanders collected war spoils and paid ghanima (Arabic: الْغَنيمَة, a tax on spoils of war), which helped strengthen the Khalji rule. Among the spoils was the Warangal loot that included the famous Koh-i-noor diamond.[59]

Ala ud-Din Khalji changed tax policies, raising agriculture taxes from 20% to 50% (payable in grain and agricultural produce), eliminating payments and commissions on taxes collected by local chiefs, banned socialization among his officials as well as inter-marriage between noble families to help prevent any opposition forming against him, and he cut salaries of officials, poets, and scholars.[55] These tax policies and spending controls strengthened his treasury to pay the keep of his growing army; he also introduced price controls on all agriculture produce and goods in the kingdom, as well as controls on where, how, and by whom these goods could be sold. Markets called "shahana-i-mandi" were created.[60] Muslim merchants were granted exclusive permits and monopoly in these "mandis" to buy and resell at official prices. No one other than these merchants could buy from farmers or sell in cities. Those found violating these "mandi" rules were severely punished, often by mutilation. Taxes collected in the form of grain were stored in the kingdom's storage. During famines that followed, these granaries ensured sufficient food for the army.[55]

Historians note Ala ud-Din Khalji as being a tyrant. Anyone Ala ud-Din suspected of being a threat to this power was killed along with the women and children of that family. In 1298, between 15,000 and 30,000 people near Delhi, who had recently converted to Islam, were slaughtered in a single day, due to fears of an uprising.[61] He is also known for his cruelty against kingdoms he defeated in battle.

After Ala ud-Din's death in 1316, his eunuch general Malik Kafur, who was born in a Hindu family in India and had converted to Islam, tried to assume power. He lacked the support of Persian and Turkic nobility and was subsequently killed.[55] The last Khalji ruler was Ala ud-Din Khalji's 18-year-old son Qutb ud-Din Mubarak Shah Khalji, who ruled for four years before he was killed by Khusro Khan, another of Ala ud-Din's generals. Khusro Khan's reign lasted only a few months, when Ghazi Malik, later to be called Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq, killed him and assumed power in 1320, thus ending the Khalji dynasty and starting the Tughlaq dynasty.[39][61]

Tughlaq
Delhi Sultanate from 1321-1330 AD under the Tughlaq dynasty. After 1330, various regions rebelled against the Sultanate and the kingdom shrank.

The Tughlaq dynasty lasted from 1320 to nearly the end of the 14th century. The first ruler Ghazi Malik rechristened himself as Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq and is also referred to in scholarly works as Tughlak Shah. He was of Turko-Indian origins; his father was a Turkic slave and his mother was a Hindu.[1] Ghiyath al-Din ruled for five years and built a town near Delhi named Tughlaqabad. According to some historians such as Vincent Smith,[62] he was killed by his son Juna Khan, who then assumed power in 1325. Juna Khan rechristened himself as Muhammad bin Tughlaq and ruled for 26 years.[63] During his rule, Delhi Sultanate reached its peak in terms of geographical reach, covering most of the Indian subcontinent.[10]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq was an intellectual, with extensive knowledge of the Quran, Fiqh, poetry and other fields. He was also deeply suspicious of his kinsmen and wazirs (ministers), extremely severe with his opponents, and took decisions that caused economic upheaval. For example, he ordered minting of coins from base metals with face value of silver coins - a decision that failed because ordinary people minted counterfeit coins from base metal they had in their houses and used them to pay taxes and jizya.[10][62]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq moved his capital to the Deccan Plateau, and build a new capital called Daulatabad (shown). He later reversed his decision because Daulatabad lacked the fresh water supply that Delhi had.[62]
A base metal coin of Muhammad bin Tughlaq that led to an economic collapse.

On another occasion, after becoming upset by some accounts, or to run the Sultanate from the center of India by other accounts, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ordered the transfer of his capital from Delhi to Devagiri in modern-day Maharashtra (renaming it to Daulatabad), by forcing the mass migration of Delhi's population. Those who refused were killed. One blind person who failed to move to Daulatabad was dragged for the entire journey of 40 days - the man died, his body fell apart, and only his tied leg reached Daulatabad.[62] The capital move failed because Daulatabad was arid and did not have enough drinking water to support the new capital. The capital then returned to Delhi. Nevertheless, Muhammad bin Tughlaq's orders affected history as a large number of Delhi Muslims who came to the Deccan area did not return to Delhi to live near Muhammad bin Tughlaq. This influx of the then-Delhi residents into the Deccan region led to a growth of Muslim population in central and southern India.[10] Muhammad bin Tughlaq's adventures in the Deccan region also marked campaigns of destruction and desecration of Hindu and Jain temples, for example the Swayambhu Shiva Temple and the Thousand Pillar Temple.[64]

Revolts against Muhammad bin Tughlaq began in 1327, continued over his reign, and over time the geographical reach of the Sultanate shrunk. The Vijayanagara Empire originated in southern India as a direct response to attacks from the Delhi Sultanate.,[65] and liberated south India from the Delhi Sultanate's rule.[66] In 1337, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ordered an attack on China, sending part of his forces over the Himalayas. Few survived the journey, and they were executed upon their return for failing.[62] During his reign, state revenues collapsed from his policies such as the base metal coins from 1329-1332. To cover state expenses, he sharply raised taxes. Those who failed to pay taxes were hunted and executed. Famines, widespread poverty, and rebellion grew across the kingdom. In 1338 his own nephew rebelled in Malwa, whom he attacked, caught, and flayed alive. By 1339, the eastern regions under local Muslim governors and southern parts led by Hindu kings had revolted and declared independence from the Delhi Sultanate. Muhammad bin Tughlaq did not have the resources or support to respond to the shrinking kingdom.[67] The historian Walford chronicled Delhi and most of India faced severe famines during Muhammad bin Tughlaq's rule in the years after the base metal coin experiment.[68][69] By 1347, the Bahmani Sultanate had become an independent and competing Muslim kingdom in Deccan region of South Asia.[21]

The Tughlaq dynasty is remembered for its architectural patronage, particularly for ancient lats (pillars, left image),[70] dated to be from the 3rd century BC, and of Buddhist and Hindu origins. The Sultanate initially wanted to use the pillars to make mosque minarets. Firuz Shah Tughlaq decided otherwise and had them installed near mosques. The meaning of Brahmi script on the pillar at right was unknown in Firuz Shah's time.[71] The inscription was deciphered by James Prinsep in 1837; the pillar script of Emperor Ashoka asked people of his and future generations to seek a dharmic (virtuous) life, use persuasion in religion, grant freedom from religious persecution, stop all killing, and be compassionate to all living beings.[72]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq died in 1351 while trying to chase and punish people in Gujarat who were rebelling against the Delhi Sultanate.[67] He was succeeded by Firuz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388), who tried to regain the old kingdom boundary by waging a war with Bengal for 11 months in 1359. However, Bengal did not fall. Firuz Shah ruled for 37 years. His reign attempted to stabilize the food supply and reduce famines by commissioning an irrigation canal from the Yamuna river. An educated sultan, Firuz Shah left a memoir.[73] In it he wrote that he banned the practice of torture, such as amputations, tearing out of eyes, sawing people alive, crushing people's bones as punishment, pouring molten lead into throats, setting people on fire, driving nails into hands and feet, among others.[74] He also wrote that he did not tolerate attempts by Rafawiz Shia Muslim and Mahdi sects from proselytizing people into their faith, nor did he tolerate Hindus who tried to rebuild temples that his armies had destroyed.[75] As punishment for proselytizing, Firuz Shah put many Shias, Mahdi, and Hindus to death (siyasat). Firuz Shah Tughlaq also lists his accomplishments to include converting Hindus to Sunni Islam by announcing an exemption from taxes and jizya for those who convert, and by lavishing new converts with presents and honours. Simultaneously, he raised taxes and jizya, assessing it at three levels, and stopping the practice of his predecessors who had historically exempted all Hindu Brahmins from the jizya.[74][76] He also vastly expanded the number of slaves in his service and those of Muslim nobles. The reign of Firuz Shah Tughlaq was marked by reduction in extreme forms of torture, eliminating favours to select parts of society, but also increased intolerance and persecution of targeted groups.[74]

The death of Firuz Shah Tughlaq created anarchy and disintegration of the kingdom. The last rulers of this dynasty both called themselves Sultan from 1394 to 1397: Nasir ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughlaq, the grandson of Firuz Shah Tughlaq who ruled from Delhi, and Nasir ud-Din Nusrat Shah Tughlaq, another relative of Firuz Shah Tughlaq who ruled from Firozabad, which was a few miles from Delhi.[77] The battle between the two relatives continued till Timur's invasion in 1398. Timur, also known as Tamerlane in Western scholarly literature, was the Turkic ruler of the Timurid Empire. He became aware of the weakness and quarreling of the rulers of the Delhi Sultanate, so he marched with his army to Delhi, plundering and killing all the way.[78][79] Estimates for the massacre by Timur in Dehli range from 100,000 to 200,000 people.[80][81] Timur had no intention of staying in or ruling India. He looted the lands he crossed, then plundered and burnt Delhi. Over five days, Timur and his army raged a massacre. Then he collected and carried the wealth, captured women and slaves (particularly skilled artisans), and returned to Samarkand. The people and lands within the Delhi Sultanate were left in a state of anarchy, chaos, and pestilence.[77] Nasir ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughlaq, who had fled to Gujarat during Timur's invasion, returned and nominally ruled as the last ruler of Tughlaq dynasty, as a puppet of various factions at the court.[82]

Sayyid

The Sayyid dynasty was a Turkic dynasty[83] that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1415 to 1451.[21] The Timurid invasion and plunder had left the Delhi Sultanate in shambles, and little is known about the rule by the Sayyid dynasty. Annemarie Schimmel notes the first ruler of the dynasty as Khizr Khan, who assumed power by claiming to represent Timur. His authority was questioned even by those near Delhi. His successor was Mubarak Khan, who rechristened himself as Mubarak Shah and tried to regain lost territories in Punjab, unsuccessfully.[82]

With the power of the Sayyid dynasty faltering, Islam's history on the Indian subcontinent underwent a profound change, according to Schimmel.[82] The previously dominant Sunni sect of Islam became diluted, alternate Muslim sects such as Shia rose, and new competing centers of Islamic culture took roots beyond Delhi.

The Sayyid dynasty was displaced by the Lodi dynasty in 1451.

Lodi
Delhi Sultanate during Babur's invasion.

The Lodi dynasty belonged to the Pashtun[84] (Afghan) Lodi tribe.[83] Bahlul Khan Lodi started the Lodi dynasty and was the first Pashtun, to rule the Delhi Sultanate.[85] Bahlul Lodi began his reign by attacking the Muslim Jaunpur Sultanate to expand the influence of the Delhi Sultanate, and was partially successful through a treaty. Thereafter, the region from Delhi to Varanasi (then at the border of Bengal province), was back under influence of Delhi Sultanate.

After Bahlul Lodi died, his son Nizam Khan assumed power, rechristened himself as Sikandar Lodi and ruled from 1489 to 1517.[86] One of the better known rulers of the dynasty, Sikandar Lodi expelled his brother Barbak Shah from Jaunpur, installed his son Jalal Khan as the ruler, then proceeded east to make claims on Bihar. The Muslim governors of Bihar agreed to pay tribute and taxes, but operated independent of the Delhi Sultanate. Sikandar Lodi led a campaign of destruction of temples, particularly around Mathura. He also moved his capital and court from Delhi to Agra,[87] an ancient Hindu city that had been destroyed during the plunder and attacks of the early Delhi Sultanate period. Sikandar thus erected buildings with Indo-Islamic architecture in Agra during his rule, and the growth of Agra continued during the Mughal Empire, after the end of Delhi Sultanate.[85][88]

Sikandar Lodi died a natural death in 1517, and his second son Ibrahim Lodi assumed power. Ibrahim did not enjoy the support of Afghan and Persian nobles or regional chiefs.[89] Ibrahim attacked and killed his elder brother Jalal Khan, who was installed as the governor of Jaunpur by his father and had the support of the amirs and chiefs.[85] Ibrahim Lodi was unable to consolidate his power, and after Jalal Khan's death, the governor of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodi, reached out to the Mughal Babur and invited him to attack Delhi Sultanate.[87] Babur defeated and killed Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat in 1526. The death of Ibrahim Lodi ended the Delhi Sultanate, and the Mughal Empire replaced it.

Economy

Before and during the Delhi Sultanate, Islamic civilization was the most cosmopolitan civilization of the Middle Ages. It had a multicultural and pluralistic society, and wide-ranging international networks, including social and economic networks, spanning large parts of Afro-Eurasia, leading to escalating circulation of goods, peoples, technologies and ideas. While initially disruptive due to the passing of power from native Indian elites to Turkic Muslim elites, the Delhi Sultanate was responsible for integrating the Indian subcontinent into a growing world system, drawing India into a wider international network, which led to cultural and social enrichment in the Indian subcontinent.[13]

Economist Angus Maddison has estimated that, during the Medieval Delhi Sultanate era, between 1000 and 1500, India's GDP grew nearly 80% up to $60.5 billion in 1500.[16]

The worm gear roller cotton gin was invented in the Indian subcontinent during the early Delhi Sultanate era of the 13th–14th centuries,[90] and is still used in India through to the present day.[91] Another innovation, the incorporation of the crank handle in the cotton gin, first appeared in the Indian subcontinent some time during the late Delhi Sultanate or the early Mughal Empire.[92] The production of cotton, which may have largely been spun in the villages and then taken to towns in the form of yarn to be woven into cloth textiles, was advanced by the diffusion of the spinning wheel across India during the Delhi Sultanate era, lowering the costs of yarn and helping to increase demand for cotton. The diffusion of the spinning wheel, and the incorporation of the worm gear and crank handle into the roller cotton gin, led to greatly expanded Indian cotton textile production.[93]

Demographics

The Indian population had largely been stagnant at 75 million during the Middle Kingdoms era from 1 AD to 1000 AD. During the Medieval Delhi Sultanate era from 1000 to 1500, India experienced lasting population growth for the first time in a thousand years, with its population increasing nearly 50% to 110 million by 1500 AD.[94][95]

Culture

While the Indian subcontinent has had invaders from Central Asia since ancient times, what made the Muslim invasions different is that unlike the preceding invaders who assimilated into the prevalent social system, the successful Muslim conquerors retained their Islamic identity and created new legal and administrative systems that challenged and usually in many cases superseded the existing systems of social conduct and ethics, even influencing the non-Muslim rivals and common masses to a large extent, though the non-Muslim population was left to their own laws and customs.[96][97] They also introduced new cultural codes that in some ways were very different from the existing cultural codes. This led to the rise of a new Indian culture which was mixed in nature, different from ancient Indian culture. The overwhelming majority of Muslims in India were Indian natives converted to Islam. This factor also played an important role in the synthesis of cultures.[98]

The Hindustani language (Hindi-Urdu) began to emerge in the Delhi Sultanate period, developed from the Middle Indo-Aryan apabhramsha vernaculars of North India. Amir Khusro, who lived in the 13th century CE during the Delhi Sultanate period in North India, used a form of Hindustani, which was the lingua franca of the period, in his writings and referred to it as Hindavi.[17]

Military

The bulk of Delhi Sultanate's army consisted of nomadic Turkic Mamluk military slaves, who were skilled in nomadic cavalry warfare. A major military contribution of the Delhi Sultanate was their successful campaigns in repelling the Mongol Empire's invasions of India, which could have been devastating for the Indian subcontinent, like the Mongol invasions of China, Persia and Europe. The Delhi Sultanate's Mamluk army were skilled in the same style of nomadic cavalry warfare used by the Mongols, making them successful in repelling the Mongol invasions, as was the case for the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. Were it not for the Delhi Sultanate, it is possible that the Mongol Empire may have been successful in invading India.[18]The strength of the armies changes according to time. According to firishta during the battle of kili Alauddin led an army of 300,000 cavalry and 2,700 elephants. During the tughlaq period Muhammad bin tughlaq rose an army of 3 million. The soldiers used weapons such as swords, spears, shields etc. Armour such as steel helmet and chainmail was commonly used. Armored war elephants were effectively used against the enemies such as the Mongols .

Temple desecration
The Somnath Temple in Gujarat was repeatedly destroyed by Islamic armies and rebuilt by Hindus. It was destroyed by Delhi Sultanate's army in 1299 AD.[99]

Historian Richard Eaton has tabulated a campaign of destruction of idols and temples by Delhi Sultans, intermixed with instances of years where the temples were protected from desecration.[19][100][101] In his paper, he has listed 37 instances of Hindu temples being desecrated or destroyed in India during the Delhi Sultanate, from 1234 to 1518, for which reasonable evidences are available.[102][103][104] He notes that this was not unusual in medieval India, as there were numerous recorded instances of temple desecration by Hindu and Buddhist kings against rival Indian kingdoms between 642 and 1520, involving conflict between devotees of different Hindu deities, as well as between Hindus, Buddhists and Jains.[105][106][107] He also noted there were also many instances of Delhi sultans, who often had Hindu ministers, ordering the protection, maintenance and repairing of temples, according to both Muslim and Hindu sources. For example, a Sanskrit inscription notes that Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq repaired a Siva temple in Bidar after his Deccan conquest. There was often a pattern of Delhi sultans plundering or damaging temples during conquest, and then patronizing or repairing temples after conquest. This pattern came to an end with the Mughal Empire, where Akbar the Great's chief minister Abu'l-Fazl criticized the excesses of earlier sultans such as Mahmud of Ghazni.[108]

In many cases, the demolished remains, rocks and broken statue pieces of temples destroyed by Delhi sultans were reused to build mosques and other buildings. For example, the Qutb complex in Delhi was built from stones of 27 demolished Hindu and Jain temples by some accounts.[109] Similarly, the Muslim mosque in Khanapur, Maharashtra was built from the looted parts and demolished remains of Hindu temples.[39] Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji destroyed Buddhist and Hindu libraries and their manuscripts at Nalanda and Odantapuri Universities in 1193 AD at the beginning of the Delhi Sultanate.[64][110]

The first historical record of a campaign of destruction of temples and defacement of faces or heads of Hindu idols lasted from 1193 through the early 13th century in Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh under the command of Ghuri. Under the Khaljis, the campaign of temple desecration expanded to Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra, and continued through the late 13th century.[19] The campaign extended to Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu under Malik Kafur and Ulugh Khan in the 14th century, and by the Bahmanis in 15th century.[64] Orissa temples were destroyed in the 14th century under the Tughlaqs.

Beyond destruction and desecration, the sultans of the Delhi Sultanate in some cases had forbidden reconstruction of damaged Hindu, Jain and Buddhist temples, and they prohibited repairs of old temples or construction of any new temples.[111][112] In certain cases, the Sultanate would grant a permit for repairs and construction of temples if the patron or religious community paid jizya (fee, tax). For example, a proposal by the Chinese to repair Himalayan Buddhist temples destroyed by the Sultanate army was refused, on the grounds that such temple repairs were only allowed if the Chinese agreed to pay jizya tax to the treasury of the Sultanate.[113][114] In his memoirs, Firoz Shah Tughlaq describes how he destroyed temples and built mosques instead and killed those who dared build new temples.[115] Other historical records from wazirs, amirs and the court historians of various Sultans of the Delhi Sultanate describe the grandeur of idols and temples they witnessed in their campaigns and how these were destroyed and desecrated.[116]

Temple desecration during Delhi Sultanate period, a list prepared by Richard Eaton in Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States[19][117]
Sultan / Agent Dynasty Years Temple Sites Destroyed States
Muhammad Ghori, Qutb al-Din Aibak Mamluk 1193-1290 Ajmer, Samana, Kuhram, Delhi, Kol, Varanasi Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh
Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, Shams ud-Din Iltumish, Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khalji, Ala ud-Din Khalji, Malik Kafur Mamluk and Khalji 1290-1320 Nalanda, Odantapuri, Vikramashila, Bhilsa, Ujjain, Jhain, Vijapur, Devagiri, Somnath, Chidambaram, Madurai Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu
Ulugh Khan, Firuz Shah Tughlaq, Raja Nahar Khan, Muzaffar Khan Khalji and Tughlaq 1320-1395[118] Somnath, Warangal, Bodhan, Pillalamarri, Puri, Sainthali, Idar, Somnath[119] Gujarat, Telangana, Orissa, Haryana
Sikandar, Muzaffar Shah, Ahmad Shah, Mahmud Sayyid 1400-1442 Paraspur, Bijbehara, Tripuresvara, Idar, Diu, Manvi, Sidhpur, Delwara, Kumbhalmer Gujarat, Rajasthan
Suhrab, Begdha, Bahmani, Khalil Shah, Khawwas Khan, Sikandar Lodi, Ibrahim Lodi Lodi 1457-1518 Mandalgarh, Malan, Dwarka, Kondapalle, Kanchi, Amod, Nagarkot, Utgir, Narwar, Gwalior Rajasthan, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh
See also References
  1. Jamal Malik (2008). Islam in South Asia: A Short History. Brill Publishers. p. 104.
  2. "Arabic and Persian Epigraphical Studies - Archaeological Survey of India". Asi.nic.in.
  3. Alam, Muzaffar (1998). "The pursuit of Persian: Language in Mughal Politics". Modern Asian Studies. Cambridge University Press. 32 (2): 317–349. doi:10.1017/s0026749x98002947. Hindavi was recognized as a semi-official language by the Sor Sultans (1540–1555) and their chancellery rescripts bore transcriptions in the Devanagari script of the Persian contents. The practice is said to have been introduced by the Lodis (1451–1526).
  4. Jackson, Peter (16 October 2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3.
  5. Delhi Sultanate, Encyclopædia Britannica
  6. A. Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, Leiden, 1980
  7. Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 68–102. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  8. Pradeep Barua The State at War in South Asia, ISBN 978-0803213449, p. 29-30
  9. Bowering et al., The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought, ISBN 978-0691134840, Princeton University Press
  10. Muḥammad ibn Tughluq Encyclopædia Britannica
  11. Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, 3rd Edition, Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-15482-0, pp 187-190
  12. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, Oxford University Press
  13. Asher, C. B.; Talbot, C (1 January 2008), India Before Europe (1st ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 50–52, ISBN 978-0-521-51750-8
  14. A. Welch, "Architectural Patronage and the Past: The Tughluq Sultans of India," Muqarnas 10, 1993, Brill Publishers, pp 311-322
  15. J. A. Page, Guide to the Qutb, Delhi, Calcutta, 1927, page 2-7
  16. Madison, Angus (6 December 2007). Contours of the world economy, 1–2030 AD: essays in macro-economic history. Oxford University Press. p. 379. ISBN 0-19-922720-9.
  17. Keith Brown; Sarah Ogilvie (2008), Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World, Elsevier, ISBN 0-08-087774-5, ... Apabhramsha seemed to be in a state of transition from Middle Indo-Aryan to the New Indo-Aryan stage. Some elements of Hindustani appear ... the distinct form of the lingua franca Hindustani appears in the writings of Amir Khusro (1253–1325), who called it Hindwi ...
  18. Asher, C. B.; Talbot, C (1 January 2008), India Before Europe (1st ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 19, 50–51, ISBN 978-0-521-51750-8
  19. Richard Eaton (2000), Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Journal of Islamic Studies, 11(3), pp 283-319
  20. Richard M. Frye, "Pre-Islamic and Early Islamic Cultures in Central Asia", in Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective, ed. Robert L. Canfield (Cambridge U. Press c. 1991), 35–53.
  21. See:
    • M. Reza Pirbha, Reconsidering Islam in a South Asian Context, ISBN 978-9004177581, Brill
    • The Islamic frontier in the east: Expansion into South Asia, Journal of South Asian Studies, 4(1), pp. 91-109
    • Sookoohy M., Bhadreswar - Oldest Islamic Monuments in India, ISBN 978-9004083417, Brill Academic; see discussion of earliest raids in Gujarat
  22. Asher, C. B.; Talbot, C (1 January 2008), India Before Europe (1st ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 19, ISBN 978-0-521-51750-8
  23. Peter Jackson 2003, pp. 3-30.
  24. T. A. Heathcote, The Military in British India: The Development of British Forces in South Asia:1600-1947, (Manchester University Press, 1995), pp 5-7
  25. Barnett, Lionel (1999), Antiquities of India: An Account of the History and Culture of Ancient Hindustan, p. 1, at Google Books, Atlantic pp. 73–79
  26. Richard Davis (1994), Three styles in looting India, History and Anthropology, 6(4), pp 293-317, doi:10.1080/02757206.1994.9960832
  27. MUHAMMAD B. SAM Mu'izz AL-DIN, T.W. Haig, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. VII, ed. C.E.Bosworth, E.van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs and C. Pellat, (Brill, 1993)
  28. C.E. Bosworth, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 5, ed. J. A. Boyle, John Andrew Boyle, (Cambridge University Press, 1968), pp 161-170
  29. History of South Asia: A Chronological Outline Columbia University (2010)
  30. Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Sām Encyclopædia Britannica (2011)
  31. Jackson P. (1990), The Mamlūk institution in early Muslim India, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland (New Series), 122(02), pp 340-358
  32. C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, Columbia University Press (1996)
  33. Barnett & Haig (1926), A review of History of Mediaeval India, from ad 647 to the Mughal Conquest - Ishwari Prasad, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland (New Series), 58(04), pp 780-783
  34. Peter Jackson 2003, pp. 29-48.
  35. Anzalone, Christopher (2008), "Delhi Sultanate", in Ackermann, M. E. etc. (Editors), Encyclopedia of World History 2, ISBN 978-0-8160-6386-4
  36. "Qutub Minar". Retrieved 5 August 2015.
  37. Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi UNESCO
  38. Welch and Crane note that the Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque was built with the remains of demolished Hindu and Jain temples; See: Welch, Anthony; Crane, Howard (1983). "The Tughluqs: Master Builders of the Delhi Sultanate" (PDF). Muqarnas. Brill. 1: 123–166. JSTOR 1523075.
  39. Welch, Anthony; Crane, Howard (1983). "The Tughluqs: Master Builders of the Delhi Sultanate" (PDF). Muqarnas. Brill. 1: 123–166. JSTOR 1523075.
  40. Khan, Hussain Ahmad (2014). Artisans, Sufis, Shrines: Colonial Architecture in Nineteenth-Century Punjab. I.B.Tauris. p. 15. ISBN 9781784530143.
  41. Yunus, Mohammad; Aradhana Parmar (2003). South Asia: a historical narrative. Oxford University Press. p. 97. ISBN 0-1957-9711-6. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
  42. Kumar Mandal, Asim (2003). The Sundarbans of India: A Development Analysis. India: Indus Publishing. p. 43. ISBN 81-738-7143-4. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
  43. Singh, D. (1998). The Sundarbans of India: A Development Analysis. India: APH Publishing. p. 141. ISBN 81-702-4992-9. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
  44. "Khalji Dynasty". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2010-08-23. this dynasty, like the previous Slave dynasty, was of Turkic origin, though the Khaljī tribe had long been settled in what is now Afghanistan...
  45. Thorpe, Showick Thorpe Edgar (2009). The Pearson General Studies Manual 2009, 1/e. Pearson Education India. p. 1900. ISBN 81-317-2133-7. Retrieved 2010-08-23. The Khalji dynasty was named after a village in Afghanistan. Some historians believe that they were Afghans, but Bharani and Wolse Haig explain in their accounts that the rulers from this dynasty who came to India, though they had temporarily settled in Afghanistan, were originally Turkic.
  46. Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (2002). History of medieval India: from 1000 A.D. to 1707 A.D. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 28. ISBN 81-269-0123-3. Retrieved 2010-08-23. The Khaljis were a Turkish tribe but having been long domiciled in Afghanistan, and adopted some Afghan habits and customs. They were treated as Afghans in Delhi Court.
  47. Cavendish, Marshall (2006). World and Its Peoples: The Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. Marshall Cavendish. p. 320. ISBN 0-7614-7571-0. Retrieved 2010-08-23. The members of the new dynasty, although they were also Turkic, had settled in Afghanistan and brought a new set of customs and culture to Delhi.
  48. Kishori Saran Lal (1950). History of the Khaljis (1290-1320). Allahabad: The Indian Press. pp. 56–57. OCLC 685167335.
  49. South Asia : A Historical Narrative by Mohammad Yunus, Aradhana Parmar, P. 97, https://books.google.co.in/books?redir_esc=y&id=opbtAAAAMAAJ&focus=searchwithinvolume&q=afghan, quote = Firuz Khalji had already gathered enough support among the Afghans for taking over the crown.
  50. A. L. Srivastava (1966). The Sultanate of Delhi, 711-1526 A.D. (Second ed.). Shiva Lal Agarwala. p. 141. OCLC 607636383.
  51. A. B. M. Habibullah (1992) [1970]. "The Khaljis: Jalaluddin Khalji". In Mohammad Habib; Khaliq Ahmad Nizami. A Comprehensive History of India. 5: The Delhi Sultanat (A.D. 1206-1526). The Indian History Congress / People's Publishing House. p. 312. OCLC 31870180.
  52. https://books.google.de/books?id=Y7fUHMEDAyEC&pg=PA35&lpg=PA35&dq=khilji+afghans&source=bl&ots=xshqEIb8Y6&sig=aRT5hBrSTEAgWFyN2V8iOiFMGT8&hl=de&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiv58ep69DYAhUSnRQKHV1tAg4Q6AEIdDAO#v=onepage&q=khilji%20afghans&f=false
  53. https://www.mapsofindia.com/history/khilji-dynasty.html
  54. https://books.google.de/books?id=8XnaL7zPXPUC&pg=PA28&lpg=PA28&dq=khilji+afghan+history&source=bl&ots=mnp2HvUHfA&sig=1IEHQ4jg9DLepSyfu5bkh1uzb9Q&hl=de&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjDhKS4tdLYAhWBlBQKHX7cDecQ6AEIiAEwDw#v=onepage&q=khilji%20afghan%20history&f=false
  55. Holt et al., The Cambridge History of Islam - The Indian sub-continent, south-east Asia, Africa and the Muslim west, ISBN 978-0521291378, pp 9-13
  56. Alexander Mikaberidze, Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia, ISBN 978-1598843361, pp 62-63
  57. Rene Grousset - Empire of steppes, Chagatai Khanate; Rutgers Univ Press, New Jersey, U.S.A, 1988 ISBN 0-8135-1304-9
  58. Frank Fanselow (1989), Muslim society in Tamil Nadu (India): an historical perspective, Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, 10(1), pp 264-289
  59. Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, 3rd Edition, Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-15482-0
  60. AL Srivastava, Delhi Sultanate 5th Edition, ASIN B007Q862WO, pp 156-158
  61. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 231-235, Oxford University Press
  62. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 236-242, Oxford University Press
  63. Elliot and Dowson, Táríkh-i Fíroz Sháhí of Ziauddin Barani, The History of India as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period (Vol 3), London, Trübner & Co
  64. Richard Eaton, Temple Desecration and Muslim States in Medieval India at Google Books, (2004)
  65. Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, (Routledge, 1986), 188.
  66. Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India by Jl Mehta p.97
  67. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 242-248, Oxford University Press
  68. Cornelius Walford (1878), The Famines of the World: Past and Present, p. 3, at Google Books, pp 9-10
  69. Judith Walsh, A Brief History of India, ISBN 978-0816083626, pp 70-72; Quote: "In 1335-42, during a severe famine and death in the Delhi region, the Sultanate offered no help to the starving residents."
  70. McKibben, William Jeffrey (1994). "The Monumental Pillars of Fīrūz Shāh Tughluq". Ars Orientalis. 24: 105–118. JSTOR 4629462.
  71. HM Elliot & John Dawson (1871), Tarikh I Firozi Shahi - Records of Court Historian Sams-i-Siraj The History of India as told by its own historians, Volume 3, Cornell University Archives, pp 352-353
  72. Prinsep, J (1837). "Interpretation of the most ancient of inscriptions on the pillar called lat of Feroz Shah, near Delhi, and of the Allahabad, Radhia and Mattiah pillar, or lat inscriptions which agree therewith". Journal of the Asiatic Society. 6 (2): 600–609.
  73. Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi - Memoirs of Firoz Shah Tughlak, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives
  74. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 249-251, Oxford University Press
  75. Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi - Autobiographical memoirs, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 377-381
  76. Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, pp 20-23
  77. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 248-254, Oxford University Press
  78. Peter Jackson (1999), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, pp 312–317
  79. Beatrice F. Manz (2000). "Tīmūr Lang". In P. J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C. E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W. P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam. 10 (2 ed.). Brill.
  80. Lionel Trotter (1906), History of India: From the Earliest Times to the Present Day, Gorham Publishers London/New York, pp 74
  81. Annemarie Schimmel (1997), Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004061170, pp 36-37; Also see: Elliot, Studies in Indian History, 2nd Edition, pp 98-101
  82. Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, Chapter 2
  83. Judith Walsh, A Brief History of India, ISBN 978-0816083626
  84. Ramananda Chatterjee (1961). The Modern Review. 109. Indiana University. p. 84.
  85. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 253-257, Oxford University Press
  86. Digby, S. (1975), The Tomb of Buhlūl Lōdī, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 38(03), pp 550-561
  87. Lodi Dynasty Encyclopædia Britannica (2009)
  88. Andrew Petersen, Dictionary of Islamic Architecture, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415060844, pp 7
  89. Richards, John (1965), The Economic History of the Lodi Period: 1451-1526, Journal de l'histoire economique et sociale de l'Orient, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp 47-67
  90. Irfan Habib (2011), Economic History of Medieval India, 1200-1500, page 53, Pearson Education
  91. Lakwete, Angela (2003). Inventing the Cotton Gin: Machine and Myth in Antebellum America. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 1–6. ISBN 9780801873942.
  92. Irfan Habib (2011), Economic History of Medieval India, 1200-1500, pages 53-54, Pearson Education
  93. Irfan Habib (2011), Economic History of Medieval India, 1200-1500, page 54, Pearson Education
  94. Angus Maddison (2001), The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective, pages 241-242, OECD Development Centre
  95. Angus Maddison (2001), The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective, page 236, OECD Development Centre
  96. Asher, C. B.; Talbot, C (1 January 2008), India Before Europe (1st ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 47, ISBN 978-0-521-51750-8
  97. Metcalf, B.; Metcalf, T. R. (9 October 2006), A Concise History of Modern India (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 6, ISBN 978-0-521-68225-1
  98. Eaton, Richard M.'The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1993 1993, accessed on 1 May 2007
  99. Eaton (2000), Temple desecration in pre-modern India Frontline, p. 73, item 16 of the Table, Archived by Columbia University
  100. Richard M. Eaton, Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Part II, Frontline, January 5, 2001, 70-77.[1]
  101. Richard M. Eaton, Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Part I, Frontline, December 22, 2000, 62-70.[2]
  102. Eaton, Richard M. (2000). "Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States" (PDF). The Hindu. Chennai, India. p. 297. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014.
  103. Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, pp 7-10
  104. James Brown (1949), The History of Islam in India, The Muslim World, 39(1), 11-25
  105. Eaton, Richard M. (December 2000). "Temple desecration in pre-modern India". Frontline. The Hindu Group. 17 (25).
  106. Eaton, Richard M. (September 2000). "Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States". Journal of Islamic Studies. 11 (3): 283–319. doi:10.1093/jis/11.3.283.
  107. Eaton, Richard M. (2004). Temple desecration and Muslim states in medieval India. Gurgaon: Hope India Publications. ISBN 8178710277.
  108. Eaton, Richard M. (2000). "Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States" (PDF). The Hindu. Chennai, India. p. 297. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014.
  109. Welch, Anthony (1993), Architectural patronage and the past: The Tughluq sultans of India, Muqarnas, Vol. 10, 311-322
  110. Gul and Khan (2008), Growth and Development of Oriental Libraries in India, Library Philosophy and Practice, University of Nebrasaka-Lincoln
  111. Eva De Clercq (2010), ON JAINA APABHRAṂŚA PRAŚASTIS, Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hung. Volume 63 (3), pp 275–287
  112. R Islam (1997), A Note on the Position of the non-Muslim Subjects in the Sultanate of Delhi under the Khaljis and the Tughluqs, Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 45, pp. 215–229; R Islam (2002), Theory and Practice of Jizyah in the Delhi Sultanate (14th Century), Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 50, pp. 7–18
  113. A.L. Srivastava (1966), Delhi Sultanate, 5th Edition, Agra College
  114. Peter Jackson (2003), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521543293, pp 287-295
  115. Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi - Memoirs of Firoz Shah Tughlaq, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 377-381
  116. Hasan Nizami et al, Taju-l Ma-asir & Appendix, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 2 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 22, 219, 398, 471
  117. Richard Eaton, Temple desecration and Indo-Muslim states, Frontline (January 5, 2001), pp 72-73
  118. Ulugh Khan also known as Almas Beg was brother of Ala-al Din Khalji; his destruction campaign overlapped the two dynasties
  119. Somnath temple went through cycles of destruction by Sultans and rebuilding by Hindus
Bibliography
  • Kumar, Sunil. (2007). The Emergence of the Delhi Sultanate. Delhi: Permanent Black.
External links
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Deccan sultanates

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Deccan sultanates

The Deccan Sultanates were five dynasties that ruled late medieval Indian kingdoms, namely, Bijapur, Golkonda, Ahmadnagar, Bidar, and Berar in south-western India. The Deccan sultanates were located on the Deccan Plateau, between the Krishna River and the Vindhya Range. These kingdoms became independent during the break-up of the Bahmani Sultanate.[1][2] In 1490, Ahmadnagar declared independence, followed by Bijapur and Berar in the same year. Golkonda became independent in 1518 and Bidar in 1528.[3] The five sultanates were of diverse origin; Ahmadnagar Sultanate and Berar Sultanate were of Hindu lineage (Ahmadnagar being Brahmin-Hindu and Berar being Kanarese-Hindu),[4] Bidar Sultanate were of former Turkic slave,[5] Bijapur Sultanate were of former Georgian-Oghuz Turkic slave,[6] and Golconda Sultanate were of Turkman origin.[7] Although generally rivals, they did ally against the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565, permanently weakening Vijayanagar in the Battle of Talikota. In 1574, after a coup in Berar, Ahm ...more...

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Alauddin Husain Shah

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Alauddin Husain Shah

Ala-ud-din Husain Shah (Bengali: আলাউদ্দিন হোসেন শাহ); reign 1494–1519)[1] was an independent late medieval Sultan of Bengal, who founded the Hussain Shahi dynasty.[2] He became the ruler of Bengal after assassinating the Abyssinian Sultan, Shams-ud-Din Muzaffar Shah, whom he had served under as wazir. After his death in 1519 his son Nusrat Shah succeeded him. Early life and accession Husain Shah's original name is Sayyeed Husain. According to a 1788 chronicle, Riyaz-us-Salatin, Husain was the son of Sayyeed Ashraf Al Husaini Al Fatimi Al Makki, a Sharif of Mecca and an inhabitant of Tirmiz (in Turkestan).[3] Besides both historians Salim (writer of Riyaz-us-Salatin) and Firishtah (from late 16th century) mentioned him as Sayyed - this indicates Husain's Arab descent. Besides, the term Sultan Husain Shah bin Sayyeed Ashraf-ul-Husaini (Sultan Husain Shah, son of Sayyed Ashraf-ul-Husaini) frequently appeared on his coins.[3] But it is not yet known how he came to Bengal and occupied the post of Vizier of Sulta ...more...

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Shamsuddin Kayumars

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Shamsuddin Kayumars

Shams ud-Din Kayumars (reigned: 1290) was the son of Muiz ud-Din Qaiqabad, the tenth sultan of the Mamluk dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. His father Muiz ud din Qaiqabad is said to have been murdered by a Khalji noble, Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khalji. Khalji assumed the throne after murdering Kayumars, ending the Mamluk dynasty and starting the Khalji dynasty.[1] See also Muslim history History of India List of Indian monarchs References Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Qaiqabad Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. p. 80. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4. External links India Through the Ages The Slave Dynasty The Khalji Revolution Preceded byMuiz ud din Qaiqabad Mamluk Sultan of Delhi 1290 Succeeded byJalal ud din Firuz Khalji (Khalji Dynasty) ...more...

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Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq

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Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq

Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq, Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, or Ghazi Malik (Ghazi means 'fighter for Islam'),[1] (died c. 1325[2]) was the founder of the Tughluq dynasty in India, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1320 to 1325. He founded the city of Tughluqabad. His reign was cut short after 5 years when he died under mysterious circumstances in 1325. He was succeeded by Muhammad bin Tughluq[3] Early life Literary, numismatic and epigraphic evidence makes it clear that Tughluq was the Sultan's personal name, and not an ancestral designation.[4] His ancestry is debated among modern historians, because the earlier sources differ widely regarding it.[4] Tughluq's court poet Badr-i Chach attempted to find a royal genealogy for his family, but this can be dismissed as flattery. This is clear from the fact that another courtier Amir Khusrau, in his Tughluq Nama, states that Tughluq described himself as an unimportant man ("awara mard") in his early career.[5] The contemporary Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta states tha ...more...

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1325 deaths

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Ulugh Khan

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Ulugh Khan

Almas Beg (died c. 1301-1302), better known by his title Ulugh Khan, was a brother and a general of the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khalji. He held the iqta' of Bayana in present-day India. Ulugh Khan played an important role in Alauddin's ascension to the throne of Delhi in 1296. He lured the former Sultan Jalaluddin to Kara, where Alauddin assassinated Jalaluddin. He successfully besieged Multan, and subjugated the surviving members of Jalaluddin's family. In 1298, Ulugh Khan repulsed a Mongol invasion from the Chagatai Khanate, which greatly increased Alauddin's prestige. The next year, he and Nusrat Khan raided the wealthy province of Gujarat, obtaining a huge amount of wealth for Alauddin's treasury. He led the reinforcement unit in the Battle of Kili (1299) against the Mongols, and held command in the initial phases of the Siege of Ranthambore (1301). He died a few months after the Ranthambore campaign ended, although a fictional account in Amir Khusrau's Ashiqa suggests that he led Alauddin's forc ...more...

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Kara, Uttar Pradesh

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Kara, Uttar Pradesh

Kara is an old township situated near Sirathu, on the banks of river Ganges, 69 km (43 mi) west of the city of Allahabad in Kaushambi district in Uttar Pradesh state in India. It was capital of a very big region for centuries under the Delhi Sultanate and Jaunpur Sultanate rule. Name It has been sometimes spelt at Karrah, Kada and Kurrah but actually it is Kara (in Hindi कड़ा and Urdu کڑہ ) and often called with its sister town across the river Ganges, Manikpur. To this day, it is called Kara-Manikpur. Kara falls in Kaushambi district while Manikpur has now become a part of Pratapgarh district. Overview Pen-and-ink and wash drawing of the Ganges below the town of Kara, 1803 Centuries ago it was the seat of the Governor of the Sirkar of Kara ("the Province of Kara"). Between the 7th century and the 16th century it retained its charm and importance as the capital, but in 1526, the Mughal emperor Akbar made Allahabad the capital and thus reduced Kara to a subdivision of the province. During British Rule, ...more...

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Medieval India

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Medieval India

Medieval Period refers to a long period of the Indian subcontinent's history between "ancient period" and "modern period". Definitions of the period itself vary widely, and partly for this reason, many historians now prefer to avoid the term completely.[1] One definition, used in the rest of this article, includes the period from the 8th century[2] to the 16th century, essentially the same period as the Middle Ages of Europe. It may be divided into two periods: The 'early medieval period' which lasted from the 6th to the 13th century and the 'late medieval period' which lasted from the 13th to the 16th century, ending with the start of the Mughal Empire in 1526. The Mughal era, from the 16th century to the 18th century, is often referred to as the early modern period,[3] but is sometimes also included in the 'late medieval' period. An alternative definition, often seen in those more recent authors who still use the term at all, brings the start of the medieval period forward, either to about 1,000, or to th ...more...

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Firuz Shah Tughlaq

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Firuz Shah Tughlaq

Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq (1309 – 20 September 1388) was a Turkic Muslim ruler of the Tughlaq Dynasty, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1351 to 1388.[1][2] His father's name was Rajab (the younger brother of Ghazi Malik) who had the title Sipahsalar. He succeeded his cousin Muhammad bin Tughlaq following the latter's death at Thatta in Sindh, where Muhammad bin Tughlaq had gone in pursuit of Taghi the ruler of Gujarat. For the first time in the history of Delhi Sultanate, a situation was confronted wherein nobody was ready to accept the reins of power. With much difficulty, the camp followers convinced Firuz to accept the responsibility. In fact, Khwaja Jahan, the Wazir of Muhammad bin Tughlaq had placed a small boy on throne claiming him to the son of Muhammad bin Tughlaq,[3] who meekly surrendered afterwards. Due to widespread unrest, his realm was much smaller than Muhammad's. Tughlaq was forced by rebellions to concede virtual independence to Bengal and other provinces. Rule We know of Firuz ...more...

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Malcha Mahal

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Malcha Mahal

Construction occurring in Raisina Hill (c. 1920s-1930s). Malcha Mahal, also known as Wilayat Mahal, is a Tughlak era hunting lodge in the Chanakyapuri area of New Delhi, India next to the Delhi Earth Station of the Indian Space Research Organisation.[1][2] It was built by Firuz Shah Tughlaq, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi, in 1325.[3] It came to be known as Wilayat Mahal after Begum Wilayat Mahal of Awadh who was reportedly given the place by the Government of India in May 1985.[1][4][5] On 10 September 1993, Begum committed suicide at the age of 62 by consuming crushed diamonds.[6] The building is now mostly in ruins, it continued to be inhabited by the Begum's daughter Sakina Mahal, and son Prince Ali Raza until recently, both are now deceased.[7][1][4][3][6][8][9] History Malcha Mahal is located in Malcha, one of the historical villages around Raisina Hill. Malcha, along with Raisina, Todapur, Aliganj, Pillanji, Jaisinghpura, and Kushak villages was moved by the British during the construction ...more...

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Delhi Sultanate

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Shah Turkan

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Shah Turkan

Shah Turkan was a mistress of Iltutmish, the Mamluk ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, and the mother of his successor, Rukn ud din Firuz. After the death of Iltutmish, Ruknuddin indulged himself in the pursuit of pleasure and left his mother to handle the affairs of the state. Turkan had been a Turkish hand-maid and had risen to take control of the Sultan's harem. She took this opportunity to wreak vengeance against all those who had slighted her in the past. Consequently, Ruknuddin's rule turned unpopular and paved the way for the ascension of Razia Sultana.[1] References Chandra, Satish (2004). Medieval India : from Sultanat to the Mughals (Revised ed.). New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications. p. 48. ISBN 9788124110645. Retrieved 26 May 2017. ...more...

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History of Islam

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History of Islam

The history of Islam concerns the political, social,economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization. Despite concerns about the reliability of early sources, most historians[1] believe that Islam originated in Mecca and Medina at the start of the 7th century. Muslims however believe that it did not start with Muhammad, but that it was the original faith of others whom they regard as Prophets, such as Jesus, David, Moses, Abraham, Noah and Adam.[2][3][4] In 610 CE, Muhammad began receiving what Muslims consider to be divine revelations.[5] Muhammad's message won over a handful of followers and was met with increasing opposition from notables of Mecca.[6] In 618, after he lost protection with the death of his influential uncle Abu Talib, Muhammad migrated to the city of Yathrib (Medina). With Muhammad's death in 632, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community which was eventually resurrected leading to the First Fitna. The dispute would intensify greatly ...more...

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Mubarak Shah

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Mubarak Shah

Mubarak Shah may refer to the following people: Mubarak Shah (Chagatai Khan), head of the Chagatai Khanate (1252–1260) Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah, Khalji dynasty, Delhi Sultanate (d. 1320) Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah, Bengal (r. 1338–1349) Mubarak Shah (Sayyid dynasty), Delhi Sultanate (r. 1421–1434) Mubarak Shah (athlete), Pakistani long-distance runner ...more...

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Sikandar Lodi

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Sikandar Lodi

Sikandar Lodi (died 21 November 1517), born Nizam Khan, was the Sultan of Delhi between 1489 and 1517.[1] He became the next ruler of the Lodi dynasty after the death of his father Bahlul Lodi in July 1489. The second and most successful ruler of the Lodi dynasty of the Delhi sultanate, he was also a poet of the Persian language and prepared a diwan of 9000 verses.[2] Of the three Lodi Sultans namely Bahlol Lodi (1451 to 1489), Sikandar Lodi (1489 to 1517) and Ibrahim Lodi (1517 to 1526), Sikandar Lodi is regarded as the ablest, the greatest and the most successful Sultan. As compared with these two Sultans, Sikandar Lodi gave ample evidence of his qualities as a general, as an administrator, a consolidator of the empire and a man of letters. Biography The top two storeys of the Qutub Minar were reconstructed in marble by Sikandar Lodi Sikandar was the second son of Sultan Bahlul Khan Lodi and Bibi Ambha, the daughter of a Hindu goldsmith of Sirhind. He was of Afghan origin through his father.[3] He ...more...

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Zafar Khan

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Zafar Khan

Zafar Khan may refer to: Zafar Khan (Indian general), general of the Delhi Sultanate Zafar Khan (Afghan general) (born 1953), general of the Afghan National Army Zafar Khan (businessman) (born 1968), British businessman Hasan Gangu, who took this as his name after he founded the Kingdom of Bahmani Zafar Khan Malik Dinar, Indian slave general of Delhi Sultanate ...more...



Old Delhi

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Old Delhi

Old Delhi or Purani Dilli was founded as a walled city of Delhi, India, founded as Shahjahanabad in 1638, when Shah Jahan, the Mughal emperor at the time, decided to shift the Mughal capital from Agra.[1] The construction of the city was completed in 1648, and it remained the capital of the Mughal Empire until its fall in 1857,[1][2][3] when the British Raj took over a paramount power in India. It was once filled with mansions of nobles and members of the royal court, along with elegant mosques and gardens. Today, despite having become extremely crowded and dilapidated, it still serves as the symbolic heart of metropolitan Delhi. Upon the 2012 trifurcation of the Municipal Corporation of Delhi, Old Delhi became administered by the North Delhi Municipal Corporation.[4][5] History Busy streets near Jama Masjid, Old Delhi. View of Old Delhi from Jama Masjid in June 1973. Jama Masjid built by Shah Jahan, 1656. The site of Shahjahanabad is north of earlier settlements of Delhi. Its southern par ...more...

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Started in 1639

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Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq

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Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq

Copper Falus Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq (reign: 1394 − February 1413 CE) was the last sultan of the Tughlaq dynasty to rule the Islamic Delhi Sultanate. History During his reign in 1398, Amir Timur the Chagtai ruler invaded India. He carried away with him a large booty from Delhi and the surrounding area. Soon after the invasion, the Tughlaq dynasty came to an end. "For about three years, from 1394 to 1397...Sultan Mahmud, a grandson of Firuz Shah Tughlaq, was recognized as king in Old Delhi, while his relative Nusrat Shah, claimed similar rank in Firuzabad."[1] Successor The succeeding sultan of the Delhi Sultanate was Khizr Khan, the first of the Sayyid dynasty. References Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 100–102. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4. Preceded byNasir ud din Muhammad Shah III Sultan of Delhi 1394–1413 Succeeded byKhizr Khan,Sayyid dynasty ...more...

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List of rulers of Malwa

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List of rulers of Malwa

Following is a list of rulers of Malwa since the Kshatrapas: Malwa in 1780 Kshatrapa Empire Nahapana (119-124 CE) Chashtana (c 120) Rudradaman I (c 130-150) Damajadasri I (170-175) Jivadaman (175 d 199) Rudrasimha I (175-188 d 197) Isvaradatta (188-191) Rudrasimha I (restored) (191-197) Jivadaman (restored) (197-199) Rudrasena I (200-222) Damasena (222-232) Samghadaman (227?) Damajadasri II (232-239) with Viradaman (234-238) Yasodaman I (239) Vijayasena (239-250) Damajadasri III (251-255) Rudrasena II (255-277) Visvasimha (277-282) Bhartridaman (282-295) with Visvasena (293-304) Rudrasimha II (304-348) with Yasodaman II (317-332) Rudradaman II (332-348) Rudrasena III (348-380) Simhasena (380- ?) Indirect rule of Gupta Empire Rudrasena IV (382-388) Rudrasimha III (388-395) Direct rule of Gupta Empire (395-c 750) (see Gupta Empire) Pratihara Empire (c 750-c 1036)(See Pratihara Empire) Paramara dynasty The Paramara rulers mentioned in the vario ...more...

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Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent

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Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent

Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century. With the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate, Islam spread across large parts of the subcontinent. In 1204, Bakhtiyar Khalji led the Muslim conquest of Bengal, marking the eastern-most expansion of Islam at the time. Prior to the rise of the Maratha Empire, which was followed by the conquest of India by the British East India Company, the Muslim Mughal Empire was able to annex or subjugate most of India's kings. However, it was never able to conquer the kingdoms in the upper reaches of the Himalayas, such as those of modern Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Nepal and Bhutan; the kingdoms of the extreme south of India, such as Travancore and Tamil Nadu; or the kingdoms in the east, such as the Ahom Kingdom in Assam. Early Muslim presence Islam in South A ...more...

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Sultan

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Sultan

The Sultan Suleiman I is considered one of the most famous Ottoman sultans. Sultan (; Arabic: سلطان‎ sulṭān, pronounced ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic",[1] and the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate (سلطنة salṭanah). The term is distinct from king (ملك malik), despite both referring to a sovereign ruler. The use of "sultan" is restricted to Muslim countries, where the title carries religious significance,[2][3] contrasting the more secular king, which is used in both Muslim an ...more...

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Telangana

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Telangana

Telangana ( ( listen)) is a state in the south of India. It is situated on the centre-south stretch of the Indian peninsula on the high Deccan Plateau. It is the twelfth largest state and the twelfth-most populated state in India with a geographical area of 112,077 km2 (43,273 sq mi) and 35,193,978 residents as per 2011 census. [6] On 2 June 2014, the area was separated from the northwestern part of Andhra Pradesh as the newly formed 29th state with Hyderabad as its historic permanent capital. Its other major cities include Warangal, Nizamabad, Khammam and Karimnagar. Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north and northwest, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka to the west and Andhra Pradesh to the east and south.[7] The terrain of Telangana region consists mostly of hills, mountain ranges, and thick dense forests distribution of 27,292 sq. km spread over surroundings of wainganga of Adilabad, Rakhi hill area in Karimnagar district with Rachakonda ghats in east Ranga Reddy district to Ananthagiri Hil ...more...

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Mubarak Shah (Sayyid dynasty)

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Mubarak Shah (Sayyid dynasty)

Mubarak Shah's tomb in Kotla Mubarakpur. Mubarak Shah (r. 1421–1434) was the second monarch of the Sayyid dynasty which ruled the Delhi Sultanate. He succeeded his father, Khizr Khan to the throne. The Sayyids were subservient to Timur's successor, Shah Rukh, and while Khizr Khan did not assume the title of sultan, Mubarak Shah was acknowledged as one by Sirhindi. However, it is also known that Mubarak Shah received a robe and a chatr (a ceremonial parasol) from the Timurid capital of Herat which indicates that the fealty continued in his time. He was murdered in 1434 and succeeded by his nephew, Muhammad Shah.[1][2] See also Kotla Mubarakpur Notes Jackson 2003. EB. References Jackson, Peter (2003). The Delhi Sultanate : a political and military history (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521543293. "Sayyid dynasty". Encyclopedia Britannica. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mubarak Shah (Sayyid dynasty). ...more...

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Feroz Shah Kotla

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Feroz Shah Kotla

Feroz Shah Kotla Panorama, with Ashokan Pillar (left) and Jami Masjid (right) This page is about the fortress. For the cricket ground, see Feroz Shah Kotla Ground. The Feroz Shah Kotla (Hindi: फ़िरोज़ शाह कोटला, : ਫUrdu: فروز شاہ کوٹلا) or Kotla (Hindi: कोटला, Urdu: کوٹلا) was a fortress built by Sultan Feroz Shah Tughlaq to house his version of Delhi city called Ferozabad. A pristine polished sandstone Topra Ashokan pillar from the 3rd century B.C. rises from the palace's crumbling remains, one of many pillars of Ashoka left by the Mauryan emperor; it was moved from Topra Kalan in Pong Ghati of Yamunanagar district in Haryana to Delhi under orders of Firoz Shah Tughlaq of Delhi Sultanate, and re-erected in its present location in 1356. The original inscription on the obelisk is primarily in Brahmi script but language was prakrit, with some Pali and Sanskrit added later. The inscription was successfully translated in 1837 by James Prinsep.[1] This and other ancient lats (pillars, obelisk) have earned Fir ...more...



Razia Sultana

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Razia Sultana

Raziya Sultana, sometime Raziyya Sultan, (1205 – 13 October 1240) was the Sultan of Delhi from 10 November 1236 to 14 October 1240. A member of the Mamluk dynasty, she is known for being the only female ever to rule the Delhi Sultanate.[1] Early life and career Razia Sultana was the daughter of Shams-ud-din Iltutmish,[2] who had begun life as a Turk slave and ended it as Sultan of Delhi.[3] Iltutmish had been a great favorite of his master, Qutb ud din Aibak, the first Sultan of Delhi, and had been married to his daughter Qutb Jaan. She was the mother of Razia.[4][5] She had a full-brother named Nasiruddin Mahmud.[6] Razia being a member of the ruling family, grew up in privileged circumstances and was close to the levers of power both within the harem (where her mother was dominant) and in the court, where she was a favorite of both her maternal grandfather and her father. This was in contrast with her half-brothers Rukn ud din Firuz, and Muiz ud din Bahram who were the sons of former slave-girls, and thus ...more...

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Chahamanas of Ranastambhapura

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Chahamanas of Ranastambhapura

Ranthambore in present-day India The Ranthambore fort The Chahamanas of Ranastambhapura were a 13th century Indian dynasty. They ruled the area around their capital Ranastambhapura (Ranthambore) in present-day Rajasthan, initially as vassals of the Delhi Sultanate, and later as sovereigns. They belonged to the Chahamana (Chauhan) clan of the Rajputs, and are also known as Chauhans of Ranthambore in vernacular Rajasthani bardic literature. The Chahamana line of Ranastambhapura was established by Govindaraja, who agreed to rule as a vassal of the Ghurids in 1192, after they defeated his father, the Shakambhari Chahamana king Prithviraja III. Govindaraja's descendants gained and lost their independence to the Delhi Sultanate multiple times during the 13th century. Hammira, the last king of the dynasty, adopted an expansionist policy, and raided several neighbouring kingdoms. The dynasty ended with his defeat against the Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khalji at the Siege of Ranthambore in 1301. History The Chaha ...more...

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Ended in 11th-century in India

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Gangaikonda Cholapuram

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Gangaikonda Cholapuram

Gangaikonda Cholapuram is a town located in Ariyalur, Tamil Nadu, India. It became the capital of the Chola dynasty in c. 1025 during the reign of Rajendra Chola I, and served as the Chola capital for around 250 years. The town is about 70 kilometres (43 mi) northeast of Thanjavur city. As of 2014, the ancient city exists as a heritage town in the Ariyalur district of Tamil Nadu, India. The great temple of Brihadeeswarar Temple at this place is next only to the Brihadisvara temple at Thanjavur in its monumental nature and surpasses it in sculptural quality. History Gangaikonda Cholapuram Temple Entrance The city was founded by Rajendra Chola I to commemorate his victory over the Pala Dynasty. The name means The town of the chola who took over Ganga (water from Ganga) or who defeated (the kings near) Ganga. It is now a small village, its past eminence only remembered by the existence of the great Siva Temple. The Chola empire included the whole of southern India to the river Thungabadhra in the north. ...more...

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Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah

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Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah

Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Shah Khalji (r. 1316–1320) was a ruler of the Delhi Sultanate of present-day India. A member of the Khalji dynasty, he was a son of Alauddin Khalji. After Alauddin's death, Mubarak Shah was imprisoned by Malik Kafur, who appointed his younger brother Shihabuddin Omar as a puppet monarch. After Malik Kafur's murder, Mubarak Shah became the regent. Soon after, he blinded his brother, and usurped the power. After ascending the throne, he resorted to populist measures, such as abolishing the heavy taxes and penalties imposed by his father, and releasing thousands of prisoners. He curbed a rebellion in Gujarat, recaptured Devagiri, and successfully besieged Warangal to extract a tribute. He was murdered by his slave general Khusrau Khan. Early life Mubarak Shah, also called Mubarak Khan, was a son of Alauddin Khalji. After Alauddin died on 4 January 1316, his slave-general Malik Kafur appointed Alauddin's 6-year-old son Shihabuddin as a puppet monarch, and himself held the power as regent. A ...more...

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Alam Shah

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Alam Shah

Alam Shah (r. 1445–1451) was the fourth and last ruler of the Sayyid dynasty which ruled the Delhi Sultanate. Born Ala al-Din, he succeeded his father, Muhammad Shah to the throne and took on the regnal name of Alam Shah ("world king"). According to a 16th-century wit, by this time the Delhi Sultanate only extended from Delhi to the nearby suburb of Palam.[1][2] Alam Shah was an incapable ruler who abandoned his charge in 1448 and retired to Budaun. Three years later, Bahlul Lodi, who had made two prior attempts at capturing Delhi, took control of the capital to mark the beginning of the Lodi dynasty.[2][1] Notes Jackson 2003, p. 322. EB. References Jackson, Peter (2003). The Delhi Sultanate : a political and military history (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521543293. "Sayyid dynasty". Encyclopedia Britannica. ...more...

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Narasimhadeva I

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Narasimhadeva I

Sketch of a Konark Sun Temple Stone Panel Depicting Langula Narasimha Deva I Langula Narasingha Deva I (Odia: ପ୍ରଥମ ଲାଙ୍ଗୂଳା ନରସିଂହ ଦେବ) was a powerful monarch and warrior of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty of medieval Odisha who reigned c. 1238–1264.[1] He defeated the Muslim forces of Bengal who were constantly posing a threat to the Eastern Ganga dynasty's rule over Odisha from the times of his father Anangabhima Deva III. He was the first king of Odisha and one of the few rulers in India who took the offensive against the Islamic expansion over India, though his father had successfully played a defensive military role against the Turkic-Afghan rulers of Bengal. He has also built the Konark temple [2] to commemorate his victories over the Muslims along with a fort complex at Raibania in Balasore[3] and Khirachora Gopinatha Temple of Remuna. The Kendupatana plates of his grandson and successor, Narasimhadeva II mentions that Sitadevi, the queen of Narasimhadeva I was the daughter of the Paramara king of Malwa. ...more...

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Kampili kingdom

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Kampili kingdom

Shiva temple on Hemakuta hill in Hampi was built by Kampili Raya, ruler of the Kampili Kingdom. The Kampili kingdom was a short-lived Hindu kingdom of early 14th-century in the Deccan region.[1][2] The kingdom existed near Gulbarga and Tungabhadra river in northeastern parts of the present-day Karnataka state, India.[2] It ended after a defeat by the armies of Delhi Sultanate, and a jauhar (ritual mass suicide) in 1327/28 CE when it faced a certain defeat.[3][4] The Kampili kingdom in some historical accounts is called the Basnaga kingdom, and as what inspired and ultimately led to the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire.[5] The founder of the kingdom was a Hoysala commander, Singeya Nayaka-III (1280–1300 AD), who declared independence after the Muslim forces of the Delhi Sultanate defeated and captured the territories of the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri in 1294 CE. Nayaka-III was succeeded by his son Kampilideva in 1300, who remained in dispute with the territorial claims of Delhi Sultanate. The Kampili kingdom finall ...more...

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Shihabuddin Omar

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Shihabuddin Omar

Shibab-ud-din Omar Khan Khalji (1310?–1316) was the third Sultan of the Khalji Dynasty and 13th Sultan of Delhi. He ascended the throne as a minor with the death of his father Alauddin Khalji in January 1316. He became Sultan with the help of Malik Kafur, the Military Commander. After the assassination of Kafur, his brother Qutb-ud-din Mubarak became Sultan. Early life According to the 14th century chronicler Isami, Shihab-ud-Din was Alauddin's son from Jhatyapali, the daughter of Ramachandra of Devagiri.[1] Reign under Malik Kafur's regency Allauddin Khalji, the second ruler of the Khalji dynasty, died on 3 January 1316.[2] Malik Kafur, the commander-in-chief of the army, placed the young Shibabuddin on the throne and became the regent. Kafur executed all the princes having any claim to the throne. The eyes of Princes Khizr Khan and Shadi Khan were ordered to be cut out. Prince Mubarrak was detained in the Palace of Thousand Pillars but escaped using his cleverness. Nobles and Slaves of Allauddin were also ...more...

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Möngke Khan

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Möngke Khan

Möngke (Mongolian: ᠮᠥᠩᠬᠡ Möngke / Мөнх Mönkh;[1] Chinese: 蒙哥; pinyin: Ménggē; January 11, 1209 – August 11, 1259) was the fourth khagan of the Mongol Empire, ruling from July 1, 1251, to August 11, 1259. He was the first Khagan from the Toluid line, and made significant reforms to improve the administration of the Empire during his reign. Under Möngke, the Mongols conquered Iraq and Syria as well as the kingdom of Dali.[2] Early life Möngke was born on January 11, 1209, as the eldest son of Genghis Khan's teenaged son Tolui and Sorghaghtani Beki. Teb Tengri Khokhcuu, the powerful shaman, saw in the stars a great future for the child and bestowed on him the name Möngke, "eternal" in the Mongolian language. His uncle Ögedei Khan's childless queen Angqui raised him at her orda (nomadic palace).[3] Ögedei instructed Persian scholar Idi-dan Muhammed to teach writing to Möngke. On his way back home after the Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia, Genghis Khan performed a ceremony on his grandsons Möngke and Kublai after ...more...

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Disambiguation pages with given-name-holder lists

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History of South India

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History of South India

The history of the southern part of India covers a span of over four thousand years during which the region saw the rise and fall of a number of dynasties and empires. The period of known history of the region begins with the Iron age (1200 BCE to 24 BCE) period until the 14th century CE. Dynasties of Satavahana, Chola, Chera, Chalukya, Pallava, Rashtrakuta, Kakatiya and Hoysala were at their peak during various periods of history. These Dynasties constantly fought amongst each other and against external forces when Muslim armies invaded south India. Vijayanagara empire rose in response to the Muslim intervention and covered the most of south India and acted as a bulwark against Mughal expansion into the south. When the European powers arrived during the 16th century CE, the southern kingdoms resisted the new threats, and many parts eventually succumbed to British occupation. The British created the Madras Presidency which covered most of south India directly administered by the British Raj, and divided the r ...more...

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Uch

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Uch

Uch (Urdu: اوچ‎; "Ūch"), frequently referred to as Ūch Sharīf (Urdu: اوچ شریف‬‎; "Noble Uch"), is an historic city in the southern part of Pakistan's Punjab province. Uch may have been founded as Alexandria on the Indus, a town founded by Alexander the Great during his invasion of the Indus Valley.[1][2] Uch was an early stronghold of the Delhi Sultanate during the Muslim conquest of the subcontinent. Uch was a regional metropolitan centre between the 12th and 17th centuries,[2] and became refuge for Muslim religious scholars fleeing persecution from other lands.[2] Though Uch is now a relatively small city, it is renowned for intact historic urban fabric, and for its collection of shrines dedicated to Muslim mystics from the 12-15th centuries that are embellished with extensive tile work, and were built in the distinct architectural style of southern Punjab.[2] Etymology Uch was previous known by the name of Deogarh ("Stronghold of God") until the 12th century.[1] The origins of the city's current name are ...more...

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Islamic architecture

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Khizr Khan

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Khizr Khan

Sayyid Khizr Khan ibn Malik Sulaiman (reigned 28 May 1414 – 20 May 1421) was the founder of the Sayyid dynasty, the ruling dynasty of the Delhi sultanate, in northern India soon after the invasion of Timur and the fall of the Tughlaq dynasty.[1] Khan was Governor of Multan under the Tughlaq ruler, Firuz Shah Tughlaq, and was known to be an able administrator. He did not take up any royal title due to fear of Amir Timur (better known historically as Tamerlane) and contended himself with the titles of Rayat-i-Ala (Sublime Banners) and Masnad-i-Aali or (Most High Post). During his reign, coins were continued to be struck in the name of previous Tughlaq rulers.[2] After his death on 20 May 1421, he was succeeded by his son Mubarak Khan,[3] who took the title of Muizz-ud-Din Mubarak Shah. Ancestry and early life A contemporary writer Yahya Sirhindi mentions in his Takhrikh-i-Mubarak Shahi that Khizr Khan was a descendant of the Prophet of Islam, but his conclusion was based only on a testimony of the saint Syed ...more...

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East Godavari district

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East Godavari district

East Godavari district or Toorpu Godavari jilla is a district in Coastal Andhra region of Andhra Pradesh, India. Its district headquarters is at Kakinada. As of Census 2011, it became the most populous district of the state with a population of 5,151,549.[2] Rajahmundry and Kakinada are the two largest cities in the Godavari districts in terms of population. East Godavari district montage The district of Rajahmundry (present name Rajamahendravaram) was reorganised in 1859 into two districts of Godavari and Krishna. Godavari District was further bifurcated into East and West Godavari districts in 1925.[3][4] After Nov 1956's Andhra Pradesh was formed by combining parts of Naizam, Ceded and Circars, in 1959, the Bhadrachalam revenue division, consisting of Bhadrachalam and Naguru Taluqs (2 Taluqas in 1959 but later subdivided into Wajedu, Venkatapruram, Charla, Dummugudem, Bhadrachalam, Nellipaka, Chinturu, Kunavaram, and Vara Rama Chandra Puram mandals) of East Godavari district were merged into the Kha ...more...

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Villages in East Godavari district

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List of lieutenant governors of Delhi

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List of lieutenant governors of Delhi

The Lieutenant Governor of Delhi is the constitutional head of the National Capital Territory of Delhi.[1] The post was first established in September 1966, when The Delhi Administration Act, 1966 came into effect. Thus the former Delhi Legislative Assembly was replaced by the Delhi Metropolitan Council with 56 elected and 5 nominated members with the Lt. Governor of Delhi as its head. The Council however had no legislative powers, only an advisory role in the governance of Delhi. This set up functioned till 1990, when Assembly was reinstated, the Lt. Governor retained its role.[2][3] Serving since 31 December 2016, the current Lt. Governor is Anil Baijal, a former Union Home Secretary. His official residence is in Raj Niwas, Delhi.[4] Chief Commissioners They were ICS(Imperial Civil Service i.e. erstwhile IAS) officers executive head of the union territories. # Name Took office Left office 1 Shankar Prasada 1948 1954 2 Anand Dattahaya Pandit 1954 1959 3 Bhagwan Sahay 1959 1963 4 Venkata Vishwana ...more...

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Lists of governors of Indian states

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South Asia

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate, which rises above sea level as Nepal and northern parts of India situated south of the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush. South Asia is bounded on the south by the Indian Ocean and on land (clockwise, from west) by West Asia, Central Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia. The current territories of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka form South Asia.[7] The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is an economic cooperation organisation in the region which was established in 1985 and includes all eight nations comprising South Asia.[8] South Asia covers about 5.2 million km2 (2 million mi2), which is 11.71% of the Asian continent or 3.5% of the wo ...more...

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Regions of Asia

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Bahlul Lodi

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Bahlul Lodi

Bahlul Khan Lodi (died 12 July 1489) was the chief of the Pashtun Lodi tribe[1] and founder of Lodi dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate[2] upon the abdication of the last claimant from the previous Sayyid rule.[3] Bahlul became sultan of the dynasty on 19 April 1451[4] (855 AH). Early life Billon Tanka of 80 ratti of Bahlul Lodi Bahlul's grandfather, Malik Bahram, was a Pashtun from Multan, he took service under the governor of Multan, Malik Mardan Daulat. Malik Bahram had a total of about five sons. His eldest son, Malik Sultan Shah Lodi, later served under the Sayyid dynasty ruler Khizr Khan and distinguished himself by killing in the battle later's worst enemy Mallu Iqbal Khan. He was rewarded with the title of Islam Khan and in 1419 appointed the governor of Sirhind. Bahlul, the son of Malik Kala, the younger brother of Malik Sultan was married to Malik Sultan's daughter. In his youth, Bahlul was involved in the trading of horses and once sold his finely bred horses to the Sayyid dynasty Sultan Mohamma ...more...

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Indian Muslims

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Purana Qila

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Purana Qila

Purana Qila' (Old Fort) is one of the oldest forts in Delhi. The present citadel at Purana Qila was believed to have been built under Humayun and Afghan Sher Shah Suri (‘The Lion King’). But according to ASI's Vasant Swarnkar, the excavations — the last one was in 2013-14 — point to traces from the 3rd century BC, the pre-Mauryan period. The first two rounds of excavations — in 1954-55 and 1969-72 — by then ASI director, BB Lal, had unearthed traces of PGW under the mound. At the time, Lal had embarked on a mission to excavate various sites mentioned in the Mahabharata text and claimed to have found such traces as a common feature at all those sites.[1] On the basis of PGW, which archaeologically belongs to the 6th-12th century BC, Lal had claimed that Purana Qila is the Pandava kingdom of Indraprastha, estimating 900 BCE as the period of the war recounted in the epic. Excavations carried out by Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) at Purana Quila in 1954-55 (trial trenches)[2] and again 1969-1973 by its Di ...more...

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Archaeological monuments in Delhi

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Kakatiya dynasty

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Kakatiya dynasty

The Kakatiya dynasty was a South Indian dynasty whose capital was Orugallu, now known as Warangal. It was eventually conquered by the Delhi Sultanate. The demise of Kakatiya dynasty resulted in confusion and anarchy under alien rulers for sometime, before the Musunuri Nayaks brought stability to the region.[2] Etymology and names Studies of the inscriptions and coinage by the historian Dineshchandra Sircar reveal that there was no contemporary standard spelling of the family name. Variants include Kakatiya, Kakatiyya, Kakita, Kakati and Kakatya. The family name was often prefixed to the name of the monarch, giving constructs such as Kakatiya-Prataparudra. Some of the monarchs also had alternate names; for example, Venkata and Venkataraya may have been alternate names of Prataparuda I, with the former appearing on a coin in the form Venkata-Kakatiya.[3][a] The dynasty's name derives from the word "Kakati", which is variously thought to be the name of a goddess or a place. It is possible that Kakati was the ...more...

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Telugu people

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Abdul Malik Isami

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Abdul Malik Isami

Abdul Malik Isami (1311-?) was a 14th-century Indian historian and court poet. He wrote in Persian language, under the patronage of Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah, the founder of the Bahmani Sultanate. He is best known for Futuh-us-Salatin (c. 1350), a poetic history of the Muslim conquest of India. Early life Isami was born in 1311, possibly in Delhi. His father's name was 'Izz ul-Din 'Isami.[1] His ancestor Fakhr Malik Isami had migrated from Baghdad to India during the reign of Iltutmish (r. 1211–1236).[2] In 1327, the Delhi Sultanate ruler Muhammad bin Tughluq decided to move his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in Deccan region. Several residents of Delhi, including Isami's family, were ordered to move to Daulatabad. His 90-year-old grandfather died during this journey.[3] In Bahman Shah's service At Daulatabad, Isami was appalled with what he perceived as Tughluq's misdeeds and tyranny. At one point, he decided to migrate to Mecca, but he was determined to write a history of Muslim rule in India before leavi ...more...

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Persian-language writers

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Hasan Nizami

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Hasan Nizami

Hasan Nizami was a Persian language poet and historian, who lived in the 12th and 13th centuries. He migrated from Nishapur to Delhi in India, where he wrote Tajul-Ma'asir, the first official history of the Delhi Sultanate. Early life Little is known about the family background of Hasan Nizami, since neither him nor his contemporaries provide any such information. The later historians such as Mīr-Khvānd, Abu'l-Fazl and Kâtip Çelebi call him "Sadru-din Muhammad bin Hasan Nizami". Ziauddin Barani calls him "Sadr-i-Nizami". According to the 14th century Persian historian Hamdallah Mustawfi, Nizami was a son of Persian poet Nizami Aruzi, but there is no evidence to substantiate this claim.[1] Nizami originally lived in Nishapur, in the Khorasan region of present-day Iran. When the region became unsafe because of the Khwarazmian-Ghurid conflict, Nizami visited the Imam Reza shrine and sought advice from his religious preceptor Muhammad Kufi. Kufi advised him to leave Nishapur and migrate to India.[1] During his ...more...

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Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut

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Jamal-ud-Din Yaqut

Jamal ud-Din Yaqut (also Yakut) was an African Siddi slave-turned-nobleman who was a close confidante of Razia Sultana, the first and only female monarch of the Delhi Sultanate in India. Yaqut is speculated to have been her lover, but never been proved from any reliable source. Razia Sultana's patronage made him an influential member of the court, provoking racial antagonism amongst the nobles and clergy, who were both primarily Turkic and already resentful of the rule of a female monarch. Ethnic background Jamal ud-Din Yaqut lived during the time of the Sultan Iltutmish and then Razia Sultana, sometime from 1200 to 1240 CE, when he was slain in a revolt against Razia Sultana.[1] Yaqut was a habshi - habshis were enslaved Africans of East African descent frequently employed by Muslim monarchs in India for their reputed physical prowess and loyalty and as such were an important part of the armies and administration of the Delhi Sultanate.[2] Biography Yaqut rose in the ranks of the Delhi court, and found fav ...more...

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Peoples of the African diaspora

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Prataparudra

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Prataparudra

Pratāparudra (r. c. 1289-1323), also known as Rudradeva II, was the last ruler of the Kakatiya dynasty of India. He ruled the eastern part of Deccan, with his capital at Warangal. Prataparudra succeeded his grandmother Rudramadevi as the Kakatiya monarch. In the first half of his reign, he subjugated the insubordinate chiefs who had asserted their independence during his predecessor's reign. He also achieved successes against the neighbouring Hindu kingdoms of the Yadavas (Seunas), the Pandyas and Kampili. In 1310, he faced an invasion from the Muslim Delhi Sultanate, and agreed to become a tributary of the Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khalji. After Alauddin's death, he stopped making tribute payments, but a 1318 invasion forced him to pay tribute to Alauddin's son Mubarak Shah. After the end of the Khalji dynasty, he again withheld the tribute payments to Delhi. This prompted the new Sultan Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq to order a 1323 invasion that ended the Kakatiya dynasty and resulted in annexation of their kingdom ...more...

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Telugu people

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History of the Punjab

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History of the Punjab

The History of the Punjab concerns the history of the Punjab region the Northern area of the Indian Subcontinent that straddles the modern day countries of India and Pakistan. Historically known as Sapta Sindhu, or the Land of Seven Rivers, the name Punjab was given by later Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent. Ancient Punjab region was the primary geographical extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation, which was notable for advanced technologies and amenities that the people of the region had used. The region was historically a Hindu-Buddhist region, known for its high activity of scholarship, technology, and arts. Intermittent wars between various kingdoms was characteristic of this time, except in times of temporary unification under centralised Indian Empires or invading powers. After the arrival of Islamic invaders, that had managed to rule throughout a long period of the region's history, much of Western Punjab had become a centre of Islamic culture in the Indian subcontinent. An interlude of Sikh ...more...

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Muhammad Shah (Sayyid dynasty)

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Muhammad Shah (Sayyid dynasty)

Tomb of Muhammad Shah Muhammad Shah (r. 1434–1445) was the third monarch of the Sayyid dynasty which ruled the Delhi Sultanate. He succeeded his uncle, Mubarak Shah to the throne. The Sayyids were subservient to Timur's successor, Shah Rukh. According to the chronicler, Muhammad Bihamadkhani, who was a contemporary, this obedience continued in Muhammad Shah's reign.[1] Both Muhammad Shah and his son, Alam Shah who succeeded him, were incapable rulers and were supplanted by the Lodi dynasty.[2] Muhammad Shah's tomb is a notable monument within the Lodi Gardens of New Delhi. Notes Jackson 2003, p. 322. EB. References Jackson, Peter (2003). The Delhi Sultanate : a political and military history (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521543293. "Sayyid dynasty". Encyclopedia Britannica. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Muhammad Shah (Sayyid dynasty). ...more...

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Sayyid dynasty

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Mongol invasion of India, 1306

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Mongol invasion of India, 1306

In 1306, the Chagatai Khanate ruler Duwa sent an expedition to India, to avenge the Mongol defeat in 1305. The invading army included three contingents led by Kopek, Iqbalmand, and Tai-Bu. To the check the invaders' advance, the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khalji dispatched an army led by Malik Kafur, and supported by other generals such as Malik Tughluq. The Delhi army achieved a decisive victory, killing tens of thousands of the invaders. The Mongol captives were brought to Delhi, where they were either killed or sold into slavery. After this defeat, the Mongols did not invade the Delhi Sultanate during Alauddin's reign. The victory greatly emboldened Alauddin's general Tughluq, who launched several punitive raids in the Mongol territories of present-day Afghanistan. Background Duwa, the ruler of the Mongol Chagatai Khanate in Central Asia, had dispatched multiple expeditions to India before 1306. Alauddin Khalji, the ruler of Delhi Sultanate of India, had taken several measures against these invasions ...more...

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Persecution of Hindus

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Persecution of Hindus

Hindus have experienced religious persecution in the form of forceful conversions, documented massacres, demolition and desecrations of temples, as well as the destruction of universities and schools. In modern times, Hindus in the Muslim-majority regions of Kashmir, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and other countries have suffered persecution. Medieval persecution by Muslim rulers Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent began during the early 8th century AD. According to a 1900 translation of Persian text Chachnamah by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg, the Umayyad governor of Damascus, Hajjaj responded to a plea by men and women attacked and imprisoned by a tribe off the coast of Debal (Karachi), who had gone there to purchase some Indian female slaves and rich goods.[1] Hajjaj mobilised an expedition of 6,000 cavalry under Muhammad bin-Qasim in 712 CE. Records from the campaign recorded in the Chach Nama record temple demolitions, and mass executions of resisting Sindhi forces and the enslavement of their de ...more...

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The Ska Vengers

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The Ska Vengers

The Ska Vengers is a New Delhi based band that blends Ska, Dub, Punk, Jazz and Rap in their music. The core band consists of Stefan Kaye (Keys, Percussions, Theremin, Backing Vocals), Delhi Sultanate (Lead Vocals), Begum X (Lead Vocals), The Late Nikhil Vasudevan (Drums, Backing Vocals), Chaitanya Bhalla 'Chaz' (Guitars) and Tony Guinard (Bass, Backing Vocals).[1] The band is the first and only other ska-based setup coming out of India, and are touted to be the biggest (non-bollywood or hindi) independent export coming out of India[2] and also incorporates Psychedelia, Latin jazz and more experimental genres into their music.[3] Band members Delhi Sultanate - Male Lead Singer Begum X - Female Lead Singer The Late Nikhil Vasudevan - Drums Tony 'Bass' Guinard - Bass Chaitanya 'Chaz' Bhalla - Guitars Stefan 'Flexi' K - Keys, Percussions, Backing Vocals, Bananas Additional members Mr. Woodnote - Saxophone Rosie Turton - Trombone Kishore Sodha - Trumpet Self-Titled Album The Ska Vengers released their ...more...

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Musical groups started in 2009

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Siege of Chittorgarh (1303)

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Siege of Chittorgarh (1303)

Delhi and Chittor in present-day India In 1303, the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khalji captured the Chittor Fort from the Guhila king Ratnasimha, after an eight month long siege. The conflict has been described in several legendary accounts, including the historically unreliable Padmavat, which claims that Alauddin's motive was to obtain Ratnasimha's beautiful wife Padmavati. Background The Mewar region in north-western India was ruled by the Guhila dynasty, whose seat was located at the Chittor Fort (Chittorgarh). In 1299, Alauddin's general Ulugh Khan had raided the Mewar region on his way to Gujarat. However, this appears to have been a light raid rather than a serious invasion, and the Guhila king Samarasimha protected his country from the raiders,[1] possibly by paying a tribute.[2] In 1301, Alauddin conquered Ranthambore, which was located between Delhi and Chittor, and then returned to Delhi. The same year, Ratnasimha ascended the throne of Chittor.[3] The later legends based on Malik Mohammad J ...more...

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Battles involving the Delhi Sultanate

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