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Delhi Sultanate

The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).[4] [5] Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414),[6] the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526). Three dynasties (Mamluk, Khilji and Sayyid) were of Turkic origin, one dynasty (Tughlaq) was of Turko-Indian origin,[7] and the last dynasty (Lodi) was of Pashtun origin.[8] The sultanate is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack by the Mongol Empire,[9] and enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana, who reigned from 1236 to 1240.[10]

Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi and his dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards, the Khilji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to unite the Indian subcontinent. The sultanate reached the peak of its geographical reach during the Tughlaq dynasty, occupying most of the Indian subcontinent.[11] This was followed by decline due to Hindu rebellions, states such as the Vijayanagara Empire asserting independence, and new Muslim sultanates such as the Bengal Sultanate breaking off.[12] [13]

During the Delhi Sultanate, there was a synthesis of Indian civilization with that of Islamic civilization, and the integration of the Indian subcontinent into a growing world system and wider international networks spanning large parts of Afro-Eurasia, which had a significant impact on Indian culture and society.[14] The time of their rule included the earliest forms of Indo-Islamic architecture,[15] [16] increased growth rates in India's population and economy,[17] and the emergence of the Hindi-Urdu language.[18] The Delhi Sultanate was also responsible for repelling the Mongol Empire's potentially devastating invasions of India in the 13th and 14th centuries.[19] However, the Delhi Sultanate also caused destruction and desecration of politically important temples in South Asia.[20] In 1526, the Sultanate was conquered and succeeded by the Mughal Empire.


The context behind the rise of the Delhi Sultanate in India was part of a wider trend affecting much of the Asian continent, including the whole of southern and western Asia: the influx of nomadic Turkic peoples from the Central Asian steppes. This can be traced back to the 9th century, when the Islamic Caliphate began fragmenting in the Middle East, where Muslim rulers in rival states began enslaving non-Muslim nomadic Turks from the Central Asian steppes, and raising many of them to become loyal military slaves called Mamluks. Soon, Turks were migrating to Muslim lands and becoming Islamicized. Many of the Turkic Mamluk slaves eventually rose up to become rulers, and conquered large parts of the Muslim world, establishing Mamluk Sultanates from Egypt to Afghanistan, before turning their attention to the Indian subcontinent.[19]

It is also part of a longer trend predating the spread of Islam. Like other settled, agrarian societies in history, those in the Indian subcontinent have been attacked by nomadic tribes throughout its long history. In evaluating the impact of Islam on the subcontinent, one must note that the northwestern subcontinent was a frequent target of tribes raiding from Central Asia in the pre-Islamic era. In that sense, the Muslim intrusions and later Muslim invasions were not dissimilar to those of the earlier invasions during the 1st millennium.[21]

By 962 AD, Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in South Asia were under a wave of raids from Muslim armies from Central Asia.[22] Among them was Mahmud of Ghazni, the son of a Turkic Mamluk military slave,[23] who raided and plundered kingdoms in north India from east of the Indus river to west of Yamuna river seventeen times between 997 and 1030.[24] Mahmud of Ghazni raided the treasuries but retracted each time, only extending Islamic rule into western Punjab.[25] [26]

The wave of raids on north Indian and western Indian kingdoms by Muslim warlords continued after Mahmud of Ghazni.[27] The raids did not establish or extend permanent boundaries of their Islamic kingdoms. The Ghurid sultan Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori, commonly known as Muhammad of Ghor, began a systematic war of expansion into north India in 1173.[28] He sought to carve out a principality for himself by expanding the Islamic world.[24] [29] Muhammad of Ghor sought a Sunni Islamic kingdom of his own extending east of the Indus river, and he thus laid the foundation for the Muslim kingdom called the Delhi Sultanate.[24] Some historians chronicle the Delhi Sultanate from 1192 due to the presence and geographical claims of Muhammad Ghori in South Asia by that time.[30]

Ghori was assassinated in 1206, by Ismāʿīlī Shia Muslims in some accounts or by Hindu Khokhars in others.[31] After the assassination, one of Ghori's slaves (or mamluks, Arabic: مملوك), the Turkic Qutb al-Din Aibak, assumed power, becoming the first Sultan of Delhi.[24]

Mamluk / Slave

Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former slave of Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori (known more commonly as Muhammad of Ghor), was the first ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. Aibak was of Cuman-Kipchak origin,[32] and due to his lineage, his dynasty is known as the Mamluk (Slave) dynasty (not to be confused with the Mamluk dynasty of Iraq or the Mamluk dynasty of Egypt).[33] Aibak reigned as the Sultan of Delhi for four years, from 1206 to 1210.

After Aibak died, Aram Shah assumed power in 1210, but he was assassinated in 1211 by Shams ud-Din Iltutmish.[34] Iltutmish's power was precarious, and a number of Muslim amirs (nobles) challenged his authority as they had been supporters of Qutb al-Din Aibak. After a series of conquests and brutal executions of opposition, Iltutmish consolidated his power.[35] His rule was challenged a number of times, such as by Qubacha, and this led to a series of wars.[36] Iltumish conquered Multan and Bengal from contesting Muslim rulers, as well as Ranthambore and Siwalik from the Hindu rulers. He also attacked, defeated, and executed Taj al-Din Yildiz, who asserted his rights as heir to Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori.[37] Iltutmish's rule lasted till 1236. Following his death, the Delhi Sultanate saw a succession of weak rulers, disputing Muslim nobility, assassinations, and short-lived tenures. Power shifted from Rukn ud-Din Firuz to Razia Sultana and others, until Ghiyas ud-Din Balban came to power and ruled from 1266 to 1287.[36] [37] He was succeeded by 17-year-old Muiz ud-Din Qaiqabad, who appointed Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khilji as the commander of the army. Khilji assassinated Qaiqabad and assumed power, thus ending the Mamluk dynasty and starting the Khilji dynasty.

Qutb al-Din Aibak initiated the construction of the Qutub Minar[38] and the Quwwat-ul-Islam (Might of Islam) Mosque, now a UNESCO world heritage site.[39] It was built from the remains of twenty seven demolished Hindu and Jain temples. The Qutub Minar Complex or Qutb Complex was expanded by Iltutmish, and later by Ala ud-Din Khilji (the second ruler of the Khilji dynasty) in the early 14th century.[39] [40] During the Mamluk dynasty, many nobles from Afghanistan and Persia migrated and settled in India, as West Asia came under Mongol siege.[41]

Alai Gate and Qutub Minar were built during the Mamluk and Khilji dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate.[39]

The first ruler of the Khilji dynasty was Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khilji. He came to power in 1290 after killing the last ruler of the Mamluk dynasty, Muiz ud-Din Qaiqabad, at the behest of Turkic, Afghan, and Persian nobles. Jalal ud-Din Firuz was of Turkic origin, and ruled for 6 years before he was murdered in 1296 by his nephew and son-in-law Juna Muhammad Khilji,[42] who later came to be known as Ala ud-Din Khilji.

Ala ud-Din began his military career as governor of Kara province, from where he led two raids on Malwa (1292) and Devagiri (1294) for plunder and loot. His military campaigning returned to these lands as well other south Indian kingdoms after he assumed power. He conquered Gujarat, Ranthambore, Chittor, and Malwa.[43] However, these victories were cut short because of Mongol attacks and plunder raids from the northwest. The Mongols withdrew after plundering and stopped raiding northwest parts of the Delhi Sultanate.[44]

After the Mongols withdrew, Ala ud-Din Khilji continued expanding the Delhi Sultanate into southern India with the help of generals such as Malik Kafur and Khusro Khan. They collected lots of war booty (anwatan) from those they defeated.[45] His commanders collected war spoils and paid ghanima (Arabic: الْغَنيمَة, a tax on spoils of war), which helped strengthen the Khilji rule. Among the spoils was the Warangal loot that included one of the largest known diamonds in human history, the Koh-i-noor.[46]

Ala ud-Din Khilji changed tax policies, raising agriculture taxes from 20% to 50% (payable in grain and agricultural produce), eliminating payments and commissions on taxes collected by local chiefs, banned socialization among his officials as well as inter-marriage between noble families to help prevent any opposition forming against him, and he cut salaries of officials, poets, and scholars.[42] These tax policies and spending controls strengthened his treasury to pay the keep of his growing army; he also introduced price controls on all agriculture produce and goods in the kingdom, as well as controls on where, how, and by whom these goods could be sold. Markets called "shahana-i-mandi" were created.[47] Muslim merchants were granted exclusive permits and monopoly in these "mandis" to buy and resell at official prices. No one other than these merchants could buy from farmers or sell in cities. Those found violating these "mandi" rules were severely punished, often by mutilation. Taxes collected in the form of grain were stored in the kingdom's storage. During famines that followed, these granaries ensured sufficient food for the army.[42]

Historians note Ala ud-Din Khilji as being a tyrant. Anyone Ala ud-Din suspected of being a threat to this power was killed along with the women and children of that family. In 1298, between 15,000 and 30,000 people near Delhi, who had recently converted to Islam, were slaughtered in a single day, due to fears of an uprising.[48] He is also known for his cruelty against kingdoms he defeated in battle.

After Ala ud-Din's death in 1316, his eunuch general Malik Kafur, who was born in a Hindu family in India and had converted to Islam, tried to assume power. He lacked the support of Persian and Turkic nobility and was subsequently killed.[42] The last Khilji ruler was Ala ud-Din Khilji's 18-year-old son Qutb ud-Din Mubarak Shah Khilji, who ruled for four years before he was killed by Khusro Khan, another of Ala ud-Din's generals. Khusro Khan's reign lasted only a few months, when Ghazi Malik, later to be called Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq, killed him and assumed power in 1320, thus ending the Khilji dynasty and starting the Tughlaq dynasty.[41] [48]

Delhi Sultanate from 1321-1330 AD under the Tughlaq dynasty. After 1330, various regions rebelled against the Sultanate and the kingdom shrank.

The Tughlaq dynasty lasted from 1320 to nearly the end of 14th century. The first ruler Ghazi Malik rechristened himself as Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq and is also referred to in scholarly works as Tughlak Shah. He was of Turko-Indian origins; his father was a Turkic slave and his mother was a Hindu.[7] Ghiyath al-Din ruled for five years and built a town near Delhi named Tughlaqabad. According to some historians such as Vincent Smith,[49] he was killed by his son Juna Khan, who then assumed power in 1325. Juna Khan rechristened himself as Muhammad bin Tughlaq and ruled for 26 years.[50] During his rule, Delhi Sultanate reached its peak in terms of geographical reach, covering most of the Indian subcontinent.[11]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq was an intellectual, with extensive knowledge of the Quran, Fiqh, poetry and other fields. He was also deeply suspicious of his kinsmen and wazirs (ministers), extremely severe with his opponents, and took decisions that caused economic upheaval. For example, he ordered minting of coins from base metals with face value of silver coins - a decision that failed because ordinary people minted counterfeit coins from base metal they had in their houses and used them to pay taxes and jizya.[11] [49]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq moved his capital to the Deccan Plateau, ordered Delhi's people to move and build a new capital named Daulatabad (shown), then reversed his decision because Daulatabad lacked the river and drinking water supply Delhi had.[49]
A base metal coin of Muhammad bin Tughlaq that led to an economic collapse.

On another occasion, after becoming upset by some accounts, or to run the Sultanate from the center of India by other accounts, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ordered the transfer of his capital from Delhi to Devagiri in modern-day Maharashtra (renaming it to Daulatabad), by forcing the mass migration of Delhi's population. Those who refused were killed. One blind person who failed to move to Daulatabad was dragged for the entire journey of 40 days - the man died, his body fell apart, and only his tied leg reached Daulatabad.[49] The capital move failed because Daulatabad was arid and did not have enough drinking water to support the new capital. The capital then returned to Delhi. Nevertheless, Muhammad bin Tughlaq's orders affected history as a large number of Delhi Muslims who came to the Deccan area did not return to Delhi to live near Muhammad bin Tughlaq. This influx of the then-Delhi residents into the Deccan region led to a growth of Muslim population in central and southern India.[11] Muhammad bin Tughlaq's adventures in the Deccan region also marked campaigns of destruction and desecration of Hindu and Jain temples, for example the Swayambhu Shiva Temple and the Thousand Pillar Temple.[51]

Revolts against Muhammad bin Tughlaq began in 1327, continued over his reign, and over time the geographical reach of the Sultanate shrunk. The Vijayanagara Empire originated in southern India as a direct response to attacks from the Delhi Sultanate.,[52] and liberated south India from the Delhi Sultanate's rule.[53] In 1337, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ordered an attack on China, sending part of his forces over the Himalayas. Few survived the journey, and they were executed upon their return for failing.[49] During his reign, state revenues collapsed from his policies such as the base metal coins from 1329-1332. To cover state expenses, he sharply raised taxes. Those who failed to pay taxes were hunted and executed. Famines, widespread poverty, and rebellion grew across the kingdom. In 1338 his own nephew rebelled in Malwa, whom he attacked, caught, and flayed alive. By 1339, the eastern regions under local Muslim governors and southern parts led by Hindu kings had revolted and declared independence from the Delhi Sultanate. Muhammad bin Tughlaq did not have the resources or support to respond to the shrinking kingdom.[54] The historian Walford chronicled Delhi and most of India faced severe famines during Muhammad bin Tughlaq's rule in the years after the base metal coin experiment.[55] [56] By 1347, the Bahmani Sultanate had become an independent and competing Muslim kingdom in Deccan region of South Asia.[22]

The Tughlaq dynasty is remembered for its architectural patronage, particularly for ancient lats (pillars, left image),[57] dated to be from the 3rd century BC, and of Buddhist and Hindu origins. The Sultanate initially wanted to use the pillars to make mosque minarets. Firuz Shah Tughlaq decided otherwise and had them installed near mosques. The meaning of Brahmi script on the pillar at right was unknown in Firuz Shah's time.[58] The inscription was deciphered by James Prinsep in 1837; the pillar script of Emperor Ashoka asked people of his and future generations to seek a dharmic (virtuous) life, use persuasion in religion, grant freedom from religious persecution, stop all killing, and be compassionate to all living beings.[59]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq died in 1351 while trying to chase and punish people in Gujarat who were rebelling against the Delhi Sultanate.[54] He was succeeded by Firuz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388), who tried to regain the old kingdom boundary by waging a war with Bengal for 11 months in 1359. However, Bengal did not fall. Firuz Shah ruled for 37 years. His reign attempted to stabilize the food supply and reduce famines by commissioning an irrigation canal from the Yamuna river. An educated sultan, Firuz Shah left a memoir.[60] In it he wrote that he banned the practice of torture, such as amputations, tearing out of eyes, sawing people alive, crushing people's bones as punishment, pouring molten lead into throats, setting people on fire, driving nails into hands and feet, among others.[61] He also wrote that he did not tolerate attempts by Rafawiz Shia Muslim and Mahdi sects from proselytizing people into their faith, nor did he tolerate Hindus who tried to rebuild temples that his armies had destroyed.[62] As punishment for proselytizing, Firuz Shah put many Shias, Mahdi, and Hindus to death (siyasat). Firuz Shah Tughlaq also lists his accomplishments to include converting Hindus to Sunni Islam by announcing an exemption from taxes and jizya for those who convert, and by lavishing new converts with presents and honours. Simultaneously, he raised taxes and jizya, assessing it at three levels, and stopping the practice of his predecessors who had historically exempted all Hindu Brahmins from the jizya.[61] [63] He also vastly expanded the number of slaves in his service and those of Muslim nobles. The reign of Firuz Shah Tughlaq was marked by reduction in extreme forms of torture, eliminating favours to select parts of society, but also increased intolerance and persecution of targeted groups.[61]

The death of Firuz Shah Tughlaq created anarchy and disintegration of the kingdom. The last rulers of this dynasty both called themselves Sultan from 1394 to 1397: Nasir ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughlaq, the grandson of Firuz Shah Tughlaq who ruled from Delhi, and Nasir ud-Din Nusrat Shah Tughlaq, another relative of Firuz Shah Tughlaq who ruled from Firozabad, which was a few miles from Delhi.[64] The battle between the two relatives continued till Timur's invasion in 1398. Timur, also known as Tamerlane in Western scholarly literature, was the Turkic ruler of the Timurid Empire. He became aware of the weakness and quarreling of the rulers of the Delhi Sultanate, so he marched with his army to Delhi, plundering and killing all the way.[65] [66] Estimates for the massacre by Timur in Dehli range from 100,000 to 200,000 people.[67] [68] Timur had no intention of staying in or ruling India. He looted the lands he crossed, then plundered and burnt Delhi. Over five days, Timur and his army raged a massacre. Then he collected and carried the wealth, captured women and slaves (particularly skilled artisans), and returned to Samarkand. The people and lands within the Delhi Sultanate were left in a state of anarchy, chaos, and pestilence.[64] Nasir ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughlaq, who had fled to Gujarat during Timur's invasion, returned and nominally ruled as the last ruler of Tughlaq dynasty, as a puppet of various factions at the court.[69]


The Sayyid dynasty was a Turkic dynasty[70] that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1415 to 1451.[22] The Timurid invasion and plunder had left the Delhi Sultanate in shambles, and little is known about the rule by the Sayyid dynasty. Annemarie Schimmel notes the first ruler of the dynasty as Khizr Khan, who assumed power by claiming to represent Timur. His authority was questioned even by those near Delhi. His successor was Mubarak Khan, who rechristened himself as Mubarak Shah and tried to regain lost territories in Punjab, unsuccessfully.[69]

With the power of the Sayyid dynasty faltering, Islam's history on the Indian subcontinent underwent a profound change, according to Schimmel.[69] The previously dominant Sunni sect of Islam became diluted, alternate Muslim sects such as Shia rose, and new competing centers of Islamic culture took roots beyond Delhi.

The Sayyid dynasty was displaced by the Lodi dynasty in 1451.

Delhi Sultanate during Babur's invasion.

The Lodi dynasty belonged to the Afghan Lodi tribe.[70] Bahlul Khan Lodi started the Lodi dynasty and was the first Pashtun, to rule the Delhi Sultanate.[71] Bahlul Lodi began his reign by attacking the Muslim Jaunpur Sultanate to expand the influence of the Delhi Sultanate, and was partially successful through a treaty. Thereafter, the region from Delhi to Varanasi (then at the border of Bengal province), was back under influence of Delhi Sultanate.

After Bahlul Lodi died, his son Nizam Khan assumed power, rechristened himself as Sikandar Lodi and ruled from 1489 to 1517.[72] One of the better known rulers of the dynasty, Sikandar Lodi expelled his brother Barbak Shah from Jaunpur, installed his son Jalal Khan as the ruler, then proceeded east to make claims on Bihar. The Muslim governors of Bihar agreed to pay tribute and taxes, but operated independent of the Delhi Sultanate. Sikandar Lodi led a campaign of destruction of temples, particularly around Mathura. He also moved his capital and court from Delhi to Agra,[73] an ancient Hindu city that had been destroyed during the plunder and attacks of the early Delhi Sultanate period. Sikandar thus erected buildings with Indo-Islamic architecture in Agra during his rule, and the growth of Agra continued during the Mughal Empire, after the end of Delhi Sultanate.[71] [74]

Sikandar Lodi died a natural death in 1517, and his second son Ibrahim Lodi assumed power. Ibrahim did not enjoy the support of Afghan and Persian nobles or regional chiefs.[75] Ibrahim attacked and killed his elder brother Jalal Khan, who was installed as the governor of Jaunpur by his father and had the support of the amirs and chiefs.[71] Ibrahim Lodi was unable to consolidate his power, and after Jalal Khan's death, the governor of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodi, reached out to the Mughal Babur and invited him to attack Delhi Sultanate.[73] Babur defeated and killed Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat in 1526. The death of Ibrahim Lodi ended the Delhi Sultanate, and the Mughal Empire replaced it.


Before and during the Delhi Sultanate, Islamic civilization was the most cosmopolitan civilization of the Middle Ages. It had a multicultural and pluralistic society, and wide-ranging international networks, including social and economic networks, spanning large parts of Afro-Eurasia, leading to escalating circulation of goods, peoples, technologies and ideas. While initially disruptive due to the passing of power from native Indian elites to Turkic Muslim elites, the Delhi Sultanate was responsible for integrating the Indian subcontinent into a growing world system, drawing India into a wider international network, which led to cultural and social enrichment in the Indian subcontinent.[14]

During the Middle Kingdoms era from 1 CE to 1000 CE, the Indian economy was stagnant with no GDP growth for a thousand years, remaining static at $33.75 billion. During the Medieval Delhi Sultanate era, between 1000 and 1500, India began to experience GDP growth for the first time in a thousand years, increasing by nearly 80% up to $60.5 billion in 1500.[17] In terms of GDP per capita, India's per-capita income was lower than the Middle East from 1 CE (16% lower) to 1000 CE (about 40% lower), but by the late Delhi Sultanate era in 1500, India's GDP per capita had increased to being almost on-par with the Middle East.[76]

The worm gear roller cotton gin was invented in the Indian subcontinent during the early Delhi Sultanate era of the 13th–14th centuries,[77] and is still used in India through to the present day.[78] Another innovation, the incorporation of the crank handle in the cotton gin, first appeared in the Indian subcontinent some time during the late Delhi Sultanate or the early Mughal Empire.[79] The production of cotton, which may have largely been spun in the villages and then taken to towns in the form of yarn to be woven into cloth textiles, was advanced by the diffusion of the spinning wheel across India during the Delhi Sultanate era, lowering the costs of yarn and helping to increase demand for cotton. The diffusion of the spinning wheel, and the incorporation of the worm gear and crank handle into the roller cotton gin, led to greatly expanded Indian cotton textile production.[80]


The Indian population had largely been stagnant at 75 million during the Middle Kingdoms era from 1 AD to 1000 AD. During the Medieval Delhi Sultanate era from 1000 to 1500, India experienced lasting population growth for the first time in a thousand years, with its population increasing nearly 50% to 110 million by 1500 AD.[81] [82]


While the Indian subcontinent has had invaders from Central Asia since ancient times, what made the Muslim invasions different is that unlike the preceding invaders who assimilated into the prevalent social system, the successful Muslim conquerors retained their Islamic identity and created new legal and administrative systems that challenged and usually in many cases superseded the existing systems of social conduct and ethics, even influencing the non-Muslim rivals and common masses to a large extent, though the non-Muslim population was left to their own laws and customs.[83] [84] They also introduced new cultural codes that in some ways were very different from the existing cultural codes. This led to the rise of a new Indian culture which was mixed in nature, different from ancient Indian culture. The overwhelming majority of Muslims in India were Indian natives converted to Islam. This factor also played an important role in the synthesis of cultures.[85]

The Hindustani language (Hindi-Urdu) began to emerge in the Delhi Sultanate period, developed from the Middle Indo-Aryan apabhramsha vernaculars of North India. Amir Khusro, who lived in the 13th century CE during the Delhi Sultanate period in North India, used a form of Hindustani, which was the lingua franca of the period, in his writings and referred to it as Hindavi.[18]


The bulk of Delhi Sultanate's army consisted of nomadic Turkic Mamluk military slaves, who were skilled in nomadic cavalry warfare. A major military contribution of the Delhi Sultanate was their successful campaigns in repelling the Mongol Empire's invasions of India, which could have been devastating for the Indian subcontinent, like the Mongol invasions of China, Persia and Europe. The Delhi Sultanate's Mamluk army were skilled in the same style of nomadic cavalry warfare used by the Mongols, making them successful in repelling the Mongol invasions, as was the case for the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. Were it not for the Delhi Sultanate, it is possible that the Mongol Empire may have been successful in invading India.[19]

Temple desecration
The Somnath Temple in Gujarat was repeatedly destroyed by Islamic armies and rebuilt by Hindus. It was destroyed by Delhi Sultanate's army in 1299 AD.[86]

During the Delhi Sultanate, there were a total of 37 instances of Hindu temples being desecrated or destroyed in India.[87] [88] [89] Richard Eaton has tabulated a campaign of destruction of idols and temples by Sultans, intermixed with instances of years where the temples were protected from desecration.[20] [90] [91] He listed a total of 37 instances of temple desecration in India during the Delhi Sultanate, from 1234 to 1518, but noted there were also many instances of Delhi sultans, who often had Hindu ministers, ordering the protection, maintenance and repairing of temples, according to both Muslim and Hindu sources. For example, a Sanskrit inscription notes that Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq repaired a Siva temple in Bidar after his Deccan conquest. There was often a pattern of Delhi sultans plundering or damaging temples during conquest, and then patronizing or repairing temples after conquest. This pattern came to an end with the Mughal Empire, where Akbar the Great's chief minister Abu'l-Fazl criticized the excesses of earlier sultans such as Mahmud of Ghazni.[92]

In many cases, the demolished remains, rocks and broken statue pieces of temples destroyed by Delhi sultans were reused to build mosques and other buildings. For example, the Qutb complex in Delhi was built from stones of 27 demolished Hindu and Jain temples by some accounts.[93] Similarly, the Muslim mosque in Khanapur, Maharashtra was built from the looted parts and demolished remains of Hindu temples.[41] Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji destroyed Buddhist and Hindu libraries and their manuscripts at Nalanda and Odantapuri Universities in 1193 AD at the beginning of the Delhi Sultanate.[51] [94]

The first historical record of a campaign of destruction of temples and defacement of faces or heads of Hindu idols lasted from 1193 through the early 13th century in Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh under the command of Ghuri. Under the Khiljis, the campaign of temple desecration expanded to Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra, and continued through the late 13th century.[20] The campaign extended to Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu under Malik Kafur and Ulugh Khan in the 14th century, and by the Bahmanis in 15th century.[51] Orissa temples were destroyed in the 14th century under the Tughlaqs.

Beyond destruction and desecration, the sultans of the Delhi Sultanate in some cases had forbidden reconstruction of damaged Hindu, Jain and Buddhist temples, and they prohibited repairs of old temples or construction of any new temples.[95] [96] In certain cases, the Sultanate would grant a permit for repairs and construction of temples if the patron or religious community paid jizya (fee, tax). For example, a proposal by the Chinese to repair Himalayan Buddhist temples destroyed by the Sultanate army was refused, on the grounds that such temple repairs were only allowed if the Chinese agreed to pay jizya tax to the treasury of the Sultanate.[97] [98] In his memoirs, Firoz Shah Tughlaq describes how he destroyed temples and built mosques instead and killed those who dared build new temples.[99] Other historical records from wazirs, amirs and the court historians of various Sultans of the Delhi Sultanate describe the grandeur of idols and temples they witnessed in their campaigns and how these were destroyed and desecrated.[100]

Temple desecration during Delhi Sultanate period[20] [101]
Sultan / Agent Dynasty Years Temple Sites Destroyed States
Muhammad Ghori, Qutb al-Din Aibak Mamluk 1193-1290 Ajmer, Samana, Kuhram, Delhi, Kol, Varanasi Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh
Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, Shams ud-Din Iltumish, Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khilji, Ala ud-Din Khilji, Malik Kafur Mamluk and Khilji 1290-1320 Nalanda, Odantapuri, Vikramashila, Bhilsa, Ujjain, Jhain, Vijapur, Devagiri, Somnath, Chidambaram, Madurai Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu
Ulugh Khan, Firuz Shah Tughlaq, Nahar, Muzaffar Khan Khilji and Tughlaq 1320-1395[102] Somnath, Warangal, Bodhan, Pillalamarri, Puri, Sainthali, Idar, Somnath[103] Gujarat, Telangana, Orissa, Haryana
Sikandar, Muzaffar Shah, Ahmad Shah, Mahmud Sayyid 1400-1442 Paraspur, Bijbehara, Tripuresvara, Idar, Diu, Manvi, Sidhpur, Delwara, Kumbhalmir Gujarat, Rajasthan
Suhrab, Begdha, Bahmani, Khalil Shah, Khawwas Khan, Sikandar Lodi, Ibrahim Lodi Lodi 1457-1518 Mandalgarh, Malan, Dwarka, Kondapalle, Kanchi, Amod, Nagarkot, Utgir, Narwar, Gwalior Rajasthan, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh
List of Sultans
Mamluk dynasty
The mausoleum of Qutb al-Din Aibak in Anarkali, Lahore, Pakistan.
Khilji dynasty
Tughlaq dynasty
Sayyid dynasty
Lodi dynasty
See also
  1. "Arabic and Persian Epigraphical Studies - Archaeological Survey of India". Asi.nic.in.
  2. Alam, Muzaffar (1998). "The pursuit of Persian: Language in Mughal Politics". Modern Asian Studies. Cambridge University Press. 32 (2): 317–349. doi:10.1017/s0026749x98002947. Hindavi was recognized as a semi-official language by the Sor Sultans (1540-55) and their chancellery rescripts bore transcriptions in the Devanagari script of the Persian contents. The practice is said to have been introduced by the Lodis (1451-1526).
  3. Jackson, Peter (16 October 2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3.
  4. Delhi Sultanate, Encyclopædia Britannica
  5. A. Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, Leiden, 1980
  6. Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 68–102. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  7. Jamal Malik (2008). Islam in South Asia: A Short History. Brill Publishers. p. 104.
  8. Ramananda Chatterjee (1961). The Modern Review. 109. Indiana University. p. 84.
  9. Pradeep Barua The State at War in South Asia, ISBN 978-0803213449, p. 29-30
  10. Bowering et al., The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought, ISBN 978-0691134840, Princeton University Press
  11. Muḥammad ibn Tughluq Encyclopædia Britannica
  12. Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, 3rd Edition, Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-15482-0, pp 187-190
  13. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, Oxford University Press
  14. Asher, C. B.; Talbot, C (1 January 2008), India Before Europe (1st ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 50–52, ISBN 978-0-521-51750-8
  15. A. Welch, "Architectural Patronage and the Past: The Tughluq Sultans of India," Muqarnas 10, 1993, Brill Publishers, pp 311-322
  16. J. A. Page, Guide to the Qutb, Delhi, Calcutta, 1927, page 2-7
  17. Madison, Angus (6 December 2007). Contours of the world economy, 1–2030 AD: essays in macro-economic history. Oxford University Press. p. 379. ISBN 0-19-922720-9.
  18. Keith Brown; Sarah Ogilvie (2008), Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World, Elsevier, ISBN 0-08-087774-5, ... Apabhramsha seemed to be in a state of transition from Middle Indo-Aryan to the New Indo-Aryan stage. Some elements of Hindustani appear ... the distinct form of the lingua franca Hindustani appears in the writings of Amir Khusro (1253–1325), who called it Hindwi ...
  19. Asher, C. B.; Talbot, C (1 January 2008), India Before Europe (1st ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 19, 50–51, ISBN 978-0-521-51750-8
  20. Richard Eaton (2000), Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Journal of Islamic Studies, 11(3), pp 283-319
  21. Richard M. Frye, "Pre-Islamic and Early Islamic Cultures in Central Asia", in Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective, ed. Robert L. Canfield (Cambridge U. Press c. 1991), 35–53.
  22. See:
    • M. Reza Pirbha, Reconsidering Islam in a South Asian Context, ISBN 978-9004177581, Brill
    • The Islamic frontier in the east: Expansion into South Asia, Journal of South Asian Studies, 4(1), pp. 91-109
    • Sookoohy M., Bhadreswar - Oldest Islamic Monuments in India, ISBN 978-9004083417, Brill Academic; see discussion of earliest raids in Gujarat
  23. Asher, C. B.; Talbot, C (1 January 2008), India Before Europe (1st ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 19, ISBN 978-0-521-51750-8
  24. Peter Jackson (2003), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521543293, pp 3-30
  25. T. A. Heathcote, The Military in British India: The Development of British Forces in South Asia:1600-1947, (Manchester University Press, 1995), pp 5-7
  26. Barnett, Lionel (1999), Antiquities of India: An Account of the History and Culture of Ancient Hindustan, p. 1, at Google Books, Atlantic pp. 73–79
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  28. MUHAMMAD B. SAM Mu'izz AL-DIN, T.W. Haig, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. VII, ed. C.E.Bosworth, E.van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs and C. Pellat, (Brill, 1993)
  29. C.E. Bosworth, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 5, ed. J. A. Boyle, John Andrew Boyle, (Cambridge University Press, 1968), pp 161-170
  30. History of South Asia: A Chronological Outline Columbia University (2010)
  31. Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Sām Encyclopædia Britannica (2011)
  32. Bruce R. Gordon. "Nomads of the Steppe". My.raex.com. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
  33. Jackson P. (1990), The Mamlūk institution in early Muslim India, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland (New Series), 122(02), pp 340-358
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  35. Barnett & Haig (1926), A review of History of Mediaeval India, from ad 647 to the Mughal Conquest - Ishwari Prasad, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland (New Series), 58(04), pp 780-783
  36. Peter Jackson (2003), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521543293, pp 29-48
  37. Anzalone, Christopher (2008), "Delhi Sultanate", in Ackermann, M. E. etc. (Editors), Encyclopedia of World History 2, ISBN 978-0-8160-6386-4
  38. "Qutub Minar". Retrieved 5 August 2015.
  39. Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi UNESCO
  40. Welch and Crane note that the Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque was built with the remains of demolished Hindu and Jain temples; See: Welch, Anthony; Crane, Howard (1983). "The Tughluqs: Master Builders of the Delhi Sultanate" (PDF). Muqarnas. Brill. 1: 123–166. JSTOR 1523075.
  41. Welch, Anthony; Crane, Howard (1983). "The Tughluqs: Master Builders of the Delhi Sultanate" (PDF). Muqarnas. Brill. 1: 123–166. JSTOR 1523075.
  42. Holt et al., The Cambridge History of Islam - The Indian sub-continent, south-east Asia, Africa and the Muslim west, ISBN 978-0521291378, pp 9-13
  43. Alexander Mikaberidze, Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia, ISBN 978-1598843361, pp 62-63
  44. Rene Grousset - Empire of steppes, Chagatai Khanate; Rutgers Univ Press, New Jersey, U.S.A, 1988 ISBN 0-8135-1304-9
  45. Frank Fanselow (1989), Muslim society in Tamil Nadu (India): an historical perspective, Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, 10(1), pp 264-289
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  47. AL Srivastava, Delhi Sultanate 5th Edition, ASIN B007Q862WO, pp 156-158
  48. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 231-235, Oxford University Press
  49. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 236-242, Oxford University Press
  50. Elliot and Dowson, Táríkh-i Fíroz Sháhí of Ziauddin Barani, The History of India as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period (Vol 3), London, Trübner & Co
  51. Richard Eaton, Temple Desecration and Muslim States in Medieval India at Google Books, (2004)
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  53. Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India by Jl Mehta p.97
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  55. Cornelius Walford (1878), The Famines of the World: Past and Present, p. 3, at Google Books, pp 9-10
  56. Judith Walsh, A Brief History of India, ISBN 978-0816083626, pp 70-72; Quote: "In 1335-42, during a severe famine and death in the Delhi region, the Sultanate offered no help to the starving residents."
  57. McKibben, William Jeffrey (1994). "The Monumental Pillars of Fīrūz Shāh Tughluq". Ars Orientalis. 24: 105–118. JSTOR 4629462.
  58. HM Elliot & John Dawson (1871), Tarikh I Firozi Shahi - Records of Court Historian Sams-i-Siraj The History of India as told by its own historians, Volume 3, Cornell University Archives, pp 352-353
  59. Prinsep, J (1837). "Interpretation of the most ancient of inscriptions on the pillar called lat of Feroz Shah, near Delhi, and of the Allahabad, Radhia and Mattiah pillar, or lat inscriptions which agree therewith". Journal of the Asiatic Society. 6 (2): 600–609.
  60. Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi - Memoirs of Firoz Shah Tughlak, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives
  61. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 249-251, Oxford University Press
  62. Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi - Autobiographical memoirs, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 377-381
  63. Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, pp 20-23
  64. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 248-254, Oxford University Press
  65. Peter Jackson (1999), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, pp 312–317
  66. Beatrice F. Manz (2000). "Tīmūr Lang". In P. J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C. E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W. P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam. 10 (2 ed.). Brill.
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  69. Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, Chapter 2
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  72. Digby, S. (1975), The Tomb of Buhlūl Lōdī, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 38(03), pp 550-561
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  74. Andrew Petersen, Dictionary of Islamic Architecture, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415060844, pp 7
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  80. Irfan Habib (2011), Economic History of Medieval India, 1200-1500, page 54, Pearson Education
  81. Angus Maddison (2001), The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective, pages 241-242, OECD Development Centre
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  84. Metcalf, B.; Metcalf, T. R. (9 October 2006), A Concise History of Modern India (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 6, ISBN 978-0-521-68225-1
  85. Eaton, Richard M.'The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1993 1993, accessed on 1 May 2007
  86. Eaton (2000), Temple desecration in pre-modern India Frontline, p. 73, item 16 of the Table, Archived by Columbia University
  87. Eaton, Richard M. (2000). "Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States" (PDF). The Hindu. Chennai, India. p. 297.
  88. Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, pp 7-10
  89. James Brown (1949), The History of Islam in India, The Muslim World, 39(1), 11-25
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  93. Welch, Anthony (1993), Architectural patronage and the past: The Tughluq sultans of India, Muqarnas, Vol. 10, 311-322
  94. Gul and Khan (2008), Growth and Development of Oriental Libraries in India, Library Philosophy and Practice, University of Nebrasaka-Lincoln
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  97. A.L. Srivastava (1966), Delhi Sultanate, 5th Edition, Agra College
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  99. Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi - Memoirs of Firoz Shah Tughlaq, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 377-381
  100. Hasan Nizami et al, Taju-l Ma-asir & Appendix, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 2 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 22, 219, 398, 471
  101. Richard Eaton, Temple desecration and Indo-Muslim states, Frontline (January 5, 2001), pp 72-73
  102. Ulugh Khan also known as Almas Beg was brother of Ala-al Din Khilji; his destruction campaign overlapped the two dynasties
  103. Somnath temple went through cycles of destruction by Sultans and rebuilding by Hindus
  104. Tughlaq Shahi Kings of Delhi: Chart The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 369..
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The Maldives ( , , or ), (pronounced Mall-de-vis) officially the Republic of Maldives ( Maldivian : ދިވެހިރާއްޖޭގެ ޖުމްހޫރިއްޔާ , Dhivehi Raa'jeyge Jumhooriyya ), is a South Asian island country , located in the Indian Ocean , situated in the Arabian Sea . It lies southwest of India and Sri Lanka . The chain of twenty-six atolls stretches from Ihavandhippolhu Atoll in the north to the Addu City in the south. Comprising a territory spanning roughly 298 square kilometres (115 sq mi), the Maldives is one of the world's most geographically dispersed countries, as well as the smallest Asian country by both land area and population, with around 427,756 inhabitants. Malé is the capital and most populated city, traditionally called the " King's Island " for its central location. The Maldives archipelago is located atop the Chagos-Maldives-Laccadive Ridge , a vast submarine mountain range in the Indian Ocean , which also forms a terrestrial ecoregion , together with the Chagos and the Lakshadweep. With an average gr

Hauz Khas Complex


Northern limb of the madrasa starting with the tomb of Feruz Shah and ending in a mosque, with reservoir in the foreground Hauz Khas Complex ( Hindi : हौज़ ख़ास , Punjabi : ਹੌਜ਼ ਖ਼ਾਸ , Urdu : حوض خاص ‎) in Hauz Khas , South Delhi houses a water tank, an Islamic seminary , a mosque , a tomb and pavilions built around an urbanized village with medieval history traced to the 13th century of Delhi Sultanate reign. It was part of Siri , the second medieval city of India of the Delhi Sultanate of Allauddin Khilji Dynasty (1296–1316). The etymology of the name Hauz Khas in Farsi is derived from the words ‘Hauz’: “water tank” (or lake) and ‘Khas’:“royal”- the “Royal tank”. The large water tank or reservoir was first built by Khilji {the plaque displayed (pictured in the gallery) at the site records this fact} to supply water to the inhabitants of Siri. The tank was de–silted during the reign of Firuz Shah Tughlaq (1351–88). Several buildings ( Mosque and madrasa ) and tombs were built overlooking the water tank

Mubarak Shah (Sayyid dynasty)


Mubarak Shah ( r.  1421  –  1434 ) was the second monarch of the Sayyid dynasty which ruled the Delhi Sultanate . He succeeded his father, Khizr Khan to the throne. The Sayyids were subservient to Timur 's successor, Shah Rukh , and while Khizr Khan did not assume the title of sultan, Mubarak Shah was acknowledged as one by Sirhindi. However, it is also known that Mubarak Shah received a received a robe and a chatr (a ceremonial parasol) from the Timurid capital of Herat which indicates that the fealty continued in his time. He was murdered in 1434 and succeeded by his nephew, Muhammad Shah . See also Kotla Mubarakpur Notes Jackson 2003 . EB . References Jackson, Peter (2003). The Delhi Sultanate : a political and military history (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   9780521543293 . "Sayyid dynasty" . Encyclopedia Britannica. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mubarak Shah (Sayyid dynasty) . Mubarak Shah ( r.  1421  –  1434 ) was the second monarch of the Sayyid dynasty which ruled the

Siri Fort


Siri Fort , in the city of New Delhi , was built during the rule of Alaudin Khalji , the Turkic ( Afghan ) ruler of the Delhi Sultanate , to defend the city from the onslaught of the Mongols. It was the second of the seven cities of medieval Delhi built around 1303 (stated to be the first entirely constructed by Turks ), which at present is seen only in ruins with a few remnants (pictured) Near the Siri Fort ruins modern auditoriums, the Asian Games Village Complex and residential and commercial establishments fill the modern landscape between the Khel Gaon Marg and the Aurobindo Marg in the heart of South Delhi . History Alaud'din is the best known of the Khilji dynasty because he extended his dominion to Southern India and established the second city of Delhi, Siri. He created Siri between 1297 and 1307 to defend against Mongol invasions of India and Delhi. In response he built Siri Fort, mimicked massive Turkish ones. The Fort served as the seat of his power during his campaigns to enlarge his territo

Firuz Shah Tughlaq


Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq (1309 – 20 September 1388) was a Turkic Muslim ruler of the Tughlaq Dynasty , who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1351 to 1388. His father's name was Rajab (the younger brother of Ghazi Malik ) who had the title Sipahsalar. He succeeded his cousin Muhammad bin Tughlaq following the latter's death at Thatta in Sindh, where Muhammad bin Tughlaq had gone in pursuit of Taghi the ruler of Gujarat. For the first time in the history of Delhi Sultanate, a situation was confronted wherein nobody was ready to accept the reigns of power. With much difficulty, the camp followers convinced Firuz to accept the responsibility. In fact, Khwaja Jahan, the Wazir of Muhammad bin Tughlaq had placed a small boy on throne claiming him to the son of Muhammad bin Tughlaq, who meekly surrendered afterwards. Due to widespread unrest, his realm was much smaller than Muhammad's. Tughlaq was forced by rebellions to concede virtual independence to Bengal and other provinces. Rule We know of Firuz Shah

Ghiyasuddin Iwaj Shah


Ghiyas-ud-din Iwaz Khilji (later known as Husam-ud-din Iwaj Khilji ) was a Bengal ruler on 1208-1210 and again on 1212-1227. History During the infighting of the Khilji Maliks he assumed power in 1208 and ruled for two years until being dethroned by Ali Mardan Khilji in 1210. But after the death of Ali Mardan Khilji he once again took power in 1212 and styled himself as Ghiyas-ud-din Iwaz Shah. Ghiyas-ud-din Iwaz Khilji ruled for 15 long years and established peace in Bengal. He transferred the capital from Devkot to Gaur . He prepared a powerful navy for Bengal. Ghiyas-ud-din Iwaz Khilji carried out invasions into neighboring regions and made Vanga (Eastern Bengal), Kamarupa (Assam), Tirhut (Northern Bihar) and Utkala (Northern Orissa) his tributary states. Ghiyas-ud-din Iwaz Khilji's conquest of Bihar was considered as a threat to the Mamluk Sultanate (Delhi) and the Sultan of Delhi Iltutmish decided to reduce him. In 1224 Iltutmish invaded Bengal. The two armies confronted in Teliagarh of Bihar. Ghiyas-ud-

Muhammad Shah (Sayyid dynasty)


Muhammad Shah ( r.  1434  –  1445 ) was the third monarch of the Sayyid dynasty which ruled the Delhi Sultanate . He succeeded his uncle, Mubarak Shah to the throne. The Sayyids were subservient to Timur 's successor, Shah Rukh . According to the chronicler, Muhammad Bihamadkhani, who was a contemporary, this obedience continued in Muhammad Shah's reign. Both Muhammad Shah and his son, Alam Shah who succeeded him, were incapable rulers and were supplanted by the Lodi dynasty. Muhammad Shah's tomb is a notable monument within the Lodi Gardens of New Delhi . Notes Jackson 2003 , p. 322. EB . References Jackson, Peter (2003). The Delhi Sultanate : a political and military history (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   9780521543293 . "Sayyid dynasty" . Encyclopedia Britannica. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Muhammad Shah (Sayyid dynasty) . Muhammad Shah ( r.  1434  –  1445 ) was the third monarch of the Sayyid dynasty which ruled the Delhi Sultanate . He succeeded his uncle, Mubarak Sh

Zafar Khan


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Dilawar Khan


Dilawar Khan's Mosque in Mandu Dilawar Khan Ghori was governor of the Malwa province of central India during the decline of the Delhi Sultanate . After serving at the court in Delhi, he was appointed governor at Dhar in A.H. 793/C.E. 1390-91. Dilawar Khan took the title of 'Amid Shāh Dā'ūd and caused the khutba to be read in his name in A.H. 804/C.E. 1401-02. He passed his kingdom – the Malwa Sultanate – to his son Hoshang Shah upon his death in A.H. 809/C.E. 1406. Dilawar Khan in the reign of the Later Tughluqs (1391/92 - 1401/02) Dilawar Khan was the follower of Firuz Shah Tughluq's son, Muhammad ibn Firuz, later known as Muhammad Shah. He was imprisoned by the court officials at Delhi for his support for the rebel prince. Not only Dilawar Khan, but many important provincial governors, such as that of Gujarat, and various other important and powerful nobles of the court supported the Prince' claim to the throne. After Timur 's invasion in 1398, the same prince, who was the then Sultan of Delhi, ran away

Adal Sultanate


The Adal Sultanate , or Kingdom of Adal (alt. spelling Adel Sultanate), was a multi-ethnic medieval Muslim state located in the Horn of Africa . It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of the Sultanate of Ifat . The kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577. The sultanate and state were established by the inhabitants of the Harar Plateau. At its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region immediately east of Abyssinia . Name The origin of the name Adal is from Eidal or Aw Abdal, the Emir of Harar in the eleventh century. In the thirteenth century, Arab writer Al Dimashqi refers to the Adal Sultanate's capital, Zeila , by its Somali name "Awdal" ( Somali : "Awdal" ). The modern Awdal region, which was part of the Adal Sultanate, bears the kingdom's name. History Establishment Ruins of the Adal Sultanate in Zeila, Awdal According to the 16th-century explorer Leo Africanus , the Adal Sultanate's realm encompassed the geographical area between the Bab el Mandeb and Cape Gu

Veera Ballala III


Veera Ballala III (r.1292–1342) was the last great king of the Hoysala Empire . During his rule, the northern and southern branches of the Hoysala empire (which included much of modern Karnataka and northern Tamil Nadu) were consolidated and administered from Halebidu (also known as Dwarasamudra). During his rule, he fought numerous wars with the Yadavas of Devagiri , the Pandyan Dynasty of Madurai and other minor dynasties of South India. But it was his conflict with the invading forces of Alla-ud-din Khilji , and later those of Muhammad bin Tughluq , the Sultan of Delhi, that would alter the course of history of South India. For his courage and fortitude, the historians Suryanath Kamath , Chopra, Ravindran and Subrahmanian have called him a "great ruler". With his death in c.1343, South India saw the raise of a new Hindu empire, the Vijayanagara Empire . In the words of the historian Sen "the Hoysalas were the greatest among those who claim to be the makers of modern Mysore". Pandya and Yadava affairs In

Kakatiya dynasty


The Kakatiya dynasty was a South Indian dynasty whose capital was Orugallu, now known as Warangal . It was eventually conquered by the Delhi Sultanate . The demise of Kakatiya dynasty resulted in confusion and anarchy under alien rulers for sometime, before the Musunuri Nayaks brought stability to the region. Sources Historic sources relating to the Kakatiya dynasty are sparse. Of those that are available, the most prevalent are ancient inscriptions that mainly document matters relating to religion, such as donations to Hindu temples. They are particularly abundant for the period 1175–1324 CE, which is the period when the dynasty most flourished and are a reflection of that. The probability is that many inscriptions have been lost due to buildings falling into disuse and also the ravages of subsequent rulers, most notably the Muslim Mughal Empire in the Telangana region. Inscriptions are still being discovered today but governmental agencies tend to concentrate on recording those that are already known rather

Alauddin Khilji's conquest of Gujarat


Asavalli (Ahmedabad) Anahilavada (Patan) Khambhat Somanatha (Somnath) Surat Delhi In 1299, the Delhi Sultanate led by Alauddin Khilji ransacked the Gujarat region of India, which was ruled by the Vaghela king Karna . The Delhi forces plundered several major cities of Gujarat, including Anahilavada (Patan), Khambhat , Surat and Somnath . Karna was able to regain control of at least a part of his kingdom in the later years. However, in 1304, a second invasion by Alauddin's forces permanently ended the Vaghela dynasty, and resulted in the annexation of Gujarat to the Delhi Sultanate. Background After becoming the Sultan of Delhi in 1296, Alauddin Khilji spent a few years consolidating his power. Once he had strengthened his control over the Indo-Gangetic plains, he decided to invade Gujarat, which was one of the wealthiest regions of India, because of its fertile soil and the Indian Ocean trade . Moreover, a large number of Muslim traders lived in the port cities of Gujarat. This would make it convenient for th

Delhi (disambiguation)


Delhi or the National Capital Territory is the capital of India. Delhi may also refer to: Places India Delhi Cantonment , a town in the National Capital Territory of Delhi Delhi Sultanate , an empire that dominated much of India New Delhi , urban area within the metropolis of Delhi which is the seat of the government of India Old Delhi , capital of the Mughals during the Mughal dynasty Delhi Subah , an imperial Mughal province based at (Old) Delhi, renamed Shahjahanbad in 1648 United States Delhi, California , a census-designated place Delhi, Colorado , an unincorporated town Delhi, Iowa , a city Delhi, Louisiana , a town Delhi, Minnesota , a city Delhi, Missouri , an unincorporated community Delhi, Wisconsin , a ghost town Delhi, New York , a town Delhi (village), New York , county seat of Delaware County Delhi Charter Township, Michigan , a charter township Delhi Dam , a dam in Iowa Delhi Township, Minnesota , a township of Redwood County Delhi Township, Hamilton County, Ohio , a township Canada Delhi, Onta

Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent


Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century. With the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate , Islam spread across large parts of the subcontinent. In 1204, Bakhtiar Khilji led the Muslim conquest of Bengal , marking the eastern-most expansion of Islam at the time. Prior to the rise of the Maratha Empire , which was followed by the conquest of India by the British East India Company , the Muslim Mughal Empire was able to annex or subjugate most of India's kings. However, it was never able to conquer the kingdoms in upper reaches of the Himalayas such as the regions of today's Himachal Pradesh , Uttarakhand , Sikkim , Nepal and Bhutan ; the extreme south of India, such as Travancore and Tamil Nadu ; and in the east, such as the Ahom kingdom in Assam . Early Muslim presence Islam in South Asia existed in comm

Ilyas Shahi dynasty


Ilyas dynasty or Iliyas dynasty or Iliyas Shahi dynasty was the first independent Turkic Muslim ruling dynasty in late medieval Bengal , which ruled from the 14th century to the 15th century. History The dynasty was founded by Ilyas Shah (1342–1358), who succeeded to achieve the political unity of Bengal and begin what is known as the Sultanate of Bengal . In 1352, after defeating Ikhtiyaruddin Ghazi Shah and Ilias Shah became the ruler of Sonargaon . Raja Ganesha In 1415, political confusion and weakness of the Ilyas Shahi dynasty led to it being overthrown by Raja Ganesha . After his death, his son Jadu assumed the title of Jalal-ud-Din Muhammad Shah . He was succeeded by his son, Shams-ud-Din Ahmad Shah . He was killed by his nobles in 1436. Second Ilyas Shahi Dynasty After his death, the rule of Ilyas Shahi dynasty was restored by Mahmud Shah , a descendant of Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah, who ascended the throne in 1437 as Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah I. In 1487, the last ruler of this dynasty Jalal-ud-Din Fath Shah

Jaunpur, Uttar Pradesh


Jaunpur ( Hindustani pronunciation:  ) is a city and a municipal board in Jaunpur district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh . Jaunpur is located to the northwest of the district of Varanasi in the eastern part of the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh . Demographically, Jaunpur resembles the rest of the Purvanchal area in which it is located. History View at Juanpore, on the River Ganges (1847) Jaunpur historically known as Sheeraz-e-Hind having its historical dates from 1359, when the city was founded by the Sultan of Delhi Feroz Shah Tughlaq and named in memory of his cousin, Muhammad bin Tughluq , whose given name was Jauna Khan. In 1388, Feroz Shah Tughlaq appointed Malik Sarwar, an eunuch , who is notorious for having been the lover of Feroz Shah Tughlaq's daughter, as the governor of the region. The Sultanate was in disarray because of factional fighting for power, and in 1393 Malik Sarwar declared independence. He and his adopted son Mubarak Shah founded what came to be known as the Sharqi dynas

Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq


Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq , Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq , or Ghazi Malik (Ghazi means 'fighter for Islam'), (died c. 1325 ) was the founder of the Tughluq dynasty in India , who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1320 to 1325. He founded the city of Tughluqabad . His reign was cut short after 5 years when he died under mysterious circumstances in 1325. He was succeeded by Muhammad bin Tughluq Beginning of the reign Silver Tanka of Ghiyasal-Din Tughlaq Dated AH 724 Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq was a "man of humble origin", the son of a Qaraunah Turk slave and a Hindu Indian mother. He became a provincial governor of Dipalpur under the Khiljis. Alauddin Khilji had prepared an expedition of 10,000 men under Ghazi to go to Dipalpur to fight against the Chagatai Khanate Mongols. Ghazi secured Multan , Uch and Sindh at a time when Khilji died and Aláuddín Khilji’s sons proved incapable and caused confusion in the affairs of the kingdom. Alauddin Khilji ’s son Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah was removed from the throne of Delhi by

Alauddin Khilji


Khilji dynasty Ala ud-Din Khilji (died 1316), born Juna Muhammad Khilji , was the second ruler of the Khilji dynasty reigning from 1296 to 1316. He is considered to be one of the most powerful rulers of Delhi Sultanate . Alauddin Khilji sent his lieutenant, Malik Kāfūr , on expedition to the south in 1308, which led to the capture of Warangal, the overthrow of the Hoysala dynasty south of the Krishna River, and the occupation of Madura in the extreme south. Malik Kāfūr returned to Delhi in 1311 laden with spoils. Thereafter the fortunes of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn and the dynasty declined. The sultan died in early 1316, and Malik Kāfūr’s attempted usurpation ended with his own death. He was a strategist and military commander who commanded forces across the Indian subcontinent. Sultan Ala-ud-din Khilji is also noted in history for being one of the few rulers in the world to have repeatedly defended his empire against Mongol invasions . He defeated large Mongol armies and then launched punitive expeditions against them

Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq


Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq (reign: 1394 − February 1413 CE) was the last sultan of the Tughlaq dynasty to rule the Islamic Delhi Sultanate . History During his reign in 1398, Amir Timur the Chagtai ruler invaded India. He carried away with him a large booty from Delhi and the surrounding area. Soon after the invasion, the Tughlaq dynasty came to an end. Successor The succeeding sultan of the Delhi Sultanate was Khizr Khan , the first of the Sayyid dynasty . References Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 100–102. ISBN   978-9-38060-734-4 . Preceded by Nasir ud din Muhammad Shah III Sultan of Delhi 1394–1413 Succeeded by Khizr Khan , Sayyid dynasty Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq (reign: 1394 − February 1413 CE) was the last sultan of the Tughlaq dynasty to rule the Islamic Delhi Sultanate . History During his reign in 1398, Amir Timur the Chagtai ruler invaded India. He carried away with him a large booty from Delhi and the surrounding area. Soon after the inv

Bahram Khan


Bahram Khan was the governor of Sonargaon , East Bengal (now Bangladesh ), from 1328 until 1337. He was a general of Delhi Sultanate. He was also appointed the governor of Satgaon during 1324–1328. History When Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah declared independence of Sonargaon , Delhi Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq sent his general, Bahram Khan, to depose him. In the battle, Bahadur Shah was defeated and killed. Bahram Khan recaptured Sonargaon for the Delhi Sultanate and was appointed the governor of Sonargaon. Death When Bahram Khan died in 1338, his armor-bearer, Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah , declared himself the independent Sultan of Sonargaon. Preceded by Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah Governor of Sonargaon 1328–1337 Succeeded by Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah See also List of rulers of Bengal References Khan, Muazzam Hussain (2012). "Tatar Khan" . In Islam, Sirajul ; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh . Bahram Khan was the governor of Sonargaon , East Benga

Alauddin Husain Shah


Ala-ud-din Husain Shah ( Bengali : আলাউদ্দিন হোসেন শাহ) ; reign 1494–1519) was an independent late medieval Sultan of Bengal , who founded the Hussain Shahi dynasty . He became the ruler of Bengal after assassinating the Abyssinian Sultan, Shams-ud-Din Muzaffar Shah , whom he had served under as wazir . After his death in 1519 his son Nusrat Shah succeeded him. Early life and accession Husain Shah's original name is Sayyeed Husain. According to a 1788 chronicle, Riyaz-us-Salatin, Husain was the son of Sayyeed Ashraf Al Husaini Al Fatimi Al Makki, a Sharif of Mecca and an inhabitant of Tirmiz (in Turkestan ). Besides both historians Salim (writer of Riyaz-us-Salatin) and Firishtah (from late 16th century) mentioned him as Sayyed - this indicates Husain's Arab descent. Besides, the term Sultan Husain Shah bin Sayyeed Ashraf-ul-Husaini (Sultan Husain Shah, son of Sayyed Ashraf-ul-Husaini) frequently appeared on his coins. But it is not yet known how he came to Bengal and occupied the post of Vizier of Sultan

History of Ahmedabad


Ahmedabad is the largest city in the state of Gujarat . It is located in western India on the banks of the River Sabarmati . The city served as political as well as economical capital of the region since its establishment. The earliest settlement can be recorded around the 12th century under Chaulukya dynasty rule. The present city was founded on 26 February 1411 and announced as the capital on 4 March 1411 by Ahmed Shah I of Gujarat Sultanate as a new capital. Under the rule of sultanate (1411–1511) the city prospered followed by decline (1511–1572) when the capital was transferred to Champaner . For next 135 years (1572-1707), the city renewed greatness under the early rulers of Mughal Empire . The city suffered due to political instability (1707-1817) under late Mughal rulers followed by joint rule between Maratha and Mughal. The city further suffered following joint Maratha rule. The city again progressed when politically stabilized when British East India Company established the rule in the city (1818-18

The Ska Vengers


The Ska Vengers is a New Delhi based band that blends Ska , Dub , Punk , Jazz and Rap in their music. The core band consists of Stefan Kaye (Keys, Percussions, Theremin, Backing Vocals), Delhi Sultanate (Lead Vocals), Begum X (Lead Vocals), The Late Nikhil Vasudevan (Drums, Backing Vocals), Chaz (Guitars) and Tony Guinard (Bass, Backing Vocals). The band is the first and only other ska-based setup coming out of India, and also incorporates Psychedelia , Latin jazz and more experimental genres into their music. Band Members Delhi Sultanate - Male Lead Singer Begum X - Female Lead Singer The Late Nikhil Vasudevan - Drums Tony 'Bass' Guinard - Bass Chaz Bhalla - Guitars Stefan 'Flexi' K - Keys, Percussions, Theremin, Backing Vocals, Bananas Self-Titled Album The Ska Vengers released their first self-titled album in 2013, on Times Music. The band released the first music video of the album with the track titled - Rough and Mean, explored subjects around male double standards and the prevalent misogyny in the In



Jahanpanah was the fourth medieval city of Delhi established in 1326–1327 by Muhammad bin Tughlaq (1321–51), of the Delhi Sultanate . To address the constant threat of the Mongols , Tughlaq built the fortified city of Jahanpanah (meaning in Persian: “Refuge of the World”) subsuming the Adilabad fort that had been built in the 14th century and also all the establishments lying between Qila Rai Pithora and Siri Fort . Neither the city nor the fort has survived. Many reasons have been offered for such a situation. One of which is stated as the idiosyncratic rule of Mohammed bin Tughlaq when inexplicably he shifted the capital to Daulatabad in the Deccan and came back to Delhi soon after. The ruins of the city’s walls are even now discerned in the road between Siri to Qutub Minar and also in isolated patches behind the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), in Begumpur, Khirki Masjid near Khirki village, Satpula and many other nearby locations; at some sections, as seen at Satpula, the fort walls were large enough

List of capitals of India


This is a list of formerly capitals of India . Early period Pataliputra : Capital of the following below: Begram and Mathura : Summer and winter capitals respectively of the Kushan Empire Amaravati and Pratishthānapura : Capitals of Satavahana Empire Kannauj : Capital of Harshavardhana 's short lived kingdom; also of Pratiharas. Manyakheta , Avanti : Capitals of Rashtrakuta Dynasty and Pratihara Empire respectively. Gadhipur : centre of administration of the Gupta dynasty. Capital under Jamwal kings Gaadhi and Vishwamitra . Puhar : Capital of Early Cholas . Madurai : Capital of Pandyas Gauḍa : Capital of Pala dynasty along with Pataliputra Sigal : First capital of the Sakas 70bce-400 Taxila : Second capital of the Sakas 70bce-400 Mathura : Third capital of the Sakas 70bce-400 Sagala : Capital of the Indo-Greeks Bhinmal: Capital of Gurjara Emoire Jaunpur : Capital of Sharqī dynasty (1394–1479). Medieval period Delhi : The current capital of India is the seat of Delhi Sultanate . Daulatabad : In 1327, Tughlaq d

Sikandar Lodi


Sikandar Lodi (died 21 November 1517), born Nizam Khan , was the Sultan of Delhi between 1489 to 1517. He became the next ruler of the Lodi dynasty after the death of his father Bahlul Lodi in July 1489. The second and most successful ruler of the Lodi dynasty of the Delhi sultanate, he was also a poet of the Persian language and prepared a diwan of 9000 verses. Of the three Lodi Sultans namely Bahlol Lodi (1451 to 1489), Sikandar Lodi (1489 to 1517) and Ibrahim Lodi (1517 to 1526), Sikandar Lodi is regarded as the ablest, the greatest and the most successful Sultan. As compared with these two Sultans, Sikandar Lodi gave ample evidence of his qualities as a general, as an administrator, a consolidator of the empire and a man of letters. Biography The top two storeys of the Qutub Minar were reconstructed in marble by Sikandar Lodi Sikandar was the second son of Sultan Bahlul Khan Lodi and Bibi Ambha, the daughter of a Hindu goldsmith of Sirhind . He was of Afghan origin through his father. He became Sultan

Mughal Empire


The Mughal Empire ( Urdu : مغلیہ سلطنت ‎, translit.   Mughliyah Salṭanat ) or Mogul Empire , self-designated as Gurkani ( Persian : گورکانیان ‎‎, Gūrkāniyān, meaning "son-in-law"), was an empire in the Indian subcontinent , founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia , but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and large parts of Afghanistan . It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent , spanning four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire , which spanned five mil

New Delhi


The city of New Delhi is located within the National Capital Territory of Delhi . New Delhi ( ) is the capital of India and one of Delhi city's 11 districts . Although colloquially Delhi and New Delhi are used interchangeably to refer to the National Capital Territory of Delhi, these are two distinct entities, with New Delhi forming a small part of Delhi. The National Capital Region is a much larger entity comprising the entire National Capital Territory of Delhi along with adjoining districts. It is surrounded by Haryana on three sides and Uttar Pradesh on the east. The foundation stone of the city was laid by George V, Emperor of India during the Delhi Durbar of 1911 . It was designed by British architects, Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker . The new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931, by Viceroy and Governor-General of India Lord Irwin . New Delhi has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi 's flagship

Hammir Singh


Rana Hammira (1314–78), or Hammira , was a 14th-century ruler of Mewar in present-day Rajasthan , India . Following an invasion by the Delhi sultanate at the turn of the 13th century, the ruling Guhilot clan had been displaced from Mewar. Hammir Singh, who belonged to an impoverished cadet branch of that clan, regained control of the region, re-established the dynasty, and became the first of his dynasty to use the royal title 'Rana'. Hammir also became the progenitor of the Sisodia clan, a branch of the Guhilot clan, to which every succeeding Maharana of Mewar has belonged. He built the Annapoorna Mata temple which is located in the Chittorgarh Fort in Chittorgarh, Rajasthan. Synopsis Rana Hammir (not to be confused with Chauhan Hammir of Ranthambore), the 14th century ruler of Mewar in present-day Rajasthan , was the first ruler using the title Rana before his name. He belonged to the Guhilot dynasty. After an invasion by the Delhi sultanate at the turn of the 13th century, the ruling Guhilot dynasty had b

Kampili kingdom


The Kampili kingdom was a short-lived Hindu kingdom of early 14th-century in the Deccan region. The kingdom existed near Gulbarga and Tungabhadra river in northeastern parts of the present-day Karnataka state, India . It ended after a defeat by the armies of Delhi Sultanate , and a jauhar (ritual mass suicide) in 1327/28 CE when it faced a certain defeat. The Kampili kingdom in some historical accounts is called the Basnaga kingdom, and as what inspired and ultimately led to the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire . The founder of the kingdom was a Hoysala commander, Singeya Nayaka-III (1280–1300 AD), who declared independence after the Muslim forces of the Delhi Sultanate defeated and captured the territories of the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri in 1294 CE. Nayaka-III was succeeded by his son Kampilideva in 1300, who remained in dispute with the territorial claims of Delhi Sultanate. The Kampili kingdom finally fell to the invasion in 1327/28 CE from the north by the forces of Muhammad bin Tughluq , the Sultan of Del



Look up deli in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Deli may refer to: Delicatessen , a store selling specially prepared food Sultanate of Deli , a previous sultanate at North Sumatra, Indonesia Places Deli, Boyer-Ahmad , a village in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran Deli, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari , a village in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran Deli, Isfahan , a village in Isfahan Province, Iran Deli, Izeh , a village in Khuzestan Province, Iran Deli, Kohgiluyeh , a village in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran Deli, Susan , a village in Khuzestan Province, Iran Deli Serdang Regency , a regency in the province of North Sumatra, Indonesia Deli Zal Beyg , a village in Lorestan Province, Iran Deli, a town in Sumatra developed for tobacco commerce that became Medan Other uses Deli (company) , a global office supply company based in China Deli (Ottoman troops) , a designation for irregular troops in the later Ottoman Empire DeLi Linux , a lightweight Linux distribution "Deli" (song) , Eurovis

Zafar Khan Malik Dinar


Malik Dinar was a native Indian slave who served as general in Khilji Dynasty of Delhi Sultanate . He served as subordinate officer Malik Kafur and was also a Shihna-yi pil or intendant of elephantry and was sent by Kafur to suppress rebellion in Gujarat. His daughter has been married the third Khilji dynasty sultan, Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah . he was given the title 'Zafar Khan '(literally chief of victory). The very same title which bestowed to one of greatest Khilji military general who repelled the Chagatai Khanate repeated invasions into India, Zafar Khan Malik Hizbaruddin . References Peter Jackson (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, quoting TFS 388-9 . Cambridge University Press. p. 175. ISBN   0521543290 . Peter Jackson (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History . Cambridge University Press. p. 177. ISBN   0521543290 . Iqtidar Alam Khan (2008). Historical Dictionary of Medieval India . Scarecrow Press. p. 59. ISBN   0810864010 . Satish Chandra Misra (198

Sultanate of Rum


The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as Rûm sultanate Persian : Saljūqiyān-i Rūm سلجوقیان روم ‎‎, Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate , Sultanate of Iconium , Anatolian Seljuk State Turkish : Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti or Turkey Seljuk State Turkish : Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti ) was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state, established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire which was established by Seljuk Turks . The name Rûm reflects the Arabic name of Anatolia, الرُّومُ ar-Rūm, a loan from Greek Ρωμιοί " Romans ". The Sultanate of Rum seceded from the Great Seljuk Empire under Suleiman ibn Qutulmish in 1077, following the Battle of Manzikert , with capitals first at İznik and then at Konya . It reached the height of its power during the late 12th and early 13th century, when it succeeded in taking Byzantine key ports on the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. In the east, the sultanate absorbed other Turkish states and reached Lake Van . Trade from Iran and Central Asia

Banten Sultanate


The Banten Sultanate was founded in the 16th century and centred in Banten , a port city on the northwest coast of Java ; the contemporary English spelling of both was Bantam . It is said to have been founded by Sunan Gunungjati , who had previously founded Cirebon . Once a great trading centre in Southeast Asia , especially of pepper , its importance was overshadowed by Batavia , and finally annexed to Dutch East Indies in 1813. Its core territory now forms the Indonesian province of Banten . Today, in Old Banten , the Grand Mosque of Banten is an important destination for tourists and for pilgrims from across Indonesia and from overseas. Formation Before 1526 CE, a settlement called Banten was situated about ten kilometres inland from the coast on the Cibanten River, in the area which is today occupied by the southern suburbs of the town of Serang . It was known as Banten Girang , meaning "Banten-up-the-river" owing to its location. Sunan Gunungjati (Sharif Hidayatullah) was an " ulama ", an educated class

Mongol invasion of India, 1306


In 1306, the Chagatai Khanate ruler Duwa sent an expedition to India, to avenge the Mongol defeat in 1305 . The invading army included three contingents led by Kopek, Iqbalmand, and Tai-Bu. To the check the invaders' advance, the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khilji dispatched an army led by Malik Kafur , and supported by other generals such as Malik Tughluq . The Delhi army achieved a decisive victory, killing several thousands of the invaders. The Mongol captives were brought to Delhi, where they were either killed or sold into slavery. After this defeat, the Mongols did not invade the Delhi Sultanate during Alauddin's reign. The victory greatly emboldened Alauddin's general Tughluq, who launched several punitive raids in the Mongol territories of present-day Afghanistan . Mongol invasion Duwa , the ruler of the Mongol Chagatai Khanate in Central Asia, had dispatched several expeditions India. Alauddin Khilji , the ruler of Delhi Sultanate of India, had taken several measures against the Mongol invasions.

Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji


Jalaluddin Firuz Khilji ( Urdu : جلال الدین فیروز خلجی ‎) (died 20 July 1296) was the first sultan of the Khilji dynasty , who reigned from 1290 to 1296. Jalaluddin built his capital at Kilughari, a few miles from the city of Delhi , and completed the unfinished palace and gardens of Sultan Qaiqabad . He ruled much of Northern India for six years, from 1290 to 1296. Early life and accession Jalaluddin Khalji was born as Malik Firuz, in Qalat, Zabul Province , into Khilji family. He was of Turkic ethnic background. He was appointed by Sultan Qaiqabad to the fief of Baran and the command of the army. Soon, Sultan Qaiqabad suffered from a paralytic stroke and Firuz marched towards Delhi. The nobles placed Kayumars , the three-year-old son of Qaiqabad on the throne. But the sons of Firuz dashed into the city and carried away the infant Sultan, defeating a force sent in pursuit of them. Most of the Turkic nobles now submitted to Firuz. Qaiqabad was put to death and his corpse was thrown into the Yamuna . On 13

Mongol invasion of India, 1297-98


In the winter of 1297, Kadar, a noyan of the Mongol Chagatai Khanate invaded the Delhi Sultanate ruled by Alauddin Khilji . The Mongols ravaged the Punjab region , advancing as far as Kasur . Alauddin sent an army led by his brother Ulugh Khan (and probably Zafar Khan ) to check their advance. This army defeated the invaders on 6 February 1298, killing around 20,000 of them, and forcing the Mongols to retreat. Mongol raids The Mongol Chagatai Khanate had invaded the Delhi Sultanate a number of times, including in 1241, 1245, 1257, and 1285. Alauddin's predecessor Jalaluddin also faced a Mongol invasion, and was forced to negotiate a humiliating truce. During Alauddin's reign, the Mongols invaded India again: compared to the previous invasions, these were large-scale invasions. The first of these invasions was ordered by the Mongol ruler Duwa , who sent his noyan Kadar (or Keder) to India with a 100,000-strong force. In the winter of 1297-98, Kadar invaded and ravaged the Punjab region of the Delhi Sultanate ,

Ziauddin Barani


Ziauddin Barani (1285–1357) was a Muslim political thinker of the Delhi Sultanate located in present-day North India during Muhammad bin Tughlaq and Firuz Shah 's reign. He was best known for composing the Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi, a work on medieval India , which covers the period from the reign of Ghiyas ud din Balban to the first six years of reign of Firuz Shah Tughluq and the Fatwa-i-Jahandari which details the caste system among Muslims in South Asia. Life Barani was born to a Muslim family in 1285 in which his father, uncle, and grandfather all working in high government posts under the Sultan of Delhi . His family were natives of Meerut and Bulandsahar. His maternal grandfather Husam-ud-Din, was an important officer of Ghiyas ud din Balban and his father Muwayyid-ul-Mulk held the post of naib of Arkali Khan, the son of Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji. His uncle Qazi Ala-ul-Mulk was the Kotwal (police chief) of Delhi during the reign of Ala-ud-Din Khalji. Barani never held a post, but was a nadim (companion) of M

Mubarak Shah


Mubarak Shah may refer to the following people: Mubarak Shah (Chagatai Khan) , head of the Chagatai Khanate (1252–1260) Mubarak Shah (Sayyid dynasty) , Delhi Sultanate ( r.  1421  –  1434 ) Mubarak Shah (athlete) , Pakistani long-distance runner Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah , Khilji dynasty, Delhi Sultanate (d. 1320) Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah , Bengal ( r.  1338  –  1349 ) Mubarak Shah may refer to the following people: Mubarak Shah (Chagatai Khan) , head of the Chagatai Khanate (1252–1260) Mubarak Shah (Sayyid dynasty) , Delhi Sultanate ( r.  1421  –  1434 ) Mubarak Shah (athlete) , Pakistani long-distance runner Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah , Khilji dynasty, Delhi Sultanate (d. 1320) Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah , Bengal ( r.  1338  –  1349 )



Satpula is a remarkable ancient water harvesting dam or weir located about 800 m (2,625 ft) east of the Khirki Masjid that is integral to the compound wall of the medieval fourth city of the Jahanpanah in Delhi , with its construction credited to the reign of Sultan Muhammad Shah Tughlaq ( Muhammad bin Tughluq ) (1325–1351) of the Tughlaq Dynasty . The objective of building the weir was for providing water for irrigation and also, as a part of the city wall, to provide defense security to the city against attacking armies. Satpula is a usage in Urdu and Hindi languages , which literally means "seven bridges". History During the second decade rule of Sultan Muhammad Shah Tughlaq, the economic conditions of the Delhi Sultanate was in distress due to very high expenses incurred on the war campaign in South India ( Deccan ) and also due to the Sultan establishing his southern capital at Daulatabad . Both these acts necessitated increasing taxes to enhance the treasury coffers to meet large expenses. But people we

Shamsuddin Kayumars


Shams ud-Din Kayumars (reigned: 1290) was the son of Muiz ud-Din Qaiqabad , the tenth sultan of the Mamluk dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate . Qaiqabad father was murdered by a Khilji noble, Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khilji . Khilji assumed the throne after murdering Kayumars, ending the Mamluk dynasty and starting the Khilji dynasty. See also Muslim history History of India List of Indian monarchs References Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. p. 80. ISBN   978-9-38060-734-4 . External links India Through the Ages The Slave Dynasty The Khilji Revolution Preceded by Muiz ud din Qaiqabad Mamluk Sultan of Delhi 1290 Succeeded by Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji ( Khalji Dynasty ) Shams ud-Din Kayumars (reigned: 1290) was the son of Muiz ud-Din Qaiqabad , the tenth sultan of the Mamluk dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate . Qaiqabad father was murdered by a Khilji noble, Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khilji . Khilji assumed the throne after murdering Kayumars, ending the Mamluk dynasty and starting the Khi

List of battles of Rajasthan


Several significant battles are recorded to have taken place in what is now known as Rajasthan . Almost all of these were between Rajputs and foreign invaders viz. Turks, Afghans & Mughals. In most of these battles Rajputs were victorious and had significant role in weakening of invaders who had already established their rule in Delhi. Against the Ghurid's Battle of Kasahrada (1178) - Mularaja II of Solanki Dynasty defeated Mohammad Gori . Against the Sultanate's of Delhi,Gujarat and Malwa Siege of Jaisalmer (1286-1294) - Alauddin Khilji plundered Jaisalmer after 8 years of siege. For some years afterwards Jaisalmer remained abandoned before the surviving Bhatis reoccupied it. Battle of Ranthambore (1290) - Jalal-ud-d Khilji attacked Hammir deo because of his rising power. Jalaludin's forces were defeated by Hammir. Siege of Ranthombore (1301) – Hammiradeva defeated Alauddin Khilji 's generals Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan; later, Alauddin defeated Hammiradeva. Siege of Chittor (1303) – Alauddin Khilji defe

Bahlul Lodi


Bahlul Khan Lodi (died 12 July 1489) was the chief of the Pashtun Lodi tribe and founder of Lodi dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate upon the abdication of the last claimant from the previous Sayyid rule. Bahlul became sultan of the dynasty on 19 April 1451 (855 AH ). Early life Billon Tanka of 80 ratti of Bahlul Lodi Bahlul's grandfather, Malik Bahram, was a Pashtun from Multan ,he took service under the governor of Multan, Malik Mardan Daulat. Malik Bahram had a total of about five sons. His eldest son, Malik Sultan Shah Lodi, later served under the Sayyid dynasty ruler Khizr Khan and distinguished himself by killing in the battle later's worst enemy Mallu Iqbal Khan . He was rewarded with the title of Islam Khan and in 1419 appointed the governor of Sirhind . Bahlul, the son of Malik Kala, the younger brother of Malik Sultan was married to Malik Sultan's daughter. In his youth, Bahlul was involved in the trading of horses and once sold his finely bred horses to the Sayyid dynasty Sultan Mohammad Shah. As a p

Zafar Khan (Indian general)


Zafar Khan ( Persian : ظفر خان ‎‎ literally chief of victory), originally named Malik Hizbaruddin Yusuf, with Zafar a title was a Muslim Pashtun military general of Khilji dynasty , ruler of the Delhi Sultanate in northern India . He successfully repelled several Chagatai Khanate Mongol's invasions which secured Alauddin Khilji 's throne. Early career Zafar Khan was one of the earliest followers of Alauddin Khilji who followed him even at the time of Alauddin's Uncle, Jalaluddin Khilji, who are of non-Turkish origins aside Nusrat Khan and Malik Kafur who also achieved high positions in the sultanate. Together with Ulugh Khan they are important supporters of Alauddin when the future Sultan attempted his coup against Jalaluddin Khilji and succeeded as the next Sultan. According to Barani's Tarikh i Firoze Shahi, he was regarded by Barani as one of four Alauddin's most important and trusted generals, collectively known as four great Khans of Delhi Sultanate, the other Khans consisting of Ulugh Khan , Nusrat Kh

Tamil Nadu under the Vijayanagar Empire


The extension of the Vijayanagar Empire into the Tamil country began with the southern inroads made by Sangama kings between 1356 and 1378. With the destruction of the Madurai Sultanate in 1377-78, most of the present-day Tamil Nadu, eventually, came under the rule of the Vijayanagar Empire. The rule of the Vijayanagar kings was characterized by the restoration of religious freedom to the Hindu majority which was denied by the Madurai sultans and a revival of music, arts and crafts. The rule of the Vijayanagar kings also witnessed the steady decline of Tamil language as the new rulers patronized Kannada and Telugu over Tamil. The Vijayanagar Empire's hold over the Tamil country collapsed in the mid 16th century as the kingdom itself disintegrated into a number of petty chieftainships. History The Vijayanagar kingdom was founded by two brothers Harhara and Bukka who were captured by the Emperor of Delhi, Muhammad bin Tughlaq and forcibly converted to Islam but later escaped and renounced their new faith and la

Sufism in India


Sufism has a history in India evolving for over 1,000 years. The presence of Sufism has been a leading entity increasing the reaches of Islam throughout South Asia. Following the entrance of Islam in the early 8th century, Sufi mystic traditions became more visible during the 10th and 11th centuries of the Delhi Sultanate . A conglomeration of four chronologically separate dynasties, the early Delhi Sultanate consisted of rulers from Turkic and Afghan lands. This Persian influence flooded South Asia with Islam, Sufi thought, syncretic values, literature, education, and entertainment that has created an enduring impact on the presence of Islam in India today. Sufi preachers, merchants and missionaries also settled in coastal Bengal and Gujarat through maritime voyages and trade. Various leaders of Sufi orders, Tariqa , chartered the first organized activities to introduce localities to Islam through Sufism. Saint figures and mythical stories provided solace and inspiration to Hindu caste communities often

History of Allahabad


Allahabad (Hindi: इलाहाबाद), also known by its original name Prayag (Hindi: प्रयाग), is one of the largest cities of the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh in India . Although Prayaga was renamed Ilahabad in 1575, the name later became Allahabad in an anglicized version in Roman script. The city is situated on an inland peninsula, surrounded by the rivers Ganges and Yamuna on three sides, with only one side connected to the mainland Doab region, of which it is a part. This position is of importance in Hindu scriptures for it is situated at the confluence, known as Triveni Sangam , of the holy rivers. As per Rigveda the Sarasvati River (now dried up) was part of the three river confluence in ancient times. It is one of four sites of the Kumbh Mela , an important mass Hindu pilgrimage . The ancient name of the city is Prayag ( Sanskrit for "place of sacrifice"), as it is believed to be the spot where Brahma offered his first sacrifice after creating the world. Since its founding, Prayaga renamed Allahabad has

Pandyan dynasty


The Pandyan or Pandiyan or Pandian dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty , one of the three Tamil dynasties , the other two being the Chola and the Chera . The kings of the three dynasties were referred to as the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam . The dynasty ruled parts of South India from around 600 BCE ( Early Pandyan Kingdom ) to first half of 17th century CE. They initially ruled their country Pandya Nadu from Korkai , a seaport on the southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula, and in later times moved to Madurai . Fish being their flag , Pandyas were experts in water management, agriculture(mostly near river banks) and fisheries and they were eminent sailors and sea traders too. Pandyan was well known since ancient times, with contacts, even diplomatic, reaching the Roman Empire . The Pandyan empire was home to temples including Meenakshi Amman Temple in Madurai , and Nellaiappar Temple built on the bank of the river Thamirabarani in Tirunelveli . The Pandya kings were called either Jatavarman or Maravar

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Khirki Mosque


Khirki Fort , approached from the Khirki village in South Delhi and close to the Satpula or the seven arched bridge on the edge of southern wall of Jahapanah (the fourth city of Medieval Delhi ), was a mosque built by Khan-i-Jahan Junan Shah , the Prime Minister of Feroz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388) of the Tughlaq Dynasty . The word 'Khirki' prefixed to masjid is an Urdu word that means "window" and hence is also called "The Masjid of Windows". The Masjid , which is in a quadrangular shape, was built as a fortress with an unusual fusion of Islamic and traditional Hindu architecture . It is said to be the only mosque in North India , which is mostly covered; the totally covered mosque of the Sultanate period is, however, in South India at Gulbarga in North Karnataka . History Khan-i-Jahan Junaan Telangani and Feroz Shah Tughlaq were intensely committed towards building architectural monuments. Together, they planned and built several tombs and mosques. Telangani in particular, was credited with building seven mos

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