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Delhi

Delhi (, Hindustani pronunciation:  Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi or NCT, is a city and a union territory of India.[13] [14] It is bordered by Haryana on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east. The NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres (573 sq mi). According to 2011 census, Delhi's city population was about 11 million,[6] the second highest in India after Mumbai, while the whole NCT population was about 16.8 million, making it the world's 3rd largest city proper by population.[7] Delhi's urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundary to include an estimated population of over 26 million people making it the world's second largest urban area.[8] As of 2016 recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the top or second most productive metro area of India.[10] [11] [15] [12] Delhi is the second wealthiest city after Mumbai in India, with a total wealth of $450 billion and home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires.[16]

Delhi has been continuously inhabited since the 6th century BC.[17] Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various kingdoms and empires. It has been captured, ransacked and rebuilt several times, particularly during the medieval period, and modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region. A union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more closely resembles that of a state of India, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the federal government of India and the local government of Delhi, and is the capital of the NCT of Delhi. Delhi hosted the first and ninth Asian Games in 1951 and 1982 respectively, 1983 NAM Summit, 2010 Men's Hockey World Cup, 2010 Commonwealth Games, 2012 BRICS Summit and was one of the major host cities of the 2011 Cricket World Cup.

Delhi is also the centre of the National Capital Region (NCR), which is a unique 'interstate regional planning' area created by the National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985.[18] [19]

Toponymy

There are a number of myths and legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi. One of them is derived from Dhillu or Dilu, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BC and named it after himself.[20] [21] [22] Another legend holds that the name of the city is based on the Hindi/Prakrit word dhili (loose) and that it was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the Iron Pillar of Delhi had a weak foundation and had to be moved.[22] The coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal.[23] According to the Bhavishya Purana, King Prithiviraja of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom. He ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and later named the fort dehali.[24] Some historians believe that the name is derived from Dilli, a corruption of the Hindustani words dehleez or dehali—both terms meaning 'threshold' or 'gateway'—and symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain.[25] [26] Another theory suggests that the city's original name was Dhillika.[27]

The people of Delhi are referred to as Delhiites or Dilliwalas.[28] The city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages. Examples include:

  • Abhi Dilli door hai or its Persian version, Hanouz Dehli dour ast, literally meaning Delhi is still far away, which is generically said about a task or journey still far from completion.[29] [30]
  • Dilli dilwalon ka shehr or Dilli Dilwalon ki meaning Delhi belongs to the large-hearted/daring.[31]
  • Aas-paas barse, Dilli pani tarse, literally meaning it pours all around, while Delhi lies parched. An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it idiomatically refers to situations of deprivation when one is surrounded by plenty.[30]
History
Ashoka's Pillar edict on the ridge near Hindu Rao Hospital, New Delhi

The area around Delhi was probably inhabited before the second millennium BC and there is evidence of continuous inhabitation since at least the 6th century BC.[17] The city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata.[20] According to Mahabharata, this land was initially a huge mass of forests called 'Khandavaprastha' which was burnt down to build the city of Indraprastha. The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period (c. 300 BC); in 1966, an inscription of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka (273–235 BC) was discovered near Srinivaspuri. Remains of eight major cities have been discovered in Delhi. The first five cities were in the southern part of present-day Delhi. King Anang Pal of the Tomara dynasty founded the city of Lal Kot in AD 736. Prithviraj Chauhan conquered Lal Kot in 1178 and renamed it Qila Rai Pithora.

The iron pillar of Delhi, is said to have been fashioned at the time of Chandragupta Vikramaditya (375–413) of the Gupta Empire.[32] [33]

The king Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori, a Tajik invader from Afghanistan, who made a concerted effort to conquer northern India.[20] By 1200, native Hindu resistance had begun to crumble, the dominance of foreign Turkic Muslim dynasties in north India was to last for the next five centuries. The slave general of Ghori, Qutb-ud-din Aibak was given the responsibility of governing the conquered territories of India and then Ghori returned to his capital, Ghor. He died in 1206 AD. He had no heirs and so his generals declared themselves independent in different parts of his empire. Qutb-ud-din assumed control of Ghori's Indian possessions. He laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mamluk Dynasty. he began construction of the Qutb Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam (Might of Islam) mosque, the earliest extant mosque in India. Qutb-ud-din faced widespread Hindu rebellions because he broke several ancient temples to acquire wealth and material to build mosques and other monuments. It was his successor, Iltutmish (1211–36), who consolidated the Turkic conquest of northern India.[20] [34] Razia Sultan, daughter of Iltutmish, succeeded him as the Sultan of Delhi. She is the first and only woman to rule over Delhi.

A view of Qutab minor
At 72.5 m (238 ft), A UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Qutub Minar is the world's tallest free-standing brick minaret.[35]

For the next three hundred years, Delhi was ruled by a succession of Turkic and an Afghan, Lodhi dynasty. They built several forts and townships that are part of the seven cities of Delhi.[36] Delhi was a major centre of Sufism during this period.[37] The Mamluk Sultanate (Delhi) was overthrown in 1290 by Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji (1290–1320). Under the second Khilji ruler, Ala-ud-din Khilji, the Delhi sultanate extended its control south of the Narmada River in the Deccan. The Delhi sultanate reached its greatest extent during the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325–1351). In an attempt to bring the whole of the Deccan under control, he moved his capital to Daulatabad, Maharashtra in central India. However, by moving away from Delhi he lost control of the north and was forced to return to Delhi to restore order. The southern provinces then broke away. In the years following the reign of Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351–1388), the Delhi sultanate rapidly began to lose its hold over its northern provinces. Delhi was captured and sacked by Timur Lenk in 1398,[38] who massacred 100,000 captives.[39] Delhi's decline continued under the Sayyid dynasty (1414–1451), until the sultanate was reduced to Delhi and its hinterland. Under the Afghan Lodhi dynasty (1451–1526), the Delhi sultanate recovered control of the Punjab and the Gangetic plain to once again achieve domination over Northern India. However, the recovery was short-lived and the sultanate was destroyed in 1526 by Babur, founder of the Mughal dynasty.

Babur, was a descendant of Genghis Khan and Timur, from the Fergana Valley in modern-day Uzbekistan. In 1526, he invaded India, defeated the last Lodhi sultan in the First Battle of Panipat and founded the Mughal Empire that ruled from Delhi and Agra.[20] The Mughal dynasty ruled Delhi for more than three centuries, with a sixteen-year hiatus during the reigns of Sher Shah Suri and Hemu from 1540 to 1556.[40] In 1553, the Hindu king, Hemu acceded to the throne of Delhi by defeating forces of Mughal Emperor Humayun at Agra and Delhi. However, the Mughals re-established their rule after Akbar's army defeated Hemu during the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556.[41] [42] [43] Shah Jahan built the seventh city of Delhi that bears his name Shahjahanabad, which served as the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1638 and is today known as the Old City or Old Delhi.[44]

Red Fort with the Indian Flag at the centre
A UNESCO World Heritage Site, Red Fort is the location from which the Prime Minister of India addresses the nation on Independence Day

After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the Mughal Empire's influence declined rapidly as the Hindu Maratha Empire from Deccan Plateau rose to prominence.[45] In 1737, Maratha forces sacked Delhi following their victory against the Mughals in the First Battle of Delhi. In 1739, the Mughal Empire lost the huge Battle of Karnal in less than three hours against the numerically outnumbered but militarily superior Persian army led by Nader Shah of Persia. After his invasion, he completely sacked and looted Delhi, carrying away immense wealth including the Peacock Throne, the Daria-i-Noor, and Koh-i-Noor. The Mughals, severely further weakened, could never overcome this crushing defeat and humiliation which also left the way open for more invaders to come, including eventually the British.[46] [47] [48] Nader eventually agreed to leave the city and India after forcing the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah I to beg him for mercy and granting him the keys of the city and the royal treasury.[49] A treaty signed in 1752 made Marathas the protectors of the Mughal throne in Delhi.[50]

Humayun's tomb (reddish coloured against the sky
A UNESCO World Heritage Site, built in 1560, Humayun's Tomb is the first example of Mughal tomb complexes.[51]

In 1757, the Afghan ruler, Ahmad Shah Durrani, sacked Delhi. He returned to Afghanistan leaving a Mughal puppet ruler in nominal control. The Marathas again occupied Delhi in 1758, and were in control until their defeat in 1761 at the third battle of Panipat when the city was captured again by Ahmad Shah.[52] However, in 1771, the Marathas established a protectorate over Delhi when the Maratha ruler, Mahadji Shinde, recaptured Delhi and the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II was installed as a puppet ruler in 1772.[53] In 1783, Sikhs under Baghel Singh captured Delhi and Red Fort but due to the treaty signed, Sikhs withdrew from Red Fort and agreed to restore Shah Alam II as the emperor. In 1803, during the Second Anglo-Maratha War, the forces of British East India Company defeated the Maratha forces in the Battle of Delhi.[54]

During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, Delhi fell to the forces of East India Company after a bloody fight known as the Siege of Delhi. The city came under the direct control of the British Government in 1858. It was made a district province of the Punjab.[20] In 1911, it was announced that the capital of British held territories in India was to be transferred from Calcutta to Delhi.[55] The name "New Delhi" was given in 1927, and the new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931. New Delhi, also known as Lutyens' Delhi,[56] was officially declared as the capital of the Union of India after the country gained independence on 15 August 1947.[57] During the partition of India, thousands of Hindu and Sikh refugees, mainly from West Punjab fled to Delhi, while many Muslim residents of the city migrated to Pakistan. Migration to Delhi from the rest of India continues (as of 2013), contributing more to the rise of Delhi's population than the birth rate, which is declining.[58]

Aerial view of Delhi, March 2016

The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 and the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 created the Union Territory of Delhi from the its predecessor the Chief Commissioner's Province of Delhi.[1] [2] The Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991 declared the Union Territory of Delhi to be formally known as the National Capital Territory of Delhi.[3] The Act gave Delhi its own legislative assembly along Civil lines, though with limited powers.[3]

In December 2001, the Parliament of India building in New Delhi was attacked by armed militants, killing six security personnel.[59] India suspected Pakistan-based militant groups were behind the attack, which caused a major diplomatic crisis between the two countries.[60] There were further terrorist attacks in Delhi in October 2005 and September 2008, resulting in a total of 103 deaths.[61]

Ecology

Delhi is located at 28°37′N 77°14′E / 28.61°N 77.23°E, and lies in Northern India. It borders the Indian states of Haryana on the north, west and south and Uttar Pradesh (UP) to the east. Two prominent features of the geography of Delhi are the Yamuna flood plains and the Delhi ridge. The Yamuna river was the historical boundary between Punjab and UP, and its flood plains provide fertile alluvial soil suitable for agriculture but are prone to recurrent floods. The Yamuna, a sacred river in Hinduism, is the only major river flowing through Delhi. The Hindon River separates Ghaziabad from the eastern part of Delhi. The Delhi ridge originates from the Aravalli Range in the south and encircles the west, north-east and north-west parts of the city. It reaches a height of 318 m (1,043 ft) and is a dominant feature of the region.[66]

The National Capital Territory of Delhi covers an area of 1,484 km2 (573 sq mi), of which 783 km2 (302 sq mi) is designated rural, and 700 km2 (270 sq mi) urban therefore making it the largest city in terms of area in the country. It has a length of 51.9 km (32 mi) and a width of 48.48 km (30 mi).

Delhi is included in India's seismic zone-IV, indicating its vulnerability to major earthquakes.[67]

Climate

Delhi features an atypical version of the humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) bordering a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh). The warm season lasts from 21 March to 15 June with an average daily high temperature above 39 °C (102 °F). The hottest day of the year is 22 May, with an average high of 46 °C (115 °F) and low of 30 °C (86 °F).[68] The cold season lasts from 26 November to 9 February with an average daily high temperature below 20 °C (68 °F). The coldest day of the year is 4 January, with an average low of 2 °C (36 °F) and high of 14 °C (57 °F).[68] In early March, the wind direction changes from north-westerly to south-westerly. From April to October the weather is hot. The monsoon arrives at the end of June, along with an increase in humidity.[69] The brief, mild winter starts in late November, peaks in January and heavy fog often occurs.[70]

Temperatures in Delhi usually range from 2 to 47 °C (35.6 to 116.6 °F), with the lowest and highest temperatures ever recorded being −2.2 and 48.4 °C (28.0 and 119.1 °F) respectively.[71] The annual mean temperature is 25 °C (77 °F); monthly mean temperatures range from 13 to 32 °C (55 to 90 °F). The highest temperature recorded in July was 45 °C (113 °F) in 1931.[72] [73] The average annual rainfall is approximately 886 mm (34.9 in), most of which falls during the monsoon in July and August.[20] The average date of the advent of monsoon winds in Delhi is 29 June.[74]

Climate data for Delhi (Safdarjung) 1971–1990
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 30.0 (86) 34.1 (93.4) 40.6 (105.1) 45.6 (114.1) 47.2 (117) 46.7 (116.1) 45.0 (113) 42.0 (107.6) 40.6 (105.1) 39.4 (102.9) 36.1 (97) 29.3 (84.7) 47.2 (117)
Average high °C (°F) 21.0 (69.8) 23.5 (74.3) 29.2 (84.6) 36.0 (96.8) 39.2 (102.6) 38.8 (101.8) 34.7 (94.5) 33.6 (92.5) 34.2 (93.6) 33.0 (91.4) 28.3 (82.9) 22.9 (73.2) 31.2 (88.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 14.3 (57.7) 16.8 (62.2) 22.3 (72.1) 28.8 (83.8) 32.5 (90.5) 33.4 (92.1) 30.8 (87.4) 30.0 (86) 29.5 (85.1) 26.3 (79.3) 20.8 (69.4) 15.7 (60.3) 25.1 (77.2)
Average low °C (°F) 7.6 (45.7) 10.1 (50.2) 15.3 (59.5) 21.6 (70.9) 25.9 (78.6) 27.8 (82) 26.8 (80.2) 26.3 (79.3) 24.7 (76.5) 19.6 (67.3) 13.2 (55.8) 8.5 (47.3) 19.0 (66.2)
Record low °C (°F) −0.6 (30.9) 1.6 (34.9) 4.4 (39.9) 10.7 (51.3) 15.2 (59.4) 18.9 (66) 20.3 (68.5) 20.7 (69.3) 17.3 (63.1) 9.4 (48.9) 3.9 (39) 1.1 (34) −0.6 (30.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 19 (0.75) 20 (0.79) 15 (0.59) 21 (0.83) 25 (0.98) 70 (2.76) 237 (9.33) 235 (9.25) 113 (4.45) 17 (0.67) 9 (0.35) 9 (0.35) 790 (31.1)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 1.7 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.8 5.5 13.0 12.1 5.7 1.7 0.6 1.6 51.7
Average relative humidity (%) 63 55 47 34 33 46 70 73 62 52 55 62 54
Mean monthly sunshine hours 214.6 216.1 239.1 261.0 263.1 196.5 165.9 177.0 219.0 269.3 247.2 215.8 2,684.6
Source #1: NOAA[75]
Source #2: Indian Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[76]

Air pollution
Urban sustainability analysis of the greater urban area of the city using the 'Circles of Sustainability' method of the UN Global Compact Cities Programme

According to WHO Delhi was the most polluted[77] city in the world in 2014. In 2016 WHO downgraded Delhi to eleventh-worst in the urban air quality database.[78] According to one estimate, air pollution causes the death of about 10,500 people in Delhi every year.[79] [80] [81] During 2013–14, peak levels of fine particulate matter (PM) in Delhi increased by about 44%, primarily due to high vehicular and industrial emissions, construction work and crop burning in adjoining states.[79] [82] [83] [84] Delhi has the highest level of the airborne particulate matter, PM2.5 considered most harmful to health, with 153 micrograms.[85] Rising air pollution level has significantly increased lung-related ailments (especially asthma and lung cancer) among Delhi's children and women.[86] [87] The dense smog in Delhi during winter season results in major air and rail traffic disruptions every year.[88] According to Indian meteorologists, the average maximum temperature in Delhi during winters has declined notably since 1998 due to rising air pollution.[89]

Dense smog blankets Connaught Place, Delhi.

Environmentalists have criticised the Delhi government for not doing enough to curb air pollution and to inform people about air quality issues.[80] Most of Delhi's residents are unaware of alarming levels of air pollution in the city and the health risks associated with it;[83] [84] however, as of 2015, awareness, particularly among the foreign diplomatic community and high-income Indians, was noticeably increasing.[90] Since the mid-1990s, Delhi has undertaken some measures to curb air pollution – Delhi has the third highest quantity of trees among Indian cities[91] and the Delhi Transport Corporation operates the world's largest fleet of environmentally friendly compressed natural gas (CNG) buses.[92] In 1996, the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) started a public interest litigation in the Supreme Court of India that ordered the conversion of Delhi's fleet of buses and taxis to run on compressed natural gas (CNG) and banned the use of leaded petrol in 1998. In 2003, Delhi won the United States Department of Energy's first 'Clean Cities International Partner of the Year' award for its "bold efforts to curb air pollution and support alternative fuel initiatives".[92] The Delhi Metro has also been credited for significantly reducing air pollutants in the city.[93]

However, according to several authors, most of these gains have been lost, especially due to stubble burning, a rise in the market share of diesel cars and a considerable decline in bus ridership.[94] [95] According to CSE and System of Air Quality Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR), burning of agricultural waste in nearby Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh regions results in severe intensification of smog over Delhi.[96] [97] The state government of Uttar Pradesh is considering imposing a ban on crop burning to reduce pollution in Delhi NCR and an environmental panel has appealed to India's Supreme Court to impose a 30% cess on diesel cars.[98] [99]

The Circles of Sustainability assessment of Delhi gives a marginally more favourable impression of the ecological sustainability of the city only because it is based on a more comprehensive series of measures than only air pollution. Part of the reason that the city remains assessed at basic sustainability is because of the low resource-use and carbon emissions of its poorer neighbourhoods.[100]

Civic administration
Map showing the districts of Delhi

As of July 2007, the National Capital Territory of Delhi comprises nine districts, 27 tehsils, 59 census towns, 300 villages,[101] and three statutory towns, the Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) – 1,397.3 km2 or 540 sq mi, the New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) – 42.7 km2 or 16 sq mi and the Delhi Cantonment Board (DCB) – 43 km2 or 17 sq mi).[102] [103]

Since the trifurcation of the DMC at the start of 2012, Delhi has been run by five local municipal corporations: the North Delhi, South Delhi and East Delhi Municipal Corporations, the New Delhi Municipal Council and Delhi Cantonment Board.[104] In July of that year, shortly after the MCD trifurcation, the Delhi Government increased the number of districts in Delhi from nine to eleven.[105]

Delhi (civic administration) was ranked 5th out of 21 Cities for best governance & administrative practices in India in 2014. It scored 3.6 on 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.[106]

Delhi houses the Supreme Court of India and the regional Delhi High Court along with the Small Causes Court for civil cases; the Magistrate Court and the Sessions Court for criminal cases has jurisdiction over Delhi. The city is administratively divided into eleven police-zones which are subdivided into 95 local police stations.[107]

Government and politics
The Supreme Court of India with Green coloured lawn and the building which shows its entrance to the court
Supreme Court is the apex court in the country.

The National Capital Territory of Delhi has its own Legislative Assembly, Lieutenant Governor, council of ministers and Chief Minister. Members of the legislative assembly are directly elected from territorial constituencies in the NCT. The legislative assembly was abolished in 1956, after which direct federal control was implemented until it was re-established in 1993. The Municipal co-operation handles civic. administration for the city as part of the Panchayati Raj Act. The Government of India and the Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi jointly administer New Delhi, where both bodies are located. The Parliament of India, the Rashtrapati Bhavan (Presidential Palace), Cabinet Secretariat and the Supreme Court of India are located in the municipal district of New Delhi. There are 70 assembly constituencies and seven Lok Sabha (Indian parliament's lower house) constituencies in Delhi.[108] [109] The Indian National Congress (Congress) formed all the governments in Delhi until the 1990s, when the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), led by Madan Lal Khurana, came to power.[110] In 1998, the Congress returned to power under the leadership of Sheila Dikshit, who was subsequently re-elected for 3 consecutive terms. But in 2013, the Congress was ousted from power by the newly formed Aam Aadmi Party (AAP) led by Arvind Kejriwal forming the government with outside support from the Congress.[111] However, that government was short-lived, collapsing only after 49 days.[112] Delhi was then under President's rule till February 2015.[113] On 10 February 2015, the Aam Aadmi Party returned to power after a landslide victory, winning 67 out of the 70 seats in the Delhi Legislative Assembly.[114]

Economy

Delhi is the largest commercial centre in northern India. As of 2016 recent estimates of the economy of the Delhi urban area have ranged from $167 to $370 billion (PPP metro GDP) ranking it either the most or second-most productive metro area of India.[10] [11] [15] [12] The nominal GSDP of the NCT of Delhi for 2016-17 was estimated at 6,224 billion (US$97 billion), 13% higher than in 2015–16.[115]

As per the Economic survey of Delhi (2005–2006), the tertiary sector contributes 70.95% of Delhi's gross SDP followed by secondary and primary sectors with 25.20% and 3.85% contributions respectively.[116] Delhi's workforce constitutes 32.82% of the population, and increased by 52.52% between 1991 and 2001.[117] Delhi's unemployment rate decreased from 12.57% in 1999–2000 to 4.63% in 2003.[117] In December 2004, 636,000 people were registered with various employment exchange programmes in Delhi.[117] In 2001 the total workforce in national and state governments and the quasi-government sector was 620,000, and the private sector employed 219,000.[117] Key service industries are information technology, telecommunications, hotels, banking, media and tourism.[118] Construction, power, health and community services and real estate are also important to the city's economy. Delhi has one of India's largest and fastest growing retail industries.[119] Manufacturing also grew considerably as consumer goods companies established manufacturing units and headquarters in the city. Delhi's large consumer market and the availability of skilled labour has also attracted foreign investment. In 2001, the manufacturing sector employed 1,440,000 workers and the city had 129,000 industrial units.[120]

Utility services

Delhi's municipal water supply is managed by the Delhi Jal Board (DJB). As of June 2005, it supplied 650 million gallons per day (MGD), whereas the estimated consumption requirement is 963 MGD.[121] The shortfall is met by private and public tube wells and hand pumps. At 240 MGD, the Bhakra storage is DJB's largest water source, followed by the Yamuna and Ganges rivers. Delhi's groundwater level is falling and its population density is increasing, so residents often encounter acute water shortage.[121] Research on Delhi suggests that up to half of the city's water use is unofficial groundwater.[122] In Delhi, daily domestic solid waste production is 8000 tonnes which is dumped at three landfill locations by MCD.[123] The daily domestic waste water production is 470 MGD and industrial waste water is 70 MGD.[124] A large portion of the sewage flows untreated into the Yamuna river.[124]

The city's electricity consumption is about 1,265 kWh per capita but the actual demand is higher.[125] In Delhi power distribution is managed by Tata Power Distribution and BSES Yamuna & Rajdhani since 2002. The Delhi Fire Service runs 43 fire stations that attend about 15,000 fire and rescue calls per year.[126] The state-owned Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) and private enterprises such as Vodafone, Airtel, Idea Cellular, Reliance Infocomm, Aircel, Reliance Jio and Tata Docomo provide telephone and cell phone services to the city. Cellular coverage is available in GSM, CDMA, 3G and 4G.

Transport
Shown here is the check-in counter at Terminal 2 of the airport.
Indira Gandhi International Airport's new terminal in Delhi. It is the busiest airport in South Asia.[127] Shown here is the immigration counter at Terminal 3 of the airport.
The entrance of the Anand Vihar station
Anand Vihar Terminal railway station, opened in 2009
The Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway
The Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway, connecting Delhi to the Indira Gandhi International Airport
A Delhi underground metro station
A Delhi underground metro station
Air

Indira Gandhi International Airport, situated to the southwest of Delhi, is the main gateway for the city's domestic and international civilian air traffic. In 2015–16, the airport handled more than 48 million passengers,[129] [130] making it the busiest airport in India and South Asia. Terminal 3, which cost 96.8 billion (US$1.5 billion) to construct between 2007 and 2010, handles an additional 37 million passengers annually.[131]

The Delhi Flying Club, established in 1928 with two de Havilland Moth aircraft named Delhi and Roshanara, was based at Safdarjung Airport which started operations in 1929, when it was the Delhi's only airport and the second in India.[132] The airport functioned until 2001, however in January 2002 the government closed the airport for flying activities because of security concerns following the New York attacks in September 2001. Since then, the club only carries out aircraft maintenance courses[132] and is used for helicopter rides to Indira Gandhi International Airport for VIP including the president and the prime minister.[133]

A second airport open for commercial flights has been suggested either by expansion of Meerut Airport or construction of a new airport in Greater Noida.[134]

Road

Delhi has the highest road density of 2103 km/100 km2 in India.[135]

Buses are the most popular means of road transport catering to about 60% of Delhi's total demand.[136] Delhi has one of India's largest bus transport systems. Buses are operated by the state-owned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC), which owns the largest fleet of compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled buses in the world.[137] Personal vehicles especially cars also form a major chunk of vehicles plying on Delhi roads. Delhi has the highest number of registered cars compared to any other metropolitan city in India. Taxis, auto rickshaws, and cycle rickshaws also ply on Delhi roads in large numbers.

Important Roads in Delhi

Some roads and expressways serve as important pillars of Delhi's road infrastructure:

  • The Inner Ring Road is one of the most important "state highways" in Delhi. It is a 51 km long circular road which connects important areas in Delhi. Owing to more than 2 dozen grade-separators/flyovers, the road is almost signal-free.
  • The Outer Ring Road is another major artery in Delhi that links far-flung areas of Delhi.
  • The Delhi Noida Direct Flyway or DND Flyway is an eight-laned access controlled tolled expressway which connects Delhi to Noida (an important satellite city of Uttar Pradesh).
  • The Delhi Gurgaon Expressway is a 28 km (17 mi) expressway connecting Delhi to Gurgaon, an important satellite city of Haryana.
  • The Delhi Faridabad Skyway is controlled tolled expressway which connects Delhi to Faridabad, an important satellite city of Haryana.

National Highways Passing Through Delhi

Delhi is connected by Road to various parts of the country through several National Highways:

Railway

Delhi is a major junction in the Indian railway network and is the headquarters of the Northern Railway. The five main railway stations are New Delhi railway station, Old Delhi Railway Station, Hazrat Nizamuddin Railway Station, Anand Vihar Railway Terminal and Sarai Rohilla.[138] The Delhi Metro, a mass rapid transit system built and operated by Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC), serves many parts of Delhi and the neighbouring cities Faridabad, Gurgaon, Noida and Ghaziabad.[139] As of August 2011, the metro consists of six operational lines with a total length of 189 km (117 mi) and 146 stations, and several other lines are under construction.[140] The Phase-I was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II was expected to cost an additional 216 billion (US$3.4 billion).[141] Phase-II has a total length of 128 km and was completed by 2010.[142] Delhi Metro completed 10 years of operation on 25 December 2012. It carries millions of passengers every day.[143] In addition to the Delhi Metro, a suburban railway, the Delhi Suburban Railway exists.[144]

Metro

The Delhi Metro is a rapid transit system serving Delhi, Faridabad, Gurgaon, Noida and Ghaziabad in the National Capital Region of India. Delhi Metro is the world's 10th largest metro system in terms of length. Delhi Metro was India's second modern public transportation system, which has revolutionised travel by providing a fast, reliable, safe, and comfortable means of transport. The network consists of six lines with a total length of 189.63 kilometres (117.83 miles) with 142 stations, of which 35 are underground, five are at-grade, and the remainder are elevated. All stations have escalators, lifts, and tactile tiles to guide the visually impaired from station entrances to trains. It has a combination of elevated, at-grade, and underground lines, and uses both broad gauge and standard gauge rolling stock. Four types of rolling stock are used: Mitsubishi-ROTEM Broad gauge, Bombardier MOVIA, Mitsubishi-ROTEM Standard gauge, and CAF Beasain Standard gauge. The Phase-I of Delhi Metro was built at a cost of US$2.3 billion and the Phase-II was expected to cost an additional 216 billion (US$3.4 billion).[141] Phase-II has a total length of 128 km and was completed by 2010.[142] Delhi Metro completed 10 years of operation on 25 December 2012. It carries millions of passengers every day.[143] In addition to the Delhi Metro, a suburban railway, the Delhi Suburban Railway exists.[144]

Delhi Metro is being built and operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC), a state-owned company with equal equity participation from Government of India and Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi. However, the organisation is under the administrative control of Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. Besides construction and operation of Delhi Metro, DMRC is also involved in the planning and implementation of metro rail, monorail, and high-speed rail projects in India and providing consultancy services to other metro projects in the country as well as abroad. The Delhi Metro project was spearheaded by Padma Vibhushan E. Sreedharan, the Managing Director of DMRC and popularly known as the "Metro Man" of India. He famously resigned from DMRC taking moral responsibility for a metro bridge collapse, which took five lives. Sreedharan was awarded the prestigious Legion of Honour by the French Government for his contribution to Delhi Metro.

Metro services are being extended to important hubs in the cities that are close to offices, colleges, and tourist spots. This will facilitate easy conveyance for the citizens, who otherwise have to rely on public buses that are heavily crowded and are often stuck in traffic jams.

Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS)

The 08 RRTS Corridors have been proposed by National Capital Region Planning Board (NCRPB) to facilitate the people travelling from nearby cities in NCR to Delhi. The three main corridors in the first phase are as follows which are expected to become operational before 2019:

  1. Delhi – Alwar via Gurugram - 180.50 km
  2. Delhi – Panipat via Sonepat - 111 km
  3. Delhi – Meerut via Ghaziabad - 92.05 km

Remaining five corridors are also approved by National Capital Region Planning Board but are planned in the second phase.

Roads of 2006 and 2007

As of 2007, private vehicles account for 30% of the total demand for transport.[138] Delhi has 1922.32 km of road length per 100 km2 , one of the highest road densities in India.[138] It is connected to other parts of India by five National Highways: NH 1, 2, 8, 10 and 24. The city's road network is maintained by MCD, NDMC, Delhi Cantonment Board, Public Works Department (PWD) and Delhi Development Authority.[145] The Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway connects Delhi with Gurgaon and the international airport. "The Delhi-Faridabad Skyway". connects Delhi with the neighbouring industrial town of Faridabad. The DND Flyway and Noida-Greater Noida Expressway connect Delhi with the suburbs of Noida and Greater Noida.[146] [147] Delhi's rapid rate of economic development and population growth has resulted in an increasing demand for transport, creating excessive pressure on the city's transport infrastructure. As of 2008, the number of vehicles in the metropolitan region, Delhi NCR, is 11.2 million (11.2 million).[148] In 2008, there were 85 cars in Delhi for every 1,000 of its residents.[149]

To meet the transport demand, the State and Union government constructed a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro.[138] In 1998, the Supreme Court of India ordered that all public transport vehicles in Delhi must be fuelled by compressed natural gas (CNG).[150] Buses are the most popular means of public transport, catering to about 60% of the total demand.[138] The state-owned Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) is a major bus service provider which operates the world's largest fleet of CNG-fuelled buses.[151] Delhi Bus Rapid Transit System runs between Ambedkar Nagar and Delhi Gate.

Demographics

According to the 2011 census of India, the population of NCT of Delhi is 16,753,235.[152] The corresponding population density was 11,297 persons per km2 with a sex ratio of 866 women per 1000 men, and a literacy rate of 86.34%. In 2004, the birth rate, death rate and infant mortality rate per 1000 population were 20.03, 5.59 and 13.08 respectively.[153] In 2001, the population of Delhi increased by 285,000 as a result of migration and by 215,000 as a result of natural population growth,[153] which made Delhi one of the fastest growing cities in the world. Dwarka Sub City, Asia's largest planned residential area, is located within the National Capital Territory of Delhi.[154] Urban expansion has resulted in Delhi's urban area now being considered as extending beyond NCT boundaries to incorporate towns and cities of neighbouring states including Gurgaon and Faridabad of Haryana, and Ghaziabad and Noida of Uttar Pradesh, the total population estimated by the United Nations at over 26 million. According to the UN this makes Delhi urban area the world's second largest, after Tokyo,[8] although Demographia declares the Jakarta urban area to be the second largest.[155] The 2011 census provided two figures for urban area population: 16,314,838 within the NCT boundary,[156] and 21,753,486 for the Extended Urban Area.[157]

Religion
A complete view of Akshardham temple with people entering the temple
Swaminarayan Akshardham in Delhi is the largest Hindu temple complexes in the National Capital Territory. Hinduism is the predominant faith in Delhi.
Religion in NCT of Delhi (2011)[158]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
  
81.68%
Islam
  
12.86%
Sikhism
  
3.40%
Jainism
  
0.99%
Christianity
  
0.87%
Others
  
0.12%

Hinduism is Delhi's predominant religious faith, with 81.68% of Delhi's population, followed by Islam (12.86%), Sikhism (4.0%), Jainism (0.99%), Christianity (0.87%), and others (0.12%).[159] Other minority religions include Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Baha'ism and Judaism.[160]

Languages

According to the 50th report of the commissioner for linguistic minorities in India, which was submitted in 2014, Hindi is the Delhi's most spoken language, with 80.94% speakers, followed by Punjabi (7.14%) and Urdu (6.31%). Hindi is also the official language of Delhi while Urdu and Punjabi have been declared as the additional official languages. 5.61% of the Delhites speak different languages.[161]

Slums

Around 22% of the population of Delhi lives in slum areas with "inadequate provision of basic services".[162] [163] Majority of these slums has inadequate provisions to the basic facilities and according to DUSIB report 16% of people don't use toilets and almost 22% of the people do open defecation.[164]

Culture
An image showing a number of pots which are made traditionally, black coloured with red and green work on it.
Traditional pottery on display in Dilli Haat

Delhi's culture has been influenced by its lengthy history and historic association as the capital of India, Although a strong Punjabi Influence can be seen in language, Dress and Cuisine brought by the large number of refugees who came following the partition in 1947 the recent migration from other parts of India has made it a melting pot. This is exemplified by many significant monuments in the city. Delhi is also identified as the location of Indraprastha, the ancient capital of the Pandavas. The Archaeological Survey of India recognises 1200 heritage buildings[165] and 175 monuments as national heritage sites.[166] In the Old City, the Mughals and the Turkic rulers constructed several architecturally significant buildings, such as the Jama Masjid – India's largest mosque[167] built in 1656[168] and the Red Fort. Three World Heritage Sites – the Red Fort, Qutab Minar and Humayun's Tomb – are located in Delhi.[169] Other monuments include the India Gate, the Jantar Mantar – an 18th-century astronomical observatory – and the Purana Qila – a 16th-century fortress. The Laxminarayan temple, Akshardham temple,Bangla Sahib the Bahá'í Lotus temple and the ISKCON temple are examples of modern architecture. Raj Ghat and associated memorials houses memorials of Mahatma Gandhi and other notable personalities. New Delhi houses several government buildings and official residences reminiscent of British colonial architecture, including the Rashtrapati Bhavan, the Secretariat, Rajpath, the Parliament of India and Vijay Chowk. Safdarjung's Tomb is an example of the Mughal gardens style. Some regal havelis (palatial residences) are in the Old City.[170]

Lotus Temple, is a Bahá'í House of Worship completed in 1986. Notable for its flowerlike shape, it serves as the Mother Temple of the Indian subcontinent and has become a prominent attraction in the city. The Lotus Temple has won numerous architectural awards and been featured in hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles. Like all other Bahá'í Houses of Worship, is open to all regardless of religion, or any other distinction, as emphasised in Bahá'í texts. The Bahá'í laws emphasise that the spirit of the House of Worship be that it is a gathering place where people of all religions may worship God without denominational restrictions.[171] The Bahá'í laws also stipulate that only the holy scriptures of the Bahá'í Faith and other religions can be read or chanted inside in any language; while readings and prayers can be set to music by choirs, no musical instruments can be played inside. Furthermore, no sermons can be delivered, and there can be no ritualistic ceremonies practised.[171]

Chandni Chowk, a 17th-century market, is one of the most popular shopping areas in Delhi for jewellery and Zari saris.[172] Delhi's arts and crafts include, Zardozi[173]  – an embroidery done with gold thread – [174] and Meenakari[175]  – the art of enamelling.

Festivals
Rashtrapati Bhavan lit up for Republic Day of India.

Delhi's association and geographic proximity to the capital, New Delhi, has amplified the importance of national events and holidays like Republic Day, Independence Day (15 August) and Gandhi Jayanti. On Independence Day, the Prime Minister addresses the nation from the Red Fort. Most Delhiites celebrate the day by flying kites, which are considered a symbol of freedom.[176] The Republic Day Parade is a large cultural and military parade showcasing India's cultural diversity and military strength.[177] [178] Over the centuries, Delhi has become known for its composite culture, and a festival that symbolises this is the Phool Walon Ki Sair, which takes place in September. Flowers and pankhe – fans embroidered with flowers – are offered to the shrine of 13th century Sufi saint Khwaja Bakhtiyar Kaki and the Yogmaya temple, both situated in Mehrauli.[179]

A view of Pragati Maidan from inside
The Pragati Maidan in Delhi hosts the World Book Fair biennially.

Religious festivals include Diwali (the festival of lights), Mahavir Jayanti, Guru Nanak's Birthday, Raksha Bandhan, Durga Puja, Holi, Lohri, Chauth, Krishna Janmastami, Maha Shivratri, Eid ul-Fitr, Moharram and Buddha Jayanti.[178] The Qutub Festival is a cultural event during which performances of musicians and dancers from all over India are showcased at night, with the Qutub Minar as a backdrop.[180] Other events such as Kite Flying Festival, International Mango Festival and Vasant Panchami (the Spring Festival) are held every year in Delhi. The Auto Expo, Asia's largest auto show,[181] is held in Delhi biennially. The New Delhi World Book Fair, held biennially at the Pragati Maidan, is the second largest exhibition of books in the world.[182] Delhi is often regarded as the "Book Capital" of India because of high readership.[183] India International Trade Fair (IITF), organised by ITPO is the biggest cultural and shopping fair of Delhi which takes place in November each year and is visited by more than 15 lakh people.[184]

Cuisine
Daulat Chaat is made using a complicated technique of condensing milk foam on a cold night, this dish is only available during winters.
Daulat Chaat is made using a complicated technique of condensing milk foam on a cold night, this dish is only available during winters.[185]

As India's national capital and centuries old Mughal capital, Delhi influenced the food habits of its residents and is where Mughlai cuisine originated. Along with Indian cuisine, a variety of international cuisines are popular among the residents.[186] The dearth of food habits among the city's residents created a unique style of cooking which became popular throughout the world, with dishes such as Kebab, biryani, tandoori. The city's classic dishes include butter chicken, dal makhani, shahi paneer, aloo chaat, chaat, dahi bhalla, kachori, gol gappe, samosa, chole bhature, chole kulche, gulab jamun, jalebi and lassi.[186] [187] :40–50, 189–196

The fast living habits of Delhi's people has motivated the growth of street food outlets.[187] :41 A trend of dining at local dhabas is popular among the residents. High-profile restaurants have gained popularity in recent years, among the popular restaurants are the Karim Hotel, the Punjab Grill and Bukhara.[188] The Gali Paranthe Wali (the street of fried bread) is a street in Chandni Chowk particularly for food eateries since the 1870s. Almost the entire street is occupied by fast food stalls or street vendors. It has nearly become a tradition that almost every prime minister of India has visited the street to eat paratha at least once. Other Indian cuisines are also available in this area even though the street specialises in north Indian food .[187] :40–50 [189]

Tourism
Jantar Mantar

According to Euromonitor International, Delhi ranked as 28th most visited city in the world and first in India by foreign visitors in 2015.[190] There are numerous tourist attractions in Delhi, both historic and modern. The three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Delhi, Qutb Complex, Red Fort and Humayun's Tomb are among the finest examples of Indo-Islamic architecture.[191] Another prominent landmark of Delhi is India Gate, a 1931 built war memorial to soldiers of British Indian Army who died during First World War.[192] Delhi has several famous places of worship of various religions. One of the largest Hindu temple complexes in the world,[193] Akshardham is a major tourist attraction in the city. Other famous religious sites include Laxminarayan Temple, Gurudwara Bangla Sahib, Lotus Temple, Jama Masjid and ISKCON Temple. Delhi is also a hub for shopping of all kinds. Connaught Place, Chandni Chowk, Khan Market and Dilli Haat are some of the major retail markets in Delhi.[194] Major shopping malls include Select Citywalk, DLF Promenade, DLF Emporio, Metro Walk and Ansal Plaza.[195]

Education

Private schools in Delhi – which use either English or Hindi as the language of instruction – are affiliated to one of three administering bodies, the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE)[196] or the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS). In 2004–05, approximately 15.29 lakh (1.529 million) students were enrolled in primary schools, 8.22 lakh (0.822 million) in middle schools and 6.69 lakh (0.669 million) in secondary schools across Delhi.[197] Female students represented 49% of the total enrolment. The same year, the Delhi government spent between 1.58% and 1.95% of its gross state domestic product on education.[197]

Schools and higher educational institutions in Delhi are administered either by the Directorate of Education, the NCT government or private organisations. In 2006, Delhi had 165 colleges, five medical colleges and eight engineering colleges,[197] seven major universities and nine deemed universities.[197]

The premier management colleges of Delhi such as Faculty of Management Studies (Delhi) and Indian Institute of Foreign Trade rank the best in India. All India Institute of Medical Sciences Delhi is a premier medical school for treatment and research. National Law University, Delhi is a prominent law school and is affiliated to the Bar Council of India.

Delhi Technological University (formerly Delhi College of Engineering), Indraprastha Institute of Information Technology, Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University and National Law University, Delhi are the only state universities.[198] University of Delhi, Jawaharlal Nehru University and Jamia Millia Islamia are the central universities, and Indira Gandhi National Open University is for distance education.[199] As of 2008, about 16% of all Delhi residents possessed at least a college graduate degree.[200]

Media
Pitampura TV Tower with background of blue sky
Pitampura TV Tower broadcasts programming to Delhi

As the capital of India, Delhi is the focus of political reportage, including regular television broadcasts of Parliament sessions. Many national media agencies, including the state-owned Press Trust of India, Media Trust of India and Doordarshan, is based in the city. Television programming includes two free terrestrial television channels offered by Doordarshan, and several Hindi, English, and regional-language cable channels offered by multi system operators. Satellite television has yet to gain a large quantity of subscribers in the city.[201]

Print journalism remains a popular news medium in Delhi. The city's Hindi newspapers include Navbharat Times, Hindustan Dainik, Punjab Kesari, Pavitra Bharat, Dainik Jagran, Dainik Bhaskar, Amar Ujala[202] and Dainik Desbandhu. Amongst the English language newspapers, The Hindustan Times, with a daily circulation of over a million copies, is the single largest daily.[203] Other major English newspapers include Times of India, The Hindu, Indian Express, Business Standard, The Pioneer, The Statesman, and The Asian Age. Regional language newspapers include the Malayalam daily Malayala Manorama and the Tamil dailies Dinamalar and Dinakaran.[202]

Radio is a less popular mass medium in Delhi, although FM radio has gained popularity[204] since the inauguration of several new stations in 2006.[205] A number of state-owned and private radio stations broadcast from Delhi.[206] [207]

Sports

Delhi has hosted many major international sporting events, including the first and also the ninth Asian Games,[208] the 2010 Hockey World Cup, the 2010 Commonwealth Games and the 2011 Cricket World Cup. Delhi lost bidding for the 2014 Asian Games,[209] and considered making a bid for the 2020 Summer Olympics.[210] However, sports minister Manohar Singh Gill later stated that funding infrastructure would come before a 2020 bid.[211] There are indications of a possible 2028 bid.

The 2010 Commonwealth Games, which ran from 3 to 14 October 2010, was one of the largest sports event held in India.[212] [213] The opening ceremony of the 2010 Commonwealth Games was held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event, in New Delhi at 7:00 pm Indian Standard Time on 3 October 2010.[214] The ceremony featured over 8,000 performers and lasted for two and a half hours.[215] It is estimated that 3.5 billion (US$55 million) were spent to produce the ceremony.[216] Events took place at 12 competition venues. 20 training venues were used in the Games, including seven venues within Delhi University.[217] The rugby stadium in Delhi University North Campus hosted rugby games for Commonwealth Games.[217] [218] The mess left behind after the Commonwealth Games prompted Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to replace Sports and Youth Affairs minister Manohar Singh Gill with Ajay Maken in 19 January 2011 Cabinet reshuffle.[219]

Cricket and football are the most popular sports in Delhi.[220] There are several cricket grounds, or maidans, located across the city. The Feroz Shah Kotla Ground (known commonly as the Kotla) is one of the oldest cricket grounds in India and is a venue for international cricket matches. It is the home ground of the Delhi cricket team, which represents the city in the Ranji Trophy, the premier Indian domestic first-class cricket championship.[221] The Delhi cricket team has produced several world-class international cricketers such as Virender Sehwag, Virat Kohli,[222] Gautam Gambhir, Madan Lal, Chetan Chauhan, Ishant Sharma and Bishan Singh Bedi to name a few. The Railways and Services cricket teams in the Ranji Trophy also play their home matches in Delhi, in the Karnail Singh Stadium and the Harbax Singh Stadium respectively. The city is also home to the Indian Premier League team Delhi Daredevils, who play their home matches at the Kotla, and was the home to the Delhi Giants team (previously Delhi Jets) of the now defunct Indian Cricket League.

Ambedkar Stadium, a football stadium in Delhi which holds 21,000 people, was the venue for the Indian football team's World Cup qualifier against UAE on 28 July 2012.[223] Delhi hosted the Nehru Cup in 2007[224] and 2009, in both of which India defeated Syria 1–0.[225] In the Elite Football League of India, Delhi's first professional American football franchise, the Delhi Defenders played its first season in Pune.[226] Buddh International Circuit in Greater Noida, a suburb of Delhi, hosts the annual Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix.[227] The Indira Gandhi Arena is also in Delhi.

Delhi is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21.

Current Regional and Professional Sports Teams from Delhi

Team/Club Tournament/League Sport Venue Established
Delhi cricket team Ranji Trophy

Irani Trophy

Vijay Hazare Trophy

Cricket Feroz Shah Kotla Stadium 1934
Delhi football team Santosh Trophy Football Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium 1941
Delhi Hurricanes RFC All India & South Asia Rugby Tournament Rugby Union B-7 Vasant Kunj 110070 Delhi 2004
Delhi Daredevils Indian Premier League Cricket Feroz Shah Kotla Stadium 2008
Delhi Wizards World Series Hockey Field Hockey Dhyan Chand National Stadium 2011
Delhi Defenders Elite Football League of India American Football - 2012
Delhi Waveriders Hockey India League Field Hockey Shivaji Stadium 2012
Delhi Dynamos FC Indian Super League Football Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium 2013
Dabang Delhi Pro Kabaddi League Kabaddi Thyagaraj Sports Complex 2014
Delhi Dreams Champions Tennis League Tennis R.K. Khanna Tennis Complex 2014
Indian Aces International Premier Tennis League Tennis Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium 2014
Delhi Capitals UBA Pro Basketball League Basketball - 2015

Former Regional and Professional Sports Teams from Delhi

Team/Club Tournament/League Sport Venue Established Ceased
Delhi Giants Indian Cricket League Cricket Feroz Shah Kotla Stadium 2007 2009
World Heritage status

In February 2014, the Government of India approved Delhi's bid for World Heritage City status. The historical city of Shahjahanabad and Lutyens' Bungalow Zone in New Delhi were cited in the bid. A team from UNESCO was scheduled to visit Delhi in September 2014 to validate its claims. INTACH acted as the nodal agency for the bid. The announcement of accepted cities was to be made in June 2015.[228] However, the Government of India withdrew its nomination on 21 May 2015.[229]

Notable people
International relations
Sister cities[230]
...
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Delhi

topic

Delhi ( , Hindustani pronunciation:  Dilli ), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi or NCT, is a city and a union territory of India . It is bordered by Haryana on three sides and by Uttar Pradesh to the east. The NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres (573 sq mi). According to 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million, the second highest in India after Mumbai , while the whole NCT population was about 16.8 million, making it the world's 3rd largest city proper by population . Delhi's urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundary to include an estimated population of over 26 million people making it the world's second largest urban area . As of 2016 recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the top or second most productive metro area of India. Delhi is the second wealthiest city after Mumbai in India, with a total wealth of $450 billion and home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires. Delhi has been



New Delhi

topic

The city of New Delhi is located within the National Capital Territory of Delhi . New Delhi ( ) is the capital of India and one of Delhi city's 11 districts . Although colloquially Delhi and New Delhi are used interchangeably to refer to the National Capital Territory of Delhi, these are two distinct entities, with New Delhi forming a small part of Delhi. The National Capital Region is a much larger entity comprising the entire National Capital Territory of Delhi along with adjoining districts. It is surrounded by Haryana on three sides and Uttar Pradesh on the east. The foundation stone of the city was laid by George V, Emperor of India during the Delhi Durbar of 1911 . It was designed by British architects, Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker . The new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931, by Viceroy and Governor-General of India Lord Irwin . New Delhi has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi 's flagship



History of Delhi

topic

The Indian capital city of Delhi has a long history, and has been an important political centre of India as the capital of several empires. Much of Delhi's ancient history finds no record and this may be regarded as a lost period of its history. Extensive coverage of Delhi's history begins with the onset of the Delhi Sultanate in the 12th century. Since then, Delhi has been the centre of a succession of mighty empires and powerful kingdoms, making Delhi one of the longest serving Capitals and one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world. It is considered to be a city built, destroyed and rebuilt several times, as outsiders who successfully invaded the Indian Subcontinent would ransack the existing capital city in Delhi, and those who came to conquer and stay would be so impressed by the city's strategic location as to make it their capital and rebuild it in their own way. The core of Delhi's tangible heritage is Hindu, Islamic (spanning over seven centuries of Islamic rule over the city) with expansive



Delhi Metro

topic

The Delhi Metro is a metro system serving Delhi and its satellite cities of Faridabad , Gurugram , Noida and Ghaziabad in National Capital Region in India. Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC), a state-owned company with equal equity participation from Government of India and Government of Delhi , built and operates the Delhi Metro. Delhi Metro is the world's 12th longest metro system in length and 16th largest in ridership . A member of CoMET , the network consists of five colour-coded regular lines and the faster Airport Express line, with a total length of 218 kilometres (135 mi) serving 164 stations (including 6 on Airport Express line). The system has a mix of underground, at-grade, and elevated stations using both broad-gauge and standard-gauge. The power output is supplied by 25-kilo volt , 50- hertz alternating current through overhead catenary . The trains are usually of four, six, and eight-coach length. DMRC operates over 3,000 trips daily, with first trains starting at around 05:00 and



Delhi Technological University

topic

Delhi Technological University ( DTU ), formerly known as Delhi College of Engineering is an engineering university located in New Delhi, India. It is one of the oldest engineering colleges in India and Delhi's first engineering college. It was established in 1941 as Delhi Polytechnic and was under the control of the Government of India. The college has been under the government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi since 1963 and was affiliated with the University of Delhi from 1952 to 2009. In 2009, the college was given state university status, thus changing its name to Delhi Technological University. Till the year 2009, DCE shared its admission procedure and syllabus for various B.E courses with their other branch known as Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology , formerly DIT, which were prescribed by Faculty of Technology, University of Delhi. It offers courses towards Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech), Master of Technology (M.Tech), Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) and Master of Business Administration (M



Delhi Legislative Assembly

topic

The Legislative Assembly of Delhi , also known as Delhi Vidhan Sabha , is a unicameral law making body of the National Capital Territory of Delhi , one of the 7 union territories in India. It is situated at Delhi , the state capital of Delhi, with 70 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLA). The seat of assembly is the Old Secretariat building, which is also the seat of the seat of the Delhi Government . History The Delhi Legislative Assembly was first constituted on 7 March 1952 under the Government of Part C States Act, 1951; it was inaugurated by Home Minister K. N. Katju . The Assembly had 48 members, and a Council of Ministers in an advisory role to the Chief Commissioner of Delhi, though it also had powers to make laws. The first Council of Ministers was led by Chaudhary Brahm Prakash , who became the first Chief Minister of Delhi . However, the States Reorganisation Commission , set up in 1953, led to the Constitutional amendment through States Reorganisation Act, 1956 , which came into effect on 1 No



Old Delhi

topic

Old Delhi is a walled city of Delhi , India , founded as Shahjahanabad in 1639 by the Mughal emperor at the time, Shah Jahan . It remained the capital of the Mughal Empire until its fall in 1857, when the British Raj took over a paramount power in India. It was once filled with mansions of nobles and members of the royal court, along with elegant mosques and gardens. Today, despite having become extremely crowded and dilapidated, it still serves as the symbolic heart of metropolitan Delhi. History Busy streets near Jama Masjid, Old Delhi. View of Old Delhi from Jama Masjid in June 1973. Jama Masjid built by Shah Jahan , 1656. The site of Shahjahanabad is north of earlier settlements of Delhi. Its southern part overlaps some of the area that was settled by the Tughlaqs in the 14th century when it was the seat of Delhi Sultanate . The sultanates ruled from Delhi between 1206 and 1526, when the last was replaced by the Mughal dynasty . The five dynasties were the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khilji dynasty



List of districts of Delhi

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The National Capital Territory of Delhi is divided into eleven revenue districts. Each district is headed by a District Magistrate and has three subdivisions. A Subdivision Magistrate heads each subdivision. All Deputy Commissioners report to the Divisional Commissioner. These district are meant only for revenue collection & Administration. The initial nine districts came into existence from January 1997. Prior to that, there used to be only one district for whole of Delhi with district headquarters at Tis-Hazari. In September 2012, two new districts, viz. South East and Shahdara were added to the city's map, taking the total count to 11. The District Administration of Delhi is the enforcement department for all kinds of Government of Delhi and Central Government policies and exercises supervisory over numerous other functionaries of the Government. Below is the list of the districts and subdivisions of Delhi: Map showing the eleven districts of Delhi The skyline of Central Delhi The South Block in New



Government of Delhi

topic

The Government of the National Capital Territory of Delhi is the governing authority of the Indian national capital territory of Delhi and its 11 districts . It consists of an executive , led by the Lieutenant Governor of Delhi , a judiciary and a legislative . The present Legislative Assembly of Delhi is unicameral , consisting of 70 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLA). Overview The nine districts of Delhi . The Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) handles civic administration for the city as part of the Panchayati Raj Act. New Delhi, an urban area in Delhi, is the seat of both the State Government of Delhi and the Government of India . The National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT) has three local municipal corporations namely, Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD), New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) and Delhi Cantonment Board . The Lieutenant Governor of Delhi is appointed by the President of India , as agent of President and not head of state like governor, on the advice of the Central government. The



Municipal Corporation of Delhi

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The Municipal Corporation of Delhi ( MCD ) is a municipal corporation , an autonomous body that governs 8 of the 11 Districts of Delhi , in the state of Delhi , India . It was one of three municipalities in the National Capital Territory of Delhi , the others being New Delhi Municipal Council , and Delhi Cantonment Board. "The MCD was among the largest municipal bodies in the world providing civic services to more than estimated population of 11 million citizens in the capital city. The municipal corporation covers an area of 1,397.3 km² (539.5 mi²). Civic Centre (28 floor)located on Minto Road, New Delhi is the headquarters of Municipal Corporation of Delhi. Within its jurisdiction are some of the most densely populated areas in the world. It has also the unique distinction of providing civic services to rural and urban villages, resettlement colonies, regularised unauthorised colonies, Slum/Squatter Settlements, private 'katras' etc. History Dr Shyam Prasad Mukherjee Civic centre - Headquarters of Municipa



University of Delhi

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The University of Delhi ( UOD ) informally known as Delhi University ( DU ) is a public central collegiate university , located in New Delhi , India . History The University of Delhi was established in 1922 as a unitary, teaching and residential university by an Act of the then Central Legislative Assembly of the British India . The University was originally to be named Prince Charles University, but Rai Kedarnath, counselor to the Chief Commissioner of Delhi and founder of Ramjas College , argued that if the university should fail, that would certainly antagonise the Prince. He suggested the name by which it is known today. Only four colleges existed in Delhi at the time: St. Stephen's College founded in 1881, Hindu College founded in 1899, Zakir Husain Delhi College (then known as The Delhi College), founded in 1692 and Ramjas College founded in 1917, which were subsequently affiliated to the university. The university initially had two faculties (Arts and Science) and about 750 students. The seat of powe



Delhi Cantonment

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Delhi Cantonment railway station Delhi Cantonment (popularly referred to as Delhi Cantt ) was established in 1914. Until February 1938, the Cantonment Board Delhi was known as the Cantt authority. The area of the Cantonment is approx. 10,521 acres (4,258 ha). At the 2011 census, the population of the Cantonment was 116,352. The Delhi Cantonment is as Class I Cantonment Board. The Cantonment is governed by the Cantonments Act, 2006 while various policy letters and instructions from the Ministry of Defence pertaining to the area are issued from time to time. Although the board functions as a local municipal body, it remains under the administrative control of the Directorate General Defence Estates, New Delhi and Principal Director, Defence Estates, Western Command , Chandigarh. History Cantonments in Delhi and Ahmedabad were originally established by the British. The Delhi Cantonment houses the Indian Army Headquarters, Delhi Area; the Army Golf Course; the Defence Services Officers Institute ; military housi



South Delhi

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Map showing the nine districts of Delhi. South Delhi is an administrative district of the National Capital Territory of Delhi in India . It is bounded by the Yamuna River to the east, the districts of New Delhi to the north, Faridabad District of Haryana state to the southeast, Gurgaon District of Haryana to the southwest, and South West Delhi to the west. South Delhi has a population of 2,258,367 (2001 census), and an area of 250 square kilometres (97 sq mi), with a population density of 9,034 persons per km² (23,397 persons per mi²). Administratively, the district is divided into three subdivisions, Saket , Hauz Khas , and Mehrauli . The division shown on the map bears only administrative significance, as to the common citizen, broadly speaking Delhi is vaguely ring-like, having five regions, namely North, West, South, East and Central. The usage of the term South Delhi in day-to-day life expands from Delhi 's IGI Airport in the South West to the river Yamuna in the South East, a region protruding into admi



Delhi Suburban Railway

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Delhi Suburban Railway is a suburban rail service operated by Northern Railway for the National Capital Region . This railway service covers Delhi , along with the adjoining districts of Faridabad , Ghaziabad and other adjoining places in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh . These services are mostly run using EMU and MEMU rakes. This also includes passenger trains and DMU services up to Rewari in Haryana, which is also considered part of the National Capital Region. It not only runs through Delhi, but also offers its services to parts of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh like Rewari, Faridabad, Ghaziabad and many others. Passenger and DMU services not only operate in Delhi, but extend up to Rewari district in Haryana. Facilities Delhi Suburban Railway uses the same tracks that are also used for long distance trains. In 2009 Ladies Special trains were introduced between New Delhi and Palwal and from New Delhi to Ghaziabad and Panipat . Timetable The services are currently available on the following routes. Ghaziabad - Old Del



Chief Minister of Delhi

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The Chief Minister of Delhi is the chief executive of the National Capital Territory of Delhi in north India . According to the Constitution of India , the lieutenant governor is Delhi's de jure head, but de facto executive authority rests with its chief minister . Following elections to the Delhi Legislative Assembly , the lieutenant governor usually invites the party with a majority of seats to form the government . The President of India , on the advice of the lieutenant governor, appoints the chief minister, whose council of ministers are collectively responsible to the assembly. Given that he has the confidence of the assembly, the chief minister's term is for five years and is subject to no term limits . Since 1952 Delhi has had seven chief ministers, starting with the Indian National Congress party's Chaudhary Brahm Prakash . Shortly after his term ended, the office of Chief Minister of Delhi was abolished for 37 years until December 1993, when the Bharatiya Janata Party 's Madan Lal Khurana was sworn



Neighbourhoods of Delhi

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Delhi is a vast city and is home to a population of more than 16 million people. It is a microcosm of India and its residents belong to varied ethnic, religious and linguistic groups. As the second-largest city in (and the capital of) the nation, its nine districts comprise multiple neighbourhoods. The large expanse of the city comprises residential districts that range from poor to affluent, and small and large commercial districts, across its municipal extent. This is a list of major neighbourhoods in the city and only pertains to the National Capital Territory of Delhi . It is not complete, and outlines the various neighbourhoods based on the different districts of the metropolis. North West Delhi Adarsh Nagar Ashok Vihar Azadpur Bawana Begum Pur Dhaka Jahangirpuri Karala Keshav Puram Kingsway Camp Kohat Enclave Model Town Narela Pitam Pura Rani Bagh Rithala Rohini Sub City Shalimar Bagh North Delhi Shakti Nagar Bara Hindu Rao Chandni Chowk Chawri Bazaar Civil Lines Dariba Kalan Fatehpuri Masjid Ghantewala



Kashmiri Gate, Delhi

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Kashmere Gate, Delhi , c1858 Kashmere Gate, Delhi , c1865 The Kashmere Gate or Kashmiri Gate is a gate located in Delhi , it is the northern gate to the historic walled city of Delhi . Built by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan , the gate is so named because it used to start a road that led to Kashmir . Today it is also the name of the surrounding locality in North Delhi , in the Old Delhi area, and an important road junction as the Red Fort , ISBT and Delhi Junction railway station lie in its vicinity. History Plaque at Kashmiri Gate, commemorating the September 14, 1857 attack on it by British Army during Indian Rebellion of 1857 Kashmiri Gate, in 2008 It was the area around the North gate of the walled city of the Delhi , leading to the Laal Quila , the Red Fort of Delhi, the gate was facing towards Kashmir , so it was named as Kashmiri Gate, spelled Kashmere Gate under British Raj . The monument can still be seen. The southern gate to the walled city, is called Delhi Gate . When the British first started sett



Indian Institute of Technology Delhi

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The Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (abbreviated IIT Delhi or IITD ) is a public engineering institution located in Delhi, India . It was declared to be Institute of National Importance by Government of India under Institutes of Technology Act . History The Government of India negotiated with the British Government for collaboration in setting up an Institute of Technology at Delhi . The British Government agreed in principle to such a collaboration, but were inclined initially to start in a modest way. It was therefore agreed that a College of Engineering & Technology should be established at Delhi with their assistance. A trust called the Delhi Engineering College Trust was established with the help of the UK Government and the Federation of British Industries in London. Later H.R.H. Prince Philips, Duke of Edinburgh, during his visit to India, laid the foundation stone of the College at Hauz Khas on January 28, 1959. The first admissions were made in 1961. The students were asked to report at the



List of cinemas in Delhi

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Cinema has always been one of the most popular forms of entertainment in the city of Delhi , India. Therefore, movie theatres are major entertainment venues in the city, and have been prominent in the nation's movie theatre industry. In recent years Delhi's many single-screen cinema halls have been giving way to large multiplexes. Cinemas have long been prominent venues in the city. The Delite Cinema, for instance, was once considered the tallest building in Delhi and was patronised by political leaders including Jawaharlal Nehru , Rajendra Prasad , Indira Gandhi and such film stars as Dilip Kumar , Ashok Kumar , Dev Anand , Nutan and Madhubala . The Delite has also staged various national and international theatre productions. Arguably, the first modern multiplex in Delhi, the Anupam cinema, was opened in 1997 by PVR (Priya Village Roadshow) in South Delhi and went on to break national records for attendance. In 2009 the Delhi Cine Goers Association (DCGA) was founded by a group of young movie buffs residing



Delhi Junction railway station

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Delhi Junction , also known as Old Delhi Railway Station (station code DLI), is the oldest railway station of Delhi city and a Junction station . It is third busiest railway station in India in terms of frequency of trains after Kanpur Central and Vijayawada Junction . Around 190 trains starts, ends, or passes through the station daily. It was established near Chandni Chowk in 1864 when trains from Howrah , Calcutta started operating up to Delhi. Its present building was constructed by the British Indian government in the style of nearby red-coloured fort and opened in 1903. It has been an important railway station of the country, and preceded the New Delhi Railway Station by about 60 years. Chandni Chowk underground station of the Delhi Metro is near it. History The station started with a broad gauge train from Calcutta in 1864. Metre gauge track from Delhi to Rewari and further to Ajmer was laid in 1873 by Rajputana State Railway and metre gauge trains from this station started in 1876. The present building



Delhi High Court

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The High Court of Delhi ( IAST : dillī uchcha nyāyālaya) was established on 31 October 1966. The High Court of Delhi was established with four judges. They were Chief Justice K. S. Hegde , Justice I. D. Dua , Justice H. R. Khanna and Justice S. K. Kapur. History On 21 March 1919, the High Court of Judicature at Lahore was established with jurisdiction over the provinces of punjab and Delhi. This jurisdiction lasted till 1947 when India was partitioned . The High Courts (Punjab) Order, 1947 established a new High Court for the province of East Punjab with effect from 15 August 1947. The India (Adaptation of Existing Indian Laws) Order, 1947 provided that any reference in an existing Indian law to the High Court of Judicature at Lahore be replaced by a reference to the High Court of East Punjab. The High Court of East Punjab started functioning from Shimla in a building called "Peterhoff". This building burnt down in January, 1981. When the Secretariat of the Punjab Government shifted to Chandigarh in 1954-55,



New Delhi metro station

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New Delhi ( Hindi : नई दिल्ली ) is a station on the Yellow Line of the Delhi Metro . It is within walking distance to the Indian Railways New Delhi station . The Airport Express also terminates at New Delhi metro station. Check-in facilities are available at this station since the line is now operational. Station layout G Street Level Exit/ Entrance M Mezzanine Fare control, station agent, Ticket/token, shops P Southbound Platform 1 → Toward HUDA City Centre Island platform , doors will open on the right Northbound Platform 2 Toward ← Samaypur Badli Gallery Connections Delhi Transport Corporation bus routes number 39STL, 120B, 172, 213, 213A, 307A, 308, 430A, 433, 433CL, 433LSTL, 440A, 445, 445A, 453, 454, 457, 458, 460A, 467, 500, 522SPL, 604, 622, 716, 728A, 781, 840EXT, 853, 910A, 949, Airport Exp- 4, RL-75, RL-77A, RL-77B, RL-77Ext, RL-79 serves the station. See also List of Delhi Metro stations Transport in Delhi Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Delhi Suburban Railway Delhi Transport Corporation North Delhi



New Delhi railway station

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The New Delhi Railway Station (station code NDLS), situated between Ajmeri Gate and Paharganj is the main railway station in Delhi . It is the fourth busiest Railway Station in the country in terms of frequency of trains after Kanpur Central , Vijayawada Junction and Delhi Junction and most busiest Railway station in India in terms of passenger movement. Around 185 trains starts, ends, or passes through the station daily and handles 500,000 passengers daily with 16 platforms. The New Delhi railway station holds the record for the largest route interlocking system in the world along with the Kanpur Central Railway Station i.e. 48. The station is about two kilometres north of Connaught Place , in central Delhi . Most eastbound and southbound trains originate at New Delhi Railway Station; however, some important trains to other parts of the country also touch/originate at this station. Most pairs of Shatabdi Express originate and terminate at this station. It is also the main hub for the Rajdhani Express , henc



Shopping in Delhi

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Delhi has been, since historical times, remained a favoured destination for shoppers. From traditional bazaars to modern-day swanky malls, Delhi has everything to offer to a customer. Delhi's street markets are reported to provide a greater turnover as compared to malls. Since not everyone can afford to shop at malls or branded stores, most residents swear by the street markets. The quality of goods varies from market to market. Below is a list of famous shopping markets and malls in and around Delhi . Retail markets Connaught Place , including Janpath and Palika Bazaar . Chandni Chowk - A market running since the 17th century. Karol Bagh Paharganj Sarojini Nagar Khan Market - Most expensive retail location in India, in terms of per sq feet rental. Lajpat Nagar Dilli Haat , INA and Pitampura - Government-run emporiumns showcasing a rotating cast of regional artists and their crafts, such as bamboo & cane jewelry, handcarved wooden articles and papier-mache animals. State emporiums near Sansad Marg Hauz



Howrah–Delhi main line

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The Howrah–Delhi main line is a railway line connecting Delhi and Kolkata cutting across northern India. The 1,532 km (952 mi) railway line was opened to traffic in 1866 with the introduction of the "1 Down/2 Up Mail" train. Sections The 1,532 km (952 mi) long trunk line, has been treated in more detail in smaller sections: Howrah–Bardhaman main line Bardhaman–Asansol section Asansol–Patna section Patna–Mughalsarai section Mughalsarai–Kanpur section Kanpur–Delhi section History The first 1 Down/2 Up Mail train Railway transportation was introduced in India within 30 years of its maiden run in England. The Governor General Lord Dalhousie foresaw a tremendous potential for the speedy means of transport in securing British control over a vast country, not only in moving goods and people but also in the movement of the armed forces. The East Indian Railway Company which was formed on 1 June 1845, completed its survey for a railway line from Kolkata, then called Calcutta, to Delhi via Mirzapur in 1846. The company



List of lieutenant governors of Delhi

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The Lieutenant Governor of Delhi is the constitutional head of the National Capital Territory of Delhi . The post was first established in September 1966, when The Delhi Administration Act, 1966 came into effect. Thus the former Delhi Legislative Assembly was replaced by the Delhi Metropolitan Council with 56 elected and 5 nominated members with the Lt. Governor of Delhi as its head. The Council however had no legislative powers, only an advisory role in the governance of Delhi. This set up functioned till 1990, when Assembly was reinstated, the Lt. Governor retained its role. Serving since 31 December 2016, the current Lt. Governor is Anil Baijal , a former Union Home Secretary. His official residence is in Raj Niwas, Delhi . Chief Commissioners They were ICS(Imperial Civil Service i.e. erstwhile IAS) officers executive head of the union territories. # Name Took office Left office 1 Shankar Prasada 1948 1954 2 Anand Dattahaya Pandit 1954 1959 3 Bhagwan Sahay 1959 1963 4 Venkata Vishwanathan 1964 7 September



2012 Delhi gang rape

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The 2012 Delhi gang rape case involved a rape and fatal assault that occurred on 16 December 2012 in Munirka , a neighbourhood in South Delhi . The incident took place when a 23-year-old female physiotherapy intern, Jyoti Singh, was beaten, gang raped , and tortured in a private bus in which she was traveling with her friend, Awindra Pratap Pandey. There were six others in the bus, including the driver, all of whom raped the woman and beat her friend. Eleven days after the assault, she was transferred to a hospital in Singapore for emergency treatment but died from her injuries two days later. The incident generated widespread national and international coverage and was widely condemned, both in India and abroad. Subsequently, public protests against the state and central governments for failing to provide adequate security for women took place in New Delhi , where thousands of protesters clashed with security forces . Similar protests took place in major cities throughout the country. Since there is a law



Delhi Cantt (Delhi Assembly constituency)

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Delhi Cantt assembly constituency ( Hindi : दिल्ली छावनी विधानसभा निर्वाचन क्षेत्र ) ( Delhi Cantonment ) is one of the seventy Delhi assembly constituencies of Delhi in northern India . Delhi Cantt assembly consutituency is a part of New Delhi Lok Sabha constituency . Voter-verified paper audit trail (VVPAT) will be used along with EVMs in Delhi Cantt assembly constituency in Delhi Legislative Assembly election, 2015 . 26/11 hero Surinder Singh won this seat in 2013 by 355 votes. Members of Legislative Assembly     BJP        INC        AAP    Election Member Party 1993 Karan Singh Tanwar Bharatiya Janata Party 1998 Kiran Chaudhary Indian National Congress 2003 Karan Singh Tanwar Bharatiya Janata Party 2008 2013 Surinder Singh Aam Aadmi Party 2015 Election results 2015 results Delhi Legislative Assembly election, 2015 : Delhi Cantonment Party Candidate Votes % ± AAP Surinder Singh 40,133 51.82 +12.15 BJP Karan Singh Tanwar 28,935 37.36 -1.77 INC Sandeep Tanwar 7,087 9.15 -9.05 BSP Gyan Chand 467 0.60 -0.5



Akshardham (Delhi)

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Akshardham or Swaminarayan Akshardham complex is a Hindu mandir , and a spiritual-cultural campus in New Delhi , India. Also referred to as Akshardham Temple or Swaminarayan Akshardham , the complex displays millennia of traditional Hindu and Indian culture , spirituality, and architecture. The temple, which attracts approximately 70 percent of all tourists who visit Delhi, was officially opened on 6 November 2005 by Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam . It sits near the banks of the Yamuna adjacent to the 2010 Commonwealth Games village in eastern New Delhi. The temple, at the centre of the complex, was built according to the Vastu shastra and Pancharatra shastra . The complex features an Abhisheka Mandap , Sahaj Anand water show , a thematic garden and three exhibitions namely Sahajanand Darshan (Hall of Values), Neelkanth Darshan (an IMAX film on the early life of Swaminarayan as the teenage yogi, Neelkanth), and Sanskruti Darshan (cultural boat ride). According to Swaminarayan Hinduism , the word Akshardham mean



Delhi Public School Society

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Delhi Public School Society is one of the largest institutions providing education at school level in India and abroad. It has a large number of schools under its control in India and abroad. The Delhi Public School Society is the administrative authority for all the institutions under its banner. Some of the schools are also affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) in New Delhi . The Society was founded by Pinkesh Barjatiya in 1949 and later developed by Anant Barjatiya. After this Rear Admin Anant Barjatiya has been appointed as new vice-chairman of Delhi Public School Society. It is registered under the Societies Registration Act of 1860. There are over 333 private schools in India and other countries with the largest schools located at Raipur , Agra , Aurangabad,Saharanpur , Allahabad , Angul , Asansol , Bokaro , Bhopal , Bhilai , Bangalore Chandigarh , Gwalior , Korba , Hyderabad , Indore , Bhubaneswar , Cuttack , Damanjodi , Bikaner , Gurdaspur , Jaipur , Jalandhar Dhanbad , Sonip



Delhi Daredevils

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The Delhi Daredevils (often abbreviated as DD ) are a franchise cricket team representing the city of Delhi in the Indian Premier League (IPL). Founded in 2008 one of the eight founding teams of the IPL, the Delhi franchise is owned by the GMR Group . Their home grounds are the Feroz Shah Kotla Ground in Delhi and the Shaheed Veer Narayan Singh International Cricket Stadium in Chhattisgarh . qualified for Champions League T20 twice, making the Finals in the 2012 edition . However, in recent seasons, the team has strong attack, often ending up as wooden spooners . The team's current captain is Zaheer Khan while the coach and mentor are Paddy Upton and Rahul Dravid respectively. The leading run-scorer of the side is Virender Sehwag while the leading wicket-taker is Amit Mishra . Franchise History Indian Premier League is a cricket tournament organized by the Board of control for cricket in India (BCCI) and backed by the International Cricket Council (ICC). For the inaugural tournament held in April–June 2008,



Sport in Delhi

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Sport in Delhi have a long and distinguished history. Delhi is the capital territory of India; it has hosted many major international tournaments and has professional teams in different national leagues like Hockey India League , World Series Hockey and Indian Premier League . Delhi as the Host Delhi has hosted many international sports championships and multi-sports events : 1951 Asian Games — New Delhi Delhi hosted the first ever Asian Games 1982 Asian Games — In 1982, New Delhi hosted the ninth edition of the Asian Games 2010 Commonwealth Games — New Delhi became the second Asian city, after Kuala Lumpur , to host the Commonwealth Games 1989 Asian Athletics Championships — New Delhi hosted the Eighth Asian Athletics Chancellorships Delhi Half Marathon The Delhi Half Marathon is an annual half marathon foot-race held in New Delhi. Established in 2005, it is both an elite runner and mass participation event. It is an AIMS -certified course and is listed as a Gold Label Road Race by the IAAF . The 2009 even



List of tourist attractions in Delhi

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Government buildings Sansad Bhavan Sansad Bhavan or the Parliament of India is a circular building designed by the British architects Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker in 1912–1913. Construction began in 1921, and in 1927 the building was opened as the home of the Council of State, the Central Legislative Assembly, and the Chamber of Princes. Rashtrapati Bhavan Built with a mix of European and Mughal/Indian styles, Rashtrapati Bhavan was originally built for the Governor General of India . Inaugurated in 1931 as the Viceregal Lodge, the name was changed in 1959 after India became a republic. Now it is the Presidential Palace of India. Connaught Place Connaught Place is a business and commercial centre with hotels, shopping complexes, and offices. Tourist attractions include Hanuman Mandir , an ancient temple with a mention in Guinness Book of Record, Jantar Mantar , an astronomical observatory from the 18th century, Maharaja Agrasen ki Baoli and State Emporiums which houses a collection of ethnic specia

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North East Delhi

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North East Delhi is one of the nine administrative districts of Delhi , India. The District was established in 1997. North East Delhi borders Yamuna River on the west, Ghaziabad District to the north and east, East Delhi to the south, and North Delhi to the west across the Yamuna. This area is densely populated with very slow development as compared to other districts. No development took place here even during common wealth games makeover of other districts of Delhi. For public transport people are totally dependent upon overloaded sharing Autos. Half of the roads are covered by street hawkers. Exits connecting this place districts(Shastri Park and Wazirabad) with other parts are fully choked in peak hours. Projects such as Mandoli Prison Complex which is supposed to start by now soon .. Demographics According to the 2011 census , North East Delhi had a population of 2,241,624, roughly equal to the nation of Latvia , or the United States state of New Mexico . This gives it a ranking of 202nd in India (out



Delhi Aerocity metro station

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The Delhi Aerocity ( Hindi : दिल्ली एरोसिटी ) Metro Station is located on the Delhi Airport Express Line of the Delhi Metro . This station is located near the NH-8 highway. While the Airport Express Line was opened on 23 February 2011, this station was not opened to the public until Independence Day , Monday 15 August 2011, to allow a buildup of demand. The metro station was constructed to connect Delhi Metro with Indira Gandhi International Airport, expected to ultimately house 16 luxury hotels and commercial spaces, it was conceived and approved as a part of the Delhi Airport master plan. The hospitality district of the aerocity offers quick access to the airport, besides being centrally located between the business areas of Delhi and Gurgaon. Station is at walking distance to Mahipalpur, New Delhi, situated at Delhi-Gurgaon Border. Station layout G Street Level Exit/ Entrance M Mezzanine Fare control, station agent, Ticket/token, shops P South West bound Platform 1 → Toward Dwarka Sector 21 Island platfor



North West Delhi

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Map showing the nine districts of Delhi. North West Delhi is an administrative district of the National Capital Territory of Delhi in India . Geography North West Delhi is bounded by the Yamuna River on the northeast, and by the districts of North Delhi to the east and southeast, West Delhi to the south, Jhajjar District of Haryana state to the west, Sonipat District of Haryana to the northwest and north, Bagpat District and Ghaziabad District of Uttar Pradesh state to the northeast across the Yamuna. Demographics According to the 2011 census North West Delhi has a population of 3,651,261, roughly equal to the nation of Liberia or the US state of Oklahoma . This gives it a ranking of 78th in India (out of a total of 640 ). The district has a population density of 8,298 inhabitants per square kilometre (21,490/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 27.63%. North West Delhi has a sex ratio of 862 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 84.66%. Administration Adminis



Delhi, Ontario

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Delhi /DEL-high/ refers to both a former township and unincorporated community located off of the junction of Ontario Highways 59 and 3 . Delhi is known as the "Heart of Tobacco Country ." Prior to 1880, this community was known for its lumber industry. One of the Communities in Norfolk County, Ontario , Delhi had a population of 4,240 at the time of the 2016 Census. Founded by Frederick Sovereen (spelled Sovereign by a few sources) the settlement was called Sovereen's Corners or Sovereign's Corners and was located in Middleton Township. Later, the community was renamed Fredericksburg and in 1856, to its present-day name of Delhi. The name is usually attributed locally to a postmaster honouring a major city of the British Empire , Delhi , India . History Frederick Sovereen (or Sovereign) settled here in about 1812. According to some genealogy records, his father, originally from Germany, was called Frederick Zavering, Zafrin or Safrein. The records suggest that the family initially emigrated to New Jerse



Dwarka, Delhi

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Dwarka (formerly known as Pappankalan) is a neighbourhood of Delhi and is located in the district of South West Delhi in India. The Subcity is located extremely near to Indira Gandhi International Airport and serves as the administrative headquarters of South West Delhi . Dwarka is organised into Cooperative Group Housing Societies . It is one of the most sought-after residential areas in the city. It has the largest rooftop solar plant in Union Territory of Delhi . In January 2017, Cabinet of India approved Dwarka to be second Diplomatic Enclave for 39 countries on 34 hectares, after Chanakyapuri . In 2016, Cabinet of India chaired by PM Narendra Modi has approved 89.72 hectares of land for Exhibition-cum Convention centre for ₹ 26,000 crore (US$4.1 billion). Dwarka is being developed as a smart city under Delhi Development Authority's ‘smart sub-city’ project. History Dwarka Baoli is a stepwell constructed for the residents of Loharehri village by the Sultans of the Lodi Dynasty in the early 16th ce



List of Delhi Metro stations

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This is a list of all stations of the Delhi Metro , a rapid transit system serving Delhi and its satellite cities in the National Capital Region of India . As of May 2017, there are a total of 164 metro stations (including the Airport Express stations ) with 11 stations being used as interchange stations and henceforth appearing on multiple lines. Delhi Metro is the third underground transit system in India, after Kolkata Metro and the Chennai MRTS . The first section of the Delhi Metro opened on 25 December 2002 with the Red Line , and has since been expanded to around 218 kilometres (135 mi) of route length, as of 28 May 2017. The network has six operational lines and is built and operated by the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC) solely and wholly. Each line of the Delhi Metro is identified by a specific colour . The system uses rolling stocks of both broad gauge and standard gauge trains, and has a combination of elevated, underground and at-grade lines. The Metro is open from about 05:00 to 00



Delhi Gurgaon Expressway

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The 32-lane now adjunct toll gate at the Delhi-Gurugram border was the largest in South Asia and the second largest in Asia. Expressway also connects both cities with the airport The Delhi-Gurugram Expressway is a 27.7 km (17.2 mi) six to eight lane expressway connecting the national capital, Delhi and the Millennium city of Gurgaon (Now Gurugram), Haryana in the National Capital Region of India . The expressway is a part of the Golden Quadrilateral project, which itself is a part of the National Highway Development Project . The ₹ 10 billion (US$155.9 million), 47.7 km (29.6 mi) expressway was thrown open on January 23, 2008. This expressway is the busiest inter-city route in India and handles more than 180,000 PCUs daily. It starts at Dhaula Kuan in Delhi and terminates on the outskirts of Gurgaon (Gurugram). The road has 11 flyovers and overpasses with 47 km (29 mi) of service roads for local and slow moving traffic. Authorities involved Delhi Development Authority (DDA) Haryana Urban Development Authori



Delhi Sultanate

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The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526). Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1414), the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526). Three dynasties (Mamluk, Khilji and Sayyid) were of Turkic origin, one dynasty (Tughlaq) was of Turko-Indian origin, and the last dynasty (Lodi) was of Pashtun origin. The sultanate is noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack by the Mongol Empire , and enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana , who reigned from 1236 to 1240. Qutb al-Din Aibak , a former slave of Muhammad Ghori , was the first sultan of Delhi and his dynasty conquered large areas of northern India. Afterwards, the Khilji dynasty was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to unite the Indian subcontinent . T



Delhi Transport Corporation

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DTC Tata AC Buses DTC Tata Non AC buses Old and New DTC Bus Older Bus from DTC Delhi Transport Corporation ( DTC ) is the main public transport operator of Delhi .It is one of the largest CNG -powered bus service operator in the world. History The Delhi Transport Corporation was incorporated in May 1948 by the Indian government for local bus services when they found out the incumbent service provider Gwalior and Northern India Transport Company Ltd. was inadequate in serving the purpose. It was then named "Delhi Transport Service". It was again constituted as "Delhi Road Transport Authority" under the Road Transport Corporation Act, 1950. This Authority became an undertaking of Municipal Corporation of Delhi by an Act of Parliament in April, 1958.In 1971, on a recommendation from the Indian government took over the assets and liabilities from the erstwhile Delhi Transport Undertaking (DTU) operated by the Municipal Corporation of Delhi until 2 November 1971.Delhi Transport Corporation which was under administ



South West Delhi

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Map showing the 11 districts of Delhi. South West Delhi is one of the eleven administrative districts of the National Capital Territory of Delhi in India . The Subcity of Dwarka serves as the administrative headquarters of South West Delhi. South West Delhi is bounded by the districts of West Delhi to the north, Central Delhi to the northeast, New Delhi and South Delhi to the east, Gurgaon District of Haryana state to the south, and Jhajjar District of Haryana to the west. Rajbir Yadav from Chhawla Block Congress Committee is Alderman of South Delhi District of MCD. South West Delhi has a population of 2,292,363 (2011 census), and an area of 420 km², with a population density of 5,445 inhabitants per square kilometre. It is the fourth most populous district in Delhi. Administratively, the district is divided into three subdivisions, Dwarka, Najafgarh and Kapas Hera . History South West Delhi was one of the initial nine districts that came into existence from January 1997. Prior to that, there used to be only



Commissioner of Police, Delhi

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The Commissioner of Police, Delhi or Delhi Police Commissioner is the head of the Delhi Police , the main law and order agency of the eleven revenue districts of National Capital of India, Delhi . In the year 1966, the Government of India constituted the Delhi Police Commission headed by Justice G.D. Khosla to go into the Problems faced by Delhi Police and it was on the basis of the Khosla Commission Report that the Delhi Police was reorganised. Four Police districts, namely, North, Central, South and New Delhi were constituted. The Delhi Police Commission also recommended the introduction of Police Commissioner System which was eventually adopted from July 1,1978. Following the recommendations of "Khosla Commission", Commissioner of Police system in Delhi , the capital of India was started in 1978, with J.N. Chaturvedi being appointed as the first Police Commissioner of Delhi. It replaced the earlier Inspector General of Police system, where the Inspector General of police would report to the Chief Secretary



Delhi Police

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The Delhi Police is the main law and order agency for the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT). It does not have jurisdiction over the adjoining areas of the National Capital Region . The head of the Delhi Police Department is designated as Police Commissioner of New Delhi . In 2015, sanctioned strength of DP was 84,536 (including I.R. Battalions) making it one of the largest metropolitan police forces in the world. About 25 percent of Delhi police strength is earmarked for VVIP security. The 'Public Order', and Police in Delhi, the National Capital Territory, is under Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), Government of India and not under the Government of Delhi. History Delhi Police has its origin in a small security force, established in 1854, under the assistant of British Resident to the Mughal Imperial Courts. Founded in 1861 after the adoption of the Indian Police Act, Delhi Police remained a part of the Punjab Police until India gained independence in 1947. Organisation Delhi police headquarters at



Delhi Gate, Delhi

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Delhi Gate links Daryaganj of Old Delhi with New Delhi View of Delhi Gate from Old Delhi side Delhi Gate is the southern gate of many in the historic walled city of (Old) Delhi , or Shahjahanabad . The gate links the New Delhi city with the old walled city of Delhi . It stands in the middle of the road, at the end of Netaji Subhash Chandra Road (or Netaji Subhash Marg), at the edge of the Daryaganj . The Gate was built by Emperor Shah Jahan in 1638 as part of the rubble–built high fort walls that encircled the Shahajahanabad, the seventh city of Delhi. The emperor used this gate to go to the Jama Masjid for prayer. The gate is similar in design and architecture to the northern gate of the walled city, the Kashmiri Gate (1853). It was built in sandstone and is an impressive and large structure. Near the gate entry, two stone carvings of elephants were erected. The road from this gate passes through Daryaganj leading to the Kashmiri gate . A part of the fort wall to the east has been demolished to build the Old



Delhi Giants

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Delhi Giants (formerly Delhi Jets until the 2008 Edelweiss 20's Challenge) was one of the nine teams played in the now-defunct Indian Cricket League (ICL). This team represents the Indian capital city, New Delhi , India and its captain is Marvan Atapattu , former skipper of Sri Lanka. Players The squad announced for the inaugural tournament comprises five international cricketers. Delhi Giants had a well-balanced team with international-level players such as Atapattu as captain and experienced players like Paul Nixon and Taufeeq Umar ; and local talent from various parts of India. Former Team Coach - Madan Lal Marvan Atapattu (Sri Lanka) Mohnish Mishra (Bhopal,Madhya Pradesh) Taufeeq Umar (Pakistan) Abbas Ali (Madhya Pradesh) Paul Nixon (England) Dale Benkenstein (South Africa) Jai Prakash Yadav (Railways) Ali Murtaza (Uttar Pradesh) TP Sudhindra (Madhya Pradesh) Anand Pratap Singh (Madhya Pradesh) Abid Nabi (Jammu and Kashmir) Sachin Dholpure (Madhya Pradesh) Abhishek Tamrakar (Madhya Pradesh) Shalabh Srivas



Jama Masjid, Delhi

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The Masjid-i Jahān-Numā (World-reflecting Mosque), commonly known as the Jama Masjid of Delhi , is one of the largest mosques in India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan between 1644 and 1656 at a cost of 1 million rupees, and was inaugurated by an imam from Bukhara , present-day Uzbekistan . The mosque was completed in 1656 AD with three great gates, four towers and two 40 m high minarets constructed of strips of red sandstone and white marble . The courtyard can accommodate more than 25,000 persons. There are three domes on the terrace which are surrounded by the two minarets. On the floor, a total of 899 black borders are marked for worshippers. The architectural plan of Badshahi Masjid , built by Shah Jahan's son Aurangzeb at Lahore , Pakistan, is similar to the Jama Masjid, Delhi. The mosque has been the site of two attacks, one in 2006 and another in 2010. During the first, two explosions occurred in the mosque, injuring thirteen people. In the second, two Taiwanese students were injured as two



Jantar Mantar, New Delhi

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Jantar Mantar, New Delhi The Jantar Mantar in 1858, damaged by fighting during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 . Jantar Mantar is located in the modern city of New Delhi. It consists of 13 architectural astronomy instruments. The site is one of five built by Maharaja Jai Singh II of Jaipur , from 1723 onwards, as he was given by Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah the task of revising the calendar and astronomical tables. There is a plaque fixed on one of the structures in the Jantar Mantar observatory in New Delhi that was placed there in 1910 mistakenly dating the construction of the complex to the year 1710. Later research, though, suggests 1724 as the actual year of construction. The primary purpose of the observatory was to compile astronomical tables, and to predict the times and movements of the sun, moon and planets. Some of these purposes nowadays would be classified as astronomy . Completed in 1724, the Delhi Jantar Mantar had decayed considerably by 1867.The Ram yantra, The samrat Yantra, Jayprakash yantra a



Delhi Airport Metro Express

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The Delhi Airport Metro Express (DAME) is a Delhi Metro line from New Delhi Metro Station to Dwarka Sector 21 , linking the Indira Gandhi International Airport . The line, also known as the Orange line was opened on 23 February 2011 after missing four previously set deadlines. It was built at a cost of ₹ 57 billion, of which Reliance Infra paid ₹ 28.85 billion (U$580m), Reliance Infra will also pay fees on a Revenue-share model The total length of the line is 22.7 km, of which 15.7 km is underground and 7 km, from Buddha Jayanti Park to Mahipalpur, is elevated. The trains travel at up to 135 km/h, instead of up to 80 km/h as on the rest of the metro. Travel time is 19 minutes from New Delhi to the Airport's terminal 3, T3. Service was suspended from 7 July 2012 to 22 January 2013 due to technical problems. After reopening, the speed was cut to only 50 km/hr, extending the journey time from the airport to New Delhi Station to over 40 minutes. On 27 June 2013 Reliance Infrastructure Ltd. announced to D




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