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Delhi

Delhi (, Hindustani pronunciation:  Dilli), (Urdu: دلی, Hindi: दिल्ली) officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi or NCT, is a city and a union territory of India.[13] [14] It is bordered by Haryana on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east. The NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres (573 sq mi). According to 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million,[6] the second highest in India after Mumbai, while the whole NCT's population was about 16.8 million.[7] Delhi's urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundary to include an estimated population of over 26 million people making it the world's second largest urban area.[8] As of 2016 recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the top or second most productive metro area of India.[10] [11] [15] [12] Delhi is the second wealthiest city after Mumbai in India, with a total wealth of $450 billion and home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires.[16]

Delhi has been continuously inhabited since the 6th century BC.[17] Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various kingdoms and empires. It has been captured, ransacked and rebuilt several times, particularly during the medieval period, and modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region. A union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more closely resembles that of a state of India, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the federal government of India and the local government of Delhi, and is the capital of the NCT of Delhi. Delhi hosted the first and ninth Asian Games in 1951 and 1982 respectively, 1983 NAM Summit, 2010 Men's Hockey World Cup, 2010 Commonwealth Games, 2012 BRICS Summit and was one of the major host cities of the 2011 Cricket World Cup.

Delhi is also the centre of the National Capital Region (NCR), which is a unique 'interstate regional planning' area created by the National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985.[18] [19]

Toponymy

There are a number of myths and legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi. One of them is derived from Dhillu or Dilu, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BC and named it after himself.[20] [21] [22] Another legend holds that the name of the city is based on the Hindi/Prakrit word dhili (loose) and that it was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the Iron Pillar of Delhi had a weak foundation and had to be moved.[22] The coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal.[23] According to the Bhavishya Purana, King Prithiviraja of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom. He ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and later named the fort dehali.[24] Some historians believe that the name is derived from Dilli, a corruption of the Hindustani words dehleez or dehali—both terms meaning 'threshold' or 'gateway'—and symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain.[25] [26] Another theory suggests that the city's original name was Dhillika.[27]

The people of Delhi are referred to as Delhiites or Dilliwalas.[28] The city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages. Examples include:

  • Abhi Dilli door hai (अभी दिल्ली दूर है) or its Persian version, Hanouz Dehli dour ast (هنوز دلی دور است), literally meaning Delhi is still far away, which is generically said about a task or journey still far from completion.[29] [30]
  • Dilli dilwalon ka shehr or Dilli Dilwalon ki meaning Delhi belongs to the large-hearted/daring.[31]
  • Aas-paas barse, Dilli pani tarse, literally meaning it pours all around, while Delhi lies parched. An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it idiomatically refers to situations of deprivation when one is surrounded by plenty.[30]
History
Ashoka's Pillar edict on the ridge near Hindu Rao Hospital, New Delhi

The area around Delhi was probably inhabited before the second millennium BC and there is evidence of continuous inhabitation since at least the 6th century BC.[17] The city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata.[20] According to Mahabharata, this land was initially a huge mass of forests called 'Khandavaprastha' which was burnt down to build the city of Indraprastha. The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period (c. 300 BC); in 1966, an inscription of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (273–235 BC) was discovered near Srinivaspuri. Remains of eight major cities have been discovered in Delhi. The first five cities were in the southern part of present-day Delhi. King Anang Pal of the Tomara dynasty founded the city of Lal Kot in AD 736. Prithviraj Chauhan conquered Lal Kot in 1178 and renamed it Qila Rai Pithora.

The iron pillar of Delhi, is said to have been fashioned at the time of Chandragupta Vikramaditya (375–413) of the Gupta Empire.[32] [33]

The king Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori, a Muslim invader from Afghanistan, who made a concerted effort to conquer northern India.[20] By 1200, native Hindu resistance had begun to crumble, the dominance of foreign Turkic Muslim dynasties in north India was to last for the next five centuries. The slave general of Ghori, Qutb-ud-din Aibak was given the responsibility of governing the conquered territories of India and then Ghori returned to his capital, Ghor. He died in 1206 AD. He had no heirs and so his generals declared themselves independent in different parts of his empire. Qutb-ud-din assumed control of Ghori's Indian possessions. He laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mamluk Dynasty. he began construction of the Qutb Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam (Might of Islam) mosque, the earliest extant mosque in India. Qutb-ud-din faced widespread Hindu rebellions because he broke several ancient temples to acquire wealth and material to build mosques and other monuments. It was his successor, Iltutmish (1211–36), who consolidated the Turkic conquest of northern India.[20] [34] Razia Sultan, daughter of Iltutmish, succeeded him as the Sultan of Delhi. She is the first and only woman to rule over Delhi.

A view of Qutab minor
At 72.5 m (238 ft), A UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Qutub Minar is the world's tallest free-standing brick minaret.[35]

For the next three hundred years, Delhi was ruled by a succession of Turkic and an Afghan, Lodhi dynasty. They built several forts and townships that are part of the seven cities of Delhi.[36] Delhi was a major centre of Sufism during this period.[37] The Mamluk Sultanate (Delhi) was overthrown in 1290 by Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji (1290–1320). Under the second Khalji ruler, Ala-ud-din Khalji, the Delhi sultanate extended its control south of the Narmada River in the Deccan. The Delhi sultanate reached its greatest extent during the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325–1351). In an attempt to bring the whole of the Deccan under control, he moved his capital to Daulatabad, Maharashtra in central India. However, by moving away from Delhi he lost control of the north and was forced to return to Delhi to restore order. The southern provinces then broke away. In the years following the reign of Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388), the Delhi sultanate rapidly began to lose its hold over its northern provinces. Delhi was captured and sacked by Timur Lenk in 1398,[38] who massacred 100,000 captives.[39] Delhi's decline continued under the Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451), until the sultanate was reduced to Delhi and its hinterland. Under the Afghan Lodhi dynasty (1451–1526), the Delhi sultanate recovered control of the Punjab and the Gangetic plain to once again achieve domination over Northern India. However, the recovery was short-lived and the sultanate was destroyed in 1526 by Babur, founder of the Mughal dynasty.

Babur, was a descendant of Genghis Khan and Timur, from the Fergana Valley in modern-day Uzbekistan. In 1526, he invaded India, defeated the last Lodhi sultan in the First Battle of Panipat and founded the Mughal Empire that ruled from Delhi and Agra.[20] The Mughal dynasty ruled Delhi for more than three centuries, with a sixteen-year hiatus during the reigns of Sher Shah Suri and Hemu from 1540 to 1556.[40] In 1553, the Hindu king, Hemu acceded to the throne of Delhi by defeating forces of Mughal Emperor Humayun at Agra and Delhi. However, the Mughals re-established their rule after Akbar's army defeated Hemu during the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556.[41] [42] [43] Shah Jahan built the seventh city of Delhi that bears his name Shahjahanabad, which served as the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1638 and is today known as the Old City or Old Delhi.[44]

Red Fort with the Indian Flag at the centre
A UNESCO World Heritage Site, Red Fort is the location from which the Prime Minister of India addresses the nation on Independence Day

After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the Mughal Empire's influence declined rapidly as the Hindu Maratha Empire from Deccan Plateau rose to prominence.[45] In 1737, Maratha forces sacked Delhi following their victory against the Mughals in the First Battle of Delhi. In 1739, the Mughal Empire lost the huge Battle of Karnal in less than three hours against the numerically outnumbered but militarily superior Persian army led by Nader Shah of Persia. After his invasion, he completely sacked and looted Delhi, carrying away immense wealth including the Peacock Throne, the Daria-i-Noor, and Koh-i-Noor. The Mughals, severely further weakened, could never overcome this crushing defeat and humiliation which also left the way open for more invaders to come, including eventually the British.[46] [47] [48] Nader eventually agreed to leave the city and India after forcing the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah I to beg him for mercy and granting him the keys of the city and the royal treasury.[49] A treaty signed in 1752 made Marathas the protectors of the Mughal throne in Delhi.[50]

Humayun's tomb (reddish coloured against the sky
A UNESCO World Heritage Site, built in 1560, Humayun's Tomb is the first example of Mughal tomb complexes.[51]

In 1757, the Afghan ruler, Ahmad Shah Durrani, sacked Delhi. He returned to Afghanistan leaving a Mughal puppet ruler in nominal control. The Marathas again occupied Delhi in 1758, and were in control until their defeat in 1761 at the third battle of Panipat when the city was captured again by Ahmad Shah.[52] However, in 1771, the Marathas established a protectorate over Delhi when the Maratha ruler, Mahadji Shinde, recaptured Delhi and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II was installed as a puppet ruler in 1772.[53] In 1783, Sikhs under Baghel Singh captured Delhi and Red Fort but due to the treaty signed, Sikhs withdrew from Red Fort and agreed to restore Shah Alam II as the emperor. In 1803, during the Second Anglo-Maratha War, the forces of British East India Company defeated the Maratha forces in the Battle of Delhi.[54]

During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Delhi fell to the forces of East India Company after a bloody fight known as the Siege of Delhi. The city came under the direct control of the British Government in 1858. It was made a district province of the Punjab.[20] In 1911, it was announced that the capital of British held territories in India was to be transferred from Calcutta to Delhi.[55] The name "New Delhi" was given in 1927, and the new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931. New Delhi, also known as Lutyens' Delhi,[56] was officially declared as the capital of the Union of India after the country gained independence on 15 August 1947.[57] During the partition of India, thousands of Hindu and Sikh refugees, mainly from West Punjab fled to Delhi, while many Muslim residents of the city migrated to Pakistan. Migration to Delhi from the rest of India continues (as of 2013), contributing more to the rise of Delhi's population than the birth rate, which is declining.[58]

Aerial view of Delhi, April 2016

The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 and the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 created the Union Territory of Delhi from the its predecessor the Chief Commissioner's Province of Delhi.[1] [2] The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991 declared the Union Territory of Delhi to be formally known as the National Capital Territory of Delhi.[3] The Act gave Delhi its own legislative assembly along Civil lines, though with limited powers.[3]

In December 2001, the Parliament of India building in New Delhi was attacked by armed militants, killing six security personnel.[59] India suspected Pakistan-based militant groups were behind the attack, which caused a major diplomatic crisis between the two countries.[60] There were further terrorist attacks in Delhi in October 2005 and September 2008, resulting in a total of 103 deaths.[61]

Ecology

Delhi is located at 28°37′N 77°14′E / 28.61°N 77.23°E, and lies in Northern India. It borders the Indian states of Haryana on the north, west and south and Uttar Pradesh (UP) to the east. Two prominent features of the geography of Delhi are the Yamuna flood plains and the Delhi ridge. The Yamuna river was the historical boundary between Punjab and UP, and its flood plains provide fertile alluvial soil suitable for agriculture but are prone to recurrent floods. The Yamuna, a sacred river in Hinduism, is the only major river flowing through Delhi. The Hindon River separates Ghaziabad from the eastern part of Delhi. The Delhi ridge originates from the Aravalli Range in the south and encircles the west, north-east and north-west parts of the city. It reaches a height of 318 m (1,043 ft) and is a dominant feature of the region.[66]

The National Capital Territory of Delhi covers an area of 1,484 km2 (573 sq mi), of which 783 km2 (302 sq mi) is designated rural, and 700 km2 (270 sq mi) urban therefore making it the largest city in terms of area in the country. It has a length of 51.9 km (32 mi) and a width of 48.48 km (30 mi).

Delhi is included in India's seismic zone-IV, indicating its vulnerability to major earthquakes.[67]

Climate

Delhi features an atypical version of the humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) bordering a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh). The warm season lasts from 21 March to 15 June with an average daily high temperature above 39 °C (102 °F). The hottest day of the year is 22 May, with an average high of 46 °C (115 °F) and low of 30 °C (86 °F).[68] The cold season lasts from 26 November to 9 February with an average daily high temperature below 20 °C (68 °F). The coldest day of the year is 4 January, with an average low of 2 °C (36 °F) and high of 14 °C (57 °F).[68] In early March, the wind direction changes from north-westerly to south-westerly. From April to October the weather is hot. The monsoon arrives at the end of June, along with an increase in humidity.[69] The brief, mild winter starts in late November, peaks in January and heavy fog often occurs.[70]

Temperatures in Delhi usually range from 2 to 47 °C (35.6 to 116.6 °F), with the lowest and highest temperatures ever recorded being −2.2 and 48.4 °C (28.0 and 119.1 °F) respectively.[71] The annual mean temperature is 25 °C (77 °F); monthly mean temperatures range from 13 to 32 °C (55 to 90 °F). The highest temperature recorded in July was 45 °C (113 °F) in 1931.[72] [73] The average annual rainfall is approximately 886 mm (34.9 in), most of which falls during the monsoon in July and August.[20] The average date of the advent of monsoon winds in Delhi is 29 June.[74]

Climate data for Delhi (Safdarjung) 1971–1990
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.0 (86) 34.1 (93.4) 40.6 (105.1) 45.6 (114.1) 47.2 (117) 46.7 (116.1) 45.0 (113) 42.0 (107.6) 40.6 (105.1) 39.4 (102.9) 36.1 (97) 29.3 (84.7) 47.2 (117)
Average high °C (°F) 21.0 (69.8) 23.5 (74.3) 29.2 (84.6) 36.0 (96.8) 39.2 (102.6) 38.8 (101.8) 34.7 (94.5) 33.6 (92.5) 34.2 (93.6) 33.0 (91.4) 28.3 (82.9) 22.9 (73.2) 31.2 (88.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 14.3 (57.7) 16.8 (62.2) 22.3 (72.1) 28.8 (83.8) 32.5 (90.5) 33.4 (92.1) 30.8 (87.4) 30.0 (86) 29.5 (85.1) 26.3 (79.3) 20.8 (69.4) 15.7 (60.3) 25.1 (77.2)
Average low °C (°F) 7.6 (45.7) 10.1 (50.2) 15.3 (59.5) 21.6 (70.9) 25.9 (78.6) 27.8 (82) 26.8 (80.2) 26.3 (79.3) 24.7 (76.5) 19.6 (67.3) 13.2 (55.8) 8.5 (47.3) 19.0 (66.2)
Record low °C (°F) −0.6 (30.9) 1.6 (34.9) 4.4 (39.9) 10.7 (51.3) 15.2 (59.4) 18.9 (66) 20.3 (68.5) 20.7 (69.3) 17.3 (63.1) 9.4 (48.9) 3.9 (39) 1.1 (34) −0.6 (30.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 19 (0.75) 20 (0.79) 15 (0.59) 21 (0.83) 25 (0.98) 70 (2.76) 237 (9.33) 235 (9.25) 113 (4.45) 17 (0.67) 9 (0.35) 9 (0.35) 790 (31.1)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 1.7 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.8 5.5 13.0 12.1 5.7 1.7 0.6 1.6 51.7
Average relative humidity (%) 63 55 47 34 33 46 70 73 62 52 55 62 54
Mean monthly sunshine hours 214.6 216.1 239.1 261.0 263.1 196.5 165.9 177.0 219.0 269.3 247.2 215.8 2,684.6
Source #1: NOAA[75]
Source #2: Indian Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[76]

Air pollution
Urban sustainability analysis of the greater urban area of the city using the 'Circles of Sustainability' method of the UN Global Compact Cities Programme

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) Delhi was the most polluted[77] city in the world in 2014. In 2016 WHO downgraded Delhi to eleventh-worst in the urban air quality database.[78] According to one estimate, air pollution causes the death of about 10,500 people in Delhi every year.[79] [80] [81] During 2013–14, peak levels of fine particulate matter (PM) in Delhi increased by about 44%, primarily due to high vehicular and industrial emissions, construction work and crop burning in adjoining states.[79] [82] [83] [84] It has the highest level of the airborne particulate matter, PM2.5 considered most harmful to health, with 153 micrograms.[85] Rising air pollution level has significantly increased lung-related ailments (especially asthma and lung cancer) among Delhi's children and women.[86] [87] The dense smog in Delhi during winter season results in major air and rail traffic disruptions every year.[88] According to Indian meteorologists, the average maximum temperature in Delhi during winters has declined notably since 1998 due to rising air pollution.[89]

Dense smog blankets Connaught Place, Delhi

Environmentalists have criticised the Delhi government for not doing enough to curb air pollution and to inform people about air quality issues.[80] Most of Delhi's residents are unaware of alarming levels of air pollution in the city and the health risks associated with it;[83] [84] however, as of 2015, awareness, particularly among the foreign diplomatic community and high-income Indians, was noticeably increasing.[90] Since the mid-1990s, Delhi has undertaken some measures to curb air pollution – Delhi has the third highest quantity of trees among Indian cities[91] and the Delhi Transport Corporation operates the world's largest fleet of environmentally friendly compressed natural gas (CNG) buses.[92] In 1996, the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) started a public interest litigation in the Supreme Court of India that ordered the conversion of Delhi's fleet of buses and taxis to run on compressed natural gas (CNG) and banned the use of leaded petrol in 1998. In 2003, Delhi won the United States Department of Energy's first 'Clean Cities International Partner of the Year' award for its "bold efforts to curb air pollution and support alternative fuel initiatives".[92] The Delhi Metro has also been credited for significantly reducing air pollutants in the city.[93]

However, according to several authors, most of these gains have been lost, especially due to stubble burning, a rise in the market share of diesel cars and a considerable decline in bus ridership.[94] [95] According to CSE and System of Air Quality Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR), burning of agricultural waste in nearby Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh regions results in severe intensification of smog over Delhi.[96] [97] The state government of Uttar Pradesh is considering imposing a ban on crop burning to reduce pollution in Delhi NCR and an environmental panel has appealed to India's Supreme Court to impose a 30% cess on diesel cars.[98] [99]

Dense fog in Delhi in November 2017

The Circles of Sustainability assessment of Delhi gives a marginally more favourable impression of the ecological sustainability of the city only because it is based on a more comprehensive series of measures than only air pollution. Part of the reason that the city remains assessed at basic sustainability is because of the low resource-use and carbon emissions of its poorer neighbourhoods.[100]

The Delhi government has brought back odd-even plan to check rising pollution level in the capital. It will be implemented from November 13 and will end on November 17.[101]

Civic administration

As of July 2007, the National Capital Territory of Delhi comprises nine districts, 27 tehsils, 59 census towns, 300 villages,[102] and three statutory towns, the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) – 1,397.3 km2 or 540 sq mi, the New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) – 42.7 km2 or 16 sq mi and the Delhi Cantonment Board (DCB) – 43 km2 or 17 sq mi).[103] [104]

Since the trifurcation of the DMC at the start of 2012, Delhi has been run by five local municipal corporations: the North Delhi, South Delhi and East Delhi Municipal Corporations, the New Delhi Municipal Council and Delhi Cantonment Board.[105] In July of that year, shortly after the MCD trifurcation, the Delhi Government increased the number of districts in Delhi from nine to eleven.[106]

Delhi (civic administration) was ranked 5th out of 21 Cities for best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014. It scored 3.6 on 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.[107]

Delhi houses the Supreme Court of India and the regional Delhi High Court along with the Small Causes Court for civil cases; the Magistrate Court and the Sessions Court for criminal cases has jurisdiction over Delhi. The city is administratively divided into eleven police-zones which are subdivided into 95 local police stations.[108]

Government and politics
The Supreme Court of India with Green coloured lawn and the building which shows its entrance to the court
Supreme Court is the apex court in the country

As a first-level administrative division, the National Capital Territory of Delhi has its own Legislative Assembly, Lieutenant Governor, council of ministers and Chief Minister. Members of the legislative assembly are directly elected from territorial constituencies in the NCT. The legislative assembly was abolished in 1956, after which direct federal control was implemented until it was re-established in 1993. The Municipal corporation handles civic. administration for the city as part of the Panchayati Raj Act. The Government of India and the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi jointly administer New Delhi, where both bodies are located. The Parliament of India, the Rashtrapati Bhavan (Presidential Palace), Cabinet Secretariat and the Supreme Court of India are located in the municipal district of New Delhi. There are 70 assembly constituencies and seven Lok Sabha (Indian parliament's lower house) constituencies in Delhi.[109] [110] The Indian National Congress (Congress) formed all the governments in Delhi until the 1990s, when the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), led by Madan Lal Khurana, came to power.[111] In 1998, the Congress returned to power under the leadership of Sheila Dikshit, who was subsequently re-elected for 3 consecutive terms. But in 2013, the Congress was ousted from power by the newly formed Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) led by Arvind Kejriwal forming the government with outside support from the Congress.[112] However, that government was short-lived, collapsing only after 49 days.[113] Delhi was then under President's rule till February 2015.[114] On 10 February 2015, the Aam Aadmi Party returned to power after a landslide victory, winning 67 out of the 70 seats in the Delhi Legislative Assembly.[115] Since 2011 Delhi has three municipal bodies [116] a) SDMC having jurisdiction over South and West Delhi areas including Mahipalpur, Rajouri Garden, Janakpuri, Hari Nagar, Tilak Nagar, Dwarka, Jungpura, Greater Kailash, R K Puram, Malvya Nagar, Kalkaji, Ambedkar Nagar and Badarpur. b) NDMC has jurisdiction over areas such as Badli, Rithala, Bawana, Kirari, Mangolpuri, Tri nagar, Model Town, Sadar Bazar, Chandni Chowk, Matia Mahal, Karol Bagh, Moti Nagar c) EDMC has jurisdiction over areas such as Patparganj, Kondli, Laxmi Nagar, Seemapuri, Gonda, Karawal Nagar, Babarpur and Shahadra In 2017 BJP became victorious in all the three corporations [117]

Economy

Delhi is the largest commercial centre in northern India. As of 2016 recent estimates of the economy of the Delhi urban area have ranged from $167 to $370 billion (PPP metro GDP) ranking it either the most or second-most productive metro area of India.[10] [11] [15] [12] The nominal GSDP of the NCT of Delhi for 2016-17 was estimated at 6,224 billion (US$97 billion), 13% higher than in 2015–16.[118]

As per the Economic survey of Delhi (2005–2006), the tertiary sector contributes 70.95% of Delhi's gross SDP followed by secondary and primary sectors with 25.20% and 3.85% contributions respectively.[119] Delhi's workforce constitutes 32.82% of the population, and increased by 52.52% between 1991 and 2001.[120] Delhi's unemployment rate decreased from 12.57% in 1999–2000 to 4.63% in 2003.[120] In December 2004, 636,000 people were registered with various employment exchange programmes in Delhi.[120] In 2001 the total workforce in national and state governments and the quasi-government sector was 620,000, and the private sector employed 219,000.[120] Key service industries are information technology, telecommunications, hotels, banking, media and tourism.[121] Construction, power, health and community services and real estate are also important to the city's economy. Delhi has one of India's largest and fastest growing retail industries.[122] Manufacturing also grew considerably as consumer goods companies established manufacturing units and headquarters in the city. Delhi's large consumer market and the availability of skilled labour has also attracted foreign investment. In 2001, the manufacturing sector employed 1,440,000 workers and the city had 129,000 industrial units.[123]

Utility services

Delhi's municipal water supply is managed by the Delhi Jal Board (DJB). As of June 2005, it supplied 650 million gallons per day (MGD), whereas the estimated consumption requirement is 963 MGD.[124] The shortfall is met by private and public tube wells and hand pumps. At 240 MGD, the Bhakra storage is DJB's largest water source, followed by the Yamuna and Ganges rivers. Delhi's groundwater level is falling and its population density is increasing, so residents often encounter acute water shortage.[124] Research on Delhi suggests that up to half of the city's water use is unofficial groundwater.[125] In Delhi, daily domestic solid waste production is 8000 tonnes which is dumped at three landfill locations by MCD.[126] The daily domestic waste water production is 470 MGD and industrial waste water is 70 MGD.[127] A large portion of the sewage flows untreated into the Yamuna river.[127]

The city's electricity consumption is about 1,265 kWh per capita but the actual demand is higher.[128] In Delhi power distribution is managed by Tata Power Distribution and BSES Yamuna & Rajdhani since 2002. The Delhi Fire Service runs 43 fire stations that attend about 15,000 fire and rescue calls per year.[129] The state-owned Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) and private enterprises such as Vodafone, Airtel, Idea Cellular, Reliance Infocomm, Aircel, Reliance Jio and Tata Docomo provide telephone and cell phone services to the city. Cellular coverage is available in GSM, CDMA, 3G and 4G.

Transport
Shown here is the check-in counter at Terminal 2 of the airport.
Indira Gandhi International Airport's new terminal in Delhi. It is the busiest airport in South Asia.[130] Shown here is the immigration counter at Terminal 3 of the airport.
The entrance of the Anand Vihar station
Anand Vihar Terminal railway station, opened in 2009
The Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway
The Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway, connecting Delhi to the Indira Gandhi International Airport
A Delhi underground metro station
A Delhi underground metro station
Air

Indira Gandhi International Airport, situated to the southwest of Delhi, is the main gateway for the city's domestic and international civilian air traffic. In 2015–16, the airport handled more than 48 million passengers,[132] [133] making it the busiest airport in India and South Asia. Terminal 3, which cost 96.8 billion (US$1.5 billion) to construct between 2007 and 2010, handles an additional 37 million passengers annually.[134]

The Delhi Flying Club, established in 1928 with two de Havilland Moth aircraft named Delhi and Roshanara, was based at Safdarjung Airport which started operations in 1929, when it was the Delhi's only airport and the second in India.[135] The airport functioned until 2001, however in January 2002 the government closed the airport for flying activities because of security concerns following the New York attacks in September 2001. Since then, the club only carries out aircraft maintenance courses[135] and is used for helicopter rides to Indira Gandhi International Airport for VIP including the president and the prime minister.[136]

A second airport open for commercial flights has been suggested either by expansion of Meerut Airport or construction of a new airport in Greater Noida.[137]

Road

Delhi has the highest road density of 2103 km/100 km2 in India.[138]

Buses are the most popular means of road transport catering to about 60% of Delhi's total demand.[139] Delhi has one of India's largest bus transport systems. Buses are operated by the state-owned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC), which owns the largest fleet of compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled buses in the world.[140] Personal vehicles especially cars also form a major chunk of vehicles plying on Delhi roads. Delhi has the highest number of registered cars compared to any other metropolitan city in India. Taxis, auto rickshaws, and cycle rickshaws also ply on Delhi roads in large numbers.

Important Roads in Delhi

Some roads and expressways serve as important pillars of Delhi's road infrastructure:

  • The Inner Ring Road is one of the most important "state highways" in Delhi. It is a 51 km long circular road which connects important areas in Delhi. Owing to more than 2 dozen grade-separators/flyovers, the road is almost signal-free.
  • The Outer Ring Road is another major artery in Delhi that links far-flung areas of Delhi.
  • The Delhi Noida Direct Flyway or DND Flyway is an eight-laned access controlled tolled expressway which connects Delhi to Noida (an important satellite city of Uttar Pradesh).
  • The Delhi Gurgaon Expressway is a 28 km (17 mi) expressway connecting Delhi to Gurgaon, an important satellite city of Haryana.
  • The Delhi Faridabad Skyway is controlled tolled expressway which connects Delhi to Faridabad, an important satellite city of Haryana.

National Highways Passing Through Delhi

Delhi is connected by Road to various parts of the country through several National Highways:

Railway

Delhi is a major junction in the Indian railway network and is the headquarters of the Northern Railway. The five main railway stations are New Delhi railway station, Old Delhi Railway Station, Hazrat Nizamuddin Railway Station, Anand Vihar Railway Terminal and Sarai Rohilla.[141] The Delhi Metro, a mass rapid transit system built and operated by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), serves many parts of Delhi and the neighbouring cities Faridabad, Gurgaon, Noida and Ghaziabad.[142] As of August 2011, the metro consists of six operational lines with a total length of 189 km (117 mi) and 146 stations, and several other lines are under construction.[143] The Phase-I was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II was expected to cost an additional 216 billion (US$3.4 billion).[144] Phase-II has a total length of 128 km and was completed by 2010.[145] Delhi Metro completed 10 years of operation on 25 December 2012. It carries millions of passengers every day.[146] In addition to the Delhi Metro, a suburban railway, the Delhi Suburban Railway exists.[147]

Metro

The Delhi Metro is a rapid transit system serving Delhi, Faridabad, Gurgaon, Noida and Ghaziabad in the National Capital Region of India. Delhi Metro is the world's 10th largest metro system in terms of length. Delhi Metro was India's second modern public transportation system, which has revolutionised travel by providing a fast, reliable, safe, and comfortable means of transport. The network consists of six lines with a total length of 189.63 kilometres (117.83 miles) with 142 stations, of which 35 are underground, five are at-grade, and the remainder are elevated. All stations have escalators, lifts, and tactile tiles to guide the visually impaired from station entrances to trains. There are 18 designated parking sites at Metro stations to further encourage use of the system. In March 2010, DMRC partnered with Google India (through Google Transit) to provide train schedule and route information to mobile devices with Google Maps. It has a combination of elevated, at-grade, and underground lines, and uses both broad gauge and standard gauge rolling stock. Four types of rolling stock are used: Mitsubishi-ROTEM Broad gauge, Bombardier MOVIA, Mitsubishi-ROTEM Standard gauge, and CAF Beasain Standard gauge. The Phase-I of Delhi Metro was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II was expected to cost an additional 216 billion (US$3.4 billion).[144] Phase-II has a total length of 128 km and was completed by 2010.[145] Delhi Metro completed 10 years of operation on 25 December 2012. It carries millions of passengers every day.[146] In addition to the Delhi Metro, a suburban railway, the Delhi Suburban Railway exists.[147]

Delhi Metro is being built and operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC), a state-owned company with equal equity participation from Government of India and Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. However, the organisation is under the administrative control of Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. Besides construction and operation of Delhi Metro, DMRC is also involved in the planning and implementation of metro rail, monorail, and high-speed rail projects in India and providing consultancy services to other metro projects in the country as well as abroad. The Delhi Metro project was spearheaded by Padma Vibhushan E. Sreedharan, the Managing Director of DMRC and popularly known as the "Metro Man" of India. He famously resigned from DMRC taking moral responsibility for a metro bridge collapse, which took five lives. Sreedharan was awarded the prestigious Legion of Honour by the French Government for his contribution to Delhi Metro.

Metro services are being extended to important hubs in the cities that are close to offices, colleges, and tourist spots. This will facilitate easy conveyance for the citizens, who otherwise have to rely on public buses that are heavily crowded and are often stuck in traffic jams.

Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS)

The 08 RRTS Corridors have been proposed by National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB) to facilitate the people travelling from nearby cities in NCR to Delhi. The three main corridors in the first phase are as follows which are expected to become operational before 2019:

  1. Delhi – Alwar via Gurugram - 180.50 km
  2. Delhi – Panipat via Sonepat - 111 km
  3. Delhi – Meerut via Ghaziabad - 92.05 km

Remaining five corridors are also approved by National Capital Region Planning Board but are planned in the second phase.

Roads of 2006 and 2007

As of 2007, private vehicles account for 30% of the total demand for transport.[141] Delhi has 1922.32 km of road length per 100 km2 , one of the highest road densities in India.[141] It is connected to other parts of India by five National Highways: NH 1, 2, 8, 10 and 24. The city's road network is maintained by MCD, NDMC, Delhi Cantonment Board, Public Works Department (PWD) and Delhi Development Authority.[148] The Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway connects Delhi with Gurgaon and the international airport. "The Delhi-Faridabad Skyway". connects Delhi with the neighbouring industrial town of Faridabad. The DND Flyway and Noida-Greater Noida Expressway connect Delhi with the suburbs of Noida and Greater Noida.[149] [150] Delhi's rapid rate of economic development and population growth has resulted in an increasing demand for transport, creating excessive pressure on the city's transport infrastructure. As of 2008, the number of vehicles in the metropolitan region, Delhi NCR, is 11.2 million (11.2 million).[151] In 2008, there were 85 cars in Delhi for every 1,000 of its residents.[152]

To meet the transport demand, the State and Union government constructed a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro.[141] In 1998, the Supreme Court of India ordered that all public transport vehicles in Delhi must be fuelled by compressed natural gas (CNG).[153] Buses are the most popular means of public transport, catering to about 60% of the total demand.[141] The state-owned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) is a major bus service provider which operates the world's largest fleet of CNG-fuelled buses.[154] Delhi Bus Rapid Transit System runs between Ambedkar Nagar and Delhi Gate.

Demographics

According to the 2011 census of India, the population of NCT of Delhi is 16,753,235.[155] The corresponding population density was 11,297 persons per km2 with a sex ratio of 866 women per 1000 men, and a literacy rate of 86.34%. In 2004, the birth rate, death rate and infant mortality rate per 1000 population were 20.03, 5.59 and 13.08 respectively.[156] In 2001, the population of Delhi increased by 285,000 as a result of migration and by 215,000 as a result of natural population growth,[156] which made Delhi one of the fastest growing cities in the world. Dwarka Sub City, Asia's largest planned residential area, is located within the National Capital Territory of Delhi.[157] Urban expansion has resulted in Delhi's urban area now being considered as extending beyond NCT boundaries to incorporate towns and cities of neighbouring states including Gurgaon and Faridabad of Haryana, and Ghaziabad and Noida of Uttar Pradesh, the total population estimated by the United Nations at over 26 million. According to the UN this makes Delhi urban area the world's second largest, after Tokyo,[8] although Demographia declares the Jakarta urban area to be the second largest.[158] The 2011 census provided two figures for urban area population: 16,314,838 within the NCT boundary,[159] and 21,753,486 for the Extended Urban Area.[160]

Religion
A complete view of Akshardham temple with people entering the temple
Swaminarayan Akshardham in Delhi is the largest Hindu temple complexes in the National Capital Territory. Hinduism is the predominant faith in Delhi.
Religion in NCT of Delhi (2011)[161]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
81.68%
Islam
12.86%
Sikhism
3.40%
Jainism
0.99%
Christianity
0.87%
Buddhism
0.11%
Other or not stated
0.09%

Hinduism is Delhi's predominant religious faith, with 81.68% of Delhi's population, followed by Islam (12.86%), Sikhism (3.40%), Jainism (0.99%), Christianity (0.87%), and Buddhism (0.11%).[162] Other minority religions include Zoroastrianism, Baha'ism and Judaism.[163]

Languages

According to the 50th report of the commissioner for linguistic minorities in India, which was submitted in 2014, Hindi is Delhi's most spoken language, with 80.94% speakers, followed by Punjabi (7.14%) and Urdu (6.31%). Hindi is also the official language of Delhi while Urdu and Punjabi have been declared as the additional official languages. 5.61% of the Delhites speak different languages.[164]

Slums

Around 22% of the population of Delhi lives in slum areas with "inadequate provision of basic services".[165] [166] Majority of these slums has inadequate provisions to the basic facilities and according to DUSIB report 16% of people don't use toilets and almost 22% of the people do open defecation.[167]

Culture
An image showing a number of pots which are made traditionally, black coloured with red and green work on it.
Traditional pottery on display in Dilli Haat

Delhi's culture has been influenced by its lengthy history and historic association as the capital of India, Although a strong Punjabi Influence can be seen in language, Dress and Cuisine brought by the large number of refugees who came following the partition in 1947 the recent migration from other parts of India has made it a melting pot. This is exemplified by many significant monuments in the city. Delhi is also identified as the location of Indraprastha, the ancient capital of the Pandavas. The Archaeological Survey of India recognises 1200 heritage buildings[168] and 175 monuments as national heritage sites.[169] In the Old City, the Mughals and the Turkic rulers constructed several architecturally significant buildings, such as the Jama Masjid – India's largest mosque[170] built in 1656[171] and the Red Fort. Three World Heritage Sites – the Red Fort, Qutab Minar and Humayun's Tomb – are located in Delhi.[172] Other monuments include the India Gate, the Jantar Mantar – an 18th-century astronomical observatory – and the Purana Qila – a 16th-century fortress. The Laxminarayan temple, Akshardham temple,Bangla Sahib the Bahá'í Lotus temple and the ISKCON temple are examples of modern architecture. Raj Ghat and associated memorials houses memorials of Mahatma Gandhi and other notable personalities. New Delhi houses several government buildings and official residences reminiscent of British colonial architecture, including the Rashtrapati Bhavan, the Secretariat, Rajpath, the Parliament of India and Vijay Chowk. Safdarjung's Tomb is an example of the Mughal gardens style. Some regal havelis (palatial residences) are in the Old City.[173]

Lotus Temple, is a Bahá'í House of Worship completed in 1986. Notable for its flowerlike shape, it serves as the Mother Temple of the Indian subcontinent and has become a prominent attraction in the city. The Lotus Temple has won numerous architectural awards and been featured in hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles. Like all other Bahá'í Houses of Worship, is open to all regardless of religion, or any other distinction, as emphasised in Bahá'í texts. The Bahá'í laws emphasise that the spirit of the House of Worship be that it is a gathering place where people of all religions may worship God without denominational restrictions.[174] The Bahá'í laws also stipulate that only the holy scriptures of the Bahá'í Faith and other religions can be read or chanted inside in any language; while readings and prayers can be set to music by choirs, no musical instruments can be played inside. Furthermore, no sermons can be delivered, and there can be no ritualistic ceremonies practised.[174]

Chandni Chowk, a 17th-century market, is one of the most popular shopping areas in Delhi for jewellery and Zari saris.[175] Delhi's arts and crafts include, Zardozi[176]  – an embroidery done with gold thread – [177] and Meenakari[178]  – the art of enamelling.

Festivals
Rashtrapati Bhavan lit up for Republic Day of India

Delhi's association and geographic proximity to the capital, New Delhi, has amplified the importance of national events and holidays like Republic Day, Independence Day (15 August) and Gandhi Jayanti. On Independence Day, the Prime Minister addresses the nation from the Red Fort. Most Delhiites celebrate the day by flying kites, which are considered a symbol of freedom.[179] The Republic Day Parade is a large cultural and military parade showcasing India's cultural diversity and military strength.[180] [181] Over the centuries, Delhi has become known for its composite culture, and a festival that symbolises this is the Phool Walon Ki Sair, which takes place in September. Flowers and pankhe – fans embroidered with flowers – are offered to the shrine of 13th century Sufi saint Khwaja Bakhtiyar Kaki and the Yogmaya temple, both situated in Mehrauli.[182]

A view of Pragati Maidan from inside
The Pragati Maidan in Delhi hosts the World Book Fair biennially

Religious festivals include Diwali (the festival of lights), Mahavir Jayanti, Guru Nanak's Birthday, Raksha Bandhan, Durga Puja, Holi, Lohri, Chauth, Krishna Janmastami, Maha Shivratri, Eid ul-Fitr, Moharram and Buddha Jayanti.[181] The Qutub Festival is a cultural event during which performances of musicians and dancers from all over India are showcased at night, with the Qutub Minar as a backdrop.[183] Other events such as Kite Flying Festival, International Mango Festival and Vasant Panchami (the Spring Festival) are held every year in Delhi. The Auto Expo, Asia's largest auto show,[184] is held in Delhi biennially. The New Delhi World Book Fair, held biennially at the Pragati Maidan, is the second largest exhibition of books in the world.[185] Delhi is often regarded as the "Book Capital" of India because of high readership.[186] India International Trade Fair (IITF), organised by ITPO is the biggest cultural and shopping fair of Delhi which takes place in November each year and is visited by more than 15 lakh people.[187]

Cuisine
Daulat Chaat is made using a complicated technique of condensing milk foam on a cold night, this dish is only available during winters.
Daulat Chaat is made using a complicated technique of condensing milk foam on a cold night, this dish is only available during winters.[188]

As India's national capital and centuries old Mughal capital, Delhi influenced the food habits of its residents and is where Mughlai cuisine originated. Along with Indian cuisine, a variety of international cuisines are popular among the residents.[189] The dearth of food habits among the city's residents created a unique style of cooking which became popular throughout the world, with dishes such as Kebab, biryani, tandoori. The city's classic dishes include butter chicken, dal makhani, shahi paneer, aloo chaat, chaat, dahi bhalla, kachori, gol gappe, samosa, chole bhature, chole kulche, gulab jamun, jalebi and lassi.[189] [190] :40–50, 189–196

The fast living habits of Delhi's people has motivated the growth of street food outlets.[190] :41 A trend of dining at local dhabas is popular among the residents. High-profile restaurants have gained popularity in recent years, among the popular restaurants are the Karim Hotel, the Punjab Grill and Bukhara.[191] The Gali Paranthe Wali (the street of fried bread) is a street in Chandni Chowk particularly for food eateries since the 1870s. Almost the entire street is occupied by fast food stalls or street vendors. It has nearly become a tradition that almost every prime minister of India has visited the street to eat paratha at least once. Other Indian cuisines are also available in this area even though the street specialises in north Indian food .[190] :40–50 [192]

Tourism
Jantar Mantar

According to Euromonitor International, Delhi ranked as 28th most visited city in the world and first in India by foreign visitors in 2015.[193] There are numerous tourist attractions in Delhi, both historic and modern. The three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Delhi, Qutb Complex, Red Fort and Humayun's Tomb are among the finest examples of Indo-Islamic architecture.[194] Another prominent landmark of Delhi is India Gate, a 1931 built war memorial to soldiers of British Indian Army who died during First World War.[195] Delhi has several famous places of worship of various religions. One of the largest Hindu temple complexes in the world,[196] Akshardham is a major tourist attraction in the city. Other famous religious sites include Laxminarayan Temple, Gurudwara Bangla Sahib, Lotus Temple, Jama Masjid and ISKCON Temple. Delhi is also a hub for shopping of all kinds. Connaught Place, Chandni Chowk, Khan Market and Dilli Haat are some of the major retail markets in Delhi.[197] Major shopping malls include Select Citywalk, DLF Promenade, DLF Emporio, Metro Walk and Ansal Plaza.[198]

Education

Private schools in Delhi – which use either English or Hindi as the language of instruction – are affiliated to one of three administering bodies, the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE)[199] or the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). In 2004–05, approximately 15.29 lakh (1.529 million) students were enrolled in primary schools, 8.22 lakh (0.822 million) in middle schools and 6.69 lakh (0.669 million) in secondary schools across Delhi.[200] Female students represented 49% of the total enrolment. The same year, the Delhi government spent between 1.58% and 1.95% of its gross state domestic product on education.[200]

Schools and higher educational institutions in Delhi are administered either by the Directorate of Education, the NCT government or private organisations. In 2006, Delhi had 165 colleges, five medical colleges and eight engineering colleges,[200] seven major universities and nine deemed universities.[200]

The premier management colleges of Delhi such as Faculty of Management Studies (Delhi) and Indian Institute of Foreign Trade rank the best in India. All India Institute of Medical Sciences Delhi is a premier medical school for treatment and research. National Law University, Delhi is a prominent law school and is affiliated to the Bar Council of India.

Delhi Technological University (formerly Delhi College of Engineering), Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University and National Law University, Delhi are the only state universities.[201] University of Delhi, Jawaharlal Nehru University and Jamia Millia Islamia are the central universities, and Indira Gandhi National Open University is for distance education.[202] As of 2008, about 16% of all Delhi residents possessed at least a college graduate degree.[203]

Media
Pitampura TV Tower with background of blue sky
Pitampura TV Tower broadcasts programming to Delhi

As the capital of India, Delhi is the focus of political reportage, including regular television broadcasts of Parliament sessions. Many national media agencies, including the state-owned Press Trust of India, Media Trust of India and Doordarshan, is based in the city. Television programming includes two free terrestrial television channels offered by Doordarshan, and several Hindi, English, and regional-language cable channels offered by multi system operators. Satellite television has yet to gain a large quantity of subscribers in the city.[204]

Print journalism remains a popular news medium in Delhi. The city's Hindi newspapers include Navbharat Times, Hindustan Dainik, Punjab Kesari, Pavitra Bharat, Dainik Jagran, Dainik Bhaskar, Amar Ujala and Dainik Desbandhu. Amongst the English language newspapers, The Hindustan Times, with a daily circulation of over a million copies, is the single largest daily.[205] Other major English newspapers include Times of India, The Hindu, Indian Express, Business Standard, The Pioneer, The Statesman, and The Asian Age. Regional language newspapers include the Malayalam daily Malayala Manorama and the Tamil dailies Dinamalar and Dinakaran.

Radio is a less popular mass medium in Delhi, although FM radio has gained popularity[206] since the inauguration of several new stations in 2006.[207] A number of state-owned and private radio stations broadcast from Delhi.[208] [209]

Sports

Delhi has hosted many major international sporting events, including the first and also the ninth Asian Games,[210] the 2010 Hockey World Cup, the 2010 Commonwealth Games and the 2011 Cricket World Cup. Delhi lost bidding for the 2014 Asian Games,[211] and considered making a bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics.[212] However, sports minister Manohar Singh Gill later stated that funding infrastructure would come before a 2020 bid.[213] There are indications of a possible 2028 bid.

The 2010 Commonwealth Games, which ran from 3 to 14 October 2010, was one of the largest sports event held in India.[214] [215] The opening ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games was held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event, in New Delhi at 7:00 pm Indian Standard Time on 3 October 2010.[216] The ceremony featured over 8,000 performers and lasted for two and a half hours.[217] It is estimated that 3.5 billion (US$55 million) were spent to produce the ceremony.[218] Events took place at 12 competition venues. 20 training venues were used in the Games, including seven venues within Delhi University.[219] The rugby stadium in Delhi University North Campus hosted rugby games for Commonwealth Games.[219] [220] The mess left behind after the Commonwealth Games prompted Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to replace Sports and Youth Affairs minister Manohar Singh Gill with Ajay Maken in 19 January 2011 Cabinet reshuffle.[221]

Cricket and football are the most popular sports in Delhi.[222] There are several cricket grounds, or maidans, located across the city. The Feroz Shah Kotla Ground (known commonly as the Kotla) is one of the oldest cricket grounds in India and is a venue for international cricket matches. It is the home ground of the Delhi cricket team, which represents the city in the Ranji Trophy, the premier Indian domestic first-class cricket championship.[223] The Delhi cricket team has produced several world-class international cricketers such as Virender Sehwag, Virat Kohli,[224] Gautam Gambhir, Madan Lal, Chetan Chauhan, Ishant Sharma and Bishan Singh Bedi to name a few. The Railways and Services cricket teams in the Ranji Trophy also play their home matches in Delhi, in the Karnail Singh Stadium and the Harbax Singh Stadium respectively. The city is also home to the Indian Premier League team Delhi Daredevils, who play their home matches at the Kotla, and was the home to the Delhi Giants team (previously Delhi Jets) of the now defunct Indian Cricket League.

Ambedkar Stadium, a football stadium in Delhi which holds 21,000 people, was the venue for the Indian football team's World Cup qualifier against UAE on 28 July 2012.[225] Delhi hosted the Nehru Cup in 2007[226] and 2009, in both of which India defeated Syria 1–0.[227] In the Elite Football League of India, Delhi's first professional American football franchise, the Delhi Defenders played its first season in Pune.[228] Buddh International Circuit in Greater Noida, a suburb of Delhi, formerly hosted the Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix.[229] The Indira Gandhi Arena is also in Delhi.

Delhi is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21.

Current Regional and Professional Sports Teams from Delhi

Team/Club Tournament/League Sport Venue Established
Delhi cricket team Ranji Trophy

Irani Trophy

Vijay Hazare Trophy

Cricket Feroz Shah Kotla Stadium 1934
Delhi football team Santosh Trophy Football Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium 1941
Delhi Hurricanes RFC All India & South Asia Rugby Tournament Rugby Union B-7 Vasant Kunj 110070 Delhi 2004
Delhi Daredevils Indian Premier League Cricket Feroz Shah Kotla Stadium 2008
Delhi Wizards World Series Hockey Field Hockey Dhyan Chand National Stadium 2011
Delhi Defenders Elite Football League of India American Football - 2012
Delhi Waveriders Hockey India League Field Hockey Shivaji Stadium 2012
Delhi Dynamos FC Indian Super League Football Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium 2013
Dabang Delhi Pro Kabaddi League Kabaddi Thyagaraj Sports Complex 2014
Delhi Dreams Champions Tennis League Tennis R.K. Khanna Tennis Complex 2014
Indian Aces International Premier Tennis League Tennis Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium 2014
Delhi Capitals UBA Pro Basketball League Basketball - 2015

Former Regional and Professional Sports Teams from Delhi

Team/Club Tournament/League Sport Venue Established Ceased
Delhi Giants Indian Cricket League Cricket Feroz Shah Kotla Stadium 2007 2009
World Heritage status

In February 2014, the Government of India approved Delhi's bid for World Heritage City status. The historical city of Shahjahanabad and Lutyens' Bungalow Zone in New Delhi were cited in the bid. A team from UNESCO was scheduled to visit Delhi in September 2014 to validate its claims. INTACH acted as the nodal agency for the bid. The announcement of accepted cities was to be made in June 2015.[230] However, the Government of India withdrew its nomination on 21 May 2015.[231]

Notable people
International relations
Sister cities[232]
...
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Delhi

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Delhi ( , Hindustani pronunciation:  Dilli ), ( Urdu : دلی, Hindi : दिल्ली) officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi or NCT, is a city and a union territory of India . It is bordered by Haryana on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east. The NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres (573 sq mi). According to 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million, the second highest in India after Mumbai , while the whole NCT's population was about 16.8 million. Delhi's urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundary to include an estimated population of over 26 million people making it the world's second largest urban area . As of 2016 recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the top or second most productive metro area of India. Delhi is the second wealthiest city after Mumbai in India, with a total wealth of $450 billion and home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires. Delhi has been continuously inhabited since ...more...



New Delhi

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The city of New Delhi is located within the National Capital Territory of Delhi . New Delhi (  (   listen ) ) is the capital of India and one of Delhi city's 11 districts . Although colloquially Delhi and New Delhi are used interchangeably to refer to the National Capital Territory of Delhi, these are two distinct entities, with New Delhi forming a small part of Delhi. The National Capital Region is a much larger entity comprising the entire National Capital Territory of Delhi along with adjoining districts. It is surrounded by Haryana on three sides and Uttar Pradesh on the east. The foundation stone of the city was laid by George V, Emperor of India during the Delhi Durbar of 1911 . It was designed by British architects, Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker . The new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931, by Viceroy and Governor-General of India Lord Irwin . New Delhi has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Prime Minister of India Narendra Mod ...more...



Delhi Metro

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The Delhi Metro is a metro system serving Delhi and its satellite cities of Faridabad , Gurugram , Noida and Ghaziabad in National Capital Region in India. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC), a state-owned company with equal equity participation from Government of India and Government of Delhi , built and operates the Delhi Metro. It's second oldest metro in India after Kolkata Metro. Delhi Metro is the world's 12th longest metro system in length and 16th largest in ridership . A member of CoMET , the network consists of five colour-coded regular lines and the faster Airport Express line, with a total length of 218 kilometres (135 mi) serving 164 stations (including 6 on Airport Express line). The system has a mix of underground, at-grade, and elevated stations using both broad-gauge and standard-gauge. The power output is supplied by 25-kilo volt , 50- hertz alternating current through overhead catenary . The trains are usually of four, six, and eight-coach length. DMRC operates over 3,000 trips ...more...



Delhi Sultanate

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The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526). Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414), the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526). Three dynasties (Mamluk, Khalji and Sayyid) were of Turkic origin, one dynasty (Tughlaq) was of Turko-Indian origin, and the last dynasty (Lodi) was of Pashtun origin. The sultanate is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack by the Mongol Empire , and enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana , who reigned from 1236 to 1240. Qutb al-Din Aibak , a former slave of Muhammad Ghori , was the first sultan of Delhi and his dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards, the Khalji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to conquer the whole of the Indian s ...more...



Environmental issues in Delhi

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Environmental problems in Delhi , India , are a threat to the well-being of the city's and area's inhabitants as well as the flora and fauna. Delhi, the sixth-most populated metropolis in the world (second largest if the entire NCR is included), is one of the most heavily polluted cities in India, having for instance one of the country's highest volumes of particulate matter pollution . In May 2014 the World Health Organisation announced New Delhi as the most polluted city in the world. Overpopulation and the ensuing overuse of scarce resources such as water put heavy pressure on the environment. The city suffers from air pollution caused by road dust and industry, with comparatively smaller contributions from unclean engines in transportation, especially diesel-powered city buses and trucks, and 2-wheelers and 3-wheelers with two-stroke engines. Noise pollution comes mainly from motorcycle and automobile traffic. Water pollution and a lack of solid waste treatment facilities have caused serious damage t ...more...



2012 Delhi gang rape

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The 2012 Delhi gang rape case involved a rape and fatal assault that occurred on 16 December 2012 in Munirka , a neighbourhood in South Delhi . The incident took place when a 23-year-old female physiotherapy intern, Jyoti Singh, was beaten, gang raped , and tortured in a private bus in which she was traveling with her friend, Awindra Pratap Pandey. There were six others in the bus, including the driver, all of whom raped the woman and beat her friend. Eleven days after the assault, she was transferred to a hospital in Singapore for emergency treatment but died from her injuries two days later. The incident generated widespread national and international coverage and was widely condemned, both in India and abroad. Subsequently, public protests against the state and central governments for failing to provide adequate security for women took place in New Delhi , where thousands of protesters clashed with security forces . Similar protests took place in major cities throughout the country. Since Indian law doe ...more...



Delhi Gate, Delhi

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Delhi Gate links Daryaganj of Old Delhi with New Delhi View of Delhi Gate from Old Delhi side Delhi Gate is the southern gate of many in the historic walled city of (Old) Delhi , or Shahjahanabad . The gate links the New Delhi city with the old walled city of Delhi . It stands in the middle of the road, at the end of Netaji Subhash Chandra Road (or Netaji Subhash Marg), at the edge of the Daryaganj . The Gate was built by Emperor Shah Jahan in 1638 as part of the rubble–built high fort walls that encircled the Shahajahanabad, the seventh city of Delhi. The emperor used this gate to go to the Jama Masjid for prayer. The gate is similar in design and architecture to the northern gate of the walled city, the Kashmiri Gate (1853). It was built in sandstone and is an impressive and large structure. Near the gate entry, two stone carvings of elephants were erected. The road from this gate passes through Daryaganj leading to the Kashmiri gate . A part of the fort wall to the east has been demolished to build the Old ...more...



Akshardham (Delhi)

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Akshardham or Swaminarayan Akshardham complex is a Hindu mandir , and a spiritual-cultural campus in New Delhi , India. Also referred to as Akshardham Temple or Swaminarayan Akshardham , the complex displays millennia of traditional Hindu and Indian culture , spirituality, and architecture. The temple, which attracts approximately 70 percent of all tourists who visit Delhi, was officially opened on 6 November 2005 by Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam . It sits near the banks of the Yamuna adjacent to the 2010 Commonwealth Games village in eastern New Delhi. The temple, at the centre of the complex, was built according to the Vastu shastra and Pancharatra shastra . The complex features an Abhisheka Mandap , Sahaj Anand water show , a thematic garden and three exhibitions namely Sahajanand Darshan (Hall of Values), Neelkanth Darshan (an IMAX film on the early life of Swaminarayan as the teenage yogi, Neelkanth), and Sanskruti Darshan (cultural boat ride). According to Swaminarayan Hinduism , the word Akshardham mean ...more...



Red Fort

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The Red Fort is a historical fort in the city of Delhi in India . It was the main residence of the emperors of the Mughal dynasty for nearly 200 years, until 1857. It is located in the center of Delhi and houses a number of museums. In addition to accommodating the emperors and their households, it was the ceremonial and political centre of the Mughal state and the setting for events critically impacting the region. Constructed in 1639 by the fifth Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan as the palace of his fortified capital Shahjahanabad,[2] the Red Fort is named for its massive enclosing walls of red sandstone and is adjacent to the older Salimgarh Fort, built by Islam Shah Suri in 1546. The imperial apartments consist of a row of pavilions, connected by a water channel known as the Stream of Paradise (Nahr-i-Bihisht). The fort complex is considered to represent the zenith of Mughal creativity under Shah Jahan, and although the palace was planned according to Islamic prototypes, each pavilion contains architectural elem ...more...



Delhi Belly

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Look up Delhi belly in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Delhi Belly or Delhi belly may refer to: Delhi belly or Traveler's diarrhea Delhi Belly (film) , a 2011 Bollywood film See also Montezuma's revenge (disambiguation) Look up Delhi belly in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Delhi Belly or Delhi belly may refer to: Delhi belly or Traveler's diarrhea Delhi Belly (film) , a 2011 Bollywood film See also Montezuma's revenge (disambiguation) ...more...



Delhi Dynamos FC

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Delhi Dynamos (DDFC) is an Indian professional football club based in Delhi , which competes in the Indian Super League . The club began to play in October 2014 during the inaugural season of the Indian Super League. The team is owned by United States-based ship recycling company GMS Inc. and Delhi -based DEN Networks . History In early 2014, it was announced that the All India Football Federation , the national federation for football in India, and IMG-Reliance would be accepting bids for ownership of eight or nine selected cities for the upcoming Indian Super League , an eight-team franchise league modeled along the lines of the Indian Premier League cricket tournament. On 13 April 2014, it was announced that DEN Networks had won the bidding for the Delhi franchise. The team had entered an alliance with Dutch club Feyenoord which lasted only for one year . The team started their campaign in the inaugural Indian Super League season on 14 October 2014 with a 0–0 draw against FC Pune City at the Jawaharlal ...more...



List of districts of Delhi

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The National Capital Territory of Delhi is divided into eleven revenue districts. Each district is headed by a District Magistrate and has three subdivisions. A Subdivision Magistrate heads each subdivision. All Deputy Commissioners report to the Divisional Commissioner. These district are meant only for revenue collection & Administration. The initial nine districts came into existence from January 1997. Prior to that, there used to be only one district for whole of Delhi with district headquarters at Tis-Hazari. In September 2012, two new districts, viz. South East and Shahdara were added to the city's map, taking the total count to 11. The District Administration of Delhi is the enforcement department for all kinds of Government of Delhi and Central Government policies and exercises supervisory over numerous other functionaries of the Government. Below is the list of the districts and subdivisions of Delhi: Map showing the eleven districts of Delhi The skyline of Central Delhi The South Block in New ...more...



Great smog of Delhi

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The Great Smog of Delhi is marked as one of the worst visualization of how bad air quality had become in New Delhi and adjoining areas in the National Capital Territory of India , between 1 to 9 November 2016. Air Pollution at this time peaked on both PM 2.5 and PM 10 levels. This is reported as one of the worst levels of Air Quality in Delhi since 1999. Background Source of pollution This is still being investigated as of writing, but the current majority of analysis sources are hinting towards colder weather, stagnant winds trapping the various sources of smoke. Primary sources of smoke being those from the burning of crop stubbles, lit garbage and road dust. This period also coincided with the Indian festival Diwali , which is celebrated by firing firecrackers. Air quality can be measured by the amount of PM 2.5 and PM 10 particulates suspended in air. During the reported Smog in Delhi. On Nov 7th, 2016 the PM 2.5 levels shot up to 999 , while recommended is 60 micrograms. At the same time PM 10 shot to 9 ...more...



Air quality in Delhi

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The air quality in Delhi , the capital of India, according to a WHO survey of 1600 world cities, is the worst of any major city in the world. Two other cities in India have worse air quality than Delhi: Gwalior in Madhya Pradesh , and Raipur in Chhattisgarh . Air pollution in India is estimated to kill 1.5 million people every year; it is the fifth largest killer in India. India has the world's highest death rate from chronic respiratory diseases and asthma , according to the WHO. In Delhi, poor quality air damages irreversibly the lungs of 2.2 million or 50 percent of all children. In November 2017, in an event known as the Great smog of Delhi , the air pollution spiked far beyond acceptable levels. Levels of PM2.5 and PM 10 particulate matter hit 999 micrograms per cubic meter, while the safe limits for those pollutants are 60 and 100 respectively. Particulate matter levels in Delhi Air quality or ambient (outdoor) air pollution is represented by the annual mean concentration of particulate matter PM (par ...more...



Delhi Junction railway station

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Delhi Junction , also known as Old Delhi Railway Station (station code DLI), is the oldest railway station of Delhi city and a Junction station . It is third busiest railway station in India in terms of frequency of trains after Kanpur Central and Vijayawada Junction . Around 190 trains starts, ends, or passes through the station daily. It was established near Chandni Chowk in 1864 when trains from Howrah , Calcutta started operating up to Delhi. Its present building was constructed by the British Indian government in the style of nearby red-coloured fort and opened in 1903. It has been an important railway station of the country, and preceded the New Delhi Railway Station by about 60 years. Chandni Chowk underground station of the Delhi Metro is near it. History The station started with a broad gauge train from Calcutta in 1864. Metre gauge track from Delhi to Rewari and further to Ajmer was laid in 1873 by Rajputana State Railway and metre gauge trains from this station started in 1876. The present building ...more...



Delhi Technological University

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Delhi Technological University ( DTU ), formerly known as Delhi College of Engineering is an engineering university located in New Delhi, India. It is one of the oldest engineering colleges in India and Delhi's first engineering college. It was established in 1941 as Delhi Polytechnic and was under the control of the Government of India. The college has been under the government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi since 1963 and was affiliated with the University of Delhi from 1952 to 2009. In 2009, the college was given state university status, thus changing its name to Delhi Technological University. Till the year 2009, DCE shared its admission procedure and syllabus for various B.E courses with their other branch known as Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology , formerly DIT, which were prescribed by Faculty of Technology, University of Delhi. It offers courses towards Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech), Master of Technology (M.Tech), Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) and Master of Business Administration (M ...more...



Climate of Delhi

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The climate of Delhi is an overlap between monsoon-influenced humid subtropical ( Köppen climate classification Cwa ) and semi-arid ( Köppen climate classification BSh ), with high variation between summer and winter temperatures and precipitation. Delhi's version of a humid subtropical climate is markedly different from many other humid subtropical cities such as Sao Paulo , New Orleans and Brisbane in that the city features dust storms (something more commonly seen in a desert climate ), has relatively dry short winters and has a prolonged spell of very hot weather, due to its semi-arid climate. Summers start in early April and peak in May, with average temperatures near 32 °C although occasional heat waves can result in highs close to 45 °C (114 °F) on some days and therefore higher apparent temperature . The monsoon starts in late June and lasts until mid-September, with about 797.3 mm (31.5 inches) of rain. The average temperatures are around 29 °C (85 °F), although they can vary from around 25 °C (78 ° ...more...



University of Delhi

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The University of Delhi ( UOD ), informally known as Delhi University ( DU ), is a collegiate public central university , located in New Delhi , India . It was founded in 1922 by an Act of the Central Legislative Assembly . As a collegiate university, its main functions are divided between the academic departments of the university and affiliated colleges. Consisting of three colleges, two faculties, and 750 students at its founding, the University of Delhi has since become India's largest institution of higher learning and among the largest in the world. The university currently consists of 16 faculties and 86 departments distributed across its North and South campuses. It has 77 affiliated colleges and 5 other institutes with an enrollment of over 132,000 regular students and 261,000 non-formal students. The Vice-President of India serves as the University's chancellor . DU is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities , Association of Indian Universities , and Universitas 21 , a global networ ...more...



Alauddin Khalji

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ʿAlāʾ ud-Dīn Khaljī ( r.  1296  –  1316 ) was the second and the most powerful ruler of the Khalji dynasty of Delhi Sultanate in the Indian subcontinent . Alauddin was a nephew and a son-in-law of his predecessor Jalaluddin . When Jalaluddin became the Sultan of Delhi after deposing the Mamluks , Alauddin was given the position of Amir-i-Tuzuk (equivalent to Master of ceremonies ). Alauddin obtained the governorship of Kara in 1291 after suppressing a revolt against Jalaluddin, and the governorship of Awadh in 1296 after a profitable raid on Bhilsa . In 1296, Alauddin raided Devagiri , and used the loot to stage a successful revolt against Jalaluddin. After killing Jalaluddin, he consolidated his power in Delhi, and subjugated Jalaluddin's sons in Multan . Over the next few years, Alauddin successfully defended his kingdom against the Mongol invasions , at Jaran-Manjur (1297-1298), Sivistan (1298), Kili (1299), Delhi (1303), and Amroha (1305). In 1306, his forces achieved a decisive victory against the Mongol ...more...



Old Delhi

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Old Delhi is a walled city of Delhi , India , founded as Shahjahanabad in 1639 by the Mughal emperor at the time, Shah Jahan . It remained the capital of the Mughal Empire until its fall in 1857, when the British Raj took over a paramount power in India. It was once filled with mansions of nobles and members of the royal court, along with elegant mosques and gardens. Today, despite having become extremely crowded and dilapidated, it still serves as the symbolic heart of metropolitan Delhi. History Busy streets near Jama Masjid, Old Delhi. View of Old Delhi from Jama Masjid in June 1973. Jama Masjid built by Shah Jahan , 1656. The site of Shahjahanabad is north of earlier settlements of Delhi. Its southern part overlaps some of the area that was settled by the Tughlaqs in the 14th century when it was the seat of Delhi Sultanate . The sultanates ruled from Delhi between 1206 and 1526, when the last was replaced by the Mughal dynasty . The five dynasties were the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khalji dynasty ( ...more...



Delhi Ganesh

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Delhi Ganesh is an actor born in Tirunelveli , who mostly acts in supporting roles and is perhaps best known for his role in Kamal Hassan comedies and films like Nayagan and Michael Madana Kama Rajan . He has acted in more than 400 films from 1976 to present. He was a member of the 'Delhi' drama troupe called Dakshina Bharata Nataka Sabha (DBNS). Ganesh worked in Indian Airforce from 1964 to 1974 before quitting in favour of films. He was given the prefix "Delhi" by K. Balachander to avoid confusion with other actors like Sivaji Ganesan , Gemini Ganesan and the like. Career He was introduced to Tamil Film Industry by Mr. K. Balachander in the film Pattana Pravesham (1976). His most popular roles have been as a supporting actor or a comedian but he has done villainous roles in films like Apoorva Sagodharargal (as Francis). Ganesh played the hero in the 1981 film Engamma Maharani . His most notable films are Sindhu Bhairavi , Nayagan , Michael Madana Kama Rajan , Aahaa and Thenali . He is also a prominent Tami ...more...



Delhi, California

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Delhi is a census designated place (CDP) in Merced County in the U.S. state of California . Delhi is 18 miles (29 km) west-northwest of Merced , at an elevation of 118 feet (36 m). According to the 2010 census, the population was 10,755 up from 8,022 at the 2000 census. Residents pronounce the name of Delhi, California, as ( DELL -high ), not like Delhi, India . Geography Delhi is located at 37°25′56″N 120°46′43″W  /  37.43222°N 120.77861°W . It lies across the Merced River from Livingston . Hilmar is to the west; Turlock to the north; and Ballico to the east. According to the United States Census Bureau , the CDP has a total area of 3.5 square miles (9.1 km ), all of it land. Government Delhi is the largest unincorporated town of Merced County . The Delhi Municipal Advisory Council advises the Merced County Board of Supervisors concerning any services which are or may be provided within the boundaries of the Delhi School District by the County or other local governmental agencies. It has its own unified ...more...



Delhi-6

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Delhi-6 is a 2009 Indian musical drama film directed by Rakeysh Omprakash Mehra and starring Abhishek Bachchan , Sonam Kapoor , Om Puri , Waheeda Rahman , Rishi Kapoor , Atul Kulkarni , Deepak Dobriyal , Divya Dutta and Aditi Rao Hydari . The story is reportedly based on Mehra's growing up years in Chandni Chowk area of Old Delhi . The number 6 refers to the Postal Index Number (PIN) code of Chandni Chowk area of Old Delhi , a shortened form of 110006. It is Mehra's third film after Aks and Rang De Basanti . The acclaimed score and soundtrack was composed by A. R. Rahman . It released on 20 February 2009 and won the Nargis Dutt Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration at 57th National Film Awards . Plot Roshan ( Abhishek Bachchan ) accompanies his dying grandmother Annapurna ( Waheeda Rahman ) to their ancestral property in Old Delhi. Roshan is initially stunned by the mad rush of neighbours: Ali Baig ( Rishi Kapoor ) the renaissance man, feuding brothers Madangopal ( Om Puri ) and Jaigopal ( Pav ...more...



History of Delhi

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The Indian capital city of Delhi has a long history, and has been an important political centre of India as the capital of several empires. Much of Delhi's ancient history finds no record and this may be regarded as a lost period of its history. Extensive coverage of Delhi's history begins with the onset of the Delhi Sultanate in the 12th century. Since then, Delhi has been the centre of a succession of mighty empires and powerful kingdoms, making Delhi one of the longest serving Capitals and one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world. It is considered to be a city built, destroyed and rebuilt several times, as outsiders who successfully invaded the Indian Subcontinent would ransack the existing capital city in Delhi, and those who came to conquer and stay would be so impressed by the city's strategic location as to make it their capital and rebuild it in their own way. The core of Delhi's tangible heritage is Hindu, Islamic (spanning over seven centuries of Islamic rule over the city) with expansive ...more...



Delhi Durbar

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The Delhi Durbar ( Hindi : दिल्ली दरबार , Urdu : دہلی دربار ‎ ‎), meaning " Court of Delhi ", was an Indian imperial style mass assembly organised by the British at Coronation Park, Delhi , India , to mark the succession of an Emperor or Empress of India . Also known as the Imperial Durbar , it was held three times, in 1877, 1903, and 1911, at the height of the British Empire . The 1911 Durbar was the only one that a sovereign, George V , attended. The term was derived from common Mughal term durbar . Durbar of 1877 The Delhi Durbar of 1877. The Viceroy of India is seated on the dais to the left. Called the "Proclamation Durbar ", the Durbar of 1877, for which the organisation was undertaken by Thomas Henry Thornton , was held beginning on 1 January 1877 to proclaim Queen Victoria as Empress of India by the British. The 1877 Durbar was largely an official event and not a popular occasion with mass participation like later durbars in 1903 and 1911. It was attended by the 1st Earl of Lytton — Viceroy of India , ...more...



Indira Gandhi International Airport

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Indira Gandhi International Airport ( IATA : DEL ,  ICAO : VIDP ) serves as the primary civilian aviation hub for the National Capital Region of Delhi , India . The airport, spread over an area of 5,106 acres (2,066 ha), is situated in Palam , 15 km (9.3 mi) south-west of the New Delhi railway station and 16 km (9.9 mi) from New Delhi city centre. Named after Indira Gandhi , a former Prime Minister of India , it is the busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic since 2009. It is also the busiest airport in the country in terms of cargo traffic overtaking Mumbai during late 2015. In calendar year 2016, it was the 21st busiest airport in the world and 10th busiest airport in Asia by passenger traffic handling over 55 million passengers. The airport handled over 57.7 million passengers in fiscal year 2016-17. It is the busiest airport for Airbus A320 aircraft. With the commencement of operations at Terminal 3 in 2010, it became India's and South Asia's largest aviation hub, with a current capacit ...more...



Delhi Vidyut Board

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The Delhi Vidyut Board was formed by the Government of NCT Delhi in 1997 for the purpose of generation and distribution of power to the entire area of NCT of Delhi except the areas falling within the jurisdiction of NDMC and Delhi Cantonment Board . On July 1, 2002, The Delhi Vidyut Board (DVB) was unbundled into six successor companies: Delhi Power Supply Company Limited (DPCL)- Holding Company; Delhi Transco Limited (DTL) - TRANSCO; Indraprastha Power Generation Company Limited (IPGCL) - GENCO; BSES Rajdhani Power Limited (BRPL) - DISCOM; BSES Yamuna Power Limited (BYPL) - DISCOM; North Delhi Power Limited (NDPL) - DISCOM. History of Electricity in Delhi The position is that as per available records, the first diesel Power Station was established in Delhi in the year 1905 when a private English Company by name M/s. John Fleming was given permission to generate electricity under the provisions of the Indian Electricity Act 1903. The above-mentioned Company was given the responsibility both of generation and ...more...



Delhi Police

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The Delhi Police is the main law and order agency for the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT). It does not have jurisdiction over the adjoining areas of the National Capital Region . The head of the Delhi Police Department is designated as Police Commissioner of New Delhi . In 2015, sanctioned strength of DP was 84,536 (including I.R. Battalions) making it one of the largest metropolitan police forces in the world. About 25 percent of Delhi police strength is earmarked for VVIP security. The 'Public Order', and Police in Delhi, the National Capital Territory, is under Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), Government of India and not under the Government of Delhi. History Delhi Police has its origin in a small security force, established in 1854, under the assistant of British Resident to the Mughal Imperial Courts. Founded in 1861 after the adoption of the Indian Police Act, Delhi Police remained a part of the Punjab Police until India gained independence in 1947. Organisation Delhi police headquarters at ...more...



Lutyens' Delhi

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Lutyens' Delhi is an area in New Delhi , India, named after the British architect Edwin Lutyens (1869–1944), who was responsible for much of the architectural design and building when India was part of the British Empire in the 1920s and 1930s and 1940s. This also includes the [ Bungalow Zone ] (LBZ). The South Block History Before the new imperial capital New Delhi was established in 1911, the Old Delhi Railway Station served the Agra -Delhi railways, the line cut through what is today called Lutyens' Delhi. The line was eventually shifted to make way for the new capital and the New Delhi Railway Station was built near Ajmeri Gate in 1926. Design and construction The North Block, as viewed from South Block; the South Block is identical from North Block Lutyens led a group of architects in laying out the central administrative area of the city, with the charge of retaining one-third of the area as green space. At the heart of the city was the impressive Rashtrapati Bhawan , formerly known as Viceroy's House, ...more...



Chief Minister of Delhi

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The Chief Minister of Delhi is the chief executive of the National Capital Territory of Delhi in north India . According to the Constitution of India , the lieutenant governor is Delhi's de facto head, but de jure executive authority rests with its chief minister . Following elections to the Delhi Legislative Assembly , the lieutenant governor usually invites the party with a majority of seats to form the government . The President of India , on the advice of the lieutenant governor, appoints the chief minister, whose council of ministers are collectively responsible to the assembly. Given that he has the confidence of the assembly, the chief minister's term is for five years and is subject to no term limits . Since 1952 Delhi has had seven chief ministers, starting with the Indian National Congress party's Chaudhary Brahm Prakash . Shortly after his term ended, the office of Chief Minister of Delhi was abolished for 37 years until December 1993, when the Bharatiya Janata Party 's Madan Lal Khurana was sworn ...more...



Jama Masjid, Delhi

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The Masjid-i Jahān-Numā (World-reflecting Mosque), commonly known as the Jama Masjid of Delhi , is one of the largest mosques in India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan between 1644 and 1656 at a cost of 1 million rupees, and was inaugurated by an imam from Bukhara , present-day Uzbekistan . The mosque was completed in 1656 AD with three great gates, four towers and two 40 m high minarets constructed of strips of red sandstone and white marble . The courtyard can accommodate more than 25,000 persons. There are three domes on the terrace which are surrounded by the two minarets. On the floor, a total of 899 black borders are marked for worshippers. The architectural plan of Badshahi Masjid , built by Shah Jahan's son Aurangzeb at Lahore , Pakistan, is similar to the Jama Masjid, Delhi. The mosque has been the site of two attacks, one in 2006 and another in 2010. During the first, two explosions occurred in the mosque, injuring thirteen people. In the second, two Taiwanese students were injured as two ...more...



Government of Delhi

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The Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi is the governing authority of the Indian national capital territory of Delhi and its 11 districts . It consists of an executive , led by the Lieutenant Governor of Delhi , a judiciary and a legislative . The present Legislative Assembly of Delhi is unicameral , consisting of 70 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLA). Overview The nine districts of Delhi . The Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) handles civic administration for the city as part of the Panchayati Raj Act. New Delhi, an urban area in Delhi, is the seat of both the State Government of Delhi and the Government of India . The National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT) has three local municipal corporations namely, Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD), New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) and Delhi Cantonment Board . The Lieutenant Governor of Delhi is appointed by the President of India , as agent of President and not head of state like governor, on the advice of the Central government. The ...more...



2017–18 Indian Super League season

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The 2017–18 Indian Super League season will be the fourth season of the Indian Super League , the football league, since its establishment in 2013. The season will start on 17 November 2017 and the regular season will conclude on 4 March 2018. The finals will occur from the second week of March 2018 with the official dates to be revealed at a later date. Two new sides will join the league as expansion franchises: Bengaluru and Jamshedpur . The two new clubs will be the ninth and tenth teams in the league. This makes this the first edition of the ISL in which their will be more than eight teams participating. As well as expanding two teams, the league will also expand two more months, being played in five months instead of three. ATK are the defending champions from the 2016 season . They defeated the Kerala Blasters in the final on penalties to win the championship. Teams ATK Bengaluru Chennaiyin Goa Jamshedpur Mumbai City Pune City NorthEast United Delhi Dynamos Kerala Blasters Locations of the ISL Teams S ...more...



Yellow Line (Delhi Metro)

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The Yellow Line is one of the lines of the Delhi Metro , a rapid transit system in Delhi , India . It consists of 37 metro stations from Samaypur Badli in Delhi to HUDA City Centre in the neighbouring city of Gurugram . The line with a length of 48.8 kilometers (30.3 mi) is mostly underground and has been laid under one of the most congested parts of Delhi. The 4 kilometers (2.5 mi) underground stretch from Vishwa Vidyalaya – Kashmere Gate , constructed by Kumagai-Skanska-HCC-Itochu Joint Venture (KSHI-JV) is the first section of the underground Delhi Metro line which was inaugurated on 20 December 2004. KSHI-JV is a joint venture between Kumagai Gumi , Skanska , Hindustan Construction Company & Itochu . It is the 2nd longest metro line on the Delhi Metro network. This line covers Outer Delhi, North Delhi, through Central Delhi and South Delhi and finally Gurugram . The Yellow line has interchanges with the Red , Blue and Violet lines of the Delhi Metro, as well as with the Old Delhi and New Delhi railw ...more...



Delhi Gymkhana

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The Delhi Gymkhana Club or Delhi Gymkhana ( Hindi : दिल्ली जिमख़ाना) is a club in New Delhi . History Originally called the 'Imperial Delhi Gymkhana Club', it was founded on July 3, 1913, at Coronation Grounds, Delhi , and its first president was Spencer Harcourt Butler , first governor of the then United Provinces of Agra and Oudh . When new imperial capital of India, New Delhi was built, the club was allotted 27.3 acres of land in 1928 on perpetual lease. The word imperial was dropped when India gained independence in 1947. The club is located in the heart of Lutyens' Delhi on Safdarjung Road , occupying 27.3 acres (110,000 m ) of land as per the site plan made on the drawing board by Sir Edwin Lutyens as part of his grand design for Imperial Celebrations. Lutyens Delhi - the eighth in line - was built in an area littered with stones, tombs, domes, ruined walls and gardens of imperial former capitals - the historic cross roads and battle grounds of India. Controversy On February 2014, a teen was raped insi ...more...



National Capital Region (India)

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The National Capital Region (NCR) is a coordinated planning region centred upon the National Capital Territory of Delhi in India . It encompasses the entire NCT of Delhi and several districts surrounding it from the states of Haryana , Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan . The NCR and the associated National Capital Region Planning Board were created in 1985 to plan the development of the region and to evolve harmonized policies for the control of land-uses and development of infrastructure in the region. Prominent cities of NCR include Delhi , Ghaziabad , Faridabad , Gurgaon , Noida and Muzaffarnagar . The NCR is a rural-urban region, with a population of over 46,069,000 and an urbanization level of 62.6%. As well as the cities and towns the NCR contains ecologically sensitive areas like the Aravalli ridge , forests, wildlife and bird sanctuaries. The Delhi Extended Urban Agglomeration, a part of the NCR, contributed $370 billion or roughly 4% to the Indian economy (measured in terms of GDP PPP) in 2015-16. Hist ...more...



Delhi Half Marathon

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Airtel Delhi Half Marathon (ADHM) is an annual half marathon foot-race held in New Delhi , India . Established in 2005, it is both an elite runner and mass participation event. It is an AIMS -certified course and is listed as a Gold Label Road Race by the IAAF . The 2009 event attracted around 30k runners who competed in one of the four races: The event includes the half marathon, the 7 km Great Delhi Run, a 4.3 km run for senior citizens, and a 3.5 km wheelchair race. Course The course starts in the Nehru Stadium , although this was temporarily moved to the grounds of the Secretariat Building while the stadium was under renovation for the 2010 Commonwealth Games . The race is largely flat and has delivered fast winning times in its short history, with men producing a number of sub-one hour times and women recording times under 1:08:00. Sponsor The race was sponsored Hutchison Essar for its first two races, and the company sponsored the event as Vodafone Essar in 2007 following a takeover. Rival communica ...more...



Municipal Corporation of Delhi

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The Municipal Corporation of Delhi ( MCD ) is a municipal corporation , an autonomous body that governs 8 of the 11 Districts of Delhi , in the state of Delhi , India . It was one of three municipalities in the National Capital Territory of Delhi , the others being New Delhi Municipal Council , and Delhi Cantonment Board. "The MCD was among the largest municipal bodies in the world providing civic services to more than estimated population of 11 million citizens in the capital city. The municipal corporation covers an area of 1,397.3 km² (539.5 mi²). Civic Centre (28 floor)located on Minto Road, New Delhi is the headquarters of Municipal Corporation of Delhi. Within its jurisdiction are some of the most densely populated areas in the world. It has also the unique distinction of providing civic services to rural and urban villages, resettlement colonies, regularised unauthorised colonies, Slum/Squatter Settlements, private 'katras' etc. History Dr Shyam Prasad Mukherjee Civic centre - Headquarters of Municipa ...more...



India Gate

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The India Gate , (originally called the All India War Memorial ), is a war memorial located astride the Rajpath , on the eastern edge of the ‘ceremonial axis’ of New Delhi, India , formerly called Kingsway. India Gate is a memorial to 82,000 soldiers of the Indian Army who died in the period 1914–21 in the First World War , in France, Flanders , Mesopotamia , Persia , East Africa , Gallipoli and elsewhere in the Near and the Far East, and the Third Anglo-Afghan War . 13,300 servicemen's names, including some soldiers and officers from the United Kingdom, are inscribed on the gate. The India Gate, even though a war memorial, evokes the architectural style of the triumphal arch like the Arch of Constantine , outside the Colosseum in Rome , and is often compared to the Arc de Triomphe in Paris , and the Gateway of India in Mumbai. It was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens . In 1971, following the Bangladesh Liberation war , a small simple structure, consisting of a black marble plinth , with a reversed rifle, cappe ...more...



Delhi gharana

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The Delhi Gharana is the oldest of the tabla gharanas , and is also the first to establish improvisation rules. It was founded in North-East India, and is one of the most common gharanas (or Baj) used today. The Purbi Gharana also originates from the eastern areas of Delhi . History Delhi Gharana was founded in the early 18th century most probably by Mia Siddhar Khan Dhadi, who is sometimes also referred to as the inventor of the tabla. Siddhar Khan is the earliest available name associated with tabla that is found in historical records. Siddhar Khan, having been a pakhawaj player (hand drums player), was responsible for incorporating pakhawaj bols (syllables) to the style. However, the tabla , not the pakhawaj , is now the main instrument of the Delhi Gharana. Siddhar Khan and his descendants contributed greatly to the development of the Tabla language and compositional structures of the 'Peshkars' and the 'Kayadas'. Playing style The Delhi tabla style is famous for its vast and rich repertoire of Kayadas . ...more...



List of lieutenant governors of Delhi

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The Lieutenant Governor of Delhi is the constitutional head of the National Capital Territory of Delhi . The post was first established in September 1966, when The Delhi Administration Act, 1966 came into effect. Thus the former Delhi Legislative Assembly was replaced by the Delhi Metropolitan Council with 56 elected and 5 nominated members with the Lt. Governor of Delhi as its head. The Council however had no legislative powers, only an advisory role in the governance of Delhi. This set up functioned till 1990, when Assembly was reinstated, the Lt. Governor retained its role. Serving since 31 December 2016, the current Lt. Governor is Anil Baijal , a former Union Home Secretary. His official residence is in Raj Niwas, Delhi . Chief Commissioners They were ICS(Imperial Civil Service i.e. erstwhile IAS) officers executive head of the union territories. # Name Took office Left office 1 Shankar Prasada 1948 1954 2 Anand Dattahaya Pandit 1954 1959 3 Bhagwan Sahay 1959 1963 4 Venkata Vishwanathan 1964 7 September ...more...



Delhi, Louisiana

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Downtown Delhi looking south along La 17 Abandoned theater in downtown Delhi Commercial Capital Bank is located in downtown Delhi across the street from the First Baptist Church. First Baptist Church at 306 Broadway Street in downtown Delhi; pastor Mickey Bounds (2013) Delhi United Methodist Church is located across the street from Delhi High School. Delhi High School, with mascot "The Bears", is operated by the Richland Parish School Board . Trees in the reservoir north of Poverty Point Reservoir State Park near Delhi Delhi , originally called Deerfield, is a town in Richland Parish , Louisiana , in the United States . As of the 2010 census , the town population was 2,969. History During the American Civil War , Delhi and Monroe , the seat of Ouachita Parish , were overcrowded with unwelcome refugees from rural areas to the east when the forces of General U.S. Grant moved into northeastern Louisiana. Grant spent the winter of 1862-1863 at Winter Quarters south of Newellton in Tensas Parish in preparation for ...more...



List of Delhi Metro stations

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This is a list of all stations of the Delhi Metro , a rapid transit system serving Delhi and its satellite cities in the National Capital Region of India . As of May 2017, there are a total of 164 metro stations (including the Airport Express stations ) with 11 stations being used as interchange stations and henceforth appearing on multiple lines. Delhi Metro is the third underground transit system in India, after Kolkata Metro and the Chennai MRTS . The first section of the Delhi Metro opened on 25 December 2002 with the Red Line , and has since been expanded to around 218 kilometres (135 mi) of route length, as of 28 May 2017. The network has six operational lines and is built and operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC) solely and wholly. Each line of the Delhi Metro is identified by a specific colour . The system uses rolling stocks of both broad gauge and standard gauge trains, and has a combination of elevated, underground and at-grade lines. The Metro is open from about 05:00 to 00 ...more...



Delhi Legislative Assembly

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The Legislative Assembly of Delhi , also known as Delhi Vidhan Sabha , is a unicameral law making body of the National Capital Territory of Delhi , one of the 7 union territories in India. It is situated at Delhi , the state capital of Delhi, with 70 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLA). The seat of assembly is the Old Secretariat building, which is also the seat of the seat of the Delhi Government . History The Delhi Legislative Assembly was first constituted on 7 March 1952 under the Government of Part C States Act, 1951; it was inaugurated by Home Minister K. N. Katju . The Assembly had 48 members, and a Council of Ministers in an advisory role to the Chief Commissioner of Delhi, though it also had powers to make laws. The first Council of Ministers was led by Chaudhary Brahm Prakash , who became the first Chief Minister of Delhi . However, the States Reorganisation Commission , set up in 1953, led to the Constitutional amendment through States Reorganisation Act, 1956 , which came into effect on 1 No ...more...



Iron pillar of Delhi

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The iron pillar of Delhi is a 7 m (23 ft) kirti stambha (column of fame or victory column ), originally erected and dedicated as dhvaja (banner) to Hindu deity lord Vishnu in 3rd to 4th century CE by king Chandra, currently standing in the Qutb complex at Mehrauli in Delhi , India. It is notable for the rust-resistant composition of the metals used in its construction. The pillar has attracted the attention of archaeologists and materials scientists because of its high resistance to corrosion and has been called a "testimony to the high level of skill achieved by the ancient Indian iron smiths in the extraction and processing of iron." The corrosion resistance results from an even layer of crystalline iron hydrogen phosphate hydrate forming on the high- phosphorus -content iron, which serves to protect it from the effects of the Delhi climate. The pillar weighs over 6,000 kg (13,000 lb) and is thought to have originally been erected in what is now Udayagiri by one of the Gupta monarchs in approximately 402 ...more...



Kashmiri Gate, Delhi

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Kashmere Gate, Delhi , c1858 Kashmere Gate, Delhi , c1865 The Kashmere Gate or Kashmiri Gate is a gate located in Delhi , it is the northern gate to the historic walled city of Delhi . Built by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan , the gate is so named because it used to start a road that led to Kashmir . Today it is also the name of the surrounding locality in North Delhi , in the Old Delhi area, and an important road junction as the Red Fort , ISBT and Delhi Junction railway station lie in its vicinity. History Plaque at Kashmiri Gate, commemorating the September 14, 1857 attack on it by British Army during Indian Rebellion of 1857 Kashmiri Gate, in 2008 It was the area around the North gate of the walled city of the Delhi , leading to the Laal Quila , the Red Fort of Delhi, the gate was facing towards Kashmir , so it was named as Kashmiri Gate, spelled Kashmere Gate under British Raj . The monument can still be seen. The southern gate to the walled city, is called Delhi Gate . When the British first started sett ...more...



Magenta Line (Delhi Metro)

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The Magenta Line ( Hindi : मैजेंटा लाइन ) is one of the under-construction lines of the Delhi Metro , a rapid transit system in Delhi , India . It consists of 25 metro stations from Janakpuri West to Botanical Garden . The Magenta Line will provide direct connectivity to Terminal 1D of Indira Gandhi International Airport . The upcoming Hauz Khas station on this line and the current Yellow Line will be the deepest Metro station at a depth of 29 metres, surpassing the record set by Chawri Bazaar station currently on the Yellow Line, at a depth of 22 metres. For the first time in India, the construction work of two parallel tunnels was completed together at Dabri Mor station. The Janakpuri West, Dabri Mor & Dashrath Puri stations on Janakpuri West-Botanical Garden line have been executed by an HCC-Samsung joint venture. The Magenta line has planned interchanges with the Yellow , Blue , and the Violet lines of the Delhi Metro network. Progress of civil works up to October 2016 was 95.54%. The line was ini ...more...



Monkey-man of Delhi

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Police artist's impression of the Monkey Man of New Delhi The Monkey Man of New Delhi is a monster which was reported roaming Delhi in mid-2001. History In May 2001, reports began to circulate in the Indian capital New Delhi of a strange monkey -like creature that was appearing at night and attacking people. Eyewitness accounts were often inconsistent, but tended to describe the creature as about four feet (120 cm) tall, covered in thick black hair, with a metal helmet, metal claws, glowing red eyes and three buttons on its chest; others, however, described the Monkey-man as having a more vulpine snout, and being up to eight feet tall, and muscular; it would leap from building to building like a parkour enthusiast. Still others have described it as a bandaged figure or as a helmeted thing. Theories on the nature of the Monkey Man ranged from an Avatar of the Hindu god Hanuman , to an Indian version of Bigfoot . Many people reported being scratched, and two (by some reports, three) people even died when the ...more...



St. Thomas' School (New Delhi)

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St Thomas' School, New Delhi (or STS ) is located at Karol Bagh and Mandir Marg , India . It is an institution run by the Diocese of Delhi , Church of North India , dedicated to the education of girls. STS is recognized by the Department of Education, Delhi and is permanently affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education and prepares students foar the All India Senior School Certificate Examination. Mrs. Anuradha Amos is the principal and Mrs. Cynthia Manoharan is the manager and former principal of the school. The motto of the school is Light To Lighten. History St.Thomas' School was founded in 1930 by an English missionary, Miss Helen Jerwood, at Mandir Marg and Karol Bagh. The aim of Jerwood was to establish an institution for the girl child. Campus The school is divided into two, the junior school is in Karol Bagh and the senior school is in Mandir Marg . Junior school has classes till Grade V and Grades VI to XII are in the senior building. Each school has a library. The senior library has 18000 ...more...



Central Delhi

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Central Delhi is an administrative district of the National Capital Territory of Delhi in India . It is bounded by the Yamuna River on the east, and by the districts of North Delhi to the north, West Delhi and South West Delhi to the west, New Delhi to the south, and East Delhi to the east across the Yamuna.. Central Delhi has a population of 644,005 (2001 census), and an area of 25 square kilometres (9.7 sq mi), with a population density of 25,759 persons per km². Central Delhi houses the central business district and highrises. It includes Shahjahanabad (Old Delhi) which served as capital of the Mughal Empire , and is home to the monuments like the Delhi Fort and the Jama Masjid , Delhi's principal mosque. Administratively, the district is divided into two subdivisions, Darya Ganj , & Pahar Ganj . Demographics According to the 2011 census Central Delhi has a population of 578,671, roughly equal to the nation of Solomon Islands or the US state of Wyoming . This gives it a ranking of 531st in India (ou ...more...




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