Revolvy Trivia Quizzes Revolvy Lists Revolvy Topics

Delhi Sultanate

The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).[5] [6] Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414),[7] the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526). The sultanate is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack by the Mongol Empire,[8] and enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana, who reigned from 1236 to 1240.[9]

Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former Turkic Mamluk slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi, and his Mamluk dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards, the Khalji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to conquer the whole of the Indian subcontinent. The sultanate reached the peak of its geographical reach during the Tughlaq dynasty, occupying most of the Indian subcontinent.[10] This was followed by decline due to Hindu reconquests, states such as the Vijayanagara Empire asserting independence, and new Muslim sultanates such as the Bengal Sultanate breaking off.[11] [12]

During and in the Delhi Sultanate, there was a synthesis of Indian civilization with that of Islamic civilization, and the further integration of the Indian subcontinent with a growing world system and wider international networks spanning large parts of Afro-Eurasia, which had a significant impact on Indian culture and society, as well as the wider world.[13] The time of their rule included the earliest forms of Indo-Islamic architecture,[14] [15] increased growth rates in India's population and economy,[16] and the emergence of the Hindi-Urdu language.[17] The Delhi Sultanate was also responsible for repelling the Mongol Empire's potentially devastating invasions of India in the 13th and 14th centuries.[18] However, the Delhi Sultanate also caused large scale destruction and desecration of temples in the Indian subcontinent.[19] In 1526, the Sultanate was conquered and succeeded by the Mughal Empire.


The context behind the rise of the Delhi Sultanate in India was part of a wider trend affecting much of the Asian continent, including the whole of southern and western Asia: the influx of nomadic Turkic peoples from the Central Asian steppes. This can be traced back to the 9th century, when the Islamic Caliphate began fragmenting in the Middle East, where Muslim rulers in rival states began enslaving non-Muslim nomadic Turks from the Central Asian steppes, and raising many of them to become loyal military slaves called Mamluks. Soon, Turks were migrating to Muslim lands and becoming Islamicized. Many of the Turkic Mamluk slaves eventually rose up to become rulers, and conquered large parts of the Muslim world, establishing Mamluk Sultanates from Egypt to Afghanistan, before turning their attention to the Indian subcontinent.[18]

It is also part of a longer trend predating the spread of Islam. Like other settled, agrarian societies in history, those in the Indian subcontinent have been attacked by nomadic tribes throughout its long history. In evaluating the impact of Islam on the subcontinent, one must note that the northwestern subcontinent was a frequent target of tribes raiding from Central Asia in the pre-Islamic era. In that sense, the Muslim intrusions and later Muslim invasions were not dissimilar to those of the earlier invasions during the 1st millennium.[20]

By 962 AD, Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in South Asia were under a wave of raids from Muslim armies from Central Asia.[21] Among them was Mahmud of Ghazni, the son of a Turkic Mamluk military slave,[22] who raided and plundered kingdoms in north India from east of the Indus river to west of Yamuna river seventeen times between 997 and 1030.[23] Mahmud of Ghazni raided the treasuries but retracted each time, only extending Islamic rule into western Punjab.[24] [25]

The wave of raids on north Indian and western Indian kingdoms by Muslim warlords continued after Mahmud of Ghazni.[26] The raids did not establish or extend permanent boundaries of their Islamic kingdoms. The Ghurid sultan Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori, commonly known as Muhammad of Ghor, began a systematic war of expansion into north India in 1173.[27] He sought to carve out a principality for himself by expanding the Islamic world.[23] [28] Muhammad of Ghor sought a Sunni Islamic kingdom of his own extending east of the Indus river, and he thus laid the foundation for the Muslim kingdom called the Delhi Sultanate.[23] Some historians chronicle the Delhi Sultanate from 1192 due to the presence and geographical claims of Muhammad Ghori in South Asia by that time.[29]

Ghori was assassinated in 1206, by Ismāʿīlī Shia Muslims in some accounts or by Hindu Khokhars in others.[30] After the assassination, one of Ghori's slaves (or mamluks, Arabic: مملوك), the Turkic Qutb al-Din Aibak, assumed power, becoming the first Sultan of Delhi.[23]

Sultans of Delhi Sultanate
Sultans (Kings/Rulers) King in Death Note
Qutb-ud-din Aibak 1206 1210 First Sultan
Aram Shah 1210 1211
Iltutmish 1211 1236
Rukn-ud-din Firuz 1236 1236
Razia Sultan 1236 1240 Lady Ruler
Muiz ud din Bahram 1240 1243
Ala ud din Masud 1243 1249
Nasir ud din Mahmud 1249 1266
Ghiyas ud din Balban 1266 1287
Muiz ud din Qaiqabad 1287 1290
Jalaluddin Khilji 1290 1296
Alauddin Khilji 1296 1316
Shihabuddin Omar 1316 1316
Qutb-ud-din Mubarak 1316 1320
Khusrau Khan 1320 1321
Delhi Sultanate
Ruling dynasties

Mamluk / Slave

Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former slave of Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori (known more commonly as Muhammad of Ghor), was the first ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. Aibak was of Cuman-Kipchak (Turkic) origin, and due to his lineage, his dynasty is known as the Mamluk (Slave) dynasty (not to be confused with the Mamluk dynasty of Iraq or the Mamluk dynasty of Egypt).[31] Aibak reigned as the Sultan of Delhi for four years, from 1206 to 1210.

After Aibak died, Aram Shah assumed power in 1210, but he was assassinated in 1211 by Shams ud-Din Iltutmish.[32] Iltutmish's power was precarious, and a number of Muslim amirs (nobles) challenged his authority as they had been supporters of Qutb al-Din Aibak. After a series of conquests and brutal executions of opposition, Iltutmish consolidated his power.[33] His rule was challenged a number of times, such as by Qubacha, and this led to a series of wars.[34] Iltumish conquered Multan and Bengal from contesting Muslim rulers, as well as Ranthambore and Siwalik from the Hindu rulers. He also attacked, defeated, and executed Taj al-Din Yildiz, who asserted his rights as heir to Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori.[35] Iltutmish's rule lasted till 1236. Following his death, the Delhi Sultanate saw a succession of weak rulers, disputing Muslim nobility, assassinations, and short-lived tenures. Power shifted from Rukn ud-Din Firuz to Razia Sultana and others, until Ghiyas ud-Din Balban came to power and ruled from 1266 to 1287.[34] [35] He was succeeded by 17-year-old Muiz ud-Din Qaiqabad, who appointed Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khalji as the commander of the army. Khalji assassinated Qaiqabad and assumed power, thus ending the Mamluk dynasty and starting the Khalji dynasty.

Qutb al-Din Aibak initiated the construction of the Qutub Minar[36] and the Quwwat-ul-Islam (Might of Islam) Mosque, now a UNESCO world heritage site.[37] It was built from the remains of twenty seven demolished Hindu and Jain temples. The Qutub Minar Complex or Qutb Complex was expanded by Iltutmish, and later by Ala ud-Din Khalji (the second ruler of the Khalji dynasty) in the early 14th century.[37] [38] During the Mamluk dynasty, many nobles from Afghanistan and Persia migrated and settled in India, as West Asia came under Mongol siege.[39]

Alai Gate and Qutub Minar were built during the Mamluk and Khalji dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate.[37]

The Khalji dynasty was of Turko-Afghan heritage.[40] [41] [42] [43] They trace their roots to Central Asia and were originally of Turkic origin.[44] They had long been settled in present-day Afghanistan before proceeding to Delhi in India. The name "Khalji" refers to an Afghan village or town known as Qalat-e Khalji (Fort of Ghilji).[45] Sometimes they were treated by others as ethnic Afghans due to their adoption of Afghan habits and customs.[46] [47] As a result of this, the dynasty is sometimes referred to as Turko-Afghan.[41] [42] [43] The dynasty later also had Indian ancestry, through Jhatyapali (daughter of Ramachandra of Devagiri), wife of Alauddin Khalji and mother of Shihabuddin Omar.[48]

The first ruler of the Khalji dynasty was Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khalji. He came to power in 1290 after killing the last ruler of the Mamluk dynasty, Muiz ud-Din Qaiqabad, at the behest of Turkic, Afghan and Persian nobles. He was around 70 years old at the time of his ascension, and was known as a mild-mannered, humble and kind monarch to the general public.[49] [50] Jalal ud-Din Firuz was of Turko Afghan origin,[51] [52] [53] and ruled for 6 years before he was murdered in 1296 by his nephew and son-in-law Juna Muhammad Khalji,[54] who later came to be known as Ala ud-Din Khalji.

Ala ud-Din began his military career as governor of Kara province, from where he led two raids on Malwa (1292) and Devagiri (1294) for plunder and loot. His military campaigning returned to these lands as well other south Indian kingdoms after he assumed power. He conquered Gujarat, Ranthambore, Chittor, and Malwa.[55] However, these victories were cut short because of Mongol attacks and plunder raids from the northwest. The Mongols withdrew after plundering and stopped raiding northwest parts of the Delhi Sultanate.[56]

After the Mongols withdrew, Ala ud-Din Khalji continued expanding the Delhi Sultanate into southern India with the help of generals such as Malik Kafur and Khusro Khan. They collected lots of war booty (anwatan) from those they defeated.[57] His commanders collected war spoils and paid ghanima (Arabic: الْغَنيمَة, a tax on spoils of war), which helped strengthen the Khalji rule. Among the spoils was the Warangal loot that included the famous Koh-i-noor diamond.[58]

Ala ud-Din Khalji changed tax policies, raising agriculture taxes from 20% to 50% (payable in grain and agricultural produce), eliminating payments and commissions on taxes collected by local chiefs, banned socialization among his officials as well as inter-marriage between noble families to help prevent any opposition forming against him, and he cut salaries of officials, poets, and scholars.[54] These tax policies and spending controls strengthened his treasury to pay the keep of his growing army; he also introduced price controls on all agriculture produce and goods in the kingdom, as well as controls on where, how, and by whom these goods could be sold. Markets called "shahana-i-mandi" were created.[59] Muslim merchants were granted exclusive permits and monopoly in these "mandis" to buy and resell at official prices. No one other than these merchants could buy from farmers or sell in cities. Those found violating these "mandi" rules were severely punished, often by mutilation. Taxes collected in the form of grain were stored in the kingdom's storage. During famines that followed, these granaries ensured sufficient food for the army.[54]

Historians note Ala ud-Din Khalji as being a tyrant. Anyone Ala ud-Din suspected of being a threat to this power was killed along with the women and children of that family. In 1298, between 15,000 and 30,000 people near Delhi, who had recently converted to Islam, were slaughtered in a single day, due to fears of an uprising.[60] He is also known for his cruelty against kingdoms he defeated in battle.

After Ala ud-Din's death in 1316, his eunuch general Malik Kafur, who was born in a Hindu family in India and had converted to Islam, tried to assume power. He lacked the support of Persian and Turkic nobility and was subsequently killed.[54] The last Khalji ruler was Ala ud-Din Khalji's 18-year-old son Qutb ud-Din Mubarak Shah Khalji, who ruled for four years before he was killed by Khusro Khan, another of Ala ud-Din's generals. Khusro Khan's reign lasted only a few months, when Ghazi Malik, later to be called Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq, killed him and assumed power in 1320, thus ending the Khalji dynasty and starting the Tughlaq dynasty.[39] [60]

Delhi Sultanate from 1321-1330 AD under the Tughlaq dynasty. After 1330, various regions rebelled against the Sultanate and the kingdom shrank.

The Tughlaq dynasty lasted from 1320 to nearly the end of the 14th century. The first ruler Ghazi Malik rechristened himself as Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq and is also referred to in scholarly works as Tughlak Shah. He was of Turko-Indian origins; his father was a Turkic slave and his mother was a Hindu.[1] Ghiyath al-Din ruled for five years and built a town near Delhi named Tughlaqabad. According to some historians such as Vincent Smith,[61] he was killed by his son Juna Khan, who then assumed power in 1325. Juna Khan rechristened himself as Muhammad bin Tughlaq and ruled for 26 years.[62] During his rule, Delhi Sultanate reached its peak in terms of geographical reach, covering most of the Indian subcontinent.[10]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq was an intellectual, with extensive knowledge of the Quran, Fiqh, poetry and other fields. He was also deeply suspicious of his kinsmen and wazirs (ministers), extremely severe with his opponents, and took decisions that caused economic upheaval. For example, he ordered minting of coins from base metals with face value of silver coins - a decision that failed because ordinary people minted counterfeit coins from base metal they had in their houses and used them to pay taxes and jizya.[10] [61]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq moved his capital to the Deccan Plateau, and build a new capital called Daulatabad (shown). He later reversed his decision because Daulatabad lacked the fresh water supply that Delhi had.[61]
A base metal coin of Muhammad bin Tughlaq that led to an economic collapse.

On another occasion, after becoming upset by some accounts, or to run the Sultanate from the center of India by other accounts, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ordered the transfer of his capital from Delhi to Devagiri in modern-day Maharashtra (renaming it to Daulatabad), by forcing the mass migration of Delhi's population. Those who refused were killed. One blind person who failed to move to Daulatabad was dragged for the entire journey of 40 days - the man died, his body fell apart, and only his tied leg reached Daulatabad.[61] The capital move failed because Daulatabad was arid and did not have enough drinking water to support the new capital. The capital then returned to Delhi. Nevertheless, Muhammad bin Tughlaq's orders affected history as a large number of Delhi Muslims who came to the Deccan area did not return to Delhi to live near Muhammad bin Tughlaq. This influx of the then-Delhi residents into the Deccan region led to a growth of Muslim population in central and southern India.[10] Muhammad bin Tughlaq's adventures in the Deccan region also marked campaigns of destruction and desecration of Hindu and Jain temples, for example the Swayambhu Shiva Temple and the Thousand Pillar Temple.[63]

Revolts against Muhammad bin Tughlaq began in 1327, continued over his reign, and over time the geographical reach of the Sultanate shrunk. The Vijayanagara Empire originated in southern India as a direct response to attacks from the Delhi Sultanate.,[64] and liberated south India from the Delhi Sultanate's rule.[65] In 1337, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ordered an attack on China, sending part of his forces over the Himalayas. Few survived the journey, and they were executed upon their return for failing.[61] During his reign, state revenues collapsed from his policies such as the base metal coins from 1329-1332. To cover state expenses, he sharply raised taxes. Those who failed to pay taxes were hunted and executed. Famines, widespread poverty, and rebellion grew across the kingdom. In 1338 his own nephew rebelled in Malwa, whom he attacked, caught, and flayed alive. By 1339, the eastern regions under local Muslim governors and southern parts led by Hindu kings had revolted and declared independence from the Delhi Sultanate. Muhammad bin Tughlaq did not have the resources or support to respond to the shrinking kingdom.[66] The historian Walford chronicled Delhi and most of India faced severe famines during Muhammad bin Tughlaq's rule in the years after the base metal coin experiment.[67] [68] By 1347, the Bahmani Sultanate had become an independent and competing Muslim kingdom in Deccan region of South Asia.[21]

The Tughlaq dynasty is remembered for its architectural patronage, particularly for ancient lats (pillars, left image),[69] dated to be from the 3rd century BC, and of Buddhist and Hindu origins. The Sultanate initially wanted to use the pillars to make mosque minarets. Firuz Shah Tughlaq decided otherwise and had them installed near mosques. The meaning of Brahmi script on the pillar at right was unknown in Firuz Shah's time.[70] The inscription was deciphered by James Prinsep in 1837; the pillar script of Emperor Ashoka asked people of his and future generations to seek a dharmic (virtuous) life, use persuasion in religion, grant freedom from religious persecution, stop all killing, and be compassionate to all living beings.[71]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq died in 1351 while trying to chase and punish people in Gujarat who were rebelling against the Delhi Sultanate.[66] He was succeeded by Firuz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388), who tried to regain the old kingdom boundary by waging a war with Bengal for 11 months in 1359. However, Bengal did not fall. Firuz Shah ruled for 37 years. His reign attempted to stabilize the food supply and reduce famines by commissioning an irrigation canal from the Yamuna river. An educated sultan, Firuz Shah left a memoir.[72] In it he wrote that he banned the practice of torture, such as amputations, tearing out of eyes, sawing people alive, crushing people's bones as punishment, pouring molten lead into throats, setting people on fire, driving nails into hands and feet, among others.[73] He also wrote that he did not tolerate attempts by Rafawiz Shia Muslim and Mahdi sects from proselytizing people into their faith, nor did he tolerate Hindus who tried to rebuild temples that his armies had destroyed.[74] As punishment for proselytizing, Firuz Shah put many Shias, Mahdi, and Hindus to death (siyasat). Firuz Shah Tughlaq also lists his accomplishments to include converting Hindus to Sunni Islam by announcing an exemption from taxes and jizya for those who convert, and by lavishing new converts with presents and honours. Simultaneously, he raised taxes and jizya, assessing it at three levels, and stopping the practice of his predecessors who had historically exempted all Hindu Brahmins from the jizya.[73] [75] He also vastly expanded the number of slaves in his service and those of Muslim nobles. The reign of Firuz Shah Tughlaq was marked by reduction in extreme forms of torture, eliminating favours to select parts of society, but also increased intolerance and persecution of targeted groups.[73]

The death of Firuz Shah Tughlaq created anarchy and disintegration of the kingdom. The last rulers of this dynasty both called themselves Sultan from 1394 to 1397: Nasir ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughlaq, the grandson of Firuz Shah Tughlaq who ruled from Delhi, and Nasir ud-Din Nusrat Shah Tughlaq, another relative of Firuz Shah Tughlaq who ruled from Firozabad, which was a few miles from Delhi.[76] The battle between the two relatives continued till Timur's invasion in 1398. Timur, also known as Tamerlane in Western scholarly literature, was the Turkic ruler of the Timurid Empire. He became aware of the weakness and quarreling of the rulers of the Delhi Sultanate, so he marched with his army to Delhi, plundering and killing all the way.[77] [78] Estimates for the massacre by Timur in Dehli range from 100,000 to 200,000 people.[79] [80] Timur had no intention of staying in or ruling India. He looted the lands he crossed, then plundered and burnt Delhi. Over five days, Timur and his army raged a massacre. Then he collected and carried the wealth, captured women and slaves (particularly skilled artisans), and returned to Samarkand. The people and lands within the Delhi Sultanate were left in a state of anarchy, chaos, and pestilence.[76] Nasir ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughlaq, who had fled to Gujarat during Timur's invasion, returned and nominally ruled as the last ruler of Tughlaq dynasty, as a puppet of various factions at the court.[81]


The Sayyid dynasty was a Turkic dynasty[82] that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1415 to 1451.[21] The Timurid invasion and plunder had left the Delhi Sultanate in shambles, and little is known about the rule by the Sayyid dynasty. Annemarie Schimmel notes the first ruler of the dynasty as Khizr Khan, who assumed power by claiming to represent Timur. His authority was questioned even by those near Delhi. His successor was Mubarak Khan, who rechristened himself as Mubarak Shah and tried to regain lost territories in Punjab, unsuccessfully.[81]

With the power of the Sayyid dynasty faltering, Islam's history on the Indian subcontinent underwent a profound change, according to Schimmel.[81] The previously dominant Sunni sect of Islam became diluted, alternate Muslim sects such as Shia rose, and new competing centers of Islamic culture took roots beyond Delhi.

The Sayyid dynasty was displaced by the Lodi dynasty in 1451.

Delhi Sultanate during Babur's invasion.

The Lodi dynasty belonged to the Pashtun[83] (Afghan) Lodi tribe.[82] Bahlul Khan Lodi started the Lodi dynasty and was the first Pashtun, to rule the Delhi Sultanate.[84] Bahlul Lodi began his reign by attacking the Muslim Jaunpur Sultanate to expand the influence of the Delhi Sultanate, and was partially successful through a treaty. Thereafter, the region from Delhi to Varanasi (then at the border of Bengal province), was back under influence of Delhi Sultanate.

After Bahlul Lodi died, his son Nizam Khan assumed power, rechristened himself as Sikandar Lodi and ruled from 1489 to 1517.[85] One of the better known rulers of the dynasty, Sikandar Lodi expelled his brother Barbak Shah from Jaunpur, installed his son Jalal Khan as the ruler, then proceeded east to make claims on Bihar. The Muslim governors of Bihar agreed to pay tribute and taxes, but operated independent of the Delhi Sultanate. Sikandar Lodi led a campaign of destruction of temples, particularly around Mathura. He also moved his capital and court from Delhi to Agra,[86] an ancient Hindu city that had been destroyed during the plunder and attacks of the early Delhi Sultanate period. Sikandar thus erected buildings with Indo-Islamic architecture in Agra during his rule, and the growth of Agra continued during the Mughal Empire, after the end of Delhi Sultanate.[84] [87]

Sikandar Lodi died a natural death in 1517, and his second son Ibrahim Lodi assumed power. Ibrahim did not enjoy the support of Afghan and Persian nobles or regional chiefs.[88] Ibrahim attacked and killed his elder brother Jalal Khan, who was installed as the governor of Jaunpur by his father and had the support of the amirs and chiefs.[84] Ibrahim Lodi was unable to consolidate his power, and after Jalal Khan's death, the governor of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodi, reached out to the Mughal Babur and invited him to attack Delhi Sultanate.[86] Babur defeated and killed Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat in 1526. The death of Ibrahim Lodi ended the Delhi Sultanate, and the Mughal Empire replaced it.


Before and during the Delhi Sultanate, Islamic civilization was the most cosmopolitan civilization of the Middle Ages. It had a multicultural and pluralistic society, and wide-ranging international networks, including social and economic networks, spanning large parts of Afro-Eurasia, leading to escalating circulation of goods, peoples, technologies and ideas. While initially disruptive due to the passing of power from native Indian elites to Turkic Muslim elites, the Delhi Sultanate was responsible for integrating the Indian subcontinent into a growing world system, drawing India into a wider international network, which led to cultural and social enrichment in the Indian subcontinent.[13]

Economist Angus Maddison has estimated that, during the Medieval Delhi Sultanate era, between 1000 and 1500, India's GDP grew nearly 80% up to $60.5 billion in 1500.[16]

The worm gear roller cotton gin was invented in the Indian subcontinent during the early Delhi Sultanate era of the 13th–14th centuries,[89] and is still used in India through to the present day.[90] Another innovation, the incorporation of the crank handle in the cotton gin, first appeared in the Indian subcontinent some time during the late Delhi Sultanate or the early Mughal Empire.[91] The production of cotton, which may have largely been spun in the villages and then taken to towns in the form of yarn to be woven into cloth textiles, was advanced by the diffusion of the spinning wheel across India during the Delhi Sultanate era, lowering the costs of yarn and helping to increase demand for cotton. The diffusion of the spinning wheel, and the incorporation of the worm gear and crank handle into the roller cotton gin, led to greatly expanded Indian cotton textile production.[92]


The Indian population had largely been stagnant at 75 million during the Middle Kingdoms era from 1 AD to 1000 AD. During the Medieval Delhi Sultanate era from 1000 to 1500, India experienced lasting population growth for the first time in a thousand years, with its population increasing nearly 50% to 110 million by 1500 AD.[93] [94]


While the Indian subcontinent has had invaders from Central Asia since ancient times, what made the Muslim invasions different is that unlike the preceding invaders who assimilated into the prevalent social system, the successful Muslim conquerors retained their Islamic identity and created new legal and administrative systems that challenged and usually in many cases superseded the existing systems of social conduct and ethics, even influencing the non-Muslim rivals and common masses to a large extent, though the non-Muslim population was left to their own laws and customs.[95] [96] They also introduced new cultural codes that in some ways were very different from the existing cultural codes. This led to the rise of a new Indian culture which was mixed in nature, different from ancient Indian culture. The overwhelming majority of Muslims in India were Indian natives converted to Islam. This factor also played an important role in the synthesis of cultures.[97]

The Hindustani language (Hindi-Urdu) began to emerge in the Delhi Sultanate period, developed from the Middle Indo-Aryan apabhramsha vernaculars of North India. Amir Khusro, who lived in the 13th century CE during the Delhi Sultanate period in North India, used a form of Hindustani, which was the lingua franca of the period, in his writings and referred to it as Hindavi.[17]


The bulk of Delhi Sultanate's army consisted of nomadic Turkic Mamluk military slaves, who were skilled in nomadic cavalry warfare. A major military contribution of the Delhi Sultanate was their successful campaigns in repelling the Mongol Empire's invasions of India, which could have been devastating for the Indian subcontinent, like the Mongol invasions of China, Persia and Europe. The Delhi Sultanate's Mamluk army were skilled in the same style of nomadic cavalry warfare used by the Mongols, making them successful in repelling the Mongol invasions, as was the case for the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. Were it not for the Delhi Sultanate, it is possible that the Mongol Empire may have been successful in invading India.[18]

Temple desecration
The Somnath Temple in Gujarat was repeatedly destroyed by Islamic armies and rebuilt by Hindus. It was destroyed by Delhi Sultanate's army in 1299 AD.[98]

Historian Richard Eaton has tabulated a campaign of destruction of idols and temples by Delhi Sultans, intermixed with instances of years where the temples were protected from desecration.[19] [99] [100] In his paper, he has listed 37 instances of Hindu temples being desecrated or destroyed in India during the Delhi Sultanate, from 1234 to 1518, for which reasonable evidences are available.[101] [102] [103] He also noted there were also many instances of Delhi sultans, who often had Hindu ministers, ordering the protection, maintenance and repairing of temples, according to both Muslim and Hindu sources. For example, a Sanskrit inscription notes that Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq repaired a Siva temple in Bidar after his Deccan conquest. There was often a pattern of Delhi sultans plundering or damaging temples during conquest, and then patronizing or repairing temples after conquest. This pattern came to an end with the Mughal Empire, where Akbar the Great's chief minister Abu'l-Fazl criticized the excesses of earlier sultans such as Mahmud of Ghazni.[104]

In many cases, the demolished remains, rocks and broken statue pieces of temples destroyed by Delhi sultans were reused to build mosques and other buildings. For example, the Qutb complex in Delhi was built from stones of 27 demolished Hindu and Jain temples by some accounts.[105] Similarly, the Muslim mosque in Khanapur, Maharashtra was built from the looted parts and demolished remains of Hindu temples.[39] Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji destroyed Buddhist and Hindu libraries and their manuscripts at Nalanda and Odantapuri Universities in 1193 AD at the beginning of the Delhi Sultanate.[63] [106]

The first historical record of a campaign of destruction of temples and defacement of faces or heads of Hindu idols lasted from 1193 through the early 13th century in Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh under the command of Ghuri. Under the Khaljis, the campaign of temple desecration expanded to Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra, and continued through the late 13th century.[19] The campaign extended to Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu under Malik Kafur and Ulugh Khan in the 14th century, and by the Bahmanis in 15th century.[63] Orissa temples were destroyed in the 14th century under the Tughlaqs.

Beyond destruction and desecration, the sultans of the Delhi Sultanate in some cases had forbidden reconstruction of damaged Hindu, Jain and Buddhist temples, and they prohibited repairs of old temples or construction of any new temples.[107] [108] In certain cases, the Sultanate would grant a permit for repairs and construction of temples if the patron or religious community paid jizya (fee, tax). For example, a proposal by the Chinese to repair Himalayan Buddhist temples destroyed by the Sultanate army was refused, on the grounds that such temple repairs were only allowed if the Chinese agreed to pay jizya tax to the treasury of the Sultanate.[109] [110] In his memoirs, Firoz Shah Tughlaq describes how he destroyed temples and built mosques instead and killed those who dared build new temples.[111] Other historical records from wazirs, amirs and the court historians of various Sultans of the Delhi Sultanate describe the grandeur of idols and temples they witnessed in their campaigns and how these were destroyed and desecrated.[112]

Temple desecration during Delhi Sultanate period, a list prepared by Richard Eaton in Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States[19] [113]
Sultan / Agent Dynasty Years Temple Sites Destroyed States
Muhammad Ghori, Qutb al-Din Aibak Mamluk 1193-1290 Ajmer, Samana, Kuhram, Delhi, Kol, Varanasi Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh
Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, Shams ud-Din Iltumish, Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khalji, Ala ud-Din Khalji, Malik Kafur Mamluk and Khalji 1290-1320 Nalanda, Odantapuri, Vikramashila, Bhilsa, Ujjain, Jhain, Vijapur, Devagiri, Somnath, Chidambaram, Madurai Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu
Ulugh Khan, Firuz Shah Tughlaq, Nahar, Muzaffar Khan Khalji and Tughlaq 1320-1395[114] Somnath, Warangal, Bodhan, Pillalamarri, Puri, Sainthali, Idar, Somnath[115] Gujarat, Telangana, Orissa, Haryana
Sikandar, Muzaffar Shah, Ahmad Shah, Mahmud Sayyid 1400-1442 Paraspur, Bijbehara, Tripuresvara, Idar, Diu, Manvi, Sidhpur, Delwara, Kumbhalmer Gujarat, Rajasthan
Suhrab, Begdha, Bahmani, Khalil Shah, Khawwas Khan, Sikandar Lodi, Ibrahim Lodi Lodi 1457-1518 Mandalgarh, Malan, Dwarka, Kondapalle, Kanchi, Amod, Nagarkot, Utgir, Narwar, Gwalior Rajasthan, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh
See also
  1. Jamal Malik (2008). Islam in South Asia: A Short History. Brill Publishers. p. 104.
  2. "Arabic and Persian Epigraphical Studies - Archaeological Survey of India".
  3. Alam, Muzaffar (1998). "The pursuit of Persian: Language in Mughal Politics". Modern Asian Studies. Cambridge University Press. 32 (2): 317–349. doi:10.1017/s0026749x98002947. Hindavi was recognized as a semi-official language by the Sor Sultans (1540-55) and their chancellery rescripts bore transcriptions in the Devanagari script of the Persian contents. The practice is said to have been introduced by the Lodis (1451-1526).
  4. Jackson, Peter (16 October 2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3.
  5. Delhi Sultanate, Encyclopædia Britannica
  6. A. Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, Leiden, 1980
  7. Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 68–102. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  8. Pradeep Barua The State at War in South Asia, ISBN 978-0803213449, p. 29-30
  9. Bowering et al., The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought, ISBN 978-0691134840, Princeton University Press
  10. Muḥammad ibn Tughluq Encyclopædia Britannica
  11. Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, 3rd Edition, Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-15482-0, pp 187-190
  12. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, Oxford University Press
  13. Asher, C. B.; Talbot, C (1 January 2008), India Before Europe (1st ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 50–52, ISBN 978-0-521-51750-8
  14. A. Welch, "Architectural Patronage and the Past: The Tughluq Sultans of India," Muqarnas 10, 1993, Brill Publishers, pp 311-322
  15. J. A. Page, Guide to the Qutb, Delhi, Calcutta, 1927, page 2-7
  16. Madison, Angus (6 December 2007). Contours of the world economy, 1–2030 AD: essays in macro-economic history. Oxford University Press. p. 379. ISBN 0-19-922720-9.
  17. Keith Brown; Sarah Ogilvie (2008), Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World, Elsevier, ISBN 0-08-087774-5, ... Apabhramsha seemed to be in a state of transition from Middle Indo-Aryan to the New Indo-Aryan stage. Some elements of Hindustani appear ... the distinct form of the lingua franca Hindustani appears in the writings of Amir Khusro (1253–1325), who called it Hindwi ...
  18. Asher, C. B.; Talbot, C (1 January 2008), India Before Europe (1st ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 19, 50–51, ISBN 978-0-521-51750-8
  19. Richard Eaton (2000), Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Journal of Islamic Studies, 11(3), pp 283-319
  20. Richard M. Frye, "Pre-Islamic and Early Islamic Cultures in Central Asia", in Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective, ed. Robert L. Canfield (Cambridge U. Press c. 1991), 35–53.
  21. See:
    • M. Reza Pirbha, Reconsidering Islam in a South Asian Context, ISBN 978-9004177581, Brill
    • The Islamic frontier in the east: Expansion into South Asia, Journal of South Asian Studies, 4(1), pp. 91-109
    • Sookoohy M., Bhadreswar - Oldest Islamic Monuments in India, ISBN 978-9004083417, Brill Academic; see discussion of earliest raids in Gujarat
  22. Asher, C. B.; Talbot, C (1 January 2008), India Before Europe (1st ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 19, ISBN 978-0-521-51750-8
  23. Peter Jackson 2003, pp. 3-30.
  24. T. A. Heathcote, The Military in British India: The Development of British Forces in South Asia:1600-1947, (Manchester University Press, 1995), pp 5-7
  25. Barnett, Lionel (1999), Antiquities of India: An Account of the History and Culture of Ancient Hindustan, p. 1, at Google Books, Atlantic pp. 73–79
  26. Richard Davis (1994), Three styles in looting India, History and Anthropology, 6(4), pp 293-317, doi:10.1080/02757206.1994.9960832
  27. MUHAMMAD B. SAM Mu'izz AL-DIN, T.W. Haig, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. VII, ed. C.E.Bosworth, E.van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs and C. Pellat, (Brill, 1993)
  28. C.E. Bosworth, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 5, ed. J. A. Boyle, John Andrew Boyle, (Cambridge University Press, 1968), pp 161-170
  29. History of South Asia: A Chronological Outline Columbia University (2010)
  30. Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Sām Encyclopædia Britannica (2011)
  31. Jackson P. (1990), The Mamlūk institution in early Muslim India, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland (New Series), 122(02), pp 340-358
  32. C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, Columbia University Press (1996)
  33. Barnett & Haig (1926), A review of History of Mediaeval India, from ad 647 to the Mughal Conquest - Ishwari Prasad, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland (New Series), 58(04), pp 780-783
  34. Peter Jackson 2003, pp. 29-48.
  35. Anzalone, Christopher (2008), "Delhi Sultanate", in Ackermann, M. E. etc. (Editors), Encyclopedia of World History 2, ISBN 978-0-8160-6386-4
  36. "Qutub Minar". Retrieved 5 August 2015.
  37. Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi UNESCO
  38. Welch and Crane note that the Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque was built with the remains of demolished Hindu and Jain temples; See: Welch, Anthony; Crane, Howard (1983). "The Tughluqs: Master Builders of the Delhi Sultanate" (PDF). Muqarnas. Brill. 1: 123–166. JSTOR 1523075.
  39. Welch, Anthony; Crane, Howard (1983). "The Tughluqs: Master Builders of the Delhi Sultanate" (PDF). Muqarnas. Brill. 1: 123–166. JSTOR 1523075.
  40. Khan, Hussain Ahmad (2014). Artisans, Sufis, Shrines: Colonial Architecture in Nineteenth-Century Punjab. I.B.Tauris. p. 15. ISBN 9781784530143.
  41. Yunus, Mohammad; Aradhana Parmar (2003). South Asia: a historical narrative. Oxford University Press. p. 97. ISBN 0-1957-9711-6. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
  42. Kumar Mandal, Asim (2003). The Sundarbans of India: A Development Analysis. India: Indus Publishing. p. 43. ISBN 81-738-7143-4. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
  43. Singh, D. (1998). The Sundarbans of India: A Development Analysis. India: APH Publishing. p. 141. ISBN 81-702-4992-9. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
  44. "Khalji Dynasty". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2010-08-23. this dynasty, like the previous Slave dynasty, was of Turkic origin, though the Khaljī tribe had long been settled in what is now Afghanistan...
  45. Thorpe, Showick Thorpe Edgar (2009). The Pearson General Studies Manual 2009, 1/e. Pearson Education India. p. 1900. ISBN 81-317-2133-7. Retrieved 2010-08-23. The Khalji dynasty was named after a village in Afghanistan. Some historians believe that they were Afghans, but Bharani and Wolse Haig explain in their accounts that the rulers from this dynasty who came to India, though they had temporarily settled in Afghanistan, were originally Turkic.
  46. Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (2002). History of medieval India: from 1000 A.D. to 1707 A.D. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 337. ISBN 81-269-0123-3. Retrieved 2010-08-23. The Khaljis were a Central Asian Turkic dynasty but having been long domiciled in present-day Afghanistan, and adopted some Afghan habits and customs. They were treated as Afghans in Delhi Court.
  47. Cavendish, Marshall (2006). World and Its Peoples: The Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. Marshall Cavendish. p. 320. ISBN 0-7614-7571-0. Retrieved 2010-08-23. The sultans of the Slave Dynasty were Turkic Central Asians, but the members of the new dynasty, although they were also Turkic, had settled in Afghanistan and brought a new set of customs and culture to Delhi.
  48. Kishori Saran Lal (1950). History of the Khaljis (1290-1320). Allahabad: The Indian Press. pp. 56–57. OCLC 685167335.
  49. A. L. Srivastava (1966). The Sultanate of Delhi, 711-1526 A.D (Second ed.). Shiva Lal Agarwala. p. 141. OCLC 607636383.
  50. A. B. M. Habibullah (1992) [1970]. "The Khaljis: Jalaluddin Khalji". In Mohammad Habib; Khaliq Ahmad Nizami. A Comprehensive History of India. 5: The Delhi Sultanat (A.D. 1206-1526). The Indian History Congress / People's Publishing House. p. 312. OCLC 31870180.
  54. Holt et al., The Cambridge History of Islam - The Indian sub-continent, south-east Asia, Africa and the Muslim west, ISBN 978-0521291378, pp 9-13
  55. Alexander Mikaberidze, Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia, ISBN 978-1598843361, pp 62-63
  56. Rene Grousset - Empire of steppes, Chagatai Khanate; Rutgers Univ Press, New Jersey, U.S.A, 1988 ISBN 0-8135-1304-9
  57. Frank Fanselow (1989), Muslim society in Tamil Nadu (India): an historical perspective, Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, 10(1), pp 264-289
  58. Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, 3rd Edition, Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-15482-0
  59. AL Srivastava, Delhi Sultanate 5th Edition, ASIN B007Q862WO, pp 156-158
  60. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 231-235, Oxford University Press
  61. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 236-242, Oxford University Press
  62. Elliot and Dowson, Táríkh-i Fíroz Sháhí of Ziauddin Barani, The History of India as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period (Vol 3), London, Trübner & Co
  63. Richard Eaton, Temple Desecration and Muslim States in Medieval India at Google Books, (2004)
  64. Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, (Routledge, 1986), 188.
  65. Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India by Jl Mehta p.97
  66. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 242-248, Oxford University Press
  67. Cornelius Walford (1878), The Famines of the World: Past and Present, p. 3, at Google Books, pp 9-10
  68. Judith Walsh, A Brief History of India, ISBN 978-0816083626, pp 70-72; Quote: "In 1335-42, during a severe famine and death in the Delhi region, the Sultanate offered no help to the starving residents."
  69. McKibben, William Jeffrey (1994). "The Monumental Pillars of Fīrūz Shāh Tughluq". Ars Orientalis. 24: 105–118. JSTOR 4629462.
  70. HM Elliot & John Dawson (1871), Tarikh I Firozi Shahi - Records of Court Historian Sams-i-Siraj The History of India as told by its own historians, Volume 3, Cornell University Archives, pp 352-353
  71. Prinsep, J (1837). "Interpretation of the most ancient of inscriptions on the pillar called lat of Feroz Shah, near Delhi, and of the Allahabad, Radhia and Mattiah pillar, or lat inscriptions which agree therewith". Journal of the Asiatic Society. 6 (2): 600–609.
  72. Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi - Memoirs of Firoz Shah Tughlak, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives
  73. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 249-251, Oxford University Press
  74. Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi - Autobiographical memoirs, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 377-381
  75. Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, pp 20-23
  76. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 248-254, Oxford University Press
  77. Peter Jackson (1999), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, pp 312–317
  78. Beatrice F. Manz (2000). "Tīmūr Lang". In P. J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C. E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W. P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam. 10 (2 ed.). Brill.
  79. Lionel Trotter (1906), History of India: From the Earliest Times to the Present Day, Gorham Publishers London/New York, pp 74
  80. Annemarie Schimmel (1997), Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004061170, pp 36-37; Also see: Elliot, Studies in Indian History, 2nd Edition, pp 98-101
  81. Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, Chapter 2
  82. Judith Walsh, A Brief History of India, ISBN 978-0816083626
  83. Ramananda Chatterjee (1961). The Modern Review. 109. Indiana University. p. 84.
  84. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 253-257, Oxford University Press
  85. Digby, S. (1975), The Tomb of Buhlūl Lōdī, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 38(03), pp 550-561
  86. Lodi Dynasty Encyclopædia Britannica (2009)
  87. Andrew Petersen, Dictionary of Islamic Architecture, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415060844, pp 7
  88. Richards, John (1965), The Economic History of the Lodi Period: 1451-1526, Journal de l'histoire economique et sociale de l'Orient, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp 47-67
  89. Irfan Habib (2011), Economic History of Medieval India, 1200-1500, page 53, Pearson Education
  90. Lakwete, Angela (2003). Inventing the Cotton Gin: Machine and Myth in Antebellum America. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 1–6. ISBN 9780801873942.
  91. Irfan Habib (2011), Economic History of Medieval India, 1200-1500, pages 53-54, Pearson Education
  92. Irfan Habib (2011), Economic History of Medieval India, 1200-1500, page 54, Pearson Education
  93. Angus Maddison (2001), The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective, pages 241-242, OECD Development Centre
  94. Angus Maddison (2001), The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective, page 236, OECD Development Centre
  95. Asher, C. B.; Talbot, C (1 January 2008), India Before Europe (1st ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 47, ISBN 978-0-521-51750-8
  96. Metcalf, B.; Metcalf, T. R. (9 October 2006), A Concise History of Modern India (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 6, ISBN 978-0-521-68225-1
  97. Eaton, Richard M.'The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1993 1993, accessed on 1 May 2007
  98. Eaton (2000), Temple desecration in pre-modern India Frontline, p. 73, item 16 of the Table, Archived by Columbia University
  99. Richard M. Eaton, Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Part II, Frontline, January 5, 2001, 70-77.[1]
  100. Richard M. Eaton, Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Part I, Frontline, December 22, 2000, 62-70.[2]
  101. Eaton, Richard M. (2000). "Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States" (PDF). The Hindu. Chennai, India. p. 297. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014.
  102. Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, pp 7-10
  103. James Brown (1949), The History of Islam in India, The Muslim World, 39(1), 11-25
  104. Eaton, Richard M. (2000). "Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States" (PDF). The Hindu. Chennai, India. p. 297. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014.
  105. Welch, Anthony (1993), Architectural patronage and the past: The Tughluq sultans of India, Muqarnas, Vol. 10, 311-322
  106. Gul and Khan (2008), Growth and Development of Oriental Libraries in India, Library Philosophy and Practice, University of Nebrasaka-Lincoln
  107. Eva De Clercq (2010), ON JAINA APABHRAṂŚA PRAŚASTIS, Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hung. Volume 63 (3), pp 275–287
  108. R Islam (1997), A Note on the Position of the non-Muslim Subjects in the Sultanate of Delhi under the Khaljis and the Tughluqs, Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 45, pp. 215–229; R Islam (2002), Theory and Practice of Jizyah in the Delhi Sultanate (14th Century), Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 50, pp. 7–18
  109. A.L. Srivastava (1966), Delhi Sultanate, 5th Edition, Agra College
  110. Peter Jackson (2003), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521543293, pp 287-295
  111. Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi - Memoirs of Firoz Shah Tughlaq, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 377-381
  112. Hasan Nizami et al, Taju-l Ma-asir & Appendix, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 2 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 22, 219, 398, 471
  113. Richard Eaton, Temple desecration and Indo-Muslim states, Frontline (January 5, 2001), pp 72-73
  114. Ulugh Khan also known as Almas Beg was brother of Ala-al Din Khalji; his destruction campaign overlapped the two dynasties
  115. Somnath temple went through cycles of destruction by Sultans and rebuilding by Hindus
External links
Continue Reading...
Content from Wikipedia Licensed under CC-BY-SA.

Battle of Amroha


The Battle of Amroha was fought on 20 December 1305 between the armies of the Delhi Sultanate of India and the Mongol Chagatai Khanate of Central Asia. The Delhi force led by Malik Nayak defeated the Mongol army led by Ali Beg and Tartaq near Amroha in present-day Uttar Pradesh. Background The Mongol Chagatai Khanate had invaded the Delhi Sultanate a number of times in the 13th century. After Alauddin Khalji ascended the throne of Delhi, four such invasions had been repulsed in 1297-98, 1298-99, 1299, and 1303. During the 1303 invasion, the Mongols managed to enter Alauddin's capital Delhi, which prompted him to take a series of steps to prevent further Mongol invasions. Alauddin started residing in the newly-constructed Siri Fort, repaired and built several frontier forts, and appointed powerful commanders in the frontier regions. Mongol march to India Despite Alauddin's measures, a Mongol force led by Ali Beg invaded the Delhi Sultanate in 1305. The Delhi chronicler Ziauddin Barani describes Ali Beg ...more...

Majeerteen Sultanate


The Majeerteen Sultanate ( Somali : Suldanadda Majeerteen , Arabic : سلطنة مجرتين ‎), also known as Majeerteenia and Migiurtinia , was a Somali kingdom centered in the Horn of Africa . Ruled by Boqor Osman Mahamuud during its golden age, the sultanate controlled much of northern and central Somalia in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The polity had all of the organs of an integrated modern state and maintained a robust trading network. It also entered into treaties with foreign powers and exerted strong centralized authority on the domestic front. Much of the Sultanate's former domain is today coextensive with the autonomous Puntland region in northeastern Somalia. History Establishment According to the 16th century explorer Leo Africanus , the Adal Sultanate 's realm encompassed the geographical area between the Bab el Mandeb and Cape Guardafui . It was thus flanked to the south by the Mogadishu Sultanate and to the west by the Abyssinian Empire . After Adal's demise, the Majeerteen Sultanate was establis ...more...

Indo-Islamic architecture


The Buland Darwaza gateway to Fatehpur Sikri , built by Akbar in 1601 Indo-Islamic architecture is the architecture of the Indian subcontinent produced for Islamic patrons and purposes. Despite an earlier presence in Sindh in modern Pakistan , its main history begins when Muhammad of Ghor made Delhi a Muslim capital in 1193. Both the Delhi Sultans and the Mughal dynasty that succeeded them came from Central Asia via Afghanistan , and were used to a Central Asian style of Islamic architecture that largely derived from Iran . The types and forms of large buildings required by Muslim elites, with mosques and tombs much the most common, were very different from those previously built in India. The exteriors of both were very often topped by large domes , and made extensive use of arches . Both of these features were hardly used in Hindu temple architecture and other native Indian styles. Both types of building essentially consisted of a single large space under a high dome, and completely avoided the figurative s ...more...

Ghiyasuddin Iwaj Shah


Ghiyas-ud-din Iwaz Khilji (later known as Husam-ud-din Iwaj Khilji) was a Bengal ruler on 1208-1210 and again on 1212-1227. History During the infighting of the Khilji Maliks he assumed power in 1208 and ruled for two years until being dethroned by Ali Mardan Khilji in 1210. But after the death of Ali Mardan Khilji he once again took power in 1212 and styled himself as Ghiyas-ud-din Iwaz Shah. Ghiyas-ud-din Iwaz Khilji ruled for 15 long years and established peace in Bengal. He transferred the capital from Devkot to Gaur. He prepared a powerful navy for Bengal. Ghiyas-ud-din Iwaz Khilji carried out invasions into neighboring regions and made Vanga (Eastern Bengal), Kamarupa (Assam), Tirhut (Northern Bihar) and Utkala (Northern Orissa) his tributary states. Ghiyas-ud-din Iwaz Khilji's conquest of Bihar was considered as a threat to the Mamluk Sultanate (Delhi) and the Sultan of Delhi Iltutmish decided to reduce him. In 1224 Iltutmish invaded Bengal. The two armies confronted in Teliagarh of Bihar. Ghiyas- ...more...

Muzaffar Shah I


Copper coin of Muzaffar Shah Muzaffar Shah I , born Zafar Khan , was a ruler of the Muzaffarid dynasty , who reigned over the Gujarat Sultanate from 1391 to 1403 and later again from 1404 to 1411. Appointed as the governor of Gujarat by Tughluq of Delhi sultanate , he declared independence and founded the Gujarat Sultanate when there was a chaos in Delhi following Timur 's invasion. He was disposed by his ambitious son Tatar Khan but he regained shortly the throne when he died. Ancestors During the rule of Muhammad bin Tughluq , his cousin Firuz Shah Tughlaq was once on a hunting expedition in area what is now Kheda district of Gujarat . He lost his way and lost. He reached village Thasra . He was welcome to partake in hospitality by village headmen, two brothers of Tanka Rajput family, Sadhu and Sadharan. After drinking, he revealed his identity as a cousin and successor of the king. The brothers offered his beautiful sister in marriage and he accepted. They accompanied Firuz Shah Tughluq to Delhi along wi ...more...

Firuz Shah Tughlaq


Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq (1309 – 20 September 1388) was a Turkic Muslim ruler of the Tughlaq Dynasty , who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1351 to 1388. His father's name was Rajab (the younger brother of Ghazi Malik ) who had the title Sipahsalar. He succeeded his cousin Muhammad bin Tughlaq following the latter's death at Thatta in Sindh , where Muhammad bin Tughlaq had gone in pursuit of Taghi the ruler of Gujarat. For the first time in the history of Delhi Sultanate, a situation was confronted wherein nobody was ready to accept the reigns of power. With much difficulty, the camp followers convinced Firuz to accept the responsibility. In fact, Khwaja Jahan, the Wazir of Muhammad bin Tughlaq had placed a small boy on throne claiming him to the son of Muhammad bin Tughlaq, who meekly surrendered afterwards. Due to widespread unrest, his realm was much smaller than Muhammad's. Tughlaq was forced by rebellions to concede virtual independence to Bengal and other provinces. Rule We know of Firuz Sha ...more...



Shams ud-Din Iltutmish ( r . 1211–1236 ) was the third ruler of the Delhi Sultanate , belonging to the Mamluk dynasty . Iltutmish consolidated the position of the sultanate in the Indian subcontinent . He conquered Multan and Bengal from contesting rulers, and Ranathambhore and Siwalik from their rulers. He expanded his domain by defeating the Muslim rulers of Ghazni , Multan and Bengal, which had previously annexed some of his territories and threatened his domain. He conquered the latter two territories and made further conquests in the Hindu lands, conquering the fort of Ranathambhore and the lands of Gwalior and the fort of Mandur. He instituted many changes to the Sultanate, re-organising the monetary system and the nobility as well as the distribution of grounds and fiefs, and erected many buildings, including Mosques, Khanqas (Monasteries), Dargahs (Graves) and a Hauz (reservoir) for pilgrims. Shams ud-din Iltutmish founded the Delhi Sultanate and much strengthened the power of the slave dynasty and of ...more...

Alauddin Khalji's conquest of Gujarat


Asavalli (Ahmedabad) Anahilavada (Patan) Khambhat Somanatha (Somnath) Surat Delhi In 1299, the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khalji sent an army to ransack the Gujarat region of India, which was ruled by the Vaghela king Karna . The Delhi forces, led by Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan , plundered several major cities of Gujarat, including Anahilavada (Patan), Khambhat , Surat and Somnath . Karna was able to regain control of at least a part of his kingdom in the later years. However, in 1304, a second invasion by Alauddin's forces permanently ended the Vaghela dynasty, and resulted in the annexation of Gujarat to the Delhi Sultanate . Background After becoming the Sultan of Delhi in 1296, Alauddin Khalji spent a few years consolidating his power. Once he had strengthened his control over the Indo-Gangetic plains, he decided to invade Gujarat. The Persian historian Wassaf describes this expedition as a holy war and not motivated by "lust of conquest". Based on this description, historian R. C. Majumdar states the ...more...

Siri Fort


Siri Fort , in the city of New Delhi , was built during the rule of Alauddin Khilji , the Turkic ( Afghan ) ruler of the Delhi Sultanate , to defend the city from the onslaught of the Mongols. It was the second of the seven cities of medieval Delhi built around 1303 (stated to be the first entirely constructed by Turks ), which at present is seen only in ruins with a few remnants (pictured) Near the Siri Fort ruins modern auditoriums, the Asian Games Village Complex and residential and commercial establishments fill the modern landscape between the Khel Gaon Marg and the Aurobindo Marg in the heart of South Delhi . History Alauddin is the best known of the Khalji dynasty because he extended his dominion to Southern India and established the second city of Delhi, Siri. He created Siri between 1297 and 1307 to defend against Mongol invasions of India and Delhi. In response he built Siri Fort, mimicked massive Turkish ones. The Fort served as the seat of his power during his campaigns to enlarge his territory. ...more...

Yahya bin Ahmad Sirhindi


Yahya bin Ahmad Sirhindi was a 15th century Indian chronicler who wrote Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi, a Persian language chronicle of the Delhi Sultanate . Written during the reign of Mubarak Shah , his work is an important source of information for the Sayyid dynasty . Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi Yahya expected to become a courtier of Mubarak Shah (r. 1431-1434), a ruler of the Delhi Sultanate . Therefore, he wrote Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi and presented it to the Sultan, hoping to win the royal patronage. The book begins with the conquests of Muhammad of Ghor (1149-1206), and ends abruptly in 1434. Several earlier royal chroniclers had written texts describing the 13th-15th century history of the Delhi Sultanate. For example, Minhaj-i-Siraj covered the period up to 1259 in his Tabaqat-i Nasiri , Ziauddin Barani covered 1259-1356, and Shams-i Siraj Afif covered 1356-1388. Yahya carried forward this chronology all the way to 1434. For the events up to 1351, Yahya selectively borrowed from the earlier writers, and arranged ...more...

Alam Shah


Alam Shah ( r . 1445–1451 ) was the fourth and last ruler of the Sayyid dynasty which ruled the Delhi Sultanate . Born Ala al-Din, he succeeded his father, Muhammad Shah to the throne and took on the regnal name of Alam Shah ("world king"). According to a 16th-century wit, by this time the Delhi Sultanate only extended from Delhi to the nearby suburb of Palam . Alam Shah was an incapable ruler who abandoned his charge in 1448 and retired to Budaun . Three years later, Bahlul Lodi , who had made two prior attempts at capturing Delhi, took control of the capital to mark the beginning of the Lodi dynasty . Notes Jackson 2003 , p. 322. EB . References Jackson, Peter (2003). The Delhi Sultanate : a political and military history (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   9780521543293 . "Sayyid dynasty" . Encyclopedia Britannica. Alam Shah ( r . 1445–1451 ) was the fourth and last ruler of the Sayyid dynasty which ruled the Delhi Sultanate . Born Ala al-Din, he succeeded his father, Muhammad Shah to ...more...

Old Delhi


Old Delhi or Purani Dilli is a walled city of Delhi , India , founded as Shahjahanabad in 1638, when Shah Jahan , the Mughal emperor at the time, decided to shift the Mughal capital from Agra. The construction of the city was completed in 1648, and it remained the capital of the Mughal Empire until its fall in 1857, when the British Raj took over a paramount power in India. It was once filled with mansions of nobles and members of the royal court, along with elegant mosques and gardens. Today, despite having become extremely crowded and dilapidated, it still serves as the symbolic heart of metropolitan Delhi. History Busy streets near Jama Masjid, Old Delhi. View of Old Delhi from Jama Masjid in June 1973. Jama Masjid built by Shah Jahan , 1656. The site of Shahjahanabad is north of earlier settlements of Delhi. Its southern part overlaps some of the area that was settled by the Tughlaqs in the 14th century when it was the seat of Delhi Sultanate . The sultanates ruled from Delhi between 1206 and 1526, w ...more...

Siege of Dwarasamudra


Delhi Dwarasamudra In late 1310, the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khalji sent his general Malik Kafur on an expedition to the southernmost regions of India. In February 1311, Malik Kafur besieged the Hoysala capital Dwarasamudra , and the defending ruler Veera Ballala III surrendered without much resistance. Ballala agreed to pay the Delhi Sultanate an annual tribute , and surrendered a great amount of wealth, elephants and horses. Background By 1310, Alauddin Khalji of the Delhi Sultanate controlled large parts of northern India, and had ended the Mongol threat . The Yadava and Kakatiya rulers of Deccan region in southern India had become his tributaries . During the 1310 Siege of Warangal against the Kakatiyas, his general Malik Kafur had learned that the region to the south of the Yadava and Kakatiya kingdoms was also very wealthy. After returning to Delhi, Kafur told Alauddin about this, and expressed his desire to lead an expedition there. Alauddin readily agreed to the proposal. His motive appears to ...more...

Mongol invasion of India, 1297-98


In the winter of 1297, Kadar, a noyan of the Mongol Chagatai Khanate invaded the Delhi Sultanate ruled by Alauddin Khalji. The Mongols ravaged the Punjab region, advancing as far as Kasur. Alauddin sent an army led by his brother Ulugh Khan (and probably Zafar Khan) to check their advance. This army defeated the invaders on 6 February 1298, killing around 20,000 of them, and forcing the Mongols to retreat. Mongol raids The Mongol Chagatai Khanate had invaded the Delhi Sultanate a number of times, including in 1241, 1245, 1257, and 1285. Alauddin's predecessor Jalaluddin also faced a Mongol invasion, and managed to halt it. During Alauddin's reign, the Mongols invaded India again: compared to the previous invasions, these were large-scale invasions. The first of these invasions was ordered by the Mongol ruler Duwa, who sent his noyan Kadar (or Keder) to India with a 100,000-strong force. In the winter of 1297-98, Kadar invaded and ravaged the Punjab region of the Delhi Sultanate, which was ruled by Alaudd ...more...

Battle of Kili


The Battle of Kili was fought in 1299 between the Mongols of the Chagatai Khanate and the Delhi Sultanate . The Mongols, led by Qutlugh Khwaja , invaded India, intending to conquer Delhi . When they encamped at Kili near Delhi, the Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khalji led an army to check their advance. Alauddin's general Zafar Khan attacked a Mongol unit led by Hijlak without Alauddin's permission. The Mongols tricked Zafar Khan into following them away from Alauddin's camp, and then ambushed his unit. Before he died, Zafar Khan managed to inflict heavy casualties on the Mongol army. The Mongols decided to retreat after two days. Background The Delhi Sultanate was ruled by Alauddin Khalji, who had taken the throne of Delhi after assassinating his uncle in 1296. The Chagatai Khanate controlled Central Asia, and its leader since the 1280s was Duwa Khan who was second in command of Kaidu . Duwa was active in Afghanistan, and attempted to extend Mongol rule into India. Negudari governor Abdullah, who was a son of Chagat ...more...

Kara, Uttar Pradesh


Kara is an old township situated near Sirathu, on the banks of Ganges, 69 km (43 mi) west of the city of Allahabad in Kaushambi district in Uttar Pradesh state in India. It was capital of a very big region for centuries under the Delhi Sultanate and Jaunpur Sultanate rule. Name It has been sometimes spelt at Karrah, Kada and Kurrah but actually it is Kara(in Hindi कड़ा and Urdu کڑہ )and often called with its sister town across the river Ganges called Manikpur. Still it is called Kara-Manikpur. Kara falls in Kaushambi district while Manikpur has now become a part of Pratapgarh district. Overview Pen-and-ink and wash drawing of the Ganges below the town of Kara, 1803 Centuries ago it was the seat of the Governor of the Sirkar of Kara ("the Province of Kara"). Between the 7th century and the 16th century it retained its charm and importance as the capital, but in 1526, the Mughal emperor Akbar made Allahabad the capital and thus reduced Kara to a subdivision of the province. During British Rule, Allaha ...more...



Hammiradeva ( IAST : Hammīra-deva; r. c. 1283-1301) was the last Chahamana (Chauhan) king of Ranastambhapura (modern Ranthambore ). He is also known as Hamir Dev in the Muslim chronicles and the vernacular literature. Hammira ruled a kingdom centred around Ranthambore in present-day Rajasthan . In the 1280s, he raided several neighbouring kingdoms, which ultimately left him without allies. In the 1290s, he successfully defended his kingdom against Jalaluddin Khalji of the Delhi Sultanate . In 1299, he gave asylum to some Mongol rebels from Delhi, which prompted Jalaluddin's successor Alauddin Khalji to invade his kingdom. Hammira's forces achieved some successes against Alauddin's generals Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan , but he was ultimately defeated and killed in 1301 after a long siege. Hammira is celebrated as a hero in several texts composed after his death including Nayachandra Suri's Hammira Mahakavya , Jodharaja's Hammira-Raso, and Chandrashekhara's Hammira-Hatha. Early life Hammira was a son of the Chah ...more...

Mughal Empire


The Mughal Empire ( Urdu : مغلیہ سلطنت ‬ ‎, translit.   Mughliyah Saltanat) or Mogul Empire , self-designated as Gurkani ( Persian : گورکانیان ‎, Gūrkāniyān, meaning "son-in-law"), was an empire in the Indian subcontinent , founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia , but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan . It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent , spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire , which spanned ...more...

Bahram Khan


Bahram Khan was the governor of Sonargaon , East Bengal (now Bangladesh ), from 1328 until 1337. He was a general of Delhi Sultanate. He was also appointed the governor of Satgaon during 1324–1328. History When Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah declared independence of Sonargaon , Delhi Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq sent his general, Bahram Khan, to depose him. In the battle, Bahadur Shah was defeated and killed. Bahram Khan recaptured Sonargaon for the Delhi Sultanate and was appointed the governor of Sonargaon. Death When Bahram Khan died in 1338, his armor-bearer, Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah , declared himself the independent Sultan of Sonargaon. Preceded by Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah Governor of Sonargaon 1328–1337 Succeeded by Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah See also List of rulers of Bengal References Khan, Muazzam Hussain (2012). "Tatar Khan" . In Islam, Sirajul ; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh . Bahram Khan was the governor of Sonargaon , East Benga ...more...

Kampili kingdom


The Kampili kingdom was a short-lived Hindu kingdom of early 14th-century in the Deccan region. The kingdom existed near Gulbarga and Tungabhadra river in northeastern parts of the present-day Karnataka state, India . It ended after a defeat by the armies of Delhi Sultanate , and a jauhar (ritual mass suicide) in 1327/28 CE when it faced a certain defeat. The Kampili kingdom in some historical accounts is called the Basnaga kingdom, and as what inspired and ultimately led to the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire . The founder of the kingdom was a Hoysala commander, Singeya Nayaka-III (1280–1300 AD), who declared independence after the Muslim forces of the Delhi Sultanate defeated and captured the territories of the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri in 1294 CE. Nayaka-III was succeeded by his son Kampilideva in 1300, who remained in dispute with the territorial claims of Delhi Sultanate. The Kampili kingdom finally fell to the invasion in 1327/28 CE from the north by the forces of Muhammad bin Tughluq , the Sultan of Del ...more...

Tughluq Khan


Ghiyath-ud-din Tughluq Shah II , born Tughluq Khan , was the son of Fateh Khan, the son of Feroze Shah . He was a Sultan of the Tughlaq dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate ; he ascended to the throne in 1388 C.E. However, a succession crisis started almost immediately with Muhammad Shah ibn Feroze Shah staking his claim with the support of his brother Fateh Khan’s brother Zafar Khan's son Abu Bakr Khan . Tughluq Khan dispatched troops against his uncle towards the foot of the hills of Sirmur . Muhammad Shah ibn Feroze Shah after a brief battle took shelter in the fort of Nagarkot , and Tughluq Khan’s army returned to Delhi without pursuing him any further due to the difficulties of the venture & terrain. Eventually though some Amirs joined Abu Bakr Khan son of Zafar Khan and Fateh Khan’s brother Zafar Khan's son and grandson of Sultan Feroze Shah Tughluq and plotted to assassinate Tughluq Khan. In 1389 they surrounded the Sultan and Khan Jahan, his vizier and, put them to death and hung up their heads over t ...more...



Jauhar , sometimes spelled Jowhar or Juhar , was the Hindu custom of mass self-immolation by women in parts of the Indian subcontinent , to avoid capture, enslavement and rape by any foreign invaders, when facing certain defeat during a war. This practice was historically observed in northwest regions of India, with most famous Jauhars in recorded history occurring during wars between Hindu Rajput kingdoms in Rajasthan and the Muslim armies. Jauhar is related to sati , and sometimes referred in scholarly literature as jauhar sati. According to Veena Oldenburg, the roots of this practice "almost certainly" lie in the internecine warfare among different Rajput kingdoms. In contrast, according to Kaushik Roy, the jauhar custom was observed only during Hindu-Muslim wars, but not during internecine Hindu-Hindu wars among the Rajputs. The term jauhar sometimes connotes with both jauhar-immolation and saka ritual. During the Jauhar, Rajput women committed suicide with their children and valuables in massive ...more...

Alauddin Khalji's conquest of Devagiri


Delhi Devagiri The ruins of the Devagiri fort Around 1308, the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khalji sent a large army led by his general Malik Kafur to Devagiri , the capital of the Yadava king Ramachandra . Alauddin had earlier raided Devagiri in 1296 , and forced Ramachandra to pay him tribute . However, Ramachandra had discontinued these tribute payments, and had given asylum to the Vaghela king Karna , whom Alauddin had displaced from Gujarat in 1304. A section of the Delhi army, commanded by Alp Khan , invaded Karna's principality in the Yadava kingdom, and captured the Vaghela princess Devaladevi , who later married Alauddin's son Khizr Khan. Another section, commanded by Malik Kafur captured Devagiri after a weak resistance by the defenders. Ramachandra agreed to become a vassal of Alauddin, and later, aided Malik Kafur in the Sultanate's invasions of the southern kingdoms. Date There is some confusion over the date of Alauddin's second invasion of Devagiri. His courtier Amir Khusrau dates this invasi ...more...

Chittor Fort


The Chittor Fort or Chittorgarh is one of the largest forts in India. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The fort was the capital of Mewar and is located in the present-day town of Chittorgarh. It sprawls over a hill 180 m (590.6 ft) in height spread over an area of 280 ha (691.9 acres) above the plains of the valley drained by the Berach River. The fort precinct has several historical palaces, gates, temples and two prominent commemorative towers. Beginning in the 7th century, the fort was controlled by the Mewar Kingdom. From the 9th to 13th centuries, the fort was ruled by Paramara dynasty. In 1303, the Turkic ruler of Delhi, Alauddin Khalji defeated Rana Ratan Singh's forces at the fort. In 1535 Bahadur Shah, the Sultan of Gujarat, defeated Bikramjeet Singh and took the fort. In 1567 Akbar defeated Maharana Udai Singh II's troops. The fort's defenders sallied forth to charge the attacking enemy but yet were not able to succeed. Following these defeats, the women are said to have committed jauhar or mas ...more...

History of Delhi


The Indian capital city of Delhi has a long history, and has been an important political centre of India as the capital of several empires. Much of Delhi's ancient history finds no record and this may be regarded as a lost period of its history. Extensive coverage of Delhi's history begins with the onset of the Delhi Sultanate in the 12th century. Since then, Delhi has been the centre of a succession of mighty empires and powerful kingdoms, making Delhi one of the longest serving Capitals and one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world. It is considered to be a city built, destroyed and rebuilt several times, as outsiders who successfully invaded the Indian Subcontinent would ransack the existing capital city in Delhi, and those who came to conquer and stay would be so impressed by the city's strategic location as to make it their capital and rebuild it in their own way. The core of Delhi's tangible heritage is Hindu, Islamic (spanning over seven centuries of Islamic rule over the city) with expansive ...more...

Qutb complex


Excavations of pre-Islamic ruins near Anang Tal. The Qutb complex is a collection of monuments and buildings from the Delhi Sultanate at Mehrauli in Delhi in India, which were built on the ruins of Lal Kot , which consisted of 27 Hindu and Jain temples (built by Anangpal , the Tomar ruler, in 739 CE) and Qila-Rai-Pithora ( Prithviraj Chauhan 's city, whom Muhammad Ghori 's Afghan armies had earlier defeated and killed in the Second Battle of Tarain ). The Qutub Minar in the complex, named after Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki , was built by Qutb-ud-din Aibak , who later became the first Sultan of Delhi of the Mamluk dynasty . The Minar was added upon by his successor Iltutmish (a.k.a. Altamash ), and much later by Firoz Shah Tughlaq , a Sultan of Delhi from the Tughlaq dynasty in 1368 AD. The Qubbat-ul-Islam Mosque (Dome of Islam), later corrupted into Quwwat-ul Islam, stands next to the Qutb Minar. Many subsequent rulers, including the Tughlaqs , Alauddin Khalji and the British added structures to the complex. Ap ...more...

Muhammad Shah (Sayyid dynasty)


Muhammad Shah ( r . 1434–1445 ) was the third monarch of the Sayyid dynasty which ruled the Delhi Sultanate . He succeeded his uncle, Mubarak Shah to the throne. The Sayyids were subservient to Timur 's successor, Shah Rukh . According to the chronicler, Muhammad Bihamadkhani, who was a contemporary, this obedience continued in Muhammad Shah's reign. Both Muhammad Shah and his son, Alam Shah who succeeded him, were incapable rulers and were supplanted by the Lodi dynasty. Muhammad Shah's tomb is a notable monument within the Lodi Gardens of New Delhi . Notes Jackson 2003 , p. 322. EB . References Jackson, Peter (2003). The Delhi Sultanate : a political and military history (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   9780521543293 . "Sayyid dynasty" . Encyclopedia Britannica. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Muhammad Shah (Sayyid dynasty) . Muhammad Shah ( r . 1434–1445 ) was the third monarch of the Sayyid dynasty which ruled the Delhi Sultanate . He succeeded his uncle, Mubarak Shah to th ...more...

Alauddin Khalji's conquest of Multan


Delhi Multan In November 1296, the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khalji sent an expedition to conquer Multan . His objective was to eliminate the surviving family members of his predecessor Jalaluddin Khalji , whom he had assassinated to usurp the throne of Delhi. Multan was governed by Jalaluddin's eldest son Arkali Khan. Alauddin's generals Ulugh Khan and Zafar Khan besieged Multan for around two months. They managed to gain control of the city after Arkali Khan's officers defected to their side. The surviving family members of Jalaluddin were imprisoned, and later, several of them were either blinded or killed. Background Alauddin had become the ruler of the Delhi Sultanate after assassinating his father-in-law Jalaluddin . Multan , which was located in the Punjab region to the north-west of Delhi, was under the control of Jalaluddin's eldest son Arkali Khan. Jalaluddin's widow (the former queen or Malka-i-Jahan) and his younger son Ruknuddin Ibrahim and taken shelter in Multan after fleeing Delhi. After ...more...

Malcha Mahal


Construction occurring in Raisina Hill (c. 1920s-1930s). Malcha Mahal , also known as Wilayat Mahal , is a Tughlak era hunting lodge in the Chanakyapuri area of New Delhi , India next to the Delhi Earth Station of the Indian Space Research Organisation . It was built by Firuz Shah Tughlaq , who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi , in 1325. It came to be known as Wilayat Mahal after Begum Wilayat Mahal of Awadh who was reportedly given the place by the Government of India in May 1985. On 10 September 1993, Begum committed suicide at the age of 62 by consuming crushed diamonds. The building is now mostly in ruins, it continued to be inhabited by the Begum's daughter Sakina Mahal, and son Prince Ali Raza until recently, both are now deceased. History Malcha Mahal is located in Malcha, one of the historical villages around Raisina Hill . Malcha, along with Raisina, Todapur, Aliganj, Pillanji, Jaisinghpura, and Kushak villages was moved by the British during the construction of capital New Delhi in 1920s, e ...more...

Ziauddin Barani


Ziauddin Barani (1285–1357) was a Muslim political thinker of the Delhi Sultanate located in present-day North India during Muhammad bin Tughlaq and Firuz Shah's reign. He was best known for composing the Tarikh-i-Firuz Shahi, a work on medieval India, which covers the period from the reign of Ghiyas ud din Balban to the first six years of reign of Firuz Shah Tughluq and the Fatwa-i-Jahandari which promoted a racial hierarchy among Muslim communities in the Indian subcontinent. Life Barani was born to a Muslim family in 1285 in which his father, uncle, and grandfather all working in high government posts under the Sultan of Delhi. His family were natives of Meerut and Bulandsahar. His maternal grandfather Husam-ud-Din, was an important officer of Ghiyas ud din Balban and his father Muwayyid-ul-Mulk held the post of naib of Arkali Khan, the son of Jalaluddin Firuz Khalji. His uncle Qazi Ala-ul-Mulk was the Kotwal (police chief) of Delhi during the reign of Ala-ud-Din Khalji. Barani never held a post, but w ...more...

Mongol invasion of Sindh


In 1298-99, a Mongol army (possibly Neguderi fugitives) invaded the Sindh region of the Delhi Sultanate , and occupied the fort of Sivistan . The Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khalji dispatched his general Zafar Khan to evict the Mongols. Zafar Khan recaptured the fort, and imprisoned the Mongol leader Saldi and his companions. Mongol invasion The Mongol Chagatai Khanate had invaded the Delhi Sultanate a number of times. In February 1298, a Delhi army led by Alauddin Khalji 's general Ulugh Khan inflicted a crushing defeat on the Mongols. Sometime later, a Mongol force invaded the Sindh region on located on the western frontier of the Delhi Sultanate. The invaders occupied the fort of Sivistan (also called Siwistan or Sibi). This place can be identified with the north-western part of Sindh (around modern Sehwan ). The invasion seems to have happened in 1298-99. According to the 17th century chronicle Zafar-al-Walih, the Mongols occupied the Sivistan fort in 697 AH , and the Delhi forces recaptured it in 698 AH. The ...more...

New Delhi


The city of New Delhi is located within the National Capital Territory of Delhi. New Delhi ( ( listen)) is the capital of India and one of Delhi city's 11 districts. Although colloquially Delhi and New Delhi are used interchangeably to refer to the National Capital Territory of Delhi, these are two distinct entities, with New Delhi forming a small part of Delhi. The National Capital Region is a much larger entity comprising the entire National Capital Territory of Delhi along with adjoining districts. It is surrounded by Haryana on three sides and Uttar Pradesh on the east. The foundation stone of the city was laid by George V, Emperor of India during the Delhi Durbar of 1911. It was designed by British architects, Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker. The new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931, by Viceroy and Governor-General of India Lord Irwin. New Delhi has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi's f ...more...

Bihar Sharif


Bihar Sharif is the fifth largest city in the eastern Indian state of Bihar , and it is the district headquarters of Nalanda district . Its name is a combination of two words "Bihar" derived from Buddha vihara as it is also the name of state and "Sharif" due to rest place of great Sufi saint Sheikh Sharfuddin Yahya Maneri. The city is a hub of education and trade in south Bihar, and the economy centers around agriculture, while also including tourism and household manufacturing. Bihar Sharif is one of the hundred Indian cities competing in a national level competition to get the funds under Narendra Modi 's flagship Smart Cities Mission . Bihar Sharif will be competing for one of the last 10 spots against 20 cities from across India. Bihar Sharif has more than two millennia of history. Under the Pala Empire , a major Buddhist (Hindu) monastic university was built at the site. It eventually became the capital of Magadha , and then part of the Muslim Delhi Sultanate in the late 12th century, though local Rajput ...more...

Alauddin Khalji's raid on Devagiri


Kara Devagiri The Devagiri hill In 1296, Alauddin Khalji (then known as Ali Gurshasp) raided Devagiri , the capital of the Yadava kingdom in the Deccan region of India. At the time, Alauddin was the governor of Kara in Delhi Sultanate , which was ruled by Jalaluddin Khalji . Alauddin kept his march to Devagiri a secret from Jalaluddin, because he intended to use the wealth obtained from this raid for dethroning the Sultan. When Alauddin reached Devagiri, the Yadava king Ramachandra retreated to the hill fort, and Alauddin's army thoroughly ransacked the lower city. The defenders were under-prepared for a siege, as the Yadava army was away on an expedition under Ramachandra's son Simhana and the fort of Devagiri had insufficient provisions. Therefore, Ramachandra agreed to a peace treaty, offering Alauddin a large sum of money. However, Simhana soon arrived in the capital and engaged Alauddin in a battle. Alauddin emerged victorious, and forced the Yadavas to agree to a peace treaty. This time, the Yadavas wer ...more...

Shah Turkan


Shah Turkan was a mistress of Iltutmish, the Mamluk ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, and the mother of his successor, Rukn ud din Firuz. After the death of Iltutmish, Ruknuddin indulged himself in the pursuit of pleasure and left his mother to handle the affairs of the state. Turkan had been a Turkish hand-maid and had risen to take control of the Sultan's harem. She took this opportunity to wreak vengeance against all those who had slighted her in the past. Consequently, Ruknuddin's rule turned unpopular and paved the way for the ascension of Razia Sultana. References Chandra, Satish (2004). Medieval India : from Sultanat to the Mughals (Revised ed.). New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications. p. 48. ISBN 9788124110645. Retrieved 26 May 2017. Shah Turkan was a mistress of Iltutmish, the Mamluk ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, and the mother of his successor, Rukn ud din Firuz. After the death of Iltutmish, Ruknuddin indulged himself in the pursuit of pleasure and left his mother to handle the affairs of the stat ...more...

Zafar Khan


Zafar Khan may refer to: Zafar Khan (Indian general) , general of the Delhi Sultanate Zafar Khan (Afghan general) (born 1953), general of the Afghan National Army Zafar Khan (businessman) (born 1968), British businessman Hasan Gangu , who took this as his name after he founded the Kingdom of Bahmani Zafar Khan Malik Dinar , Indian slave general of Delhi Sultanate Zafar Khan may refer to: Zafar Khan (Indian general) , general of the Delhi Sultanate Zafar Khan (Afghan general) (born 1953), general of the Afghan National Army Zafar Khan (businessman) (born 1968), British businessman Hasan Gangu , who took this as his name after he founded the Kingdom of Bahmani Zafar Khan Malik Dinar , Indian slave general of Delhi Sultanate ...more...

Alauddin Khalji's conquest of Malwa


Mandu Delhi In 1305, the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khalji sent an army to capture the Paramara kingdom of Malwa in central India. The Delhi army defeated and killed the powerful Paramara minister Goga, while the Paramara king Mahalakadeva took shelter in the Mandu fort. Alauddin appointed Ayn al-Mulk Multani as the governor of Malwa. After consolidating his power in Malwa, Ayn al-Mulk besieged Mandu and killed Mahalakadeva. Background The Paramara dynasty ruled the Malwa region in central India. By 1305, nearly all the Indian rulers to the north of Malwa had acknowledged Alauddin's suzerainty. The Paramara king Mahalakadeva was a weak ruler, and his prime minister (pradhan) Goga (called Koka in Muslim chronicles) was more powerful than him. Goga's death In 1305, Alauddin sent a cavalry to capture Malwa. It is not clear who commanded this army, but he might have been Ayn al-Mulk Multani , whom Alauddin later appointed as the governor of Malwa. According to the Delhi chronicler Amir Khusrau , the Delhi ar ...more...

Mubarak Shah (Sayyid dynasty)


Mubarak Shah ( r . 1421–1434 ) was the second monarch of the Sayyid dynasty which ruled the Delhi Sultanate . He succeeded his father, Khizr Khan to the throne. The Sayyids were subservient to Timur 's successor, Shah Rukh , and while Khizr Khan did not assume the title of sultan, Mubarak Shah was acknowledged as one by Sirhindi. However, it is also known that Mubarak Shah received a robe and a chatr (a ceremonial parasol) from the Timurid capital of Herat which indicates that the fealty continued in his time. He was murdered in 1434 and succeeded by his nephew, Muhammad Shah . See also Kotla Mubarakpur Notes Jackson 2003 . EB . References Jackson, Peter (2003). The Delhi Sultanate : a political and military history (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   9780521543293 . "Sayyid dynasty" . Encyclopedia Britannica. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mubarak Shah (Sayyid dynasty) . Mubarak Shah ( r . 1421–1434 ) was the second monarch of the Sayyid dynasty which ruled the Delhi Sultanate . ...more...

Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent


Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 12th to the 16th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into modern Afghanistan and Pakistan as early as the time of the Rajput kingdoms in the 8th century. With the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate, Islam spread across large parts of the subcontinent. In 1204, Bakhtiyar Khalji led the Muslim conquest of Bengal, marking the eastern-most expansion of Islam at the time. Prior to the rise of the Maratha Empire, which was followed by the conquest of India by the British East India Company, the Muslim Mughal Empire was able to annex or subjugate most of India's kings. However, it was never able to conquer the kingdoms in the upper reaches of the Himalayas, such as those of modern Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Nepal and Bhutan; the kingdoms of the extreme south of India, such as Travancore and Tamil Nadu; or the kingdoms in the east, such as the Ahom Kingdom in Assam. Early Muslim presence Islam in Sout ...more...

Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq


Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq (reign: 1394 − February 1413 CE) was the last sultan of the Tughlaq dynasty to rule the Islamic Delhi Sultanate. History During his reign in 1398, Amir Timur the Chagtai ruler invaded India. He carried away with him a large booty from Delhi and the surrounding area. Soon after the invasion, the Tughlaq dynasty came to an end. Successor The succeeding sultan of the Delhi Sultanate was Khizr Khan, the first of the Sayyid dynasty. References Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 100–102. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4. Preceded byNasir ud din Muhammad Shah III Sultan of Delhi 1394–1413 Succeeded byKhizr Khan,Sayyid dynasty Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq (reign: 1394 − February 1413 CE) was the last sultan of the Tughlaq dynasty to rule the Islamic Delhi Sultanate. History During his reign in 1398, Amir Timur the Chagtai ruler invaded India. He carried away with him a large booty from Delhi and the surrounding area. So ...more...

Adal Sultanate


The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal (alt. spelling Adel Sultanate), was a multi-ethnic medieval Muslim state located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of the Sultanate of Ifat. The kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577. The sultanate and state were established by the inhabitants of the Harar Plateau. At its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region immediately east of Abyssinia. The Adal empire maintained a robust commercial and political relationship with the Ottoman Empire. Name Adal is believed to be an acronym for the Havilah. Eidal or Aw Abdal, was also the Emir of Harar in the eleventh century. In the thirteenth century, Arab writer Al Dimashqi refers to the Adal Sultanate's capital, Zeila, by its Somali name "Awdal" (Somali: "Awdal"). The modern Awdal region, which was part of the Adal Sultanate, bears the kingdom's name. History Establishment Ruins of the Adal Sultanate in Zeila, Awdal According to the 16th-cen ...more...

Malacca Sultanate


The Malacca Sultanate ( Malay : Kesultanan Melayu Melaka ; Jawi script : كسلطانن ملايو ملاك) was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca , Malaysia . Conventional historical thesis marks c. 1400 as the founding year of the sultanate by a renegade Malay Raja of Singapura , Parameswara who was also known as Iskandar Shah . At the height of the sultanate's power in the 15th century, its capital grew into one of the most important entrepots of its time, with territory covering much of the Malay Peninsula , Riau Islands and a significant portion of the east coast of Sumatra . As a bustling international trading port, Malacca emerged as a centre for Islamic learning and dissemination, and encouraged the development of the Malay language , literature and arts. It heralded the golden age of Malay sultanates in the archipelago, in which Classical Malay became the lingua franca of the Maritime Southeast Asia and Jawi script became the primary medium for cultural, religious and intellectual exchan ...more...

Dilawar Khan


Dilawar Khan's Mosque in Mandu Dilawar Khan Ghori was governor of the Malwa province of central India during the decline of the Delhi Sultanate . After serving at the court in Delhi, he was appointed governor at Dhar in A.H. 793/C.E. 1390-91. Dilawar Khan took the title of 'Amid Shāh Dā'ūd and caused the khutba to be read in his name in A.H. 804/C.E. 1401-02. He passed his kingdom – the Malwa Sultanate – to his son Hoshang Shah upon his death in A.H. 809/C.E. 1406. Dilawar Khan in the reign of the Later Tughluqs (1391/92 - 1401/02) Dilawar Khan was the follower of Firuz Shah Tughluq's son, Muhammad ibn Firuz, later known as Muhammad Shah. He was imprisoned by the court officials at Delhi for his support for the rebel prince. Not only Dilawar Khan, but many important provincial governors, such as that of Gujarat, and various other important and powerful nobles of the court supported the Prince' claim to the throne. After Timur 's invasion in 1398, the same prince, who was the then Sultan of Delhi, ran away ...more...

Battle of Delhi


Battle of Delhi may refer to: Siege of Delhi, 1303 , fought between the Mongol Chagatai Khanate and the Delhi Sultanate Battle of Tughlaqabad (1556), also known as the Battle of Delhi, fought between the Mughals and Hemu Battle of Delhi (1737) , fought between the Mughal Empire and Maratha Empire Battle of Delhi (1757) , fought between the Maratha Empire and Rohilla Afghans Battle of Delhi (1803) , fought between the Maratha Empire and British East India Company Siege of Delhi (1804) , fought between the Maratha Empire and British East India Company Siege of Delhi in 1857, a battle fought between British East India Company and Indian Rebels Battle of Delhi may refer to: Siege of Delhi, 1303 , fought between the Mongol Chagatai Khanate and the Delhi Sultanate Battle of Tughlaqabad (1556), also known as the Battle of Delhi, fought between the Mughals and Hemu Battle of Delhi (1737) , fought between the Mughal Empire and Maratha Empire Battle of Delhi (1757) , fought between the Maratha Empire and Rohilla Afghan ...more...

Ilyas Shahi dynasty


Ilyas dynasty or Iliyas dynasty or Iliyas Shahi dynasty was the first independent Turkic Muslim ruling dynasty in late medieval Bengal, which ruled from the 14th century to the 15th century. History The dynasty was founded by Ilyas Shah (1342–1358), who succeeded to achieve the political unity of Bengal and begin what is known as the Sultanate of Bengal. In 1352, after defeating Ikhtiyaruddin Ghazi Shah and Ilias Shah became the ruler of Sonargaon. Raja Ganesha In 1415, political confusion and weakness of the Ilyas Shahi dynasty led to it being overthrown by Raja Ganesha. After his death, his son Jadu assumed the title of Jalal-ud-Din Muhammad Shah. He was succeeded by his son, Shams-ud-Din Ahmad Shah. He was killed by his nobles in 1436. Second Ilyas Shahi Dynasty After his death, the rule of Ilyas Shahi dynasty was restored by Mahmud Shah, a descendant of Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah, who ascended the throne in 1437 as Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah I. In 1487, the last ruler of this dynasty Jalal-ud-Din Fath Shah ...more...

Sultanate of Rum


The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as Rûm sultanate Persian : سلجوقیان روم ‎, Saljuqiyān-e Rum; Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate , Sultanate of Iconium , Anatolian Seljuk State Turkish : Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti or Turkey Seljuk State Turkish : Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti ) was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state, established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire which was established by Seljuk Turks . The name Rûm reflects the Arabic name of Anatolia, الرُّومُ ar-Rūm, a loan from Greek Ρωμιοί " Romans ". The Sultanate of Rum seceded from the Great Seljuk Empire under Suleiman ibn Qutulmish in 1077, following the Battle of Manzikert , with capitals first at İznik and then at Konya . It reached the height of its power during the late 12th and early 13th century, when it succeeded in taking Byzantine key ports on the Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. In the east, the sultanate absorbed other Turkish states and reached Lake Van . Trade from Iran and Central Asia ...more...

Nusrat Khan Jalesari


Nusrat Khan (died 1301) was a general of the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khalji . He served as Alauddin's wazir (prime minister) at one point, and played an important role in the Sultan's Devagiri (1296) and Gujarat (1299) campaigns. He was killed during the Siege of Ranthambore in 1301. Early life Nusrat Khan was also known as Malik Nusrat Jalesari. The nisba "Jalesari" suggests that he may have been associated with Jalesar in some way. "Nusrat Khan" was a title given to him by Alauddin. Career Devagiri raid Nusrat Khan became a follower of Alauddin, even before the latter's ascension to the throne of Delhi. When Alauddin was a governor of Kara , Nusrat Khan accompanied him during his 1296 raid on Devagiri. Alauddin led a 8,000-strong cavalry, but spread a rumor that his army was only the vanguard of a bigger 20,000-strong cavalry that would reach Devagiri shortly after his arrival. Ramachandra , the king of Devagiri, agreed to negotiate a truce, as his army was away on an expedition under the crown prin ...more...

Bengal Sultanate–Jaunpur Sultanate War


The Bengal Sultanate–Jaunpur Sultanate War was a conflict between the Bengal Sultanate and the Jaunpur Sultanate in the Indian subcontinent . The conflict ended after diplomatic pressure from the Timurid Empire and the Ming Empire . Background The Jaunpur Sultanate challenged the rule of Raja Ganesha who usurped the throne of Bengal after the overthrowing the Ilyas Shahi dynasty . Raja Ganesha was later removed as a result. But his son later took the throne and converted to Islam. Conflict Ibrahim Shah of Jaunpur continued to attack the Bengal Sultanate under Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah . Foreign mediation A diplomat in the court of Shahrukh Mirza recorded that the Timurid ruler of Herat intervened during the Bengal-Jaunpur conflict after a request from the Sultan of Bengal. The record speaks of Shahrukh Mirza "directing the ruler of Jaunpur to abstain from attacking the King of Bengal, or to take the consequence upon himself. To which the intimation of the Jaunpur ruler was obedient, and desisted from his attac ...more...

Siege of Siwana


Siwana Delhi Delhi and Siwana in present-day India In 1308, the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khalji captured the Siwana fort located in present-day Rajasthan , India. The Delhi army breached the fort after a prolonged siege. Faced with a defeat, Sitala Deva, the ruler of the Siwana, tried to flee, but was captured and killed. Background At the beginning of the 14th century, the present-day Rajasthan had several small principalities centered around hill forts. Most of these principalities had acknowledged Alauddin's suzerainty after his conquest of the powerful Ranthambore (1301) and Chittor (1303) kingdoms. However, the forts of Siwana and Jalore , located in the south-west end of Rajasthan, remained independent. Siwana, located near the Thar Desert , was controlled by a Paramara chief named Sitala Deva (also called "Satal Deo" or "Sital Dev" in medieval chronicles). A number of local chiefs acknowledged his suzerainty. According to the Delhi courtier Amir Khusrau 's Dawal Rani, the Delhi army had been besi ...more...

Ulugh Khan


Almas Beg (died c. 1301-1302), better known by his title Ulugh Khan, was a brother and a general of the Delhi Sultanate ruler Alauddin Khalji. He held the iqta' of Bayana in present-day India. Ulugh Khan played an important role in Alauddin's ascension to the throne of Delhi in 1296. He lured the former Sultan Jalaluddin to Kara, where Alauddin assassinated Jalaluddin. He successfully besieged Multan, and subjugated the surviving members of Jalaluddin's family. In 1298, Ulugh Khan repulsed a Mongol invasion from the Chagatai Khanate, which greatly increased Alauddin's prestige. The next year, he and Nusrat Khan raided the wealthy province of Gujarat, obtaining a huge amount of wealth for Alauddin's treasury. He led the reinforcement unit in the Battle of Kili (1299) against the Mongols, and held command in the initial phases of the Siege of Ranthambore (1301). He died a few months after the Ranthambore campaign ended, although a fictional account in Amir Khusrau's Ashiqa suggests that he led Alauddin's fo ...more...

Next Page
Javascript Version
Revolvy Server