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Delhi Sultanate

The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim kingdom based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).[4] [5] Five dynasties ruled over Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414),[6] the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526). The first two and the fourth dynasties (Mamluk, Khilji, and Sayyid) were of Turkic origin, the third (Tughlaq) was of Turko-Indian origin,[7] and the last dynasty (Lodi) was of Afghan origin. The sultanate is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack from the Mongol Empire,[8] and enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana, who reigned from 1236 to 1240.[9]

Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi and his dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards the Khilji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to unite the Indian subcontinent. The sultanate reached the peak of its geographical reach during the Tughlaq dynasty, covering most of the Indian subcontinent.[10] This was followed by decline due to continuing Hindu-Muslim wars, states such as the Vijayanagara Empire asserting independence, and new Muslim sultanates such as the Bengal Sultanate breaking off.[11] [12]

The Delhi Sultanate caused destruction and desecration of politically important temples of South Asia,[13] but the time of their rule also included the earliest forms of Indo-Islamic architecture.[14] [15] In 1526 the Sultanate fell, to be succeeded by the Mughal Empire.

Background

By 962 AD, Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in South Asia were under a wave of raids from Muslim armies from Central Asia.[16] Among them was Mahmud of Ghazni, who raided and plundered kingdoms in north India from east of the Indus river to west of Yamuna river seventeen times between 997 and 1030.[17] Mahmud of Ghazni raided the treasuries but retracted each time, only extending Islamic rule into western Punjab.[18] [19]

The wave of raids on north Indian and western Indian kingdoms by Muslim warlords continued after Mahmud of Ghazni.[20] The raids did not establish or extend permanent boundaries of their Islamic kingdoms. The Ghurid sultan Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori, commonly known as Muhammad of Ghor, began a systematic war of expansion into north India in 1173.[21] He sought to carve out a principality for himself by expanding the Islamic world.[17] [22] Muhammad of Ghor sought a Sunni Islamic kingdom of his own extending east of the Indus river, and he thus laid the foundation for the Muslim kingdom called the Delhi Sultanate.[17] Some historians chronicle the Delhi Sultanate from 1192 due to the presence and geographical claims of Muhammad Ghori in South Asia by that time.[23]

Ghori was assassinated in 1206, by Ismāʿīlī Shia Muslims in some accounts or by Hindu Khokhars in others.[24] After the assassination, one of Ghori's slaves (or mamluks, Arabic: مملوك), the Turkic Qutb al-Din Aibak, assumed power, becoming the first Sultan of Delhi.[17]

Dynasties
Mamluk / Slave

Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former slave of Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori (known more commonly as Muhammad of Ghor), was the first ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. Aibak was of Cuman-Kipchak origin,[25] and due to his lineage, his dynasty is known as the Mamluk (Slave) dynasty (not to be confused with the Mamluk dynasty of Iraq or the Mamluk dynasty of Egypt).[26] Aibak reigned as the Sultan of Delhi for four years, from 1206 to 1210.

After Aibak died, Aram Shah assumed power in 1210, but he was assassinated in 1211 by Shams ud-Din Iltutmish.[27] Iltutmish's power was precarious, and a number of Muslim amirs (nobles) challenged his authority as they had been supporters of Qutb al-Din Aibak. After a series of conquests and brutal executions of opposition, Iltutmish consolidated his power.[28] His rule was challenged a number of times, such as by Qubacha, and this led to a series of wars.[29] Iltumish conquered Multan and Bengal from contesting Muslim rulers, as well as Ranthambore and Siwalik from the Hindu rulers. He also attacked, defeated, and executed Taj al-Din Yildiz, who asserted his rights as heir to Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad Ghori.[30] Iltutmish's rule lasted till 1236. Following his death, the Delhi Sultanate saw a succession of weak rulers, disputing Muslim nobility, assassinations, and short-lived tenures. Power shifted from Rukn ud-Din Firuz to Razia Sultana and others, until Ghiyas ud-Din Balban came to power and ruled from 1266 to 1287.[29] [30] He was succeeded by 17-year-old Muiz ud-Din Qaiqabad, who appointed Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khilji as the commander of the army. Khilji assassinated Qaiqabad and assumed power, thus ending the Mamluk dynasty and starting the Khilji dynasty.

Qutb al-Din Aibak initiated the construction of the Qutub Minar[31] and the Quwwat-ul-Islam (Might of Islam) Mosque, now a UNESCO world heritage site.[32] It was built from the remains of twenty seven demolished Hindu and Jain temples. The Qutub Minar Complex or Qutb Complex was expanded by Iltutmish, and later by Ala ud-Din Khilji (the second ruler of the Khilji dynasty) in the early 14th century.[32] [33] During the Mamluk dynasty, many nobles from Afghanistan and Persia migrated and settled in India, as West Asia came under Mongol siege.[34]

Khilji
Alai Gate and Qutub Minar were built during the Mamluk and Khilji dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate.[32]

The first ruler of the Khilji dynasty was Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khilji. He came to power in 1290 after killing the last ruler of the Mamluk dynasty, Muiz ud-Din Qaiqabad, at the behest of Turkic, Afghan, and Persian nobles. Jalal ud-Din Firuz was of Turkic origin, and ruled for 6 years before he was murdered in 1296 by his nephew and son-in-law Juna Muhammad Khilji,[35] who later came to be known as Ala ud-Din Khilji.

Ala ud-Din began his military career as governor of Kara province, from where he led two raids on Malwa (1292) and Devagiri (1294) for plunder and loot. His military campaigning returned to these lands as well other south Indian kingdoms after he assumed power. He conquered Gujarat, Ranthambore, Chittor, and Malwa.[36] However, these victories were cut short because of Mongol attacks and plunder raids from the northwest. The Mongols withdrew after plundering and stopped raiding northwest parts of the Delhi Sultanate.[37]

After the Mongols withdrew, Ala ud-Din Khilji continued expanding the Delhi Sultanate into southern India with the help of generals such as Malik Kafur and Khusro Khan. They collected lots of war booty (anwatan) from those they defeated.[38] His commanders collected war spoils and paid ghanima (Arabic: الْغَنيمَة, a tax on spoils of war), which helped strengthen the Khilji rule. Among the spoils was the Warangal loot that included one of the largest known diamonds in human history, the Koh-i-noor.[39]

Ala ud-Din Khilji changed tax policies, raising agriculture taxes from 20% to 50% (payable in grain and agricultural produce), eliminating payments and commissions on taxes collected by local chiefs, banned socialization among his officials as well as inter-marriage between noble families to help prevent any opposition forming against him, and he cut salaries of officials, poets, and scholars.[35] These tax policies and spending controls strengthened his treasury to pay the keep of his growing army; he also introduced price controls on all agriculture produce and goods in the kingdom, as well as controls on where, how, and by whom these goods could be sold. Markets called "shahana-i-mandi" were created.[40] Muslim merchants were granted exclusive permits and monopoly in these "mandis" to buy and resell at official prices. No one other than these merchants could buy from farmers or sell in cities. Those found violating these "mandi" rules were severely punished, often by mutilation. Taxes collected in the form of grain were stored in the kingdom's storage. During famines that followed, these granaries ensured sufficient food for the army.[35]

Historians note Ala ud-Din Khilji as being a tyrant. Anyone Ala ud-Din suspected of being a threat to this power was killed along with the women and children of that family. In 1298, between 15,000 and 30,000 people near Delhi, who had recently converted to Islam, were slaughtered in a single day, due to fears of an uprising.[41] He is also known for his cruelty against kingdoms he defeated in battle.

After Ala ud-Din's death in 1316, his eunuch general Malik Kafur, who was born in a Hindu family in India and had converted to Islam, tried to assume power. He lacked the support of Persian and Turkic nobility and was subsequently killed.[35] The last Khilji ruler was Ala ud-Din Khilji's 18-year-old son Qutb ud-Din Mubarak Shah Khilji, who ruled for four years before he was killed by Khusro Khan, another of Ala ud-Din's generals. Khusro Khan's reign lasted only a few months, when Ghazi Malik, later to be called Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq, killed him and assumed power in 1320, thus ending the Khilji dynasty and starting the Tughlaq dynasty.[34] [41]

Tughlaq
Delhi Sultanate from 1321-1330 AD under the Tughlaq dynasty. After 1330, various regions rebelled against the Sultanate and the kingdom shrank.

The Tughlaq dynasty lasted from 1320 to nearly the end of 14th century. The first ruler Ghazi Malik rechristened himself as Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq and is also referred to in scholarly works as Tughlak Shah. He was of Turko-Indian origins, with a Turkic father and a Hindu mother. Ghiyath al-Din ruled for five years and built a town near Delhi named Tughlaqabad.[7] According to some historians such as Vincent Smith,[42] he was killed by his son Juna Khan, who then assumed power in 1325. Juna Khan rechristened himself as Muhammad bin Tughlaq and ruled for 26 years.[43] During his rule, Delhi Sultanate reached its peak in terms of geographical reach, covering most of the Indian subcontinent.[10]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq was an intellectual, with extensive knowledge of the Quran, Fiqh, poetry and other fields. He was also deeply suspicious of his kinsmen and wazirs (ministers), extremely severe with his opponents, and took decisions that caused economic upheaval. For example, he ordered minting of coins from base metals with face value of silver coins - a decision that failed because ordinary people minted counterfeit coins from base metal they had in their houses and used them to pay taxes and jizya.[10] [42]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq moved his capital to the Deccan Plateau, ordered Delhi's people to move and build a new capital named Daulatabad (shown), then reversed his decision because Daulatabad lacked the river and drinking water supply Delhi had.[42]
A base metal coin of Muhammad bin Tughlaq that led to an economic collapse.

On another occasion, after becoming upset by some accounts, or to run the Sultanate from the center of India by other accounts, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ordered the transfer of his capital from Delhi to Devagiri in modern-day Maharashtra (renaming it to Daulatabad), by forcing the mass migration of Delhi's population. Those who refused were killed. One blind person who failed to move to Daulatabad was dragged for the entire journey of 40 days - the man died, his body fell apart, and only his tied leg reached Daulatabad.[42] The capital move failed because Daulatabad was arid and did not have enough drinking water to support the new capital. The capital then returned to Delhi. Nevertheless, Muhammad bin Tughlaq's orders affected history as a large number of Delhi Muslims who came to the Deccan area did not return to Delhi to live near Muhammad bin Tughlaq. This influx of the then-Delhi residents into the Deccan region led to a growth of Muslim population in central and southern India.[10] Muhammad bin Tughlaq's adventures in the Deccan region also marked campaigns of destruction and desecration of Hindu and Jain temples, for example the Swayambhu Shiva Temple and the Thousand Pillar Temple.[44]

Revolts against Muhammad bin Tughlaq began in 1327, continued over his reign, and over time the geographical reach of the Sultanate shrunk. The Vijayanagara Empire originated in southern India as a direct response to attacks from the Delhi Sultanate.,[45] and liberated south India from the Delhi Sultanate's rule.[46] In 1337, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ordered an attack on China,[7] sending part of his forces over the Himalayas. Few survived the journey, and they were executed upon their return for failing.[42] During his reign, state revenues collapsed from his policies such as the base metal coins from 1329-1332. To cover state expenses, he sharply raised taxes. Those who failed to pay taxes were hunted and executed. Famines, widespread poverty, and rebellion grew across the kingdom. In 1338 his own nephew rebelled in Malwa, whom he attacked, caught, and flayed alive.[7] By 1339, the eastern regions under local Muslim governors and southern parts led by Hindu kings had revolted and declared independence from the Delhi Sultanate. Muhammad bin Tughlaq did not have the resources or support to respond to the shrinking kingdom.[47] The historian Walford chronicled Delhi and most of India faced severe famines during Muhammad bin Tughlaq's rule in the years after the base metal coin experiment.[48] [49] By 1347, the Bahmani Sultanate had become an independent and competing Muslim kingdom in Deccan region of South Asia.[16]

The Tughlaq dynasty is remembered for its architectural patronage, particularly for ancient lats (pillars, left image),[50] dated to be from the 3rd century BC, and of Buddhist and Hindu origins. The Sultanate initially wanted to use the pillars to make mosque minarets. Firuz Shah Tughlaq decided otherwise and had them installed near mosques. The meaning of Brahmi script on the pillar at right was unknown in Firuz Shah's time.[51] The inscription was deciphered by James Prinsep in 1837; the pillar script of Emperor Ashoka asked people of his and future generations to seek a dharmic (virtuous) life, use persuasion in religion, grant freedom from religious persecution, stop all killing, and be compassionate to all living beings.[52]

Muhammad bin Tughlaq died in 1351 while trying to chase and punish people in Gujarat who were rebelling against the Delhi Sultanate.[47] He was succeeded by Firuz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388), who tried to regain the old kingdom boundary by waging a war with Bengal for 11 months in 1359. However, Bengal did not fall. Firuz Shah ruled for 37 years. His reign attempted to stabilize the food supply and reduce famines by commissioning an irrigation canal from the Yamuna river. An educated sultan, Firuz Shah left a memoir.[53] In it he wrote that he banned the practice of torture, such as amputations, tearing out of eyes, sawing people alive, crushing people's bones as punishment, pouring molten lead into throats, setting people on fire, driving nails into hands and feet, among others.[54] He also wrote that he did not tolerate attempts by Rafawiz Shia Muslim and Mahdi sects from proselytizing people into their faith, nor did he tolerate Hindus who tried to rebuild temples that his armies had destroyed.[55] As punishment for proselytizing, Firuz Shah put many Shias, Mahdi, and Hindus to death (siyasat). Firuz Shah Tughlaq also lists his accomplishments to include converting Hindus to Sunni Islam by announcing an exemption from taxes and jizya for those who convert, and by lavishing new converts with presents and honours. Simultaneously, he raised taxes and jizya, assessing it at three levels, and stopping the practice of his predecessors who had historically exempted all Hindu Brahmins from the jizya.[54] [56] He also vastly expanded the number of slaves in his service and those of Muslim nobles. The reign of Firuz Shah Tughlaq was marked by reduction in extreme forms of torture, eliminating favours to select parts of society, but also increased intolerance and persecution of targeted groups.[54]

The death of Firuz Shah Tughlaq created anarchy and disintegration of the kingdom. The last rulers of this dynasty both called themselves Sultan from 1394 to 1397: Nasir ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughlaq, the grandson of Firuz Shah Tughlaq who ruled from Delhi, and Nasir ud-Din Nusrat Shah Tughlaq, another relative of Firuz Shah Tughlaq who ruled from Firozabad, which was a few miles from Delhi.[57] The battle between the two relatives continued till Timur's invasion in 1398. Timur, also known as Tamerlane in Western scholarly literature, was the Turkic ruler of the Timurid Empire. He became aware of the weakness and quarreling of the rulers of the Delhi Sultanate, so he marched with his army to Delhi, plundering and killing all the way.[58] [59] Estimates for the massacre by Timur in Dehli range from 100,000 to 200,000 people.[60] [61] Timur had no intention of staying in or ruling India. He looted the lands he crossed, then plundered and burnt Delhi. Over five days, Timur and his army raged a massacre.[7] Then he collected and carried the wealth, captured women and slaves (particularly skilled artisans), and returned to Samarkand. The people and lands within the Delhi Sultanate were left in a state of anarchy, chaos, and pestilence.[57] Nasir ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughlaq, who had fled to Gujarat during Timur's invasion, returned and nominally ruled as the last ruler of Tughlaq dynasty, as a puppet of various factions at the court.[7] [62]

Sayyid

The Sayyid dynasty was a Turkic dynasty[63] that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1415 to 1451.[16] The Timurid invasion and plunder had left the Delhi Sultanate in shambles, and little is known about the rule by the Sayyid dynasty. According to historian William Hunter,[7] the Delhi Sultanate had effective control of only a few miles around Delhi. Annemarie Schimmel notes the first ruler of the dynasty as Khizr Khan, who assumed power by claiming to represent Timur. His authority was questioned even by those near Delhi. His successor was Mubarak Khan, who rechristened himself as Mubarak Shah and tried to regain lost territories in Punjab, unsuccessfully.[62]

With the power of the Sayyid dynasty faltering, Islam's history on the Indian subcontinent underwent a profound change, according to Schimmel.[62] The previously dominant Sunni sect of Islam became diluted, alternate Muslim sects such as Shia rose, and new competing centers of Islamic culture took roots beyond Delhi.

The Sayyid dynasty was displaced by the Lodi dynasty in 1451.

Lodi
Delhi Sultanate during Babur's invasion.

The Lodi dynasty had its origins in the Afghan Lodi tribe.[63] Bahlul Khan Lodi started the Lodi dynasty and was the first Pashtun (Pathan), to rule the Delhi Sultanate.[64] Bahlul Lodi began his reign by attacking the Muslim Jaunpur Sultanate to expand the influence of the Delhi Sultanate, and was partially successful through a treaty. Thereafter, the region from Delhi to Varanasi (then at the border of Bengal province), was back under influence of Delhi Sultanate.

After Bahlul Lodi died, his son Nizam Khan assumed power, rechristened himself as Sikandar Lodi and ruled from 1489 to 1517.[65] One of the better known rulers of the dynasty, Sikandar Lodi expelled his brother Barbak Shah from Jaunpur, installed his son Jalal Khan as the ruler, then proceeded east to make claims on Bihar. The Muslim governors of Bihar agreed to pay tribute and taxes, but operated independent of the Delhi Sultanate. Sikandar Lodi led a campaign of destruction of temples, particularly around Mathura. He also moved his capital and court from Delhi to Agra,[7] [66] an ancient Hindu city that had been destroyed during the plunder and attacks of the early Delhi Sultanate period. Sikandar thus erected buildings with Indo-Islamic architecture in Agra during his rule, and the growth of Agra continued during the Mughal Empire, after the end of Delhi Sultanate.[64] [67]

Sikandar Lodi died a natural death in 1517, and his second son Ibrahim Lodi assumed power. Ibrahim did not enjoy the support of Afghan and Persian nobles or regional chiefs.[68] Ibrahim attacked and killed his elder brother Jalal Khan, who was installed as the governor of Jaunpur by his father and had the support of the amirs and chiefs.[64] Ibrahim Lodi was unable to consolidate his power, and after Jalal Khan's death, the governor of Punjab, Daulat Khan Lodi, reached out to the Mughal Babur and invited him to attack Delhi Sultanate.[66] Babur defeated and killed Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat in 1526. The death of Ibrahim Lodi ended the Delhi Sultanate, and the Mughal Empire replaced it.

Destruction and desecration
The Somnath Temple in Gujarat was repeatedly destroyed by Islamic armies and rebuilt by Hindus. It was destroyed by Delhi Sultanate's army in 1299 AD.[69]

The Delhi Sultanate was an era of temple destruction and desecration.[70] [71] Richard Eaton has tabulated a campaign of destruction of idols and temples by Sultans, intermixed with instances of years where the temples were protected from desecration.[13] [72] [73] In many cases, the demolished remains, rocks and broken statue pieces were reused to build mosques and other buildings. For example, the Qutb complex in Delhi was built from stones of 27 demolished Hindu and Jain temples by some accounts.[74] Similarly, the Muslim mosque in Khanapur, Maharashtra was built from the looted parts and demolished remains of Hindu temples.[34] Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji destroyed Buddhist and Hindu libraries and their manuscripts at Nalanda and Odantapuri Universities in 1193 AD at the beginning of Delhi Sultanate.[44] [75]

The first historical record of a campaign of destruction of temples and defacement of faces or heads of Hindu idols lasted from 1193 through early 13th century in Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh under the command of Ghuri. Under Khalaji, the campaign of temple desecration expanded to Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra, and continued through late 13th century.[13] The campaign extended to Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu under Malik Kafur and Ulugh Khan in 14th century, and by Bahmani in 15th century.[44] Orissa temples were destroyed in the 14th century under Tughlaq.

Beyond destruction and desecration, the sultans of the Delhi Sultanate in some cases had forbidden reconstruction of damaged Hindu, Jain and Buddhist temples, and they prohibited repairs of old temples or construction of any new temples.[76] [77] In certain cases, the Sultanate would grant a permit for repairs and construction of temples if the patron or religious community paid jizya (fee, tax). For example, a proposal by the Chinese to repair Himalayan Buddhist temples destroyed by the Sultanate army was refused, on the grounds that such temple repairs were only allowed if the Chinese agreed to pay jizya tax to the treasury of the Sultanate.[78] [79] In his memoirs, Firoz Shah Tughlaq describes how he destroyed temples and built mosques instead and killed those who dared build new temples.[80] Other historical records from wazirs, amirs and the court historians of various Sultans of the Delhi Sultanate describe the grandeur of idols and temples they witnessed in their campaigns and how these were destroyed and desecrated.[81]

Temple desecration during Delhi Sultanate period[13] [82]
Sultan / Agent Dynasty Years Temple Sites Destroyed States
Muhammad Ghori, Qutb al-Din Aibak Mamluk 1193-1290 Ajmer, Samana, Kuhram, Delhi, Kol, Varanasi Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh
Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, Shams ud-Din Iltumish, Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khilji, Ala ud-Din Khilji, Malik Kafur Mamluk and Khilji 1290-1320 Nalanda, Odantapuri, Vikramashila, Bhilsa, Ujjain, Jhain, Vijapur, Devagiri, Somnath, Chidambaram, Madurai Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu
Ulugh Khan, Firuz Shah Tughlaq, Nahar, Muzaffar Khan Khilji and Tughlaq 1320-1395[83] Somnath, Warangal, Bodhan, Pillalamarri, Puri, Sainthali, Idar, Somnath[84] Gujarat, Telangana, Orissa, Haryana
Sikandar, Muzaffar Shah, Ahmad Shah, Mahmud Sayyid 1400-1442 Paraspur, Bijbehara, Tripuresvara, Idar, Diu, Manvi, Sidhpur, Delwara, Kumbhalmir Gujarat, Rajasthan
Suhrab, Begdha, Bahmani, Khalil Shah, Khawwas Khan, Sikandar Lodi, Ibrahim Lodi Lodi 1457-1518 Mandalgarh, Malan, Dwarka, Kondapalle, Kanchi, Amod, Nagarkot, Utgir, Narwar, Gwalior Rajasthan, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh
List of Sultans
Mamluk dynasty
The mausoleum of Qutb al-Din Aibak in Anarkali, Lahore, Pakistan.
Khilji dynasty
Tughlaq dynasty
Sayyid dynasty
  • Khizr Khan (1414–1421)
  • Mubarak Shah (1421–1434)
  • Muhammad Shah (1434–1445)
  • Alam Shah (1445–1451)
Lodi dynasty
See also
References
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  2. Alam, Muzaffar (1998). "The pursuit of Persian: Language in Mughal Politics". Modern Asian Studies. Cambridge University Press. 32 (2): 317–349. doi:10.1017/s0026749x98002947. Hindavi was recognized as a semi-official language by the Sor Sultans (1540-55) and their chancellery rescripts bore transcriptions in the Devanagari script of the Persian contents. The practice is said to have been introduced by the Lodis (1451-1526).
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  14. A. Welch, "Architectural Patronage and the Past: The Tughluq Sultans of India," Muqarnas 10, 1993, Brill Publishers, pp 311-322
  15. J. A. Page, Guide to the Qutb, Delhi, Calcutta, 1927, page 2-7
  16. See:
    • M. Reza Pirbha, Reconsidering Islam in a South Asian Context, ISBN 978-9004177581, Brill
    • The Islamic frontier in the east: Expansion into South Asia, Journal of South Asian Studies, 4(1), pp. 91-109
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  32. Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi UNESCO
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  34. Welch, Anthony; Crane, Howard (1983). "The Tughluqs: Master Builders of the Delhi Sultanate" (PDF). Muqarnas. Brill. 1: 123–166. JSTOR 1523075.
  35. Holt et al., The Cambridge History of Islam - The Indian sub-continent, south-east Asia, Africa and the Muslim west, ISBN 978-0521291378, pp 9-13
  36. Alexander Mikaberidze, Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia, ISBN 978-1598843361, pp 62-63
  37. Rene Grousset - Empire of steppes, Chagatai Khanate; Rutgers Univ Pr,New Jersey, U.S.A, 1988 ISBN 0-8135-1304-9
  38. Frank Fanselow (1989), Muslim society in Tamil Nadu (India): an historical perspective, Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, 10(1), pp 264-289
  39. Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, 3rd Edition, Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-15482-0
  40. AL Srivastava, Delhi Sultanate 5th Edition, ASIN B007Q862WO, pp 156-158
  41. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 231-235, Oxford University Press
  42. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 236-242, Oxford University Press
  43. Elliot and Dowson, Táríkh-i Fíroz Sháhí of Ziauddin Barani, The History of India as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period (Vol 3), London, Trübner & Co
  44. Richard Eaton, Temple Desecration and Muslim States in Medieval India at Google Books, (2004)
  45. Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, (Routledge, 1986), 188.
  46. Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India by Jl Mehta p.97
  47. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 242-248, Oxford University Press
  48. Cornelius Walford (1878), The Famines of the World: Past and Present, p. 3, at Google Books, pp 9-10
  49. Judith Walsh, A Brief History of India, ISBN 978-0816083626, pp 70-72; Quote: "In 1335-42, during a severe famine and death in the Delhi region, the Sultanate offered no help to the starving residents."
  50. McKibben, William Jeffrey (1994). "The Monumental Pillars of Fīrūz Shāh Tughluq". Ars Orientalis. 24: 105–118. JSTOR 4629462.
  51. HM Elliot & John Dawson (1871), Tarikh I Firozi Shahi - Records of Court Historian Sams-i-Siraj The History of India as told by its own historians, Volume 3, Cornell University Archives, pp 352-353
  52. Prinsep, J (1837). "Interpretation of the most ancient of inscriptions on the pillar called lat of Feroz Shah, near Delhi, and of the Allahabad, Radhia and Mattiah pillar, or lat inscriptions which agree therewith". Journal of the Asiatic Society. 6 (2): 600–609.
  53. Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi - Memoirs of Firoz Shah Tughlak, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives
  54. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 249-251, Oxford University Press
  55. Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi - Autobiographical memoirs, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 377-381
  56. Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, pp 20-23
  57. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 248-254, Oxford University Press
  58. Peter Jackson (1999), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, pp 312–317
  59. Beatrice F. Manz (2000). "Tīmūr Lang". In P. J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C. E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W. P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam. 10 (2 ed.). Brill.
  60. Lionel Trotter (1906), History of India: From the Earliest Times to the Present Day, Gorham Publishers London/New York, pp 74
  61. Annemarie Schimmel (1997), Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004061170, pp 36-37; Also see: Elliot, Studies in Indian History, 2nd Edition, pp 98-101
  62. Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, Chapter 2
  63. Judith Walsh, A Brief History of India, ISBN 978-0816083626
  64. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 253-257, Oxford University Press
  65. Digby, S. (1975), The Tomb of Buhlūl Lōdī, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 38(03), pp 550-561
  66. Lodi Dynasty Encyclopædia Britannica (2009)
  67. Andrew Petersen, Dictionary of Islamic Architecture, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415060844, pp 7
  68. Richards, John (1965), The Economic History of the Lodi Period: 1451-1526, Journal de l'histoire economique et sociale de l'Orient, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp 47-67
  69. Eaton (2000), Temple desecration in pre-modern India Frontline, p. 73, item 16 of the Table, Archived by Columbia University
  70. Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the Indian Subcontinent, ISBN 978-9004061170, Brill Academic, pp 7-10
  71. James Brown (1949), The History of Islam in India, The Muslim World, 39(1), 11-25
  72. Richard M. Eaton, Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Part II, Frontline, January 5, 2001, 70-77.[1]
  73. Richard M. Eaton, Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Part I, Frontline, December 22, 2000, 62-70.[2]
  74. Welch, Anthony (1993), Architectural patronage and the past: The Tughluq sultans of India, Muqarnas, Vol. 10, 311-322
  75. Gul and Khan (2008), Growth and Development of Oriental Libraries in India, Library Philosophy and Practice, University of Nebrasaka-Lincoln
  76. Eva De Clercq (2010), ON JAINA APABHRAṂŚA PRAŚASTIS, Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hung. Volume 63 (3), pp 275–287
  77. R Islam (1997), A Note on the Position of the non-Muslim Subjects in the Sultanate of Delhi under the Khaljis and the Tughluqs, Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 45, pp. 215–229; R Islam (2002), Theory and Practice of Jizyah in the Delhi Sultanate (14th Century), Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 50, pp. 7–18
  78. A.L. Srivastava (1966), Delhi Sultanate, 5th Edition, Agra College
  79. Peter Jackson (2003), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521543293, pp 287-295
  80. Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi - Memoirs of Firoz Shah Tughlaq, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 377-381
  81. Hasan Nizami et al, Taju-l Ma-asir & Appendix, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 2 - The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 22, 219, 398, 471
  82. Richard Eaton, Temple desecration and Indo-Muslim states, Frontline (January 5, 2001), pp 72-73
  83. Ulugh Khan also known as Almas Beg was brother of Ala-al Din Khilji; his destruction campaign overlapped the two dynasties
  84. Somnath temple went through cycles of destruction by Sultans and rebuilding by Hindus
  85. Tughlaq Shahi Kings of Delhi: Chart The Imperial Gazetteer of India, 1909, v. 2, p. 369..
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Delhi Sultanate

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The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim kingdom based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526). Five dynasties ruled over Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414), the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526). The first two and the fourth dynasties (Mamluk, Khilji, and Sayyid) were of Turkic origin, the third (Tughlaq) was of Turko-Indian origin, and the last dynasty (Lodi) was of Afghan origin. The sultanate is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack from the Mongol Empire , and enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana , who reigned from 1236 to 1240. Qutb al-Din Aibak , a former slave of Muhammad Ghori , was the first sultan of Delhi and his dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards the Khilji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to unite the Indian s



Turkish slaves in the Delhi Sultanate

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Turkish Slaves and the Delhi Sultanate Turkish slaves throughout the Islamic world, and in the Delhi Sultanate were valued members of society. Their value, for their patrons, was their military capabilities, their loyalty and discipline. Their ability to capitalize on opportunity for social mobility, while maintaining their own unique cultural identity created an interesting tension in their social narrative. Their slave origins created a discrepancy in their nobility. This discrepancy was often eluded in commentary by the Persian Chroniclers of the time. Their Need The need to secure the Sultanate regime from Mongol marauders led to the delineation of a frontier that needed to be defended. To guard the Punjab marches, there was increasingly more and more slaves that were being bought. Their allegiance was not along ethnic lines, and their dedicated patronage allowed them to incorporate themselves into the military hierarchy as trusted officers and commanders. The Sultanate bought Turks in order to develop a



Mamluk dynasty (Delhi)

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The Mamluk Dynasty (sometimes referred as Slave Dynasty or Ghulam Dynasty ) ( Persian : سلطنت مملوک ‎‎), ( Urdu : غلام خاندان ‎) was directed into Northern India by Qutb ud-Din Aibak , a Turkic general from Central Asia . The Mamluk Dynasty ruled from 1206 to 1290; it was the first of five unrelated dynasties to rule as the Delhi Sultanate till 1526. Aibak's tenure as a Ghurid dynasty administrator lasted from 1192 to 1206, a period during which he led invasions into the Gangetic heartland of India and established control over some of the new areas. History The Mamluk , literally meaning owned, was a soldier of slave origin who had converted to Islam . The phenomenon started in the 9th century and gradually the Mamluks became a powerful military caste in various Muslim societies. Mamluks held political and military power most notably in Egypt , but also in the Levant , Iraq , and India . In 1206, Muhammad of Ghor , Sultan of the Ghurid Empire was assassinated. Since he had no children, his empire split in



List of rulers of the Delhi Sultanate

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Slave (Ghulam) or Mamluk Dynasty The Mamluk Dynasty or Slave Dynasty, directed into India by Qutb-ud-din Aibak, a Turkish general of Central Asian birth, was the first of five unrelated dynasties to rule India's Delhi Sultanate from 1206 to 1290. Aibak's tenure as a Ghorid administrator ranged between 1192 to 1206, a period during which he led invasions into the Gangetic heartland of India and established control over some of the new areas. Ruler Reign Notes Qutb-ud-din Aibak (1206–1210) Slave of Muhammad Ghori and founder Aram Shah (1210–1211) Eldest son of Aibak Shams-ud-din Iltutmish (1211–1236) Son-in-law of Aibak Rukn ud din Firuz (1236) Son of Iltutmish. Razia Sultana (1236–1240) Daughter of Iltutmish, Grand Daughter of Aibak. Muiz ud din Bahram(child hood name Nasir) (1240–1242) Son of Iltutmish. Alauddin Masud (1242–1246) Son of Rukn-ud-din Firuz. Nasiruddin Mahmud (1246–1266) Youngest son of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud (Grand son of Aibak, Iltutmish's eldest son, and Razia's Brother who had died in 1229). Gh



Bengal Sultanate

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The Bengal Sultanate , officially the Sultanate of Bengal , was a Muslim state and empire based in the Indian subcontinent on the coast of the Bay of Bengal . It was an important power in South and Southeast Asia. Its rulers carried the title of King of Kings in the East. The kingdom's heartland was in Bengal , which is today divided between Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal , but its realm included large parts of North India and western Myanmar . Its bordering countries included the Delhi Sultanate , Tibet, Ahom and Burmese states. The Bengal Sultanate seceded from the Delhi Sultanate under Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah in 1352 and had capitals in Gaur, Pandua and Sonargaon. Delhi recognised Bengal's independence after it was defeated by Ilyas Shah and his son, Sikandar Shah . The kingdom enjoyed a strategic relationship with Ming China . It reached the height of its power during the reigns of Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah and Alauddin Hussain Shah in the 15th and early 16th centuries, when it controlled m

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Gujarat Sultanate

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Gujarat Sultanate in the 15th century Death of Bahadur Shah of Gujarat an Ottoman ally at Diu , in front of the Portuguese , in 1537; (Illustration from the Akbarnameh , end of 16th century). The Gujarat Sultanate was a kingdom established in the early 15th century in Gujarat . The founder of the ruling Muzaffarid dynasty , Zafar Khan (later Muzaffar Shah I) was appointed as governor of Gujarat by Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad bin Tughluq IV in 1391, the ruler of the principal state in north India at the time, the Delhi Sultanate . Zafar Khan's father Sadharan, was a Tanka Rajput convert to Islam. Zafar Khan defeated Farhat-ul-Mulk near Anhilwada Patan and made the city his capital. He declared himself independent in 1407. The next sultan, his grandson Ahmad Shah I founded the new capital Ahmedabad in 1411 on the banks of Sabarmati River , which he styled as Shahr-i-Mu'azzam (the great city). The prosperity of the sultanate reached its zenith during the rule of Mahmud Shah I Begada. In 1509, the Portuguese wrested Di



Madurai Sultanate

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Ma'bar Sultanate ( Persian : مابار سلطنت ‎‎), unofficially known as the Madurai Sultanate , was a short lived independent Muslim kingdom based in the city of Madurai in Tamil Nadu , India . The sultanate was proclaimed in 1335 when the then viceroy of Madurai, Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan declared his independence from the Delhi Sultanate . Ahsan Khan and his descendants ruled Madurai and surrounding territories until 1378 when the last sultan, Ala-ud-Din Sikandar Shah fell in battle against the forces of the Vijayanagara Empire led by Kumara Kampana . In this short reign of 43 years, the Sultanate had 8 different rulers. Origins Coin of Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan first ruler of the Sultanate of Madurai In the early 14th Century, South India was subjected to repeated invasions by armies of the Delhi Sultanate . There were three separate invasions within a period of fifteen years. The first invasion was that of Malik Kafur in 1311 CE which sacked Madurai. Following this there were two more expeditions from the Delhi Sulta



Bahmani Sultanate

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The Bahmani Sultanate (also called the Bahmanid Empire or Bahmani Kingdom) was a Muslim state of the Deccan in South India and one of the major medieval Indian kingdoms. Bahmanid Sultanate was the first independent Muslim kingdom in South India. The empire was established by Turkic general Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah after revolting against the Delhi Sultanate of Muhammad bin Tughlaq . Nazir Uddin Ismail Shah who had revolted against the Delhi Sultanate stepped down on that day in favour of Bahman Shah. His revolt was successful, and he established an independent state on the Deccan within the Delhi Sultanate's southern provinces. The Bahmani capital was Ahsanabad ( Gulbarga ) between 1347 and 1425 when it was moved to Muhammadabad ( Bidar ). The Bahmani contested the control of the Deccan with the Vijayanagara Empire to the south. The sultanate reached the peak of its power during the vizierate (1466–1481) of Mahmud Gawan. The south Indian Emperor Krishnadevaraya of the Vijayanagara Empire defeated the last rem



Malwa Sultanate

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The Malwa Sultanate was a late medieval kingdom presumably of Turco-Afghan origin, in the Malwa region of the present day Madhya Pradesh state in India in 1392–1562. History For the region's earlier history, see article Malwa . Preparation of wada for Ghiyath al-Din, Sultan of Malwa, at Mandu The sultanate of Malwa was founded by Dilawar Khan Ghuri , the governor of the Delhi Sultanate in Malwa, who asserted his independence in 1392, but did not actually assume the ensigns of royalty till 1401. Initially Dhar was the capital of the new kingdom, but soon it was shifted to Mandu , which was renamed Shadiabad (the city of joy). After his death, he was succeeded by his son Alp Khan , who assumed the title of Hoshang Shah. The Ghurid dynasty , founded by Dilawar Khan Ghuri, was replaced by Mahmud Shah I , who proclaimed himself king on May 16, 1436. The Khilji dynasty , founded by him, ruled over Malwa till 1531. Mahmud I was succeeded by his eldest son Ghiyas-ud-Din . The last days of Ghiyas-ud-Din was embittered



Jaunpur Sultanate

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The Jaunpur sultanate was an independent kingdom of northern India between 1394 and 1479, whose rulers ruled from Jaunpur or Jounpoor in the present day state of Uttar Pradesh . The Jaunpur sultanate was ruled by the Sharqi dynasty. The Khwajah-i-Jahan Malik Sarwar, the first ruler of the dynasty was a wazir (minister) under Sultan Nasiruddin Muhammad Shah IV Tughluq (1390–1394). In 1394, he established himself as an independent ruler of Jaunpur and extended his authority over Awadh and a large part of Ganges - Yamuna doab . The dynasty founded by him was named so because of his title Malik-us-Sharq (the ruler of the east). The most acclaimed ruler of this dynasty was Ibrahim Shah. The last ruler Hussain Shah was overthrown by Bahlul Lodi, and Jaunpur sultanate was permanently annexed to Delhi sultanate by Sikandar Lodi . Malik Sarwar, Khwajah-i-Jahan In 1389, Malik Sarwar received the title of Khajah-i-Jahan. In 1394, he was appointed as the governor of Jaunpur and received his title of Malik-us-Sharq from



Delhi Sultanate literature

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The Delhi Sultanate literature began with the rise of Persian speaking people to the throne of the Sultanate of Delhi , naturally resulted in the spread of the Persian language in India . It was the official language and soon literary works in the language began to appear. Initially Persian literature talked about topics which were familiar to those from Persia . Gradually however as more Indians learnt the language, the literary works began to have a more Indian theme. Amir Khusrav was a noted writer of the period, who was one of the first writers to write Persian literature about events concerning India. His inspiration came from events he saw around, his work soon grew to be appreciated and he became a court poet. Sanskrit continued to remain an important language of the time, and despite the increasing influence of Persian, it was able to hold its ground. Many preferred Sanskrit poets as they were more established and experienced then those that worked in the new languages. A centre for Sanskrit learning



Sultanate of Deli

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Sultanate of Deli (Indonesian: Kesultanan Deli Darul Maimoon ; Jawi : كسلتانن دلي دارالميمون‎ ) is a 1,820 km² state in east Sumatra founded in 1630. A tributary kingdom from 1630 it was controlled by various Sultanates until 1814, when it became an independent sultanate and broke away from the Sultanate of Siak . The ruler of Aceh converted to Islam in the mid-15th century. The Sultanate of Aceh was founded by Ali Mughayat Syah , who began campaigns to extend his control over northern Sumatra in 1520. The sultan Iskandar Muda expanded Aceh by conquest. In 1612 Deli was militarily defeated and annexed. Dutch intervention in 1861, which resulted in a contract with the Netherlands East Indies the following year, helped to recognise Deli's independence from Aceh and Siak. Now part of Indonesia, the sultanate remains as a symbol of the history of Medan. History The history of the Sultanate of Deli and also the Sultanate of Serdang are closely related to the heyday of the Sultanate of Aceh Darussalam during the



Khilji dynasty

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The Khilji dynasty ( Persian : سلسله خلجی ‎‎; Hindi : सलतनत ख़िलजी) or Khalji was a Muslim dynasty of Turkic origin, which ruled large parts of South Asia between 1290 and 1320. It was founded by Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji and became the second dynasty to rule the Delhi Sultanate of India . The dynasty is known for their faithlessness and ferocity, as well as their raids into the Hindu south and defending the Sultanate against the repeated Mongol invasions of India . Origins Copper coin of Alauddin Khilji History of the Turkic peoples Pre-14th century Turkic Khaganate 552–744   Western Turkic   Eastern Turkic Khazar Khaganate 618–1048 Xueyantuo 628–646 Great Bulgaria 632–668   Danube Bulgaria   Volga Bulgaria Kangar union 659–750 Turgesh Khaganate 699–766 Uyghur Khaganate 744–840 Karluk Yabgu State 756–940 Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212   Western Kara-Khanid   Eastern Kara-Khanid Gansu Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036 Kingdom of Qocho 856–1335 Pecheneg Khanates 860–1091 Kimek Khanate 743–1035 Cumania 1067–1239 Oghuz



Lodi dynasty

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The Lodi dynasty (or Lodhi) was a Pashtun dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1451 to 1526. It was the last dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate and was founded by Bahlul Khan Lodi when he replaced the Sayyid dynasty . Bahlul Lodi Bahlul Khan Lodi (r.1451–89) was the nephew and son-in-law of Malik Sultan Shah Lodi, the governor of Sirhind in ( Punjab ), India and succeeded him as the governor of Sirhind during the reign of Sayyid dynasty ruler Muhammad Shah (Muhammad-bin-Farid). Muhammad Shah raised him to the status of an emir. He was the most powerful of the Punjab chiefs and a vigorous leader, holding together a loose confederacy of Afghan and Turkish chiefs with his strong personality. He reduced the turbulent chiefs of the provinces to submission and infused some vigour into the government. After the last Sayyid ruler of Delhi , Ala-ud-Din Aalm Shah voluntarily abdicated in favour of him, Bahlul Khan Lodi ascended the throne of the Delhi sultanate on 19 April 1451. The most important event of his rei



History of Delhi

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The Indian capital city of Delhi has a long history, and has been an important political centre of India as the capital of several empires. Much of Delhi's ancient history finds no record and this may be regarded as a lost period of its history. Extensive coverage of Delhi's history begins with the onset of the Delhi Sultanate in the 12th century. Since then, Delhi has been the centre of a succession of mighty empires and powerful kingdoms, making Delhi one of the longest serving Capitals and one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world. It is considered to be a city built, destroyed and rebuilt several times, as outsiders who successfully invaded the Indian Subcontinent would ransack the existing capital city in Delhi, and those who came to conquer and stay would be so impressed by the city's strategic location as to make it their capital and rebuild it in their own way. The core of Delhi's tangible heritage is Hindu, Islamic (spanning over seven centuries of Islamic rule over the city) with expansive



Tughlaq dynasty

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History of the Turkic peoples Pre-14th century Turkic Khaganate 552–744   Western Turkic   Eastern Turkic Khazar Khaganate 618–1048 Xueyantuo 628–646 Great Bulgaria 632–668   Danube Bulgaria   Volga Bulgaria Kangar union 659–750 Turgesh Khaganate 699–766 Uyghur Khaganate 744–840 Karluk Yabgu State 756–940 Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212   Western Kara-Khanid   Eastern Kara-Khanid Gansu Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036 Kingdom of Qocho 856–1335 Pecheneg Khanates 860–1091 Kimek Khanate 743–1035 Cumania 1067–1239 Oghuz Yabgu State 750–1055 Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186 Seljuk Empire 1037–1194   Seljuk Sultanate of Rum Kerait khanate 11th century–13th century Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231 Naiman Khanate –1204 Qarlughid Kingdom 1224–1266 Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526   Mamluk dynasty   Khilji dynasty   Tughlaq dynasty Golden Horde | 1240s–1502 Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) 1250–1517   Bahri dynasty   Ottoman Empire 1299–1923 Other Turkic dynasties   in Anatolia Artuqid dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynas



Feroz Shah Kotla

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The Feroz Shah Kotla ( Hindi : फ़िरोज़ शाह कोटला, Punjabi : ਫ਼ਿਰੋਜ਼ ਸ਼ਾਹ ਕੋਟਲਾ, Urdu : فروز شاہ کوٹلا) or Kotla (Hindi: कोटला, Punjabi: ਕੋਟਲਾ, Urdu: کوٹلا) was a fortress built by Sultan Feroz Shah Tughlaq to house his version of Delhi city called Ferozabad. A pristine polished sandstone Topra Ashokan pillar from the 3rd century B.C. rises from the palace's crumbling remains, one of many pillars of Ashoka left by the Mauryan emperor; it was moved from Topra Kalan in Pong Ghati of Yamunanagar district in Haryana to Delhi under orders of Firoz Shah Tughlaq of Delhi Sultanate, and re-erected in its present location in 1356. The original inscription on the obelisk is primarily in Brahmi script but language was prakrit, with some Pali and Sanskrit added later. The inscription was successfully translated in 1837 by James Prinsep . This and other ancient lats (pillars, obelisk) have earned Firoz Shah Tughlaq and Delhi Sultanate fame for its architectural patronage. Other than the Ashokan Pillar, the Fort complex a



Aram Shah

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Aram Shah was the second sultan of the Mamluk dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate . He reigned from 1210 to 1211. Origins The relationship of Aram Shah with Qutb al-Din Aibak (the first sultan of Delhi, who ruled from 1206 to 1210) is a subject of controversy. According to some, he was Aibak's son, but Minhaj-i-Siraj distinctly writes that Qutb al-Din only had three daughters. Abul Fazl has made the "astonishing statement" that Aram Shah was Qutb al-Din's brother. A modern writer has hazarded the opinion that "he was no relation of Qutb al-Din" but was selected as his successor as he was available on the spot. Succession There were no fixed rules governing the succession in the Sultanate, with Aram being selected by Turkic amirs (nobles) at Lahore . However, Aram was ill-qualified to govern a kingdom. An elite group of forty nobles known as "Chihalgani" soon conspired against him and invited Shams ud-Din Iltutmish , then Governor of Badaun , to replace Aram. Both Aram Shah and Iltutmish marched towards Delhi f



Delhi

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Delhi ( , Hindustani pronunciation:  Dilli ), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi or NCT, is a city and a union territory of India . It is bordered by Haryana on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east. The NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres (573 sq mi). According to 2011 census, Delhi's city population was about 11 million, the second highest in India after Mumbai , while the whole NCT population was about 16.8 million. Delhi's urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundary to include an estimated population of over 26 million people making it the world's second largest urban area . As of 2016 recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the top or second most productive metro area of India. Delhi is the second wealthiest city after Mumbai in India, with a total wealth of $450 billion and home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires. Delhi has been continuously inhabited since the 6th century BC. Through most of i



Timeline of Delhi

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The following is a timeline of the history of Delhi , including New Delhi . Changes in ruling nation are in bold , with a flag to represent the country where available. Pre-731 continuously inhabited since the 6th century BC, Tomara Dynasty (731-1160) 731/736 – Lal Kot founded by the Tomar dynasty, Chahamanas of Shakambhari (1160-1206) c.  1160 – Chauhan rulers take Lal Kot from the Tomars, 1180 – Lal Kot renamed to Rai Pithora, 1191 – First Battle of Tarain , the Chauhans under Prithviraj Chauhan defeated the Ghurid empire. 1192 – Second Battle of Tarain , Delhi sacked by Muhammad Ghori . Baluchistan Sultanate anayat leghari (1206 – 1526)== 1206 – Delhi Sultanate : Qutb-ud-din Aibak becomes first Sultan of Delhi . Delhi is the capital. 1303 – Siri Fort built in Delhi. 1398 – Timur Lenk sacks Delhi. Mughal Empire (1526 – 1757) 1526 – Mughal Empire : The First Battle of Panipat creates the Mughal Empire , centered at Agra and Delhi. 1556 – Second Battle of Panipat , and Mughals retake Delhi from Suri dynasty .



Battle of Amroha

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The Battle of Amroha was fought on December 20 of 1305 between an army of the Delhi Sultanate , led by Malik Kafur , and a Mongol army, led by Ali Beg and Tartaq. Background For years the Mongols had been attacking India's northwest border. In an effort to strengthen his defenses Sultan Alauddin Khilji had the forts along the border strengthened and equipped with larger garrisons. New, more effective fortifications were built in the area. A whole new army with its own special governor was created whose mission was managing and guarding the border areas. Despite these measures, in 1305 a large Mongol raiding army under the leadership of Ali Beg and Tartaq suddenly appeared in the Punjab and the neighborhood of Amroha . The Mongols had traveled advancing south-east, following the Himalayas and plundering all in their way until they reached Amroha. Battle Alauddin Khilji sent a strong army led by two of his generals: Ghazi Malik and Malik Kafur , to engage the invaders. They surprised and inflicted a crushing d



Old Delhi

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Old Delhi is a walled city of Delhi , India , founded as Shahjahanabad ( Persian : شاه جهان آباد ‎‎) in 1639 by the Mughal emperor at the time, Shah Jahan . It remained the capital of the Mughal Empire until its fall in 1857, when the British Raj took over a paramount power in India. It was once filled with mansions of nobles and members of the royal court, along with elegant mosques and gardens. Today, despite having become extremely crowded and dilapidated, it still serves as the symbolic heart of metropolitan Delhi. History Busy streets near Jama Masjid, Old Delhi. View of Old Delhi from Jama Masjid in June 1973. Jama Masjid built by Shah Jahan , 1656. The site of Shahjahanabad is north of earlier settlements of Delhi. Its southern part overlaps some of the area that was settled by the Tughlaqs in the 14th century when it was the seat of Delhi Sultanate . The sultanates ruled from Delhi between 1206 and 1526, when the last was replaced by the Mughal dynasty . The five dynasties were the Mamluk dynasty



Sayyid dynasty

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The Sayyid dynasty was the fourth dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate from 1414 to 1451. They succeeded the Tughlaq dynasty and ruled that sultanate until they were displaced by the Lodi dynasty . They claimed to belong to the family of Sayyids or the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima and son-in-law and cousin Ali who belonged to the Banu Hashim Clan of the Quraish Tribe. After Timur sacked Delhi and ended the Delhi Sultanate in 1398, he appointed these Sayyids as the governor of Delhi. Their 37-year period of dominance witnessed the rule of four different members of the dynasty. The dynasty was established by Sayyid Khizr Khan , deputised by Timur to be the governor of Multan ( Punjab ). Khizr Khan took Delhi from Daulat Khan Lodi on May 28, 1414 and founded the Sayyid dynasty. But he did not take up the title of sultan and nominally, continued to be a Rayat-i-Ala (vassal) of the Timurids , initially of Timur and after his death, his successor Shah Rukh , grandson of Timur. Khizer K



Deccan sultanates

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The Deccan sultanates were five dynasties of various ethnic backgrounds ( Afghan , Turk , Mongol etc.) that ruled late medieval kingdoms , namely, Bijapur , Golkonda , Ahmadnagar , Bidar , and Berar in south - western India . The Deccan sultanates were located on the Deccan Plateau , between the Krishna River and the Vindhya Range . These kingdoms became independent during the break-up of the Bahmani Sultanate . In 1490, Ahmadnagar declared independence, followed by Bijapur and Berar in the same year. Golkonda became independent in 1518 and Bidar in 1528. In 1510, Bijapur repulsed an invasion by the Portuguese against the city of Goa, but lost it later that year. Although generally rivals, they did ally against the Vijayanagara Empire in 1565, permanently weakening Vijayanagar in the Battle of Talikota . In 1574, after a coup in Berar, Ahmadnagar invaded and conquered it. In 1619, Bidar was annexed by Bijapur. The sultanates were later conquered by the Mughal Empire ; Berar was stripped from Ahmadnagar in



Mongol invasions of India

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Alauddin Khilji (D. 1316), The Turkic ruler of Delhi. Genghis Khan The Mongol Empire launched several invasions into the Indian subcontinent from 1221 to 1327, with many of the later raids made by the unruly Qaraunas of Mongol origin. The Mongols occupied parts of modern Pakistan and other parts of Punjab for decades. As the Mongols progressed into the Indian hinterland and reached the outskirts of Delhi , the Delhi Sultanate led a campaign against them in which the Mongol army inflicted huge losses on the rival army, but were beaten back nonetheless. The Mughal Empire founded by Babur , however, successfully conquered most of the Indian subcontinent in the 16th and the 17th centuries. Background After pursuing Jalal ad-Din into India from Samarkand and defeating him at the battle of Indus in 1221, Genghis Khan sent two tumens (20,000 soldiers) under commanders Dorbei the Fierce and Bala to continue the chase. The Mongol commander Bala chased Jalal ad-Din throughout the Punjab region and attacked outlying tow



Ahmadnagar Sultanate

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The Ahmadnagar Sultanate was a late medieval Indian kingdom, located in the northwestern Deccan , between the sultanates of Gujarat and Bijapur. Malik Ahmad, the Bahmani governor of Junnar after defeating the Bahmani army led by general Jahangir Khan on 28 May 1490 declared independence and established the Nizam Shahi dynasty rule over the sultanate of Ahmednagar . Initially his capital was in the town of Junnar with its fort, later renamed Shivneri . In 1494, the foundation was laid for the new capital Ahmadnagar. In 1636 Aurangzeb , then Mugal viceroy of Deccan finally annexed the sultanate to the Mughal empire . History Malik Ahmad was the son of Nizam-ul-Mulk Malik Hasan Bahri . After the death of his father, he assumed the appellation of his father and from this the dynasty found by him is known as the Nizam Shahi dynasty . He founded the new capital Ahmadnagar on the bank of the river Sina. After several attempts, he secured the great fortress of Daulatabad in 1499. After the death of Malik Ahmad in 15



Iltutmish

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Shams ud-Din Iltutmish ( Arabic : شمس الدين التتمش ‎‎) (reigned: 1211–36) was the third ruler of the Delhi Sultanate , belonging to the Mamluk dynasty . Iltutmish consolidated the position of the sultanate in the Indian subcontinent . He conquered Multan and Bengal from contesting rulers, and Ranathambhore and Siwalik from their rulers. He expanded his domain by defeating the Muslim rulers of Ghazni , Multan and Bengal, which had previously annexed some of his territories and threatened his domain. He conquered the latter two territories and made further conquests in the Hindu lands, conquering the fort of Ranathambhore and the lands of Gwalior and the fort of Mandur. He instituted many changes to the Sultanate, re-organising the monetary system and the nobility as well as the distribution of grounds and fiefs, and erected many buildings, including Mosques, Khanqas (Monasteries), Dargahs (Graves) and a Hauz (reservoir) for pilgrims. Shams ud-din Iltutmish founded the Delhi Sultanate and much strengthened the



Islamic rulers in South Asia

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Beginning in the 12th century, several Islamic states were established in the Indian subcontinent in the course of a gradual Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent . This process culminated in the Mughal Empire , which ruled most of India during the mid-16th to mid-19th centuries. The Islamic rule gradually declined due to dominance of Maratha rule and several other rebellions (case during entire period of mughal rule past Akbar). The eventual end of the period of Islamic rule of India is marked by the two main events Indian Rebellion of 1857 and the beginning of British rule , although Islamic rule persisted in Hyderabad State and other minor princely states until Union of India in 1948. However, most Islamic rule had started to wane in the 17th and 18th century before that. Delhi Sultanate Delhi Sultanate During the last quarter of the 12th century, Muhammad of Ghor invaded the Indo-Gangetic plain , conquering in succession Ghazni , Multan , Sindh , Lahore , and Delhi . Qutb-ud-din Aybak , one of his ge



Bahram Khan

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Bahram Khan was the governor of Sonargaon , East Bengal (now Bangladesh ), from 1328 until 1337. He was a general of Delhi Sultanate. He was also appointed the governor of Satgaon during 1324–1328. History When Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah declared independence of Sonargaon , Delhi Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq sent his general, Bahram Khan, to depose him. In the battle, Bahadur Shah was defeated and killed. Bahram Khan recaptured Sonargaon for the Delhi Sultanate and was appointed the governor of Sonargaon. Death When Bahram Khan died in 1338, his armor-bearer, Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah , declared himself the independent Sultan of Sonargaon. Preceded by Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah Governor of Sonargaon 1328–1337 Succeeded by Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah See also List of rulers of Bengal References Khan, Muazzam Hussain (2012). "Tatar Khan" . In Islam, Sirajul ; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh . Bahram Khan was the governor of Sonargaon , East Benga



Ilyas Shahi dynasty

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Ilyas dynasty or Iliyas dynasty or Iliyas Shahi dynasty was the first independent Turkic Muslim ruling dynasty in late medieval Bengal , which ruled from the 14th century to the 15th century. History The dynasty was founded by Ilyas Shah (1342–1358), who succeeded to achieve the political unity of Bengal and begin what is known as the Sultanate of Bengal . In 1352, after defeating Ikhtiyaruddin Ghazi Shah and Ilias Shah became the ruler of Sonargaon . Raja Ganesha In 1415, political confusion and weakness of the Ilyas Shahi dynasty led to it being overthrown by Raja Ganesha . After his death, his son Jadu assumed the title of Jalal-ud-Din Muhammad Shah . He was succeeded by his son, Shams-ud-Din Ahmad Shah . He was killed by his nobles in 1436. Second Ilyas Shahi Dynasty After his death, the rule of Ilyas Shahi dynasty was restored by Mahmud Shah , a descendant of Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah, who ascended the throne in 1437 as Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah I. In 1487, the last ruler of this dynasty Jalal-ud-Din Fath Shah



Zafar Khan (Indian general)

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Zafar Khan ( Persian : ظفر خان ‎‎ literally chief of victory), originally named Malik Hizbaruddin Yusuf, with Zafar a title was a Muslim Pashtun military general of Khilji dynasty , ruler of the Delhi Sultanate in northern India . He successfully repelled several Chagatai Khanate Mongol's invasions which secured Alauddin Khilji 's throne. Early career Zafar Khan was one of the earliest followers of Alauddin Khilji who followed him even at the time of Alauddin's Uncle, Jalaluddin Khilji, who are of non-Turkish origins aside Nusrat Khan and Malik Kafur who also achieved high positions in the sultanate. Together with Ulugh Khan they are important supporters of Alauddin when the future Sultan attempted his coup against Jalaluddin Khilji and succeeded as the next Sultan. According to Barani's Tarikh i Firoze Shahi, he was regarded by Barani as one of four Alauddin's most important and trusted generala, collectively known as four great Khans of Delhi Sultanate, the other Khans consisting of Ulugh Khan , Nusrat Kh



Majeerteen Sultanate

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The Majeerteen Sultanate ( Somali : Suldanadda Majeerteen , Arabic : سلطنة مجرتين ‎‎), also known as Majeerteenia and Migiurtinia , was a Somali sultanate centered in the Horn of Africa . Ruled by Boqor Osman Mahamuud during its golden age, it controlled much of northern and central Somalia in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The polity had all of the organs of an integrated modern state and maintained a robust trading network. It also entered into treaties with foreign powers and exerted strong centralized authority on the domestic front. Much of the Sultanate's former domain is today coextensive with the autonomous Puntland region in northeastern Somalia. History Establishment According to the 16th century explorer Leo Africanus , the Adal Sultanate 's realm encompassed the geographical area between the Bab el Mandeb and Cape Guardafui . It was thus flanked to the south by the Mogadishu Sultanate and to the west by the Abyssinian Empire . After Adal's demise, the Majeerteen Sultanate was established arou



Zafar Khan Malik Dinar

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Malik Dinar is a native Indian slave who served as general in Khilji Dynasty of Delhi Sultanate . He served as subordinate officer Malik Kafur and was also a Shihna-yi pil or intendant of elephantry and was sent by Kafur to suppress rebellion in Gujarat. His daughter has been married the third Khilji dynasty sultan, Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah . he was given the title 'Zafar Khan '(literally chief of victory). The very same title which bestowed to one of greatest Khilji military general who repelled the Chagatai Khanate repeated invasions into India, Zafar Khan Malik Hizbaruddin . References Peter Jackson (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, quoting TFS 388-9 . Cambridge University Press. p. 175. ISBN   0521543290 . Peter Jackson (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History . Cambridge University Press. p. 177. ISBN   0521543290 . Iqtidar Alam Khan (2008). Historical Dictionary of Medieval India . Scarecrow Press. p. 59. ISBN   0810864010 . Satish Chandra Misra (1982



Sultans of Sindh

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Family Tree of Samma Kings Sultan ( Arabic : سلطان ‎‎ Sulṭān) is a title used by Muslim Sindhi dynasties in modern Pakistan . The Samma dynasty took the title Jam , the equivalent of Sultan , because they claimed to be descended from Jamshid . This is almost certainly fictitious. Chronology The main sources of information on the Samma dynasty are Nizammud-din, Abu-'l-Fazl, Firishta and Mir Ma'sum, all lacking in detail, and with conflicting information. A plausible reconstruction of the chronology is given in the History of Delhi Sultanate by M.H. Syed: Rule (CE) Jam aka Descent 1335–1339   Unar Founder of dynasty 1339–1352 Junan Junan Brother of 'Unar 1352–1367 Banhbina Babinho Sadr al-Din Son of 'Unar 1367–1379 Tamachi Tamachi Rukn al-Din 1379–1389 Salah-ud-din Saláhuddín Son of Tamachi (usurper) 1389–1391 Nizam-ud-din Nizámuddín Son of Salah-ud-din 1391–1398 Ali Sher Son of Tamachi 1398 Karn Karan 1398–1414 Fath Khan Fateh Khán bin Sikandar Nephew of Karn 1414–1442 Tughluq Taghlak bin Sikandar Brother of



Khusro Khan

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Khusro Khan (also spelled Khusrau Khan or Khusru or Khusraw Khan ) was a medieval Indian military leader, and ruler of Delhi as Sultan Nasiruddin Khusrau Shah for a short period of time. Early career The conquest of the Deccan by the Delhi Sultanate began in 1296 when Alauddin Khilji raided and plundered Devagiri . Later in that year, Alauddin subsequently murdered his uncle, the reigning sultan, Jalaluddin , and took his place as head of the sultanate. Among Alauddin's subsequent actions, in 1309 he forced the Kakatiya dynasty of Telangana and Coastal Andhra to become subordinate to him. In 1318, Prataparudra II , the Kakatiya ruler, defied his masters in Delhi by refusing to send the annual tribute expected of him. Alauddin responded by sending Khusrau Khan, one of his generals, to the Kakatiya capital at what is now Warangal . Khan's force bristled with technology previously unknown in the area, including trebuchet -like machines, and Prataparudra had to submit once more to the sultanate. The amount of h



Khirki Mosque

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Khirki Fort , approached from the Khirki village in South Delhi and close to the Satpula or the seven arched bridge on the edge of southern wall of Jahapanah (the fourth city of Medieval Delhi ), was a mosque built by Khan-i-Jahan Junan Shah , the Prime Minister of Feroz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388) of the Tughlaq Dynasty . The word 'Khirki' prefixed to masjid is an Urdu word that means "window" and hence is also called "The Masjid of Windows". The Masjid , which is in a quadrangular shape, was built as a fortress with an unusual fusion of Islamic and traditional Hindu architecture . It is said to be the only mosque in North India , which is mostly covered; the totally covered mosque of the Sultanate period is, however, in South India at Gulbarga in North Karnataka . History Khan-i-Jahan Junaan Telangani and Feroz Shah Tughlaq were intensely committed towards building architectural monuments. Together, they planned and built several tombs and mosques. Telangani in particular, was credited with building seven mos



Delhi (disambiguation)

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Delhi or the National Capital Territory is the capital of India. Delhi may also refer to: Places India Delhi Cantonment , a town in the National Capital Territory of Delhi Delhi Sultanate , an empire that dominated much of India New Delhi , urban area within the metropolis of Delhi which is the seat of the government of India Old Delhi , capital of the Mughals during the Mughal dynasty Delhi Subah , an imperial Mughal province based at (Old) Delhi, renamed Shahjahanbad in 1648 United States Delhi, California , a census-designated place Delhi, Colorado , an unincorporated town Delhi, Iowa , a city Delhi, Louisiana , a town Delhi, Minnesota , a city Delhi, Missouri , an unincorporated community Delhi, Wisconsin , a ghost town Delhi, New York , a town Delhi (village), New York , county seat of Delaware County Delhi Charter Township, Michigan , a charter township Delhi Dam , a dam in Iowa Delhi Township, Minnesota , a township of Redwood County Delhi Township, Hamilton County, Ohio , a township Canada Delhi, Onta



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Malik Altunia

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Malik Ikhtiyar-ud-din Altunia was the lover and husband of Sultana Razia and the governor of Bhatinda ( Punjab ) in India under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate under the Mamluk Sultanate . Early life He was given the charge of sharab-dar [office the care of the liquors] and after sometime when Sultan iltutmish saw the bravey and manliness in him he gave him the office of Sar Chatar-dar [Head of the state canopy- bearers]. During the reign of Razia Sultan , he stood by her like a pillar through thick and thin times. He helped her break the 40 Amirs and strengthen her rule, he also helped her in over throwing the rule of Shah Turkan and her son, Ruknuddin Firoz who were very cruel. Due to his services to her and the Sultanate, she made him the Governor of Bhatinda which was under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate. Some historians say that, it was because of Malik Altunia's undying support and protective shield towards her, that she managed to rule successfully for four years. This fact made sense because, after h



Sultanate of Hobyo

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The Sultanate of Hobyo ( Somali : Saldanadda Hobyo , Arabic : سلطنة هوبيو ‎‎), also known as the Sultanate of Obbia , was a 19th-century Somali kingdom in present-day northeastern and central Somalia and eastern Ethiopia . It was established in 1870s by Yusuf Ali Kenadid , cousin of the Majeerteen Sultanate ruler, Boqor Osman Mahamuud . Administration As with the Majeerteen Sultanate , the Sultanate of Hobyo exerted a strong centralized authority during its existence, and possessed all of the organs and trappings of an integrated modern state: a functioning bureaucracy, a hereditary nobility, titled aristocrats, a state flag, as well as a professional army. Both sultanates also maintained written records of their activities, which still exist. History Rise of the Sultanate Initially, Ali Yusuf Kenadid 's goal was to seize control of the neighboring Majeerteen Sultanate, which was then ruled by his cousin Boqor Osman Mahamud . However, he was unsuccessful in this endeavor, and was eventually forced into exi



Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq

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Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq (reign: 1394 − February 1413 CE) was the last sultan of the Tughlaq dynasty to rule the Islamic Delhi Sultanate . History During his reign in 1398, Amir Timur the Chagtai ruler invaded India. He carried away with him a large booty from Delhi and the surrounding area. Soon after the invasion, the Tughlaq dynasty came to an end. Successor The succeeding sultan of the Delhi Sultanate was Khizr Khan , the first of the Sayyid dynasty . References Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 100–102. ISBN   978-9-38060-734-4 . Preceded by Nasir ud din Muhammad Shah III Sultan of Delhi 1394–1413 Succeeded by Khizr Khan , Sayyid dynasty Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq (reign: 1394 − February 1413 CE) was the last sultan of the Tughlaq dynasty to rule the Islamic Delhi Sultanate . History During his reign in 1398, Amir Timur the Chagtai ruler invaded India. He carried away with him a large booty from Delhi and the surrounding area. Soon after the inv



Qarlughids

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History of the Turkic peoples Pre-14th century Turkic Khaganate 552–744   Western Turkic   Eastern Turkic Khazar Khaganate 618–1048 Xueyantuo 628–646 Great Bulgaria 632–668   Danube Bulgaria   Volga Bulgaria Kangar union 659–750 Turgesh Khaganate 699–766 Uyghur Khaganate 744–840 Karluk Yabgu State 756–940 Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212   Western Kara-Khanid   Eastern Kara-Khanid Gansu Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036 Kingdom of Qocho 856–1335 Pecheneg Khanates 860–1091 Kimek Khanate 743–1035 Cumania 1067–1239 Oghuz Yabgu State 750–1055 Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186 Seljuk Empire 1037–1194   Seljuk Sultanate of Rum Kerait khanate 11th century–13th century Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231 Naiman Khanate –1204 Qarlughid Kingdom 1224–1266 Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526   Mamluk dynasty   Khilji dynasty   Tughlaq dynasty Golden Horde | 1240s–1502 Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) 1250–1517   Bahri dynasty   Ottoman Empire 1299–1923 Other Turkic dynasties   in Anatolia Artuqid dynasty Saltuqid dynasty in Azerbaijan Ahmadili dynasty Ildenizid dynas



Indo-Persian culture

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The Taj Mahal unites Persian and Indian elements. It is the mausoleum of Mumtaz Mahal , Shah Jahan 's Persian wife. " Indo-Persian culture " refers to those Persian aspects that have been integrated into or absorbed into the cultures of the Indian Subcontinent (hence the prefix "Indo"), and in particular, into North India , and modern-day Pakistan . Persian influence was first introduced to the South Asia by Muslim rulers of Turkic and Afghan origin, especially with the Delhi Sultanate from the 13th century, and in the 16th to 19th century by the Mughal Empire . In general, from its earliest days, aspects of the culture and language were brought to the subcontinent by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan rulers and conquerors, amongst them the most notable being Mahmud of Ghazni in the 11th century AD. Persian was the official language of the Delhi Sultanate , the Mughal Empire , and their successor states, as well as the cultured language of poetry and literature. Many of the Sultans and nobi



Dilawar Khan

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Dilawar Khan's Mosque in Mandu Dilawar Khan Ghori was governor of the Malwa province of central India during the decline of the Delhi Sultanate . After serving at the court in Delhi, he was appointed governor at Dhar in A.H. 793/C.E. 1390-91. Dilawar Khan took the title of 'Amid Shāh Dā'ūd and caused the khutba to be read in his name in A.H. 804/C.E. 1401-02. He passed his kingdom – the Malwa Sultanate – to his son Hoshang Shah upon his death in A.H. 809/C.E. 1406. Dilawar Khan in the reign of the Later Tughluqs (1391/92 - 1401/02) Dilawar Khan was the follower of Firuz Shah Tughluq's son, Muhammad ibn Firuz, later known as Muhammad Shah. He was imprisoned by the court officials at Delhi for his support for the rebel prince. Not only Dilawar Khan, but many important provincial governors, such as that of Gujarat, and various other important and powerful nobles of the court supported the Prince' claim to the throne. After Timur 's invasion in 1398, the same prince, who was the then Sultan of Delhi, ran away



Malik Kafur

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Malik Kafur (died 1316) was a prominent general of Alauddin Khilji . He was a handsome Hindu wrestler in Gujarat named Manik, but was captured and later converted to Islam. After being captured, he became the favourite of Alauddin Khilji. He led three campaigns in Southern India from 1294 to 1316 AD, and set the stage for the consequent arrival of the Madurai Sultanate . Early life Malik Kafur was a eunuch slave who became a general in the army of Alauddin Khilji , ruler of the Delhi Sultanate from 1296 to 1316 A.D. He was originally seized by Alauddin’s army after the army conquered the city of Khambhat . It is theorized that Alauddin Khilji fell in love with the effeminate beauty of Malik Kafur, castrated him and converted him to Islam . Kafur was also called "Thousand Dinar Kafur", probably the amount paid by sultan for his possession. The sultan allegedly had homosexual relation with Kafur. Wars and conquests Kafur quickly came to play an important role in the Khilji dynasty, and was consequently mad



Malik Maqbul

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Malik Maqbul or Khan-i-Jahan Maqbul was the Wazir or Prime Minister of the Delhi Sultanate , in the government of Feroz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388 CE ), in the Indian sub-continent. Initially, he was the commander of Warangal Fort (Kataka paludu) located in the state of Telangana , south India . Early life and background After the fall of Warangal in 1323, the Kakatiya king Prataparudra and his trusted minister and commander Gannama Nayaka,also known as Yugandhar or Nagaya Ganna, were captured and taken to Delhi . King Prataparudra committed suicide by drowning himself in the river Narmada . Yugandhar was converted to Islam and given the name Malik Maqbul. Harihara Raya and Bukkaraya , treasurers in the court of Warangal were also captured and converted to Islam. Warangal was placed under the control of Burhanuddin, governor of Daulatabad . The rebellion led by Musunuri King Prolaya Nayaka resulted in the liberation of large parts of Telugu country in 1326 CE. The full title of Maqbul was "Masnad-i-Aali Ulug



Delhi Multan Road

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Delhi Multan Road ( Urdu : دہلى مُلتان روڈ ‎), ancient route had existed since the time of king Ashoka or earlier, was renovated by the Delhi Sultanate ruler Sher Shah Suri (1486–1545) in order to improve transit in the areas between Delhi and Multan , leading to Kandhar and Herat in Afghanistan , eventually to Mashhad capital of Khorasan province of Iran , providing access to capital city Ashgabat of Turkmenistan ." Messaging System Names of territories during the Caliphate in 750 CE. There were small posts every few miles where horses were ready to receive messages to send from one post to another. Messages from the Delhi court were reaching Multan , which was around 500 miles away, within days. Route On the Indian side, it passed through Rohtak , Meham , Asigarh Fort at Hansi , Firoz Shah Palace Complex at Hisar , Fatehabad , Ratia , Bhatinda and Malout , etc. On the Pakistani side, the road goes through the cities Pakpattan , Arifwala , Gaggoo , Burewala , Vehari and finally Multan . Some parts of this ro



Shah Turkan

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Shah Turkan (1195 AD - 1236 AD) was a mistress of Sultan Shamsuddin Iltutmish which was later raised to the status of the Queen of Delhi Sultanate by marrying Iltutmish. She was also the mother of Rukn ud din Firuz , the fourth Sultan of Delhi and the grandmother of Ala ud din Masud . In popular culture, Shah Turkan was played by Hindi actress Sambhavna Seth in Razia Sultan (TV series) Shah Turkan (1195 AD - 1236 AD) was a mistress of Sultan Shamsuddin Iltutmish which was later raised to the status of the Queen of Delhi Sultanate by marrying Iltutmish. She was also the mother of Rukn ud din Firuz , the fourth Sultan of Delhi and the grandmother of Ala ud din Masud . In popular culture, Shah Turkan was played by Hindi actress Sambhavna Seth in Razia Sultan (TV series)



Chahamanas of Ranastambhapura

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The Chahamanas of Ranastambhapura were a 13th century Indian dynasty. They ruled the area around their capital Ranastambhapura ( Ranthambore ) in present-day Rajasthan , initially as vassals of the Delhi Sultanate , and later as sovereigns. They belonged to the Chahamana (Chauhan) clan of the Rajputs , and are also known as Chauhans of Ranthambore in vernacular Rajasthani bardic literature. History The Chahamana dynasty of Ranastambhapura was established by Govinda-raja , a member of the Shakambhari Chahamana family (also known as the Chauhans of Ajmer ). Govinda was the son of Prithviraja III , who was defeated and killed in a battle with the Ghurids , in 1192 CE. The Delhi Sultan Muhammad of Ghor appointed Govinda as his vassal at Ajmer. However, Prithviraja's brother Hari-raja de-throned him, and himself became the ruler of Ajmer. Govinda then established a new kingdom with its capital at Ranastambhapura (modern Ranthambor). After the Muslim conquest of Ajmer, he granted asylum to Hari. Balhana, the son



Alauddin Husain Shah

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Ala-ud-din Husain Shah ( Bengali : আলাউদ্দিন হোসেন শাহ) ; reign 1494–1519) was an independent late medieval Sultan of Bengal , who founded the Hussain Shahi dynasty . He became the ruler of Bengal after assassinating the Abyssinian Sultan, Shams-ud-Din Muzaffar Shah , whom he had served under as wazir . After his death in 1519 his son Nusrat Shah succeeded him. Early life and accession Husain Shah's original name is Sayyeed Husain. According to a 1788 chronicle, Riyaz-us-Salatin, Husain was the son of Sayyeed Ashraf Al Husaini Al Fatimi Al Makki, a Sharif of Mecca and an inhabitant of Tirmiz (in Turkestan ). Besides both historians Salim (writer of Riyaz-us-Salatin) and Firishtah (from late 16th century) mentioned him as Sayyed - this indicates Husain's Arab descent. Besides, the term Sultan Husain Shah bin Sayyeed Ashraf-ul-Husaini (Sultan Husain Shah, son of Sayyed Ashraf-ul-Husaini) frequently appeared on his coins. But it is not yet known how he came to Bengal and occupied the post of Vizier of Sultan



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