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Delhi Sultanate

The Delhi Sultanate was a Persianate Muslim kingdom based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).[4] [5] Five dynasties ruled over Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414),[6] the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526). The first four dynasties (Mamluk, Khilji, Tughlaq and Sayyid) were of Turkic origin, and the last dynasty (Lodi) was of Afghan origin. The sultanate is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack from the Mongol Empire,[7] and enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana, who reigned from 1236 to 1240.[8]

Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi and his dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards the Khilji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to unite the Indian subcontinent. The sultanate reached the peak of its geographical reach during the Tughlaq dynasty, covering most of the Indian subcontinent.[9] This was followed by decline due to continuing Hindu-Muslim wars, states such as the Vijayanagara Empire asserting independence, and new Muslim sultanates such as the Bengal Sultanate breaking off.[10] [11]

The Delhi Sultanate caused destruction and desecration of politically important temples of South Asia,[12] but the time of their rule also included the earliest forms of Indo-Islamic architecture.[13] [14] In 1526 the Sultanate fell, to be succeeded by the Mughal Empire.

Background

By 962 AD, Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in South Asia were under a wave of raids from Persianate Muslim armies from Central Asia.[15] Among them was Mahmud of Ghazni, who raided and plundered kingdoms in north India from east of the Indus river to west of Yamuna river seventeen times between 997 and 1030.[16] Mahmud of Ghazni raided the treasuries but retracted each time, only extending Islamic rule into western Punjab.[17] [18]

The wave of raids on north Indian and western Indian kingdoms by Muslim warlords continued after Mahmud of Ghazni.[19] The raids did not establish or extend permanent boundaries of their Islamic kingdoms. The Ghurid sultan Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori, commonly known as Muhammad of Ghor, began a systematic war of expansion into north India in 1173.[20] He sought to carve out a principality for himself by expanding the Islamic world.[16] [21] Muhammad of Ghor sought a Sunni Islamic kingdom of his own extending east of the Indus river, and he thus laid the foundation for the Muslim kingdom called the Delhi Sultanate.[16] Some historians chronicle the Delhi Sultanate from 1192 due to the presence and geographical claims of Muhammad Ghori in South Asia by that time.[22]

Ghori was assassinated in 1206, by Ismāʿīlī Shia Muslims in some accounts or by Hindu Khokhars in others.[23] After the assassination, one of Ghori's slaves (or mamluks, Arabic: مملوك), the Turkic Qutb al-Din Aibak, assumed power, becoming the first Sultan of Delhi.[16]

Dynasties
Mamluk / Slave

Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former slave of Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori (known more commonly as Muhammad of Ghor), was the first ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. Aibak was of Cuman-Kipchak origin,[24] and due to his lineage, his dynasty is known as the Mamluk (Slave) dynasty (not to be confused with the Mamluk dynasty of Iraq or the Mamluk dynasty of Egypt).[25] Aibak reigned as the Sultan of Delhi for four years, from 1206 to 1210.

After Aibak died, Aram Shah assumed power in 1210, but he was assassinated in 1211 by Shams ud-Din Iltutmish.[26] Iltutmish's power was precarious, and a number of Muslim amirs (nobles) challenged his authority as they had been supporters of Qutb al-Din Aibak. After a series of conquests and brutal executions of opposition, Iltutmish consolidated his power.[27] His rule was challenged a number of times, such as by Qubacha, and this led to a series of wars.[28] Iltumish conquered Multan and Bengal from contesting Muslim rulers, as well as Ranthambore and Siwalik from the Hindu rulers. He also attacked, defeated, and executed Taj al-Din Yildiz, who asserted his rights as heir to Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori.[29] Iltutmish's rule lasted till 1236. Following his death, the Delhi Sultanate saw a succession of weak rulers, disputing Muslim nobility, assassinations, and short-lived tenures. Power shifted from Rukn ud-Din Firuz to Razia Sultana and others, until Ghiyas ud-Din Balban came to power and ruled from 1266 to 1287.[28] [29] He was succeeded by 17-year-old Muiz ud-Din Qaiqabad, who appointed Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khilji as the commander of the army. Khilji assassinated Qaiqabad and assumed power, thus ending the Mamluk dynasty and starting the Khilji dynasty.

Qutb al-Din Aibak initiated the construction of the Qutub Minar[30] and the Quwwat-ul-Islam (Might of Islam) Mosque, now a UNESCO world heritage site.[31] It was built from the remains of twenty seven demolished Hindu and Jain temples. The Qutub Minar Complex or Qutb Complex was expanded by Iltutmish, and later by Ala ud-Din Khilji (the second ruler of the Khilji dynasty) in the early 14th century.[31] [32] During the Mamluk dynasty, many nobles from Afghanistan and Persia migrated and settled in India, as West Asia came under Mongol siege.[33]

Khilji
Alai Gate and Qutub Minar were built during the Mamluk and Khilji dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate.[31]

The first ruler of the Khilji dynasty was Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khilji. He came to power in 1290 after killing the last ruler of the Mamluk dynasty, Muiz ud-Din Qaiqabad, at the behest of Turkic, Afghan, and Persian nobles. Jalal ud-Din Firuz was of Turkic origin, and ruled for 6 years before he was murdered in 1296 by his nephew and son-in-law Juna Muhammad Khilji,[34] who later came to be known as Ala ud-Din Khilji.

Ala ud-Din began his military career as governor of Kara province, from where he led two raids on Malwa (1292) and Devagiri (1294) for plunder and loot. His military campaigning returned to these lands as well other south Indian kingdoms after he assumed power. He conquered Gujarat, Ranthambore, Chittor, and Malwa.[35] However, these victories were cut short because of Mongol attacks and plunder raids from the northwest. The Mongols withdrew after plundering and stopped raiding northwest parts of the Delhi Sultanate.[36]

After the Mongols withdrew, Ala ud-Din Khilji continued expanding the Delhi Sultanate into southern India with the help of generals such as Malik Kafur and Khusro Khan. They collected lots of war booty (anwatan) from those they defeated.[37] His commanders collected war spoils and paid ghanima (Arabic: الْغَنيمَة, a tax on spoils of war), which helped strengthen the Khilji rule. Among the spoils was the Warangal loot that included one of the largest known diamonds in human history, the Koh-i-noor.[38]

Ala ud-Din Khilji changed tax policies, raising agriculture taxes from 20% to 50% (payable in grain and agricultural produce), eliminating payments and commissions on taxes collected by local chiefs, banned socialization among his officials as well as inter-marriage between noble families to help prevent any opposition forming against him, and he cut salaries of officials, poets, and scholars.[34] These tax policies and spending controls strengthened his treasury to pay the keep of his growing army; he also introduced price controls on all agriculture produce and goods in the kingdom, as well as controls on where, how, and by whom these goods could be sold. Markets called "shahana-i-mandi" were created.[39] Muslim merchants were granted exclusive permits and monopoly in these "mandis" to buy and resell at official prices. No one other than these merchants could buy from farmers or sell in cities. Those found violating these "mandi" rules were severely punished, often by mutilation. Taxes collected in the form of grain were stored in the kingdom's storage. During famines that followed, these granaries ensured sufficient food for the army.[34]

Historians note Ala ud-Din Khilji as being a tyrant. Anyone Ala ud-Din suspected of being a threat to this power was killed along with the women and children of that family. In 1298, between 15,000 and 30,000 people near Delhi, who had recently converted to Islam, were slaughtered in a single day, due to fears of an uprising.[40] He is also known for his cruelty against kingdoms he defeated in battle.

After Ala ud-Din's death in 1316, his eunuch general Malik Kafur, who was born in a Hindu family in India and had converted to Islam, tried to assume power. He lacked the support of Persian and Turkic nobility and was subsequently killed.[34] The last Khilji ruler was Ala ud-Din Khilji's 18-year-old son Qutb ud-Din Mubarak Shah Khilji, who ruled for four years before he was killed by Khusro Khan, another of Ala ud-Din's generals. Khusro Khan's reign lasted only a few months, when Ghazi Malik, later to be called Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq, killed him and assumed power in 1320, thus ending the Khilji dynasty and starting the Tughlaq dynasty.[33] [40]

Tughlaq
Delhi Sultanate from 1321-1330 AD under the Tughlaq dynasty. After 1330, various regions rebelled against the Sultanate and the kingdom shrank.

The Tughlaq dynasty lasted from 1320 to nearly the end of 14th century. The first ruler Ghazi Malik rechristened himself as Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq and is also referred to in scholarly works as Tughlak Shah. He was of Turko-Indian origins, with a Turkic father and a Hindu mother. Ghiyath al-Din ruled for five years and built a town near Delhi named Tughlaqabad.[41] According to some historians such as Vincent Smith,[42] he was killed by his son Juna Khan, who then assumed power in 1325. Juna Khan rechristened himself as Muhammad bin Tughlaq and ruled for 26 years.[43] During his rule, Delhi Sultanate reached its peak in terms of geographical reach, covering most of the Indian subcontinent.[9]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq was an intellectual, with extensive knowledge of the Quran, Fiqh, poetry and other fields. He was also deeply suspicious of his kinsmen and wazirs (ministers), extremely severe with his opponents, and took decisions that caused economic upheaval. For example, he ordered minting of coins from base metals with face value of silver coins - a decision that failed because ordinary people minted counterfeit coins from base metal they had in their houses and used them to pay taxes and jizya.[9] [42]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq moved his capital to the Deccan Plateau, ordered Delhi's people to move and build a new capital named Daulatabad (shown), then reversed his decision because Daulatabad lacked the river and drinking water supply Delhi had.[42]
A base metal coin of Muhammad bin Tughlaq that led to an economic collapse.

On another occasion, after becoming upset by some accounts, or to run the Sultanate from the center of India by other accounts, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ordered the transfer of his capital from Delhi to Devagiri in modern-day Maharashtra (renaming it to Daulatabad), by forcing the mass migration of Delhi's population. Those who refused were killed. One blind person who failed to move to Daulatabad was dragged for the entire journey of 40 days - the man died, his body fell apart, and only his tied leg reached Daulatabad.[42] The capital move failed because Daulatabad was arid and did not have enough drinking water to support the new capital. The capital then returned to Delhi. Nevertheless, Muhammad bin Tughlaq's orders affected history as a large number of Delhi Muslims who came to the Deccan area did not return to Delhi to live near Muhammad bin Tughlaq. This influx of the then-Delhi residents into the Deccan region led to a growth of Muslim population in central and southern India.[9] Muhammad bin Tughlaq's adventures in the Deccan region also marked campaigns of destruction and desecration of Hindu and Jain temples, for example the Swayambhu Shiva Temple and the Thousand Pillar Temple.[44]

Revolts against Muhammad bin Tughlaq began in 1327, continued over his reign, and over time the geographical reach of the Sultanate shrunk. The Vijayanagara Empire originated in southern India as a direct response to attacks from the Delhi Sultanate.,[45] and liberated south India from the Delhi Sultanate's rule.[46] In 1337, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ordered an attack on China,[41] sending part of his forces over the Himalayas. Few survived the journey, and they were executed upon their return for failing.[42] During his reign, state revenues collapsed from his policies such as the base metal coins from 1329-1332. To cover state expenses, he sharply raised taxes. Those who failed to pay taxes were hunted and executed. Famines, widespread poverty, and rebellion grew across the kingdom. In 1338 his own nephew rebelled in Malwa, whom he attacked, caught, and flayed alive.[41] By 1339, the eastern regions under local Muslim governors and southern parts led by Hindu kings had revolted and declared independence from the Delhi Sultanate. Muhammad bin Tughlaq did not have the resources or support to respond to the shrinking kingdom.[47] The historian Walford chronicled Delhi and most of India faced severe famines during Muhammad bin Tughlaq's rule in the years after the base metal coin experiment.[48] [49] By 1347, the Bahmani Sultanate had become an independent and competing Muslim kingdom in Deccan region of South Asia.[15]

The Tughlaq dynasty is remembered for its architectural patronage, particularly for ancient lats (pillars, left image),[50] dated to be from the 3rd century BC, and of Buddhist and Hindu origins. The Sultanate initially wanted to use the pillars to make mosque minarets. Firuz Shah Tughlaq decided otherwise and had them installed near mosques. The meaning of Brahmi script on the pillar at right was unknown in Firuz Shah's time.[51] The inscription was deciphered by James Prinsep in 1837; the pillar script of Emperor Ashoka asked people of his and future generations to seek a dharmic (virtuous) life, use persuasion in religion, grant freedom from religious persecution, stop all killing, and be compassionate to all living beings.[52]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq died in 1351 while trying to chase and punish people in Gujarat who were rebelling against the Delhi Sultanate.[47] He was succeeded by Firuz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388), who tried to regain the old kingdom boundary by waging a war with Bengal for 11 months in 1359. However, Bengal did not fall. Firuz Shah ruled for 37 years. His reign attempted to stabilize the food supply and reduce famines by commissioning an irrigation canal from the Yamuna river. An educated sultan, Firuz Shah left a memoir.[53] In it he wrote that he banned the practice of torture, such as amputations, tearing out of eyes, sawing people alive, crushing people's bones as punishment, pouring molten lead into throats, setting people on fire, driving nails into hands and feet, among others.[54] He also wrote that he did not tolerate attempts by Rafawiz Shia Muslim and Mahdi sects from proselytizing people into their faith, nor did he tolerate Hindus who tried to rebuild temples that his armies had destroyed.[55] As punishment for proselytizing, Firuz Shah put many Shias, Mahdi, and Hindus to death (siyasat). Firuz Shah Tughlaq also lists his accomplishments to include converting Hindus to Sunni Islam by announcing an exemption from taxes and jizya for those who convert, and by lavishing new converts with presents and honours. Simultaneously, he raised taxes and jizya, assessing it at three levels, and stopping the practice of his predecessors who had historically exempted all Hindu Brahmins from the jizya.[54] [56] He also vastly expanded the number of slaves in his service and those of Muslim nobles. The reign of Firuz Shah Tughlaq was marked by reduction in extreme forms of torture, eliminating favours to select parts of society, but also increased intolerance and persecution of targeted groups.[54]

The death of Firuz Shah Tughlaq created anarchy and disintegration of the kingdom. The last rulers of this dynasty both called themselves Sultan from 1394 to 1397: Nasir ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughlaq, the grandson of Firuz Shah Tughlaq who ruled from Delhi, and Nasir ud-Din Nusrat Shah Tughlaq, another relative of Firuz Shah Tughlaq who ruled from Firozabad, which was a few miles from Delhi.[57] The battle between the two relatives continued till Timur's invasion in 1398. Timur, also known as Tamerlane in Western scholarly literature, was the Turkic ruler of the Timurid Empire. He became aware of the weakness and quarreling of the rulers of the Delhi Sultanate, so he marched with his army to Delhi, plundering and killing all the way.[58] [59] Estimates for the massacre by Timur in Dehli range from 100,000 to 200,000 people.[60] [61] Timur had no intention of staying in or ruling India. He looted the lands he crossed, then plundered and burnt Delhi. Over five days, Timur and his army raged a massacre.[41] Then he collected and carried the wealth, captured women and slaves (particularly skilled artisans), and returned to Samarkand. The people and lands within the Delhi Sultanate were left in a state of anarchy, chaos, and pestilence.[57] Nasir ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughlaq, who had fled to Gujarat during Timur's invasion, returned and nominally ruled as the last ruler of Tughlaq dynasty, as a puppet of various factions at the court.[41] [62]

Sayyid

The Sayyid dynasty was a Turkic dynasty[63] that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1415 to 1451.[15] The Timurid invasion and plunder had left the Delhi Sultanate in shambles, and little is known about the rule by the Sayyid dynasty. According to historian William Hunter,[41] the Delhi Sultanate had effective control of only a few miles around Delhi. Annemarie Schimmel notes the first ruler of the dynasty as Khizr Khan, who assumed power by claiming to represent Timur. His authority was questioned even by those near Delhi. His successor was Mubarak Khan, who rechristened himself as Mubarak Shah and tried to regain lost territories in Punjab, unsuccessfully.[62]

With the power of the Sayyid dynasty faltering, Islam's history on the Indian subcontinent underwent a profound change, according to Schimmel.[62] The previously dominant Sunni sect of Islam became diluted, alternate Muslim sects such as Shia rose, and new competing centers of Islamic culture took roots beyond Delhi.

The Sayyid dynasty was displaced by the Lodi dynasty in 1451.

Lodi
Delhi Sultanate during Babur's invasion.

The Lodi dynasty had its origins in the Afghan Lodi tribe.[63] Bahlul Khan Lodi started the Lodi dynasty and was the first Pashtun (Pathan), to rule the Delhi Sultanate.[64] Bahlul Lodi began his reign by attacking the Muslim Jaunpur Sultanate to expand the influence of the Delhi Sultanate, and was partially successful through a treaty. Thereafter, the region from Delhi to Varanasi (then at the border of Bengal province), was back under influence of Delhi Sultanate.

After Bahlul Lodi died, his son Nizam Khan assumed power, rechristened himself as Sikandar Lodi and ruled from 1489 to 1517.[65] One of the better known rulers of the dynasty, Sikandar Lodi expelled his brother Barbak Shah from Jaunpur, installed his son Jalal Khan as the ruler, then proceeded east to make claims on Bihar. The Muslim governors of Bihar agreed to pay tribute and taxes, but operated independent of the Delhi Sultanate. Sikandar Lodi led a campaign of destruction of temples, particularly around Mathura. He also moved his capital and court from Delhi to Agra,[41] [66] an ancient Hindu city that had been destroyed during the plunder and attacks of the early Delhi Sultanate period. Sikandar thus erected buildings with Indo-Islamic architecture in Agra during his rule, and the growth of Agra continued during the Mughal Empire, after the end of Delhi Sultanate.[64] [67]

Sikandar Lodi died a natural death in 1517, and his second son Ibrahim Lodi assumed power. Ibrahim did not enjoy the support of Afghan and Persian nobles or regional chiefs.[68] Ibrahim attacked and killed his elder brother Jalal Khan, who was installed as the governor of Jaunpur by his father and had the support of the amirs and chiefs.[64] Ibrahim Lodi was unable to consolidate his power, and after Jalal Khan's death, the governor of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodi, reached out to the Mughal Babur and invited him to attack Delhi Sultanate.[66] Babur defeated and killed Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat in 1526. The death of Ibrahim Lodi ended the Delhi Sultanate, and the Mughal Empire replaced it.

Destruction and desecration
The Somnath Temple in Gujarat was repeatedly destroyed by Islamic armies and rebuilt by Hindus. It was destroyed by Delhi Sultanate's army in 1299 AD.[69]

The Delhi Sultanate was an era of temple destruction and desecration.[70] [71] Richard Eaton has tabulated a campaign of destruction of idols and temples by Sultans, intermixed with instances of years where the temples were protected from desecration.[12] [72] [73] In many cases, the demolished remains, rocks and broken statue pieces were reused to build mosques and other buildings. For example, the Qutb complex in Delhi was built from stones of 27 demolished Hindu and Jain temples by some accounts.[74] Similarly, the Muslim mosque in Khanapur, Maharashtra was built from the looted parts and demolished remains of Hindu temples.[33] Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji destroyed Buddhist and Hindu libraries and their manuscripts at Nalanda and Odantapuri Universities in 1193 AD at the beginning of Delhi Sultanate.[44] [75]

The first historical record of a campaign of destruction of temples and defacement of faces or heads of Hindu idols lasted from 1193 through early 13th century in Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh under the command of Ghuri. Under Khalaji, the campaign of temple desecration expanded to Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra, and continued through late 13th century.[12] The campaign extended to Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu under Malik Kafur and Ulugh Khan in 14th century, and by Bahmani in 15th century.[44] Orissa temples were destroyed in the 14th century under Tughlaq.

Beyond destruction and desecration, the sultans of the Delhi Sultanate in some cases had forbidden reconstruction of damaged Hindu, Jain and Buddhist temples, and they prohibited repairs of old temples or construction of any new temples.[76] [77] In certain cases, the Sultanate would grant a permit for repairs and construction of temples if the patron or religious community paid jizya (fee, tax). For example, a proposal by the Chinese to repair Himalayan Buddhist temples destroyed by the Sultanate army was refused, on the grounds that such temple repairs were only allowed if the Chinese agreed to pay jizya tax to the treasury of the Sultanate.[78] [79] In his memoirs, Firoz Shah Tughlaq describes how he destroyed temples and built mosques instead and killed those who dared build new temples.[80] Other historical records from wazirs, amirs and the court historians of various Sultans of the Delhi Sultanate describe the grandeur of idols and temples they witnessed in their campaigns and how these were destroyed and desecrated.[81]

Temple desecration during Delhi Sultanate period[12] [82]
Sultan / Agent Dynasty Years Temple Sites Destroyed States
Muhammad Ghori, Qutb al-Din Aibak Mamluk 1193-1290 Ajmer, Samana, Kuhram, Delhi, Kol, Varanasi Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh
Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, Shams ud-Din Iltumish, Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khilji, Ala ud-Din Khilji, Malik Kafur Mamluk and Khilji 1290-1320 Nalanda, Odantapuri, Vikramashila, Bhilsa, Ujjain, Jhain, Vijapur, Devagiri, Somnath, Chidambaram, Madurai Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu
Ulugh Khan, Firuz Shah Tughlaq, Nahar, Muzaffar Khan Khilji and Tughlaq 1320-1395[83] Somnath, Warangal, Bodhan, Pillalamarri, Puri, Sainthali, Idar, Somnath[84] Gujarat, Telangana, Orissa, Haryana
Sikandar, Muzaffar Shah, Ahmad Shah, Mahmud Sayyid 1400-1442 Paraspur, Bijbehara, Tripuresvara, Idar, Diu, Manvi, Sidhpur, Delwara, Kumbhalmir Gujarat, Rajasthan
Suhrab, Begdha, Bahmani, Khalil Shah, Khawwas Khan, Sikandar Lodi, Ibrahim Lodi Lodi 1457-1518 Mandalgarh, Malan, Dwarka, Kondapalle, Kanchi, Amod, Nagarkot, Utgir, Narwar, Gwalior Rajasthan, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh
List of Sultans
Mamluk dynasty
The mausoleum of Qutb al-Din Aibak in Anarkali, Lahore, Pakistan.
Khilji dynasty
Tughlaq dynasty
Sayyid dynasty
  • Khizr Khan (1414–1421)
  • Mubarak Shah (1421–1434)
  • Muhammad Shah (1434–1445)
  • Alam Shah (1445–1451)
Lodi dynasty
See also
References
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  14. J. A. Page, Guide to the Qutb, Delhi, Calcutta, 1927, page 2-7
  15. See:
    • M. Reza Pirbha, Reconsidering Islam in a South Asian Context, ISBN 978-9004177581, Brill
    • The Islamic frontier in the east: Expansion into South Asia, Journal of South Asian Studies, 4(1), pp. 91-109
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  28. Peter Jackson (2003), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521543293, pp 29-48
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  31. Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi UNESCO
  32. Welch and Crane note that the Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque was built with the remains of demolished Hindu and Jain temples; See: Welch, Anthony; Crane, Howard (1983). "The Tughluqs: Master Builders of the Delhi Sultanate" (PDF). Muqarnas. Brill. 1: 123–166. JSTOR 1523075.
  33. Welch, Anthony; Crane, Howard (1983). "The Tughluqs: Master Builders of the Delhi Sultanate" (PDF). Muqarnas. Brill. 1: 123–166. JSTOR 1523075.
  34. Holt et al., The Cambridge History of Islam - The Indian sub-continent, south-east Asia, Africa and the Muslim west, ISBN 978-0521291378, pp 9-13
  35. Alexander Mikaberidze, Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia, ISBN 978-1598843361, pp 62-63
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  38. Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, 3rd Edition, Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-15482-0
  39. AL Srivastava, Delhi Sultanate 5th Edition, ASIN B007Q862WO, pp 156-158
  40. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 231-235, Oxford University Press
  41. William Hunter (1903), A Brief History of the Indian Peoples, p. 124, at Google Books, 23rd Edition, pp. 124-127
  42. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 236-242, Oxford University Press
  43. Elliot and Dowson, Táríkh-i Fíroz Sháhí of Ziauddin Barani, The History of India as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period (Vol 3), London, Trübner & Co
  44. Richard Eaton, Temple Desecration and Muslim States in Medieval India at Google Books, (2004)
  45. Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, (Routledge, 1986), 188.
  46. Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India by Jl Mehta p.97
  47. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 242-248, Oxford University Press
  48. Cornelius Walford (1878), The Famines of the World: Past and Present, p. 3, at Google Books, pp 9-10
  49. Judith Walsh, A Brief History of India, ISBN 978-0816083626, pp 70-72; Quote: "In 1335-42, during a severe famine and death in the Delhi region, the Sultanate offered no help to the starving residents."
  50. McKibben, William Jeffrey (1994). "The Monumental Pillars of Fīrūz Shāh Tughluq". Ars Orientalis. 24: 105–118. JSTOR 4629462.
  51. HM Elliot & John Dawson (1871), Tarikh I Firozi Shahi - Records of Court Historian Sams-i-Siraj The History of India as told by its own historians, Volume 3, Cornell University Archives, pp 352-353
  52. Prinsep, J (1837). "Interpretation of the most ancient of inscriptions on the pillar called lat of Feroz Shah, near Delhi, and of the Allahabad, Radhia and Mattiah pillar, or lat inscriptions which agree therewith". Journal of the Asiatic Society. 6 (2): 600–609.
  53. Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi - Memoirs of Firoz Shah Tughlak, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives
  54. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 249-251, Oxford University Press
  55. Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi - Autobiographical memoirs, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 377-381
  56. Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, pp 20-23
  57. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 248-254, Oxford University Press
  58. Peter Jackson (1999), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, pp 312–317
  59. Beatrice F. Manz (2000). "Tīmūr Lang". In P. J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C. E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W. P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam. 10 (2 ed.). Brill.
  60. Lionel Trotter (1906), History of India: From the Earliest Times to the Present Day, Gorham Publishers London/New York, pp 74
  61. Annemarie Schimmel (1997), Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004061170, pp 36-37; Also see: Elliot, Studies in Indian History, 2nd Edition, pp 98-101
  62. Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, Chapter 2
  63. Judith Walsh, A Brief History of India, ISBN 978-0816083626
  64. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 253-257, Oxford University Press
  65. Digby, S. (1975), The Tomb of Buhlūl Lōdī, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 38(03), pp 550-561
  66. Lodi Dynasty Encyclopædia Britannica (2009)
  67. Andrew Petersen, Dictionary of Islamic Architecture, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415060844, pp 7
  68. Richards, John (1965), The Economic History of the Lodi Period: 1451-1526, Journal de l'histoire economique et sociale de l'Orient, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp 47-67
  69. Eaton (2000), Temple desecration in pre-modern India Frontline, p. 73, item 16 of the Table, Archived by Columbia University
  70. Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, pp 7-10
  71. James Brown (1949), The History of Islam in India, The Muslim World, 39(1), 11-25
  72. Richard M. Eaton, Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Part II, Frontline, January 5, 2001, 70-77.[1]
  73. Richard M. Eaton, Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Part I, Frontline, December 22, 2000, 62-70.[2]
  74. Welch, Anthony (1993), Architectural patronage and the past: The Tughluq sultans of India, Muqarnas, Vol. 10, 311-322
  75. Gul and Khan (2008), Growth and Development of Oriental Libraries in India, Library Philosophy and Practice, University of Nebrasaka-Lincoln
  76. Eva De Clercq (2010), ON JAINA APABHRAṂŚA PRAŚASTIS, Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hung. Volume 63 (3), pp 275–287
  77. R Islam (1997), A Note on the Position of the non-Muslim Subjects in the Sultanate of Delhi under the Khaljis and the Tughluqs, Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 45, pp. 215–229; R Islam (2002), Theory and Practice of Jizyah in the Delhi Sultanate (14th Century), Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 50, pp. 7–18
  78. A.L. Srivastava (1966), Delhi Sultanate, 5th Edition, Agra College
  79. Peter Jackson (2003), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521543293, pp 287-295
  80. Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi - Memoirs of Firoz Shah Tughlaq, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 377-381
  81. Hasan Nizami et al, Taju-l Ma-asir & Appendix, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 2 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 22, 219, 398, 471
  82. Richard Eaton, Temple desecration and Indo-Muslim states, Frontline (January 5, 2001), pp 72-73
  83. Ulugh Khan also known as Almas Beg was brother of Ala-al Din Khilji; his destruction campaign overlapped the two dynasties
  84. Somnath temple went through cycles of destruction by Sultans and rebuilding by Hindus
  85. Tughlaq Shahi Kings of Delhi: Chart The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 369..
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Delhi Multan Road

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Delhi Multan Road ( Urdu : دہلى مُلتان روڈ ‎), ancient route had existed since the time of king Ashoka or earlier, was renovated by the Delhi Sultanate ruler Sher Shah Suri (1486–1545) in order to improve transit in the areas between Delhi and Multan , leading to Kandhar and Herat in Afghanistan , eventually to Mashhad capital of Khorasan province of Iran , providing access to capital city Ashgabat of Turkmenistan ." Messaging System Names of territories during the Caliphate in 750 CE. There were small posts every few miles where horses were ready to receive messages to send from one post to another. Messages from the Delhi court were reaching Multan , which was around 500 miles away, within days. Route On the Indian side, it passed through Rohtak , Meham , Asigarh Fort at Hansi , Firoz Shah Palace Complex at Hisar , Fatehabad , Ratia , Bhatinda and Malout , etc. On the Pakistani side, the road goes through the cities Pakpattan , Arifwala , Gaggoo , Burewala , Vehari and finally Multan . Some parts of this ro



Moth Ki Mosque

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Moth Ki Masjid ( Hindi : मोठ की मस्जिद , Urdu : موٹہ کی مسجد ) is a mosque located in Delhi, and was built in 1505 by Wazir Miya Bhoiya, Prime Minister during the reign of Sultan Sikander Lodi (1517–26). It was a new type of mosque developed by the Lodi dynasty in the fourth city of the medieval Delhi of the Delhi Sultanate . The name of the mosque literally translated into English language means ‘Lentil Mosque’ and this name tag ‘Lentil’ has an interesting legend. This mosque was considered a beautiful Dome (Gumbad) structure of the period. The mosque is now completely enclosed within the modern locality of South Extension Part II, Uday Park and Masjid Moth comprising residential and commercial establishments in the urban setting of South Delhi. Legend It is famously narrated that when Sultan Sikandar Lodi was on a visit to a mosque in the vicinity of the present location of the Moth Ki Masjid for prayer, he knelt over a grain of moth (a kind of lentil ), which had been dropped by a bird. His loyal Prime



Malik Kafur

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Malik Kafur (died 1316) was a prominent general of Alauddin Khilji . He was a handsome Hindu slave of Gujarat named Manik, who was captured and later converted to Islam. After being captured, he became the favourite of Alauddin Khilji. He led three campaigns in Southern India from 1294 to 1316 AD, and set the stage for the consequent arrival of the Madurai Sultanate . Early life Malik Kafur was a eunuch slave who became a general in the army of Alauddin Khilji , ruler of the Delhi Sultanate from 1296 to 1316 A.D. He was originally seized by Alauddin’s army after the army conquered the city of Khambhat . It is theorized that Alauddin Khilji fell in love with the effeminate beauty of Malik Kafur, castrated him and converted him to Islam . Kafur was also called "Thousand Dinar Kafur", probably the amount paid by sultan for his possession. The sultan allegedly had homosexual relation with Kafur. Wars and conquests Kafur quickly came to play an important role in the Khilji dynasty, and was consequently made a



Sultanate of Rum

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The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as Rûm sultanate Persian: Saljūqiyān-i Rūm سلجوقیان روم‎‎, Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State Turkish: Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti or Turkey Seljuk State Turkish: Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti)[5] was a Turko-Persian[6] Sunni Muslim state, established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire which was established by Seljuk Turks. The name Rûm reflects the Arabic name of Anatolia, الرُّومُ ar-Rūm, a loan from Greek Ρωμιοί "Romans".[7] The Sultanate of Rum seceded from the Great Seljuk Empire under Suleiman ibn Qutulmish in 1077, following the Battle of Manzikert, with capitals first at İznik and then at Konya. It reached the height of its power during the late 12th and early 13th century, when it succeeded in taking Byzantine key ports on the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. In the east, the sultanate absorbed other Turkish states and reached Lake Van. Trade from Iran and Central Asia ac



Sultan Ghari

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Sultan e Garhi ( Hindi : सुल्तान ग़ारी , Urdu : سلطان غاری ‎) was the first Islamic Mausoleum (tomb) built in 1231 AD for Prince Nasiru'd-Din Mahmud, eldest son of Iltumish , in the “ funerary landscape of Delhi ” in the Nangal Dewat Forest, Near Nangal Dewat Vasant Kunj ). Iltumish was the third Sultan of the Slave Dynasty who ruled in Delhi from 1210 to 1236 AD. The area where the Ghari (meaning: cave) tomb is situated, was part of medieval Delhi known as the Slave Dynasty that ruled during the period 1206 CE to 1290 CE, which possibly pre-existed from Gurjara-Pratihara era 700 to 1100 CE. This area is now part of the Qutb complex . The Slave Dynasty was the forerunner under the early Delhi Sultanate that ruled from 1216 CE to 1516 CE. This dynastic city was followed by creation of other five cities of Delhi ruled by different dynastic rulers of the Delhi Sultanate, namely, the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1413 CE), the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51 CE), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526 CE



Sultanate of the Geledi

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The Sultanate of the Geledi ( Somali : Saldanadda Geledi , Arabic : سلطنة غلدي ‎‎) was a Somali kingdom that ruled parts of the Horn of Africa during the late-17th century and 19th century. The Sultanate was governed by the Gobroon Dynasty. It was established by the Geledi soldier Ibrahim Adeer , who had defeated various vassals of the Ajuran Sultanate and founded the House of Gobroon. The dynasty reached its apex under the successive reigns of Sultan Yusuf Mahamud Ibrahim , who successfully consolidated Geledi power during the Bardera wars in 1843, and Sultan Ahmed Yusuf , who forced regional powers such as the Omani Empire to submit tribute . The sultanate was eventually incorporated into Italian Somaliland in 1908, and ended with the death of Osman Ahmed in 1910. Origins At the end of the 17th century, the Ajuran Sultanate was on its decline, and various vassals were now breaking free or being absorbed by new Somali powers. One of these powers was the Silcis Sultanate , which began consolidating its rule



Battle of Beas River

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The battle of Beas River was a battle between Chagatai Khanate army and the Mamluk sultanate in 1285. Ghiyas ud din Balban arranged a military defense line across Beas River as part of his "blood and iron" fortification chain strategy at Multan and Lahore as a countermeasure against the Chagatai Khanate invasion. However, his son Muhammad Khan was slain in battle. Primary sources Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi Ziauddin Barani Reference List Satish Chandra (2004). Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals-Delhi Sultanat (1206-1526) - Part One . Har-Anand Publications. pp. 66–. ISBN   978-81-241-1064-5 . Kausar Ali (1978). A new history of Indo-Pakistan: from Dravidians to Sultanates . Aziz Publishers. John McLeod (2015). The History of India . ABC-CLIO. pp. 42–. ISBN   978-1-61069-766-8 . Jaswant Lal Mehta (1979). Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India . Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. pp. 131–. ISBN   978-81-207-0617-0 . The battle of Beas River was a battle between Chagatai Khanate army and the Mamluk sultan



Zafar Khan

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Zafar Khan may refer to: Zafar Khan (Indian general) , general of the Delhi Sultanate Zafar Khan (Afghan general) (born 1953), general of the Afghan National Army Hasan Gangu , who took this as his name after he founded the Kingdom of Bahmani Zafar Khan Malik Dinar , Indian slave general of Delhi Sultanate Zafar Khan may refer to: Zafar Khan (Indian general) , general of the Delhi Sultanate Zafar Khan (Afghan general) (born 1953), general of the Afghan National Army Hasan Gangu , who took this as his name after he founded the Kingdom of Bahmani Zafar Khan Malik Dinar , Indian slave general of Delhi Sultanate



New Delhi

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The city of New Delhi is located within the National Capital Territory of Delhi. New Delhi ()[4] [5] is the capital of India and one of Delhi city's 11 districts. Although colloquially Delhi and New Delhi are used interchangeably to refer to the National Capital Territory of Delhi, these are two distinct entities, with New Delhi forming a small part of Delhi. The National Capital Region is a much larger entity comprising the entire National Capital Territory of Delhi along with adjoining districts. The foundation stone of the city was laid by George V, Emperor of India during the Delhi Durbar of 1911.[6] It was designed by British architects, Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker. The new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931,[7] by Viceroy and Governor-General of India Lord Irwin. New Delhi has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission. History Establishment Lord



Delhite invasion of Bengal (1353–1354)

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The Delhite invasion of Bengal was an invasion of Bengal by the Delhi Sultanate from November 1353 to September 1354. In November 1353, Firuz Shah Tughlaq , the Sultan of Delhi invaded Bengal with a huge army. The Bengalis succeeded in repelling the invasion. The stubborn resistance of the Bengalis , coupled with adverse geographical conditions, was crucial to the failure of the Delhite invasion. See also Delhite invasion of Bengal (1358–1360) Mughal invasion of Bengal References ড. মুহম্মদ আব্দুর রহিম (১৯৭৭). বাংলাদেশে ইলিয়াস শাহী শাসন. বাংলাদেশের ইতিহাস. ১৯২–১৯৫. Tabori, Paul (1957). "Bridge, Bastion, or Gate". Bengali Literary Review. 3–5: 9–20. Hussain, Syed Ejaz (2003). The Bengal Sultanate: Politics, Economy and Coins, A.D. 1205-1576. Manohar. ISBN 978-81-7304-482-3 . The Delhite invasion of Bengal was an invasion of Bengal by the Delhi Sultanate from November 1353 to September 1354. In November 1353, Firuz Shah Tughlaq , the Sultan of Delhi invaded Bengal with a huge army. The Bengalis succeeded in re



Shah Turkan

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Shah Turkan was a mistress of Iltutmish , the Mamluk ruler of the Delhi Sultanate , and the mother of his successor, Rukn ud din Firuz . After the death of Iltutmish, Ruknuddin indulged himself in the pursuit of pleasure and left his mother to handle the affairs of the state. Turkan had been a Turkish hand-maid and had risen to take control of the Sultan's harem. She took this opportunity to wreak vengeance against all those who had slighted her in the past. Consequently, Ruknuddin's rule turned unpopular and paved the way for the ascension of Razia Sultana . References Chandra, Satish (2004). Medieval India : from Sultanat to the Mughals. (Revised ed.). New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications. p. 48. ISBN   9788124110645 . Retrieved 26 May 2017 . Shah Turkan was a mistress of Iltutmish , the Mamluk ruler of the Delhi Sultanate , and the mother of his successor, Rukn ud din Firuz . After the death of Iltutmish, Ruknuddin indulged himself in the pursuit of pleasure and left his mother to handle the affairs of the st



Jahanpanah

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Jahanpanah was the fourth medieval city of Delhi established in 1326–1327 by Muhammad bin Tughlaq (1321–51), of the Delhi Sultanate . To address the constant threat of the Mongols , Tughlaq built the fortified city of Jahanpanah (meaning in Persian: “Refuge of the World”) subsuming the Adilabad fort that had been built in the 14th century and also all the establishments lying between Qila Rai Pithora and Siri Fort . Neither the city nor the fort has survived. Many reasons have been offered for such a situation. One of which is stated as the idiosyncratic rule of Mohammed bin Tughlaq when inexplicably he shifted the capital to Daulatabad in the Deccan and came back to Delhi soon after. The ruins of the city’s walls are even now discerned in the road between Siri to Qutub Minar and also in isolated patches behind the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), in Begumpur, Khirki Masjid near Khirki village, Satpula and many other nearby locations; at some sections, as seen at Satpula, the fort walls were large enough



Pandua, Malda

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Pandua is a ruined city in the Malda district of the Indian state of West Bengal . Pandua is now almost synonymously known as Adina , a small town located about 18 km North of Malda Town . History The city was probably founded by Sams-ud-Din Firuz Shah. In 1339, Ala-ud-Din Ali Shah transferred his capital from the nearby (and now ruined) town of Lakhnauti or Gaur (32 km from Pandua) to Pandua. Later, Haji Shamsuddin Iliyas Shah , the first independent Sultan of Bengal , made the city the capital of his (unified) Bengal Sultanate. However, Pandua's glory was short-lived. In 1453, the capital was transferred back to Gaur by Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah, perhaps necessitated by a change in the course of the river on which Pandua stood. Geography Pandua is located at 25°08′N 88°10′E  /  25.13°N 88.16°E . Monuments The monuments of Pandua were built in the Bengal provincial style of the Indo-Islamic architecture. Pandua's most celebrated monument is the Jami Mosque or the Adina Mosque , which was described by Jame



Qasim Barid I

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Qasim Barid I (r.1489-1504) was prime-minister of the Bahmani sultanate and the founder of the Bidar Sultanate , one of the five late medieval Indian kingdoms together known as the Deccan sultanates . Qasim Barid was a Muslim (Shia) Turk domiciled in Safavid Georgia. He entered the service of the Bahmani sultan Muhammad Shah III and later became the prime-minister of the Bahmani sultanate. Some have claimed that Qasim Barid was of Hungarian descent. Qasim Barid I led one of the first revolts against the Bahmani Sultanate. He was able to get himself made chief of state but had seriously undermined the stability of the kingdom. The Bahmani governors of Junnar, Bijapur and Berar refused to acknowledge the authority of Qasim Barid and, in June 1490, Malik Ahmad Nizam-ul-Mulk, the governor of Junnar founded the independent Ahmednagar Sultanate followed by the foundation of the independent Bijapur Sultanate by Yusuf Adil Khan and the Berar Sultanate by Fathullah Imad-ul-Mulk in the same year. The founding of



Shish Gumbad

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Shisha Gumbad ( Hindi : शीशा गुम्बद ) (literal English translation of "Shisha" is "glass" and "Gumbad" is " Dome ") is a tomb from the last lineage of the Lodhi Dynasty and is thought to have possibly been constructed between 1489 and 1517 CE . The Shisha Gumbad (glass dome) houses tombs of an unknown family that may have been a part of the Lodhi family and a part of Sikandar Lodi 's court. It is however believed by some historians that the tomb is of Bahlul Lodi (died 12 July 1489), who was chief of the Pashtun Lodi tribe and founder & Sultan of the Lodi dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate , though Ibrahim Lodhi's Tomb exists 100 kilometres (62 mi) away at Panipat city in Haryana state. Shisha Gumbad is situated in the Lodhi Gardens in Delhi and the area where the tomb is situated was formally called village Khairpur. History Exact date of construction of Shisha Gumbad is not known. There are four monuments (tombs) in the Lodhi Gardens including the Shisha Gumbad. The oldest of the four tombs is the t



Malik Altunia

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Malik Ikhtiyar-ud-din Altunia was the lover and husband of Sultana Razia and the governor of Bhatinda ( Punjab ) in India under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate under the Mamluk Sultanate . Early life He was given the charge of sharab-dar [office the care of the liquors] and after sometime when Sultan iltutmish saw the bravey and manliness in him he gave him the office of Sar Chatar-dar [Head of the state canopy- bearers]. During the reign of Razia Sultan , he stood by her like a pillar through thick and thin times. He helped her break the 40 Amirs and strengthen her rule, he also helped her in over throwing the rule of Shah Turkan and her son, Ruknuddin Firoz who were very cruel. Due to his services to her and the Sultanate, she made him the Governor of Bhatinda which was under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate. Some historians say that, it was because of Malik Altunia's undying support and protective shield towards her, that she managed to rule successfully for four years. This fact made sense because, after h



Sultanate of Cirebon

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A pendopo pavilion in Keraton Kasepuhan, Cirebon. The Sultanate of Cirebon ( Indonesian : Kesultanan Cirebon , Sundanese : Kasultanan Cirebon ) was an Islamic sultanate in West Java founded in the 15th century. It is said to have been founded by Sunan Gunungjati , marked by his letter proclaimed Cirebon's independence from Pajajaran in 1482, although the settlement and the polity had been established earlier in 1445. Sunan Gunungjati also established the Sultanate of Banten . It was one of the earliest Islamic states established in Java, around the same period with the Sultanate of Demak . The sultanate court lies near the modern day city of Cirebon on West Java's north coast. Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, the sultanate thrived and became the region's centre of trade and commerce, as well as served as an Islamic learning and dissemination centre. The sultanate split into four royal houses, starting in 1677. Today there are four kratons (palaces) in Cirebon; Keraton Kasepuhan, Kraton Kanoman, Kerato



Delhi Legislative Assembly

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The Legislative Assembly of Delhi, also known as Delhi Vidhan Sabha, is a unicameral law making body of the National Capital Territory of Delhi, one of the 7 union territories in India. It is situated at Delhi, the state capital of Delhi, with 70 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLA). The seat of assembly is the Old Secretariat building, which is also the seat of the Delhi Government. History The Delhi Legislative Assembly was first constituted on 7 March 1952 under the Government of Part C States Act, 1951; it was inaugurated by Home Minister K. N. Katju. The Assembly had 48 members, and a Council of Ministers in an advisory role to the Chief Commissioner of Delhi, though it also had powers to make laws. The first Council of Ministers was led by Chaudhary Brahm Prakash, who became the first Chief Minister of Delhi.[5] [6] However, the States Reorganisation Commission, set up in 1953, led to the Constitutional amendment through States Reorganisation Act, 1956, which came into effect on 1 November 1956.



Warsangali Sultanate

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The Warsangali Sultanate ( Somali : Saldanadda Warsangeli , Arabic : سلطنة الورسنجلي ‎‎) was a Somali imperial ruling house centered in northeastern and in some parts of southeastern Somalia . It was one of the largest sultanates ever established in the territory, and, at the height of its power, included the Sanaag region and parts of the northeastern Bari region of the country, an area historically known as Maakhir or the Maakhir Coast . The Sultanate was founded in the late 13th century in northern Somalia by a group of Somalis from the Warsangali branch of the Darod clan, and was ruled by the descendants of the Garaad Dhidhin . In the late 19th century, the influential Sultan Mohamoud Ali Shire governed the Sultanate, assuming control during some of its most turbulent years. The Akil Dhahar ruled south of Sanaag and some portions of the Bari region. In 1884, the United Kingdom established the protectorate of British Somaliland through various treaties with the northern Somali sultanates, including the Wa

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Adal Sultanate

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The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal (alt. spelling Adel Sultanate), was a multi-ethnic medieval Muslim state located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of the Sultanate of Ifat.[4] The kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577.[5] The sultanate and state were established by the inhabitants of the Harar Plateau.[6] [7] At its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region immediately east of Abyssinia. Name The origins of the name Adal are obscure. However, al-'Umari mentions it with Shoa and Zeila as being an integral part of the Muslim confederation led by Ifat.[8] In the thirteenth century, Arab writer Al Dimashqi refers to the Adal Sultanate's capital, Zeila, by its Somali name "Awdal" (Somali: "Awdal").[9] The modern Awdal region, which was part of the Adal Sultanate, bears the kingdom's name. History Establishment Ruins of the Adal Sultanate in Zeila, Awdal According to the 16th-century explorer Leo Africanus, the Adal Sultanat



Government of Delhi

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The Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi is the governing authority of the Indian national capital territory of Delhi and its 11 districts. It consists of an executive, led by the Lieutenant Governor of Delhi, a judiciary and a legislative. The present Legislative Assembly of Delhi is unicameral, consisting of 70 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLA). Overview The nine districts of Delhi. The Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) handles civic administration for the city as part of the Panchayati Raj Act. New Delhi, an urban area in Delhi, is the seat of both the State Government of Delhi and the Government of India. The National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT) has three local municipal corporations namely, Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD), New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) and Delhi Cantonment Board. The Lieutenant Governor of Delhi is appointed by the President of India , as agent of President and not head of state like governor, on the advice of the Central government. The



Battle of Kili

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Background In 1296 Alauddin Khilji took the throne of Delhi after the death of his uncle. He was supported by Ulugh Khan (his brother) and his general Zafar Khan . The Chagatai Khanate controlled Central Asia, and its leader since the 1280s was Duwa Khan who was second in command of Kaidu Khan. Duwa was active in Afghanistan, and attempted to extend Mongol rule into India. Negudari governor Abdullah, who was a son of Chagatai Khan's great grandson, invaded Punjab with his force in 1292, but their advance guard under Ulghu was defeated and taken prisoner by the Khalji Sultan. Around 4000 Mongol soldiers who surrendered converted to Islam. The suburb they lived in was appropriately named Mughalpura. Chagatai tumens were beaten by the Delhi Sultanate several times in 1296-1297. The Mongols thereafter repeatedly invaded northern India. On at least two occasions, they came in strength. Troop deployment The troop strength of Chagatai Khanate was estimated to be as many as 200.000. The Mongol leader was Qutlugh Khw



Mokhadaji Gohil

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Ranoji, father of Mokhadaji Gohil Mokhadaji Gohil (1309–1347) was a Rajput ruler of Ghogha , near Bhavnagar in Gujarat during the mid 14th century. He was a descendant of Sejakaji Gohil of Khergadh who migrated to Saurashtra during early 13th century. Mokhadaji Gohil was contemporary of Muhammad bin Tughluq , (1325–1351) of Tughluq dynasty in Delhi . Background and birth Mokhadaji Gohil was born to Gohil Rajput ruler Ranji Gohil of Ranpur , a small jagir near Dhandhuka in present day of Ahmedabad district. Ranji Gohil was son of Sejakaji Gohil of Khergadh in Rajasthan. Ranji Gohil was contemporary of last Hindu ruler Karan Vaghela of Patan. Alauddin Khilji had sent the army in 1297 under the generalship of Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan to attack on Patan and Somanath in Gujarat. They had defeated Karan Vaghela of Patan and sacked Somanath temple and broke the Shiva lingam that had been worshipped there. They were carrying the broken pieces back to Delhi. On their way, Ranji Gohil of Ranpur attacked Alauddin Khil



Khizr Khan

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Sayyid Khizr Khan ibn Malik Sulaiman (reigned 28 May 1414 – 20 May 1421) was the founder of the Sayyid dynasty , the ruling dynasty of the Delhi sultanate , in northern India soon after the invasion of Timur and the fall of the Tughlaq dynasty . Khan was Governor of Multan under the Tughlaq ruler, Firuz Shah Tughlaq , and was known to be an able administrator. He did not take up any royal title due to fear of Amir Timur (better known historically as Tamerlane ) and contended himself with the titles of Rayat-i-Ala (Sublime Banners) and Masnad-i-Aali or (Most High Post). During his reign, coins were continued to be struck in the name of previous Tughlaq rulers. After his death on 20 May 1421, he was succeeded by his son Mubarak Khan , who took the title of Muizz-ud-Din Mubarak Shah. Ancestry and early life A contemporary writer Yahya Sirhindi mentioned in his Takhrikh-i-Mubarak Shahi that Khizr Khan was a descendant of the Prophet of Islam , but his conclusion was based only on a testimony of the saint Jalal-



Kotla Mubarakpur Complex

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Kotla Mubarakpur Complex (कोटला मुबारकपुर काम्प्लेक्ष्), a medieval village, is now an upscale market place with a residential colony in South Delhi. The village Kotla Mubarakpur dominates Bainsla gotra of Gurjars , India. Classified by the Delhi Development Authority (D.D.A.) as an Urban Village, its history can be traced to the prominent tomb of Muizud Din Mubarak Shah, son of Khizr Khan of the Sayyid dynasty of the fifteenth century Delhi Sultanate rule in India, and its adjoining mosque . There are several other tombs of Lodi Dynasty period such as the Darya Khan's tomb, Kale Khan ka Gumbad, Bare Khan ka Gumbad, Chote Khan Ka Gumbad and Bhure Khan ka Gumbad, and also a Baoli (step well). Khizr Khan who was the governor of Punjab under the Lodi dynasty took over the reins at Delhi, in 1414 AD, after defeating Daulat Khan Lodi. He established the Sayyid dynasty , which had four successors till 1451 AD. His son Muizud Din Mubarak Shah succeeded him. He established a city called Mubarakabad on the banks of th



Shopping in Delhi

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Delhi has been, since historical times, remained a favoured destination for shoppers. From traditional bazaars to modern-day swanky malls, Delhi has everything to offer to a customer. Delhi's street markets are reported to provide a greater turnover as compared to malls. Since not everyone can afford to shop at malls or branded stores, most residents swear by the street markets. The quality of goods varies from market to market. Below is a list of famous shopping markets and malls in and around Delhi . Retail markets Connaught Place , including Janpath and Palika Bazaar . Chandni Chowk - A market running since the 17th century. Karol Bagh Paharganj Sarojini Nagar Khan Market - Most expensive retail location in India, in terms of per sq feet rental. Lajpat Nagar Dilli Haat , INA and Pitampura - Government-run emporiumns showcasing a rotating cast of regional artists and their crafts, such as bamboo & cane jewelry, handcarved wooden articles and papier-mache animals. State emporiums near Sansad Marg Hauz



Banten Sultanate

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The Banten Sultanate was founded in the 16th century and centred in Banten , a port city on the northwest coast of Java ; the contemporary English spelling of both was Bantam . It is said to have been founded by Sunan Gunungjati , who had previously founded Cirebon . Once a great trading centre in Southeast Asia , especially of pepper , its importance was overshadowed by Batavia , and finally annexed to Dutch East Indies in 1813. Its core territory now forms the Indonesian province of Banten . Today, in Old Banten , the Grand Mosque of Banten is an important destination for tourists and for pilgrims from across Indonesia and from overseas. Formation Before 1526 CE, a settlement called Banten was situated about ten kilometres inland from the coast on the Cibanten River, in the area which is today occupied by the southern suburbs of the town of Serang . It was known as Banten Girang , meaning "Banten-up-the-river" owing to its location. Sunan Gunungjati (Sharif Hidayatullah) was an " ulama ", an educated class



Hammir Singh

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Rana Hammira (1314–78), or Hammira , was a 14th-century ruler of Mewar in present-day Rajasthan , India . Following an invasion by the Delhi sultanate at the turn of the 13th century, the ruling Guhilot clan had been displaced from Mewar. Hammir Singh, who belonged to an impoverished cadet branch of that clan, regained control of the region, re-established the dynasty, and became the first of his dynasty to use the royal title 'Rana'. Hammir also became the progenitor of the Sisodia clan, a branch of the Guhilot clan, to which every succeeding Maharana of Mewar has belonged. He built the Annapoorna Mata temple which is located in the Chittorgarh Fort in Chittorgarh, Rajasthan. Synopsis Rana Hammir (not to be confused with Chauhan Hammir of Ranthambore), the 14th century ruler of Mewar in present-day Rajasthan , was the first ruler using the title Rana before his name. He belonged to the Guhilot dynasty. After an invasion by the Delhi sultanate at the turn of the 13th century, the ruling Guhilot dynasty had b



Firuz Shah Tughlaq

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Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq (1309 – 20 September 1388) was a Turkic Muslim ruler of the Tughlaq Dynasty , who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1351 to 1388. His father's name was Rajab (the younger brother of Ghazi Malik ) who had the title Sipahsalar. He succeeded his cousin Muhammad bin Tughlaq following the latter's death at Thatta in Sindh, where Muhammad bin Tughlaq had gone in pursuit of Taghi the ruler of Gujarat. For the first time in the history of Delhi Sultanate, a situation was confronted wherein nobody was ready to accept the reigns of power. With much difficulty, the camp followers convinced Firuz to accept the responsibility. In fact, Khwaja Jahan, the Wazir of Muhammad bin Tughlaq had placed a small boy on throne claiming him to the son of Muhammad bin Tughlaq, who meekly surrendered afterwards. Due to widespread unrest, his realm was much smaller than Muhammad's. Tughlaq was forced by rebellions to concede virtual independence to Bengal and other provinces. Rule We know of Firuz Shah



Sufism in India

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Sufism has a history in India evolving for over 1,000 years. The presence of Sufism has been a leading entity increasing the reaches of Islam throughout South Asia. Following the entrance of Islam in the early 8th century, Sufi mystic traditions became more visible during the 10th and 11th centuries of the Delhi Sultanate . A conglomeration of four chronologically separate dynasties, the early Delhi Sultanate consisted of rulers from Turkic and Afghan lands. This Persian influence flooded South Asia with Islam, Sufi thought, syncretic values, literature, education, and entertainment that has created an enduring impact on the presence of Islam in India today. Sufi preachers, merchants and missionaries also settled in coastal Bengal and Gujarat through maritime voyages and trade. Various leaders of Sufi orders, Tariqa , chartered the first organized activities to introduce localities to Islam through Sufism. Saint figures and mythical stories provided solace and inspiration to Hindu caste communities often



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Neighbourhoods of Delhi

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Delhi is a vast city and is home to a population of more than 16 million people. It is a microcosm of India and its residents belong to varied ethnic, religious and linguistic groups. As the second-largest city in (and the capital of) the nation, its nine districts comprise multiple neighbourhoods. The large expanse of the city comprises residential districts that range from poor to affluent, and small and large commercial districts, across its municipal extent. This is a list of major neighbourhoods in the city and only pertains to the National Capital Territory of Delhi. It is not complete, and outlines the various neighbourhoods based on the different districts of the metropolis. North West Delhi Adarsh Nagar Ashok Vihar Azadpur Bawana Begum Pur Dhaka Jahangirpuri Karala Keshav Puram Kingsway Camp Kohat Enclave Model Town Narela Pitam Pura Rani Bagh Rithala Rohini Sub City Shalimar Bagh North Delhi Shakti Nagar Bara Hindu Rao Chandni Chowk Chawri Bazaar Civil Lines Dariba Kalan Fatehpuri Masjid G



Ramachandra of Devagiri

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Ramachandra ( IAST : Rāmacandra, r. c. 1271-1311 CE), also known as Ramadeva, was a ruler of the Seuna (Yadava) dynasty of Deccan region in India. He seized the throne from his cousin Ammana, and expanded his kingdom by fighting his Hindu neighbours such as the Paramaras , the Vaghelas , the Hoysalas , and the Kakatiyas . In 1296 CE, he suffered an Muslim invasion from the Delhi Sultanate , and established peace by agreeing to pay Alauddin Khilji an annual tribute. When he discontinued the tribute payments in 1303-1304 CE, Alauddin sent a force led by Malik Kafur to subjugate him, and forced him to become a vassal of the Delhi Sultanate. Subsequently, Ramachandra served Alauddin as a loyal feudatory, and helped his forces defeat the Kakatiyas and the Hoysalas. Early life Ramachandra was a son of the Yadava king Krishna. At the time of Krishna's death around 1260 CE, Ramachandra was probably very young, because of which his uncle (Krishna's younger brother) Mahadeva ascended the throne. When Mahadeva's son Am



Yajvapala dynasty

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The Yajvapala dynasty ruled parts of central India during the 13th century CE. Their capital was located at Nalapura (present-day Narwar in Shivpuri district ). They are also known as Jajapella or Jajpella. The Yajvapalas carved out a kingdom in northern Madhya Pradesh during the first half of the 13th century, and successfully resisted invasions by the Chandelas and the Delhi Sultanate over the next few decades. It is not certain how their rule ended, but they probably fell to the Delhi Sultanate by the end of the century. History Find spots of the Yajvapala-era inscriptions (map of India) A 1339 VS (c. 1282 CE) Yajvapala inscription, issued during the reign of Gopala, names the dynasty's progenitor as Jayapala (called Jajapella in vernacular language). It names the dynasty's place of origin as Ratnagiri (unidentified), and attributes the rise of Jayapala to the blessings of the goddess Maharunda (probably a family deity ). The next known member of the family is Ya[pa]ramadi-raja, whose son Chahadadeva conqu



Siri Fort

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Siri Fort , in the city of New Delhi , was built during the rule of Ala-ud-Din Khalji , the Turkic ( Afghan ) ruler of the Delhi Sultanate , to defend the city from the onslaught of the Mongols. It was the second of the seven cities of medieval Delhi built around 1303 (stated to be the first entirely constructed by Turks ), which at present is seen only in ruins with a few remnants (pictured) Near the Siri Fort ruins modern auditoriums, the Asian Games Village Complex and residential and commercial establishments fill the modern landscape between the Khel Gaon Marg and the Aurobindo Marg in the heart of South Delhi . History Alaud'din is the best known of the Khilji dynasty because he extended his dominion to Southern India and established the second city of Delhi, Siri. He created Siri between 1297 and 1307 to defend against Mongol invasions of India and Delhi. In response he built Siri Fort, mimicked massive Turkish ones. The Fort served as the seat of his power during his campaigns to enlarge his terr



Chahamanas of Jalor

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Find spots of inscriptions issued during the reigns of Chahamana rulers of Jalor The Chahamanas of Jalor , also known as the Chauhans of Jalore , were an Indian dynasty that ruled the area around Jalore in present-day Rajasthan during 12th and 13th centuries. They branched off from the Chahamanas of Naddula , and then ruled as feudatories of the Chaulukyas of Gujarat. For a brief period, they became independent, but ultimately succumbed to the Delhi Sultanate . History The Chahamanas of Jalor descended from Alhana , a Chahamana king of the Naddula branch . Originally, the Jalore Fort was controlled by a branch of the Paramaras until early 12th century. The Chahamanas of Naddula seized its control during Alhana's reign. Kirtipala , a son of Alhana, received a feudal grant of 12 villages from his father and his brother (the crown-prince) Kelhana . He controlled his domains from Suvarnagiri or Sonagiri, the hill on which Jalore Fort is located. Because of this, the branch to which he belonged came to be known as



Paramardi

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Paramardi (reigned c. 1165-1203 CE) was a king of the Chandela dynasty of central India. He was the last powerful Chandela king, and ruled the Jejakabhukti region ( Bundelkhand in present-day Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh ). Around 1182-1183 CE, he was defeated by Prithviraj Chauhan , who raided the Chandela capital Mahoba . Paramardi managed to recover the Chandela power over the next few years, but was defeated by Qutb al-Din Aibak , a general of the Delhi Sultanate , around 1202-1203 CE. Early life Paramardi's Bateshvar inscription suggests that he succeeded his father Yashovarman . However, other Chandela inscriptions (including those of his own) suggest that he succeeded his grandfather Madanavarman . It is possible that Yashovarman ruled for a very short period, or did not rule at all, having died while Madanavarman was still alive. According to the Parmal Raso, Paramardi ascended the throne at the age of 5 years. An Ajaygarh inscription appears to corroborate this claim: it states that Paramardi was



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Mahendra Sūri

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Mahendra Dayashankar Gor Sūri is the 14th century Jain astronomer who wrote the Yantraraja, the first Indian treatise on the astrolabe . He was a pupil of Madana Suri. His father was Dayashankar and mother was Vimla. Dayashankar and Vimla had eight children, four sons and four daughters. Mahendra married a woman by the name of Urmila and had four daughters. Mahendra Suri was a Jain. Jainism began around the sixth century BC and the religion had a strong influence on mathematics particularly in the last couple of centuries BC. By the time of Mahendra Suri, however, Jainism had lost support as a national religion and was much less vigorous. It had been influenced by Islam and in particular Islamic astronomy came to form a part of the background. However, Pingree in [4] writes that this filtering of Islamic astronomy into Indian culture was:- ... not allowed to affect in any way the structure of the traditional science. Mahendra Suri was a pupil of Madana Suri. He is famed as the first person to write a Sanskri



Kailas Pal

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Raja Kailas Pal Pathania (1313–1353 CE) was a King of Nurpur , who succeeded Raja Jas Pal as the chief of the Pathania Clan of Rajputs . He is accorded credit for wounding and defeating a famous Muslim General, Tatar Khan, who was a governor of Khorasan and who had invaded the Punjab. Kailas Pal received a reward of a Mansab of 5,000 Cavalry and Infantry from the Delhi Sultanate. Such a reward displayed that he was regarded as a powerful Chief and an important ally by the Delhi Sultanate. Most probably it refers to some local conflict between the Pathania King and Tatar Khan, the viceroy of the Punjab, under Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325–51). It took place previous to 1342 which was the year Tatar Khan was killed in a battle with the Gakhars . A couplet commemorating the battle between Kailas Pal and Tatar Khan has come down to our own time: “ Jo mukh dekhan arsi sise dil-kananda । Mathe Phat Tatar Khan Kailase anda । । When he looks at his face in the heart-rending mirror, Tatar Khan sees on his forehead the sc



Muzaffar Shah I

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Copper coin of Muzaffar Shah Muzaffar Shah I , born Zafar Khan , was a ruler of the Muzaffarid dynasty , who reigned over the Gujarat Sultanate from 1391 to 1403 and later again from 1404 to 1411. Appointed as the governor of Gujarat by Tughluq of Delhi sultanate , he declared independence and founded the Sultanate when there was a chaos in Delhi. He was disposed by his ambitious son Tatar Khan but he regained the throne when he died. Ancestors During the rule of Muhammad bin Tughluq , his cousin Firuz Shah Tughlaq was once on a hunting expedition in area what is now Kheda district of Gujarat . He lost his way and lost. He reached village Thasra . He was welcome to partake in hospitality by village headmen, two brothers of Tanka Rajput family, Sadhu and Sadharan. After drinking, he revealed his identity as a cousin and successor of the king. The brothers offered his beautiful sister in marriage and he accepted. They accompanied Firuz Shah Tughluq to Delhi along with his sister. They converted to Islam there



Delhi High Court

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The High Court of Delhi ( IAST : dillī uchcha nyāyālaya) was established on 31 October 1966. The High Court of Delhi was established with four judges. They were Chief Justice K. S. Hegde , Justice I. D. Dua , Justice H. R. Khanna and Justice S. K. Kapur. History On 21 March 1919, the High Court of Judicature at Lahore was established with jurisdiction over the provinces of punjab and Delhi. This jurisdiction lasted till 1947 when India was partitioned . The High Courts (Punjab) Order, 1947 established a new High Court for the province of East Punjab with effect from 15 August 1947. The India (Adaptation of Existing Indian Laws) Order, 1947 provided that any reference in an existing Indian law to the High Court of Judicature at Lahore be replaced by a reference to the High Court of East Punjab. The High Court of East Punjab started functioning from Shimla in a building called "Peterhoff". This building burnt down in January, 1981. When the Secretariat of the Punjab Government shifted to Chandigarh in 1954-55,



Municipal Corporation of Delhi

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The Municipal Corporation of Delhi ( MCD ) is a municipal corporation , an autonomous body that governs 8 of the 11 Districts of Delhi , in the state of Delhi , India . It was one of three municipalities in the National Capital Territory of Delhi , the others being New Delhi Municipal Council , and Delhi Cantonment Board. "The MCD was among the largest municipal bodies in the world providing civic services to more than estimated population of 11 million citizens in the capital city. The municipal corporation covers an area of 1,397.3 km² (539.5 mi²). Civic Centre (28 floor)located on Minto Road, New Delhi is the headquarters of Municipal Corporation of Delhi. Within its jurisdiction are some of the most densely populated areas in the world. It has also the unique distinction of providing civic services to rural and urban villages, resettlement colonies, regularised unauthorised colonies, Slum/Squatter Settlements, private 'katras' etc. Dr Shyam Prasad Mukherjee Civic centre - Headquarters of Municipal Corpor



Musunuri Nayaks

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The Musunuri Nayakas were warrior kings of 14th-century South India who were briefly significant in the region of Telangana . They were warrior chieftains in the Kakatiya army, who regained Andhradesa in 1326 from the Delhi Sultanate in the aftermath of the Kakatiya defeat. Prominent among them were Musunuri Prolaya Nayaka and Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka , also known respectively as Prolaaneedu and Musunuri Kaapaaneedu. Opposition to Turks Musunuri Kapaya Nayak After the fall of the Kakatiyas, their empire was annexed by the Delhi Sultanate and Warangal was renamed "Sultanpur". Ulugh Khan remained as the governor of the region for a short period, until he was recalled to Delhi to succeed Muhammad bin Tughluq in 1324. A former Kakatiya commander, Nagaya Ganna Vibhudu, now renamed Malik Maqbul, was appointed as the governor of the region. However, the Tughluq hold over the erstwhile Kakatiya kingdom was tenuous and a number of local chieftains seized effective power. In 1330, Musunuri Prolaya Nayaka published the



Battle of Ravi

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The Battle of Ravi was the fourth and last attempt by the Mongol forces of Chagatai Khanate to invade India by crossing the Indus River and advancing towards Ravi river . It was led by Mongol commander Kapak (Kubak). They were defeated by the Delhi Sultanate under Alauddin Khilji . the Delhi army was led by Malik Kafur and Ghazi Malik. Subsequently the forces of Khilji launched a punitive expedition against Mongol controlled territory in Afghanistan . Aftermath After the successful campaign Khilji reorganized his military by strengthening the various fortresses lying on the northern border. He established a powerful standing army or Mustaqim consisting of 400.000 horsemen, divided into Murattab, heavy cavalry, and Duaspa, less-armored cavalry. References Firth, Robert (2013). Beat the Drum Slowly . eBookIt.com. p. 207. ISBN   1456608401 . Retrieved 6 November 2015 . Lal Mehta, Jaswant (1980). Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India, Volume 1 (Volume 1 ed.). Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 165. ISBN



Sultan

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Sultan Mehmed II is considered one of the most famous Ottoman sultans . Sultan ( ; Arabic : سلطان ‎‎ sulṭān , pronounced  ) is a noble title with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah , meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate , or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate ( سلطنة salṭanah ) . A feminine form of sultan, used by Westerners, is Sultana or Sultanah and this title used legally used for some (not all) Muslim women monarchs and sultan's mothers and chief consorts. But Turkish and Ottoman Turkish also uses sultan for imperial lady, because Turkish grammar uses the same words for women and



Amir Khusrow

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Ab'ul Hasan Yamīn ud-Dīn Khusrau (1253–1325 CE) ( Urdu : ابوالحسن یمین‌الدین خسرو ‎, Hindi :अमीर ख़ुसरो), better known as Amīr Khusrow , was a Sufi musician, poet and scholar. He was an iconic figure in the cultural history of the Indian subcontinent . He was a mystic and a spiritual disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya of Delhi , and is reputed to have invented certain musical instruments like the sitar and tabla . He wrote poetry primarily in Persian , but also in Hindavi . A vocabulary in verse, the Ḳhāliq Bārī, containing Arabic, Persian, and Hindavi terms is often attributed to him. Khusrow is sometimes referred to as the "parrot of India". Khusrow is regarded as the "father of qawwali " (a devotional music form of the Sufis in the Indian subcontinent ), and introduced the ghazal style of song into India, both of which still exist widely in India and Pakistan. He is also credited with introducing Persian, Arabic and Turkish elements into Indian classical music and was the originator of the khayal and tarana



Ziauddin Barani

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Ziauddin Barani (1285–1357) was a Muslim political thinker of the Delhi Sultanate located in present-day North India during Muhammad bin Tughlaq and Firuz Shah's reign. He was best known for composing the Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi, a work on medieval India, which covers the period from the reign of Ghiyas ud din Balban to the first six years of reign of Firuz Shah Tughluq and the Fatwa-i-Jahandari which details the caste system among Muslims in South Asia. Life Barani was born to a Muslim family in 1285 in which his father, uncle, and grandfather all working in high government posts under the Sultan of Delhi. His family were natives of Meerut and Bulandsahar. His maternal grandfather Husam-ud-Din, was an important officer of Ghiyas ud din Balban and his father Muwayyid-ul-Mulk held the post of naib of Arkali Khan, the son of Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji. His uncle Qazi Ala-ul-Mulk was the Kotwal (police chief) of Delhi during the reign of Ala-ud-Din Khalji.[1] Barani never held a post, but was a nadim (companion) of



Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah

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Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah I was the son and successor of Sultan Shamsuddin Firoz Shah of the Bengal kingdom of Lakhnauti . He ruled the kingdom as an independent ruler during 1322-1324 CE and as a governor during 1324-1328 CE. History Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah issued coins when his father was still living. On the death of his father he ascended the throne in 1322. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq , Sultan of Delhi, declared war against him in 1324. After losing the battle, Bahadur Shah was captured and taken to Delhi as a prisoner. Bengal was thus turned into a province of the Delhi Sultanate. In the same year, Delhi Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq , son and successor of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, released him and appointed him to govern Sonargaon as a province. Bahadur Shah founded a new city, Ghiyaspur, at a site 24 Kilometre southwest of present-day Mymensingh . He asserted independence in 1328. Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq sent his general, Bahram Khan , to depose him. In the battle, Bahadur Shah was defeated and killed. Bahram Kh



Sultanate of Ifat

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The Sultanate of Ifat was a medieval Muslim state in the eastern regions of the Horn of Africa between the late 13th century and early 15th century. Led by the Walashma dynasty , it was centered in ancient city of Zeila and Shewa . The kingdom ruled over parts of what are now eastern Ethiopia , Djibouti and western Somaliland . Location According to Al-Omari, Ifat was a state close to the Red Sea coast, 15 days by 20 days "normal traveling time". The state had a river ( Awash River ), was well peopled and had an army of 20,000 soldiers and 15,000 horsemen. Al-Omari mentioned seven cities in Ifat: Belqulzar, Kuljura, Shimi, Shewa , Adal , Jamme and Laboo. While reporting that its center was "a place called Walalah, probably the modern Wäläle south of Šäno in the Ěnkwoy valley, about 50 miles ENE of Addis Ababa ", G.W.B. Huntingford "provisionally" estimated its southern and eastern boundaries were along the Awash River , the western frontier a line drawn between Medra Kabd towards the Jamma river east of D



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