Dead letter queue

In message queueing the dead letter queue is a service implementation to store messages that meet one or more of the following criteria :

  1. Message that is sent to a queue that does not exist.[1][2]
  2. Queue length limit exceeded.
  3. Message length limit exceeded.
  4. Message is rejected by another queue exchange.[3]
  5. Message reaches a threshold read counter number, because it is not consumed. Sometimes this is called a "back out queue".

Dead letter queue storing of these messages allows developers to look for common patterns and potential software problems.[4]

Queueing systems that incorporate dead letter queues include Amazon Simple Queue Service [4], Apache ActiveMQ, HornetQ, Microsoft Message Queuing [1],WebSphere MQ [5] and Rabbit MQ [6].

References
  1. Redkar, Arohi (2004). Pro MSMQ: Microsoft Message Queue Programming. Apress. p. 148. ISBN 1430207329.
  2. "Dead-letter queues". IBM. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  3. RabbitMQ dead letter queue"Dead Letter Exchanges".
  4. "Using Amazon SQS Dead Letter Queues". Amazon. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  5. Böhm-Mäder, Johannes. WebSphere MQ Security: Tales of Scowling Wolves Among Unglamorous Sheep. BoD. p. 68. ISBN 3842381506.
  6. RabitMQ dead letter queue"Dead Letter Exchanges".
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Game of Thrones (season 1)

topic

Game of Thrones (season 1)

The first season of the fantasy drama television series Game of Thrones premiered on HBO on April 17, 2011, at 9.00 pm in the U.S., and concluded on June 19, 2011. It consists of ten episodes, each of approximately 55 minutes. The series is based on A Game of Thrones, the first novel in the A Song of Ice and Fire series by George R. R. Martin, adapted for television by David Benioff and D. B. Weiss. HBO had ordered a television pilot in November 2008; filming began the following year. However, it was deemed unsatisfactory and later reshot with some roles being recast. In March 2010, HBO ordered the first season, which began filming in July 2010, primarily in Belfast, Northern Ireland, with additional filming in Malta. The story takes place in a fictional world, primarily upon a continent called Westeros, with one storyline occurring on another continent to the east known as Essos. Like the novel, the season initially focuses on the family of nobleman Eddard Stark, who is asked to become chief advisor to his ...more...

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Amazon (company)

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Amazon (company)

Amazon.com, Inc., doing business as Amazon (), is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company based in Seattle, Washington that was founded by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994. The tech giant is the largest Internet retailer in the world as measured by revenue and market capitalization, and second largest after Alibaba Group in terms of total sales.[3] The amazon.com website started as an online bookstore and later diversified to sell video downloads/streaming, MP3 downloads/streaming, audiobook downloads/streaming, software, video games, electronics, apparel, furniture, food, toys, and jewelry. The company also produces consumer electronics—Kindle e-readers, Fire tablets, Fire TV, and Echo—and is the world's largest provider of cloud infrastructure services (IaaS and PaaS).[4] Amazon also sells certain low-end products under its in-house brand AmazonBasics. Amazon has separate retail websites for the United States, the United Kingdom and Ireland, France, Canada, Germany, Italy, Spain, Netherlands, ...more...

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Streets and highways of Washington, D.C.

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Streets and highways of Washington, D.C.

The streets and highways of Washington, D.C., form the core of the city's surface transportation infrastructure. As a planned city, streets in the capital of the United States follow a distinctive layout and addressing scheme. There are 1,500 miles (2,400 km) of public roads in the city, of which 1,392 miles (2,240 km) are owned and maintained by the District government.[1] City layout Facsimile of manuscript of Peter Charles L'Enfant's 1791 plan for the federal capital city (U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1887)[2] L'Enfant's plan for Washington, D.C., as revised by Andrew Ellicott. 1792. Thackara & Vallance's 1792 print of Ellicott's "Plan of the City of Washington in the Territory of Columbia ...", showing street names, lot numbers, depths of the Potomak River and legends. Washington, D.C., is divided into four quadrants: Northwest, Northeast, Southeast, and Southwest. The axes bounding the quadrants radiate from the U.S. Capitol building. The District of Columbia was created ...more...

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The Fall and Rise of Reginald Perrin

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The Fall and Rise of Reginald Perrin

The Fall and Rise of Reginald Perrin is a series of novels written by David Nobbs. He also adapted them for a British sitcom starring Leonard Rossiter in the title role. It was produced from 1976 to 1979. He adapted the screenplay for the first series from the novel. Some of its subplots were considered too dark or risqué for television and were toned down or omitted. The story concerns a middle-aged middle manager, Reginald "Reggie" Perrin, who reveals himself in the first series to be aged 46, who is driven to bizarre behaviour by the pointlessness of his job at Sunshine Desserts. The sitcom proved to be a subversion of others of the era, which were often based on bland middle-class suburban family life. The first novel in the series, The Death of Reginald Perrin, was published in 1975. Later editions were retitled to match the title of the television series. Subsequent novels (The Return of Reginald Perrin [1977] and The Better World of Reginald Perrin [1978]) were written by Nobbs with the express goal ...more...

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Pre–election day events of the Singaporean general election, 2006

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Pre–election day events of the Singaporean general election, 2006

These are the events concerning the 2006 Singaporean general election which occurred before the polling day on 6 May 2006. Pre–nomination day eventsNew candidates This election was expected to have a large number of new candidates as the major political parties had undergone self-renewal in recent years, many of whom belong to the post-1965 generation. PAP had introduced 24 new candidates. Opposition fielded a total of 25 new candidates, in which the two opposition parties that held a seat, the Workers' Party and the Singapore Democratic Alliance introduced 15 and eight new candidates, respectively. Singapore Democratic Party, a group which did not win any seats in the last election, fielded two new candidates. A total of 49 brand-new candidates (including 11 female candidates, seven from PAP, four from WP and one from SDP) participated in the election. Name Age Occupation Party Contested Constituency Abdul Rahman Mohamad 54 Fire Safety Cosnultant SDA Tampines GRC Abdul Salim Harun 24 Sales Coordinato ...more...



British soldiers in the eighteenth century

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British soldiers in the eighteenth century

Redcoat soldier of the 29th Regiment of Foot in 1742 A redcoat soldier in the British Army during the 18th century would have faced war in a number of theatres throughout the European continent, the Americas and the colonies of the British Empire; the Jacobite rising of 1745, the Seven Years' War between 1756–63, the American War of Independence between 1775–83, and the French Revolutionary Wars between 1792–1802. At the start of the 19th century, and as part of an army going through extensive gradual reform, he would face the ensuing Napoleonic Wars from 1803–15. Life for a redcoat soldier was often tough and challenging.[1] Plenty of training was needed before a soldier could enter the battlefield; drills and exercises had to be strictly followed as punishments were applied for even the most minor of mistakes.[2] A soldier in the army British Grenadier of the 40th Regiment of Foot in 1767 The British Army in the 18th century was commonly seen as disciplined, regimented and harsh.[3] Camp life was ...more...

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Electoral fraud and violence during the Turkish general election, June 2015

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Electoral fraud and violence during the Turkish general election, June 2015

In the run-up to, during and after the Turkish general election of June 2015, numerous accusations of electoral fraud and violence were made by opposition parties. Electoral fraud in Turkey has usually been most extensive during local elections, where individual votes have significantly larger impact in determining local administrations. Although the 2014 presidential election saw little evidence of electoral misconduct, issues regarding voter records as well as extensive media bias have been controversial issues that have remained largely unaddressed.[1] In both the local and presidential elections in 2014, several voters reported that ballot papers had been sent to addresses that are wrong or do not exist as well as voters that have been dead for a substantial amount of time.[2][3] In March 2015, an unnamed AKP source close to one of the party's deputy leaders Süleyman Soylu revealed that his party had staged electoral fraud during the 2014 local elections and claimed that several AKP employees were uncomf ...more...

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Effect of the 2007–08 Writers Guild of America strike on television

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Effect of the 2007–08 Writers Guild of America strike on television

November 2007 striking writers and supporters rally in Los Angeles The 2007–08 Writers Guild of America strike, which began on November 5, 2007, was a labor conflict that affected a large number of television shows that were due to be broadcast in the United States during the 2007–08 television season. Negotiators for the striking writers reached a tentative agreement on February 8, 2008, and the boards of both guilds unanimously approved the deal on February 10, 2008.[1] Striking writers voted on February 12, 2008, to end the strike immediately,[2] and on February 26, the WGA announced that the contract had been ratified with a 93.6% approval among WGA members.[3] Effect on showsShows with increased number of episodes Some shows, especially unscripted or reality shows, benefitted from the strike by providing the networks with new material. Show Network: Notes The Amazing Race CBS Originally only one season (The Amazing Race 12) was planned for the 2007-2008 season. A second season of the show (The A ...more...

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Malaysian passport

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Malaysian passport

The Malaysian passport (Malay: Pasport Malaysia) is the passport issued to citizens of Malaysia by the Immigration Department of Malaysia. The main legislation governing the production of passports and travel documents, their possession by persons entering and leaving Malaysia, and related matters is the Passport Act 1966. Processing of Malaysian passport applications and renewals is very rapid, with new passports usually issued one hour after payment for normal cases.[1] The introduction of passport renewal kiosks (KiPPas) at Immigration Department branches across the country allow passport applicants to apply and pay for their passports without queuing at the passport application counters.[2] Regular international non-ICAO biometric passport issued from 1998 to 2010 Restricted passport Visa requirements Holders of Malaysian passports enjoy visa-free travel or visa on arrival to many nations around the world. According to the 2018 Visa Restrictions Index, a ranking of countries according to th ...more...

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Edison Chen

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Edison Chen

Edison Koon-hei Chen (born 7 October 1980) is a Canadian actor, rapper, singer-songwriter, producer, entrepreneur, artist and fashion designer. Chen is also the founder of CLOT Inc., and the CEO of Clot Media Division Limited. Having made his debut in the Hong Kong music industry in 1999, he released a number of Cantopop and Mandopop albums under the record company Emperor Entertainment Group before finally making his first hip-hop album in Cantonese with the critically acclaimed 2004 release of Please Steal This Album. He followed this up with the 2005 Cantonese hip-hop album Hazy: The 144 Hour Project and the 2007 Mandarin hip-hop album Allow Me To Re-Introduce Myself. On 21 February 2008 he publicly announced that he intended to step away "indefinitely" from the Hong Kong entertainment industry due to the sex photo scandal in 2008, in which numerous photographs of his naked body and private parts, and those of several Hong Kong Chinese actresses, were published online.[1][2] He returned in 2010 but other ...more...

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Agile software development

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Agile software development

Agile software development describes an approach to software development under which requirements and solutions evolve through the collaborative effort of self-organizing and cross-functional teams and their customer(s)/end user(s).[1] It advocates adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, and continual improvement, and it encourages rapid and flexible response to change.[2] The term agile (sometimes written Agile)[3] was popularized, in this context, by the Manifesto for Agile Software Development.[4] The values and principles espoused in this manifesto were derived from and underpin a broad range of software development frameworks, including Scrum and Kanban.[5][6] There is significant anecdotal evidence that adopting agile practices and values improves the agility of software professionals, teams and organizations; however, some empirical studies have found no scientific evidence.[7][8] History Iterative and incremental development methods can be traced back as early as 1957,[9] with ...more...

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Reactions to the Manchester Arena bombing

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Reactions to the Manchester Arena bombing

Tel Aviv City Hall illuminated with the colours of the Union Flag in solidarity with the UK The reactions to the Manchester Arena bombing, which occurred on 22 May 2017, include the responses by political and religious leaders, media and the general public, both within the United Kingdom, where the Manchester Arena bombing took place, and from other nations and international organizations. Numerous notable establishments around the world also held memorials. Ariana Grande, who had been giving a concert at the Manchester Arena shortly before the attack, issued a statement thereafter via Twitter that she was "broken," and offered to help those affected by the bombing. The general public sympathized with Grande's words and showed their overwhelming support as her statement later became the second most liked tweet of all time. In addition to returning to the city to visit and FaceTime hospitalized victims, Grande subsequently organised a benefit concert, One Love Manchester, headlined by herself and a number ...more...

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Jock Palfreeman

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Jock Palfreeman

Jock Palfreeman (born 13 November 1986)[1] is an Australian who was convicted of murder and sentenced to 20 years in a Bulgarian prison. Palfreeman was serving in the British Army at the time of the incident.[2][3] The event In the early hours of December 28 2007, 21-year-old Jock Palfreeman was involved in an incident during which Bulgarian student Andrei Monov was fatally stabbed. According to the case file, Monov received a single stab wound to the side of his chest, while 19-year-old Antoan Zahariev received a slash wound to the side of his torso. Palfreeman was injured after being hit in the head and arm with pieces of concrete pavers.[4] Monov and Zahariev had been out with over a dozen other youths. Palfreeman was charged with murder with hooligan intent and attempted murder. He claimed he saw the group chase two Roma. When he saw the group start attacking one of the Roma he ran across a downtown square to help the victim. When the attack then turned on him, he pulled a knife from his pocket and wave ...more...

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Dragon Raja

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Dragon Raja

Dragon Raja (Korean:드래곤 라자; abbreviated as 드라) is the first series of fantasy novels written by Lee Yeongdo, one of the most famous fantasy novelists in South Korea. The books chronicle the adventures of a 17-year-old boy Hoochie Nedval, his mentor Karl Heltant and his friend Sanson Percival, all of whom are from the poor town of Fief Heltant in the Kingdom of Bysus.[1] The main story arc, told in the first-person by Hoochie, concerns the three's quest to rescue their people from the black dragon Amurtaht by finding money to pay the ransom; then to find and protect a lost dragon raja girl, who would serve as the bridge between people and dragons and stop a crimson dragon that terrorized the continent 20 years ago. Lee showcased his first chapters of Dragon Raja on 3 October 1997 on a serial forum of an online service provider, Hitel. For the duration of 6 months after the initial debut he updated approximately 12,000 pages of wongoji (a Korean form of Genkō yōshi), a material length equivalent to that of 171 ...more...

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List of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Peoples Republic of China spokespersons

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List of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Peoples Republic of China spokespersons

The Spokesperson for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China is director of the Information Department or one of his deputies. designate Term end spokesperson Chinese language zh:中华人民共和国外交部发言人 Observations Foreign Minister of the People's Republic of China 1976 1982 Qian Qichen zh:钱其琛 Huang Hua 1983 1984 Qi Huaiyuan zh:齐怀远 (* January 1930 in Hubei) graduated from the School of Foreign Languages Harbin. In 1950, he joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. In 1983 he was spokesman. In 1984 he served as Assistant Minister. In 1986 he was promoted to secretary of state. In 1991 he was director of the Office of Foreign Affairs Council State. Wu Xueqian 1984 1985 Yu Zhizhong 俞志忠 *from February 26, 1980 to 1983 he was first secretary in Washington, D.C. Wu Xueqian 1984 1985 Wang Zhenyu 王振宇 Wu Xueqian 1984 1988 Ma Zhaoxu zh:马毓真 Wu Xueqian 1985 1990 Li Zhaoxing zh:李肇星 Wu Xueqian 1987 1991 Li Jinhua (1932) zh:李金华 (外交官) *graduated from Nankai University. ...more...



Marie Thérèse of France

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Marie Thérèse of France

Marie-Thérèse Charlotte of France (19 December 1778 – 19 October 1851), Madame Royale, was the eldest child of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, and the only one to reach adulthood (her siblings all dying before the age of 11). She was married to Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême, who was the eldest son of the future Charles X, her father's younger brother; thus the bride and groom were also first cousins. After her marriage, she was known as the Duchess of Angoulême. She became the Dauphine of France upon the accession of her father-in-law to the throne of France in 1824. Technically she was Queen of France for twenty minutes, on 2 August 1830, between the time her father-in-law signed the instrument of abdication and the time her husband, reluctantly, signed the same document.[1][2] Early life Marie-Thérèse was born at the Palace of Versailles on 19 December 1778, the first child (after seven years of her parents' marriage), and eldest daughter of King Louis XVI of France and Queen Marie Antoinette.[3] As th ...more...

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MAG (video game)

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MAG (video game)

MAG was an online multiplayer-only first-person shooter[4] video game developed by Zipper Interactive for the PlayStation 3. The game was released in North America on January 26, 2010,[2] mainland Europe on January 27 and the United Kingdom on January 29. It was released in Australia and New Zealand on February 11, 2010.[5] MAG received an award from Guinness World Records as "Most Players in a Console FPS" with 256 players.[6] On January 28, 2014, the online servers for MAG were shut down. Due to its reliance on online play, it is no longer possible to play the game.[7] Gameplay First in-game screenshot (from internal play sessions) MAG used a new server architecture[8] to support online battles with up to 256 players, with users divided into eight-player squads, with four squads forming a platoon, and four platoons forming a company.[9][10] Each squad is led by a player who has advanced through the game's ranking system.[9] Character statistics and development also increase with frequent gameplay.[1 ...more...

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List of words having different meanings in American and British English (M–Z)

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List of words having different meanings in American and British English (M–Z)

This is the list of words having different meanings in British and American English: M–Z. For the first portion of the list, see List of words having different meanings in British and American English: A–L. Asterisked (*) meanings, though found chiefly in the specified region, also have some currency in the other dialect; other definitions may be recognised by the other as Briticisms or Americanisms respectively. Additional usage notes are provided when useful. M Word British English meanings Meanings common to British and American English American English meanings mac raincoat (short form of Mackintosh) (Mac) brand of Apple Inc. computers (short form of Macintosh) (Uncommon slang; proper n.) A term of informal address used with male strangers;[1][2] generally implies more unfriendliness or disapproval than the more neutral 'pal' or 'buddy': "Get your car out of my way, Mac!" UK generally 'mate'. Cf. 'Jack.' type of pasta (short form of macaroni) – as in 'mac and cheese' Mackintosh, Macintosh, ...more...

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Daniel Grabauskas

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Daniel Grabauskas

Daniel Anthony Grabauskas (born June 27, 1963) is an American transportation executive and government figure, who is the former executive director and CEO of the Honolulu Authority for Rapid Transportation (HART) and former general manager of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). Early life and education Grabauskas was born in Worcester, Massachusetts.[2] He is the eldest of four children (sisters Lisa, Karen, and brother David). His father, Drasutis Antanas "Tony" Grabauskas, was a native of Lithuania who emigrated to the United States with his parents in 1949 and died in 2010.[3] His mother, Patricia (Sheehan) Grabauskas-Caruso, is a native of Milbury, Massachusetts.[4][5][6] Grabauskas grew up in the Central Massachusetts towns of Sutton and Auburn.[7] He attended St. John's High School, received his BA from the College of the Holy Cross and his MBA from Cornell University's Johnson School of Management.[8][9] Early career Grabauskas began his government career in 1987 on the staff of Ma ...more...

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Fortran

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Fortran

Fortran (; formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation[2]) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. Originally developed by IBM[3] in the 1950s for scientific and engineering applications, FORTRAN came to dominate this area of programming early on and has been in continuous use for over half a century in computationally intensive areas such as numerical weather prediction, finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamics, computational physics, crystallography and computational chemistry. It is a popular language for high-performance computing[4] and is used for programs that benchmark and rank the world's fastest supercomputers.[5] Fortran encompasses a lineage of versions, each of which evolved to add extensions to the language while usually retaining compatibility with prior versions. Successive versions have added support for structured programming and processing of character-based data (FORTRAN 7 ...more...

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List of Crayon Shin-chan episodes (1992–2001)

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List of Crayon Shin-chan episodes (1992–2001)

This is a list of Crayon Shin-chan episodes that aired from 1992 to 2001.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] Episode list1992 # Title Original Airdate 1 "Running an Errand / Mama's Mornings are Busy / Doodling"(おつかいに行くゾ / ママの朝は忙しいゾ / お絵かきするゾ)  April 13, 1992 Misae forgets to buy some ingredients for dinner that she is cooking for a client of Hiroshi, so she asks Shin to go get them for her. But Shin makes this task more complicated than it should. It was later revealed that Hiroshi's client had to cancel the dinner. / Shin-chan acts lazy to wake up and go to school because of which, he misses his bus all the time. Misae gets angry on him. / Shin-chan and his friends learn drawing in school. Shin-chan finds faults in others, but fails in it himself. His teacher helps him draw a plane.  2 "Tricycles are Fun / My Stomach Is Going to Burst / A Nightmare for Dad"(三輪車は楽しいゾ / お腹がパンパン痛いゾ / 父ちゃんだって大変だゾ)  April 20, 1992 After much hesitation, Misae gives Shin a tricycle to play with. When he accidentally drops i ...more...

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List of bank runs

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List of bank runs

2007 run on Northern Rock, a UK bank This is a list of bank runs. A bank run occurs when a large number of bank customers withdraw their deposits because they believe the bank might fail. As more people withdraw their deposits, the likelihood of default increases, and this encourages further withdrawals. This can destabilize the bank to the point where it faces bankruptcy.[1] 1600s In 1656, after several attempts, Johan Palmstruch was given permission by the Crown of Sweden to start a bank, Stockholm Banco. In 1661 it became the first in Europe to give out banknotes. As lending rose rapidly in just a few years, the value of the banknotes began to fall. In 1664 the bank closed operations, unable to give back the customers money. Palmstruch was imprisoned, the Crown took over the bank, and formed what is still today Rikets Ständers Bank, the national bank of Sweden, operated by the parliament. 1800s In 1866, Overend, Gurney and Company suffered a bank run. It incorporated as a limited liability company i ...more...

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2012 United Kingdom fuel crisis

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2012 United Kingdom fuel crisis

In March 2012 Unite trades union warned it was considering a strike over health and safety standards. Unite represents around 2,000 tanker drivers, who deliver fuel to 90% of Britain's forecourts.[1][2] Although no strike took place, Government action precipitated panic-buying and a woman was very seriously injured after following a minister's advice to store extra petrol.[3] Background Towards the end of 2007, fuel prices exceeded £1 per litre with a two-pence rise in fuel tax in October, resulting in the highest diesel prices and the fourth highest for petrol in Europe.[4] New protests were planned by two unconnected groups, one called Transaction 2007 and the Road Haulage Association (RHA).[4] The RHA is currently headed by Chief Executive Mr Geoff Dunning. Protesters claimed that forecourts and oil firms were profiteering. Tanker drivers also claimed felt that they were being neglected and over worked. They were also concerned about the outsourcing in the haulage industry has triggered relentless pressur ...more...

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Marks & Spencer

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Marks & Spencer

Marks & Spencer Group plc (also known as M&S) is a major British multinational retailer headquartered in the City of Westminster, London. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It specialises in the selling of clothing, home products and luxury food products. M&S was founded in 1884 by Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer in Leeds.[3] The company also began to sell branded goods like Kellogg's Corn Flakes in November 2008.[4] M&S currently has 979 stores across the U.K. including 615 that only sell food products.[5] In 1998, the company became the first British retailer to make a pre-tax profit of over £1 billion,[6] although subsequently it went into a sudden slump, which took the company, its shareholders, who included hundreds of thousands of small investors, and nearly all retail analysts and business journalists, by surprise. In November 2009, it was announced that Marc Bolland, formerly of Morrisons,[7] would take over as chief executive f ...more...

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List of Gunsmoke television episodes

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List of Gunsmoke television episodes

James Arness as Marshall Matt Dillon, 1956 Clockwise from top: Ken Curtis (Festus), Arness (Matt), Amanda Blake (Kitty), and Milburn Stone (Doc) in 1968 Gunsmoke is an American western television series developed by Charles Marquis Warren and based on the radio program of the same name.[1] The series ran for 20 seasons, making it the longest-running western in television history. The first episode aired in the United States on September 10, 1955, and the final episode aired on March 31, 1975.[2][3] All episodes were broadcast in the U.S. by CBS.[4] In the United Kingdom Gunsmoke was originally broadcast under the title Gun Law.[5] Gunsmoke was originally a half-hour program filmed in black-and-white. The series expanded to an hour in length with season seven and began filming in color in season twelve. During its run 635 episodes were broadcast, of which 233 were 30 minutes in length and 402 were 60 minutes in length. Of the hour-long episodes 176 were in black-and-white and 226 in color.[6] During s ...more...

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Telephone exchange

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Telephone exchange

A telephone operator manually connecting calls with cord pairs at a telephone switchboard. A modern central office, equipped for voice communication and broadband data. A telephone exchange is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in large enterprises. An exchange consists of electronic components and in older systems also human operators that interconnect (switch) telephone subscriber lines or virtual circuits of digital systems to establish telephone calls between subscribers. In historical perspective, telecommunication terms have been used with different semantics over time. The term telephone exchange is often used synonymously with central office (CO), a Bell System term. Often, a central office is defined as a building used to house the inside plant equipment of potentially several telephone exchanges, each serving a certain geographical area. Such an area has also been referred to as the exchange. Central office locations may also be identified in North ...more...

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Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey

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Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey

The Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey is an American multi-mission, tiltrotor military aircraft with both vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL), and short takeoff and landing (STOL) capabilities. It is designed to combine the functionality of a conventional helicopter with the long-range, high-speed cruise performance of a turboprop aircraft. The failure of Operation Eagle Claw during the Iran hostage crisis in 1980 underscored the requirement for a new long-range, high-speed, vertical-takeoff aircraft for the United States Department of Defense. In response, the Joint-service Vertical take-off/landing Experimental (JVX) aircraft program started in 1981. A partnership between Bell Helicopter and Boeing Helicopters was awarded a development contract in 1983 for the V-22 tiltrotor aircraft. The Bell Boeing team jointly produce the aircraft.[5] The V-22 first flew in 1989, and began flight testing and design alterations; the complexity and difficulties of being the first tiltrotor for military service led to many years of ...more...

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The Home Depot

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The Home Depot

The Home Depot Inc. or Home Depot is an American home improvement supplies retailing company that sells tools, construction products, and services. The company is headquartered at the Atlanta Store Support Center in unincorporated Cobb County, Georgia (with an Atlanta mailing address). It operates many big-box format stores across the United States (including all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam), all 10 provinces of Canada, and the country of Mexico. The MRO company Interline Brands is also owned by The Home Depot with 70 distribution centers across the United States.[4][5] The Home Depot is the largest home improvement retailer in the United States, ahead of rival Lowe's.[6] History1978–1999 One of the first The Home Depot stores in the Atlanta area in 1979. The Home Depot was co-founded by Bernard Marcus, Arthur Blank, Ron Brill, and Pat Farrah in 1978.[7] The Home Depot's proposition was to build home-improvement superstores, larger than any of their ...more...

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The Years of Rice and Salt

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The Years of Rice and Salt

The Years of Rice and Salt is an alternate history novel written by science fiction author Kim Stanley Robinson and published in 2002. The novel explores how world history might have been different if the Black Death plague had killed 99% of Europe's population, instead of a third. Divided into ten parts, the story spans hundreds of years, from the army of the Muslim conqueror Timur to the 21st century, with Europe being re-populated by Muslim pioneers, the indigenous peoples of the Americas forming a league to resist Chinese and Muslim invaders, and a 67-year-long world war being fought primarily between Muslim states and the Chinese and their allies. While the ten parts take place in different times and places, they are connected by a group of characters that are reincarnated into each time but are identified to the reader by the first letter of their name being consistent in each life. The novel explores themes of history, religion, and social movements. The historical narrative is guided more by social h ...more...

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Cherie Blair

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Cherie Blair

Blair with Lubna Khalid Al Qasimi Cherie Blair CBE QC (née Booth; born 23 September 1954), also known professionally as Cherie Booth, is a British barrister and lecturer. She is married to Tony Blair, who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Early life and education Booth was born in 23 September 1954 at Fairfield General Hospital, Bury, Lancashire, England,[2] and brought up in Ferndale Road, Waterloo, Merseyside, just north of Liverpool. Although her birth was registered as 'Cherie', owing to her maternal grandmother's influence she was christened 'Theresa Cara' in deference to the requirement that she be given a saint's name.[3] Her father, British actor Tony Booth, left her mother, actress Gale Howard (née Joyce Smith; 14 February 1933 – 5 June 2016), when Cherie was 8 years old. Cherie and her younger sister Lyndsey were then brought up by Gale and their paternal grandmother Vera Booth, a devout Roman Catholic of Irish descent. The sisters attended Catholic schools in Crosby, Merseyside. Che ...more...

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Death in June

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Death in June

Death in June are a neofolk group led by English folk musician Douglas Pearce, better known as Douglas P. The band was originally formed in Britain in 1981 as a trio, but after the other members left in 1984 and 1985 to work on other projects, the group became the work of Douglas P. and various collaborators. Douglas P. now lives in Australia. Over the band's three decades of existence, they have made numerous shifts in style and presentation, resulting in an overall shift from initial post-punk and Industrial Records influence to a more acoustic and folk music-oriented approach. They are sometimes considered controversial (largely due to usage of themes and imagery relating to Nazi Germany). Douglas P.'s influence was instrumental in sparking neofolk, of which his music has subsequently become a part. In 2017, Douglas P. claimed he will be retiring from live performances, perhaps putting an end to the project. [1] HistoryOrigin Pearce formed Death in June in 1981 in England, along with Patrick Leagas and ...more...

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Adventurers Club

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Adventurers Club

Adventurers Club The Adventurers Club was a themed nightclub in Pleasure Island at the Walt Disney World Resort. It was styled after a private club for world travelers and explorers and was set in 1937. The walls of the club were covered with artifacts and photographs from various explorations. The Adventurers Club featured animatronics, puppets, and a cast of adventurers who performed in shows and improvisational comedy while mingling with the club's patrons. Shows and conversation were often laced with innuendo, and the patrons might have been welcomed as guests, given fictitious names and "recognized" as fellow adventurers, or simply referred to as "drunks". History The Adventurers Club opened with the rest of Pleasure Island on May 1, 1989, as part of a fictional legend about the island's previous owner, Merriweather Adam Pleasure, and back-story describing each of the buildings' former uses. Disney's Imagineers led by Head Writer, Show Producer and Show Director, Roger Cox and designer Joe Rohde (who ...more...

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Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh

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Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark,[1] 10 June 1921)[fn 1] is the husband and consort of Queen Elizabeth II. A member of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, Philip was born into the Greek and Danish royal families. He was born in Greece, but his family was exiled from the country when he was an infant. After being educated in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom, he joined the British Royal Navy in 1939, aged 18. From July 1939, he began corresponding with the 13-year-old Princess Elizabeth, whom he had first met in 1934. During the Second World War he served with the Mediterranean and Pacific fleets. After the war, Philip was granted permission by King George VI to marry Elizabeth. Before the official announcement of their engagement in July 1947, he abandoned his Greek and Danish royal titles and became a naturalised British subject, adopting the surname Mountbatten from his maternal grandparents. He married Elizabeth on 20 November 1947. Just ...more...

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List of Till Death Us Do Part episodes

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List of Till Death Us Do Part episodes

This is an episode list for the BBC television sitcom Till Death Us Do Part by Johnny Speight, broadcast between 22 July 1965 and 3 April 1992, including Till Death... and In Sickness and in Health. Till Death Us Do Part Earlier episodes were produced in black-and-white; all episodes after Series 3 are in colour. The original videotapes of nearly all episodes prior to Series 4 were wiped, although complete or partial recordings of some episodes have been found. Recordings exist of all episodes from Series 4 and later. Pilot episode Title Airdate Description Notes Till Death Us Do Part 22 July 1965 The only way that Mike can take out a deposit on a new home is to take out a life insurance policy on Alf. Aired as an episode of Comedy Playhouse. Only an excerpt is known to exist. Series 1 Title Airdate Description Notes Arguments, Arguments 6 June 1966 A weekend in the Garnett household is punctuated with rows, and the main protagonist is generally Alf. Whether it is politics, family, drink, or footb ...more...

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History of telephone numbers in the United Kingdom

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History of telephone numbers in the United Kingdom

The telephone service in the United Kingdom was originally provided by private companies and local councils. But by 1912–13[1] all except the telephone service of Kingston upon Hull and Guernsey had been bought out by the Post Office. The Post Office also operated telephone services in Jersey until 1923 and the Isle of Man until 1969 when the islands took over responsibility for their own postal and telephone services – although the Isle of Man system remained part of British Telecom until 1987. Post Office Telecommunications was reorganised in 1980–81[2] a s British Telecommunications (British Telecom, or BT), and was the first major nationalised industry to be privatised by the Conservative government. The Hull Telephone Department was itself reconstituted as Kingston Communications, in 1987; it was sold by Hull City Council in the late 1990s and celebrated its centenary in 2004.[3] [4] Director system In November 1922 the General Post Office decided to adopt the Strowger system from the various systems ...more...

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List of computing and IT abbreviations

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List of computing and IT abbreviations

This is a list of computing and IT acronyms and abbreviations. 0–9 #!—Shebang /.—Slashdot 1GL—First-Generation Programming Language 1NF—First Normal Form 10B2—10BASE-2 10B5—10BASE-5 10B-F—10BASE-F 10B-FB—10BASE-FB 10B-FL—10BASE-FL 10B-FP—10BASE-FP 10B-T—10BASE-T 100B-FX—100BASE-FX 100B-T—100BASE-T 100B-TX—100BASE-TX 100BVG—100BASE-VG 286—Intel 80286 processor 2B1Q—2 Binary 1 Quaternary 2FA—Two-factor authentication 2GL—Second-Generation Programming Language 2NF—Second Normal Form 3GL—Third-Generation Programming Language 3GPP—3rd Generation Partnership Project—'3G comms 3GPP2—3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 3NF—Third Normal Form 386—Intel 80386 processor 486—Intel 80486 processor 4B5BLF—4 Byte 5 Byte Local Fiber 4GL—Fourth-Generation Programming Language 4NF—Fourth Normal Form 5GL—Fifth-Generation Programming Language 5NF—Fifth Normal Form 6NF—Sixth Normal Form 8B10BLF—8 Byte 10 Byte Local Fiber 802.11—Wireless LAN A AAA—Authent ...more...

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ACS:Law

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ACS:Law

ACS:Law was a United Kingdom law firm specialising in intellectual property law.[1] Prior to 2009, its most notable case was the defence of a British national accused of public indecency in Dubai.[2] The firm is best known for its actions against persons allegedly infringing copyright through peer-to-peer file sharing. The firm ceased pursuing file sharers in January 2011[3] and ceased trading on 3 February 2011.[4] Firm The main partner of the firm, and its only registered solicitor,[5] was Andrew Crossley. Crossley was found guilty of conduct unbefitting a solicitor by the Solicitors Regulation Authority (SRA) three times, in 2002, 2006 and again in 2012. In 2012 he was suspended from practising as a solicitor for two years.[6][7][8][9] Crossley was declared bankrupt by the High Court in London on 20 May 2011.[10] Action against suspected copyright infringement ACS:Law first started claims against suspected copyright infringement through peer-to-peer file sharing in May 2009.[11][12] In November 2009, the ...more...

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Yodok concentration camp

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Yodok concentration camp

Yodok concentration camp (also romanized Yodŏk, Yodeok, or Yoduk) was a political prison camp in North Korea. The official name was Kwan-li-so (penal labour colony) No. 15. The camp was used to segregate those seen as enemies of the state, punish them for political misdemeanors[1] and put them to hard labour.[2][3] It was closed down in 2014.[4][5] Location Pyongyang Yodok Location of Yodok camp in North Korea Yodok camp was about 110 km (68 mi) northeast of Pyongyang.[6] It was located in Yodok county, South Hamgyong province, stretching into the valley of the Ipsok River, surrounded by mountains: Paek-san 1,742 m (5,715 ft) to the north, Modo-san 1,833 m (6,014 ft) to the northwest, Tok-san 1,250 m (4,100 ft) to the west, and Byeongpung-san 1,152 m (3,780 ft) to the south.[3][7] The entrance to the valley is the 1,250 m (4,100 ft) Chaebong Pass to the east. The streams from the valleys of these mountains form the Ipsok River, which flows downstream into the Yonghung River and eventually into ...more...

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Zimbabwean general election, 2013

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Zimbabwean general election, 2013

General elections were held in Zimbabwe on 31 July 2013.[1] The incumbent President, Robert Mugabe, was re-elected, whilst his ZANU–PF party won a two-thirds majority in the House of Assembly. Background This was the first election held under the new constitution approved in a referendum in March 2013[2] and signed into law by President Robert Mugabe on 22 May.[3] The Supreme Court ruled on 31 May that President Mugabe should set a date as soon as possible, and that presidential and parliamentary elections must be held by 31 July.[4] The ruling followed an application to the court by a Zimbabwean citizen, Jealousy Mawarire,[5] demanding that the country's president set the date for elections before the expiry of the tenure of the seventh parliament, on 29 June 2013. Under the new constitution the winner of the presidential election would serve a five-year term. CandidatesPresidential candidates Robert Mugabe, ZANU-PF[6] Welshman Ncube, MDC-N[7] Morgan Tsvangirai, MDC-T[8] Dumiso Dabengwa, ZAPU[9] ...more...

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Federico Fellini

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Federico Fellini

Federico Fellini, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (Italian: ; 20 January 1920 – 31 October 1993) was an Italian film director and screenwriter. Known for his distinct style that blends fantasy and baroque images with earthiness, he is recognized as one of the greatest and most influential filmmakers of all time.[1][2][3] His films have ranked, in polls such as Cahiers du cinéma and Sight & Sound, as some of the greatest films of all time. Sight & Sound lists his 1963 film 8½ as the 10th-greatest film of all time. In a career spanning almost fifty years, Fellini won the Palme d'Or for La Dolce Vita, was nominated for twelve Academy Awards, and directed four motion pictures that won Oscars in the category of Best Foreign Language Film. In 1993, he was awarded an honorary Oscar for Lifetime Achievement at the 65th Annual Academy Awards in Los Angeles.[4] Besides La Dolce Vita and 8½, his other well-known films include La Strada, Nights of Cabiria, Juliet of the Spirits, Satyricon, Amarcord and Fellini's ...more...

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Twitter

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Twitter

The Moments page as shown in US and Canadian markets on December 22, 2017. Twitter () is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Tweets were originally restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, this limit was doubled for all languages except Japanese, Korean, and Chinese.[11] Registered users can post tweets, but those who are unregistered can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service (SMS) or mobile-device application software ("app").[12] Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco, California, and has more than 25 offices around the world.[13] Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, and Evan Williams and launched in July of that year. The service rapidly gained worldwide popularity. In 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day,[14] and the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day.[15][16][1 ...more...

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Sneakernet

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Sneakernet

A USB flash drive allows the transfer of data between individuals without use of the Internet. Memory cards are a popular physical medium for transferring files and have become smaller in size as technology has advanced Sneakernet is an informal term for the transfer of electronic information by physically moving media such as magnetic tape, floppy disks, compact discs, USB flash drives or external hard drives from one computer to another; rather than transmitting the information over a computer network. The term, a tongue-in-cheek play on net(work) as in Internet or Ethernet, refers to walking in sneakers as the transport mechanism for the data.[1] Summary and background Sneakernets, also known as trainnets or pigeonets, are in use throughout the computer world. Sneakernet may be used when computer networks are prohibitively expensive for the owner to maintain, in high-security environments where manual inspection (for re-classification of information) is necessary, where information needs to be sh ...more...

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J. K. Rowling

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J. K. Rowling

Joanne Rowling, CH, OBE, FRSL, FRCPE ( "rolling";[1] born 31 July 1965), writing under the pen names J. K. Rowling and Robert Galbraith, is a British novelist, philanthropist, film and television producer and screenwriter best known for writing the Harry Potter fantasy series. The books have won multiple awards, and sold more than 500 million copies,[2] becoming the best-selling book series in history.[3] They have also been the basis for a film series, over which Rowling had overall approval on the scripts[4] and was a producer on the final films in the series.[5] Born in Yate, Gloucestershire, England, Rowling was working as a researcher and bilingual secretary for Amnesty International when she conceived the idea for the Harry Potter series while on a delayed train from Manchester to London in 1990.[6] The seven-year period that followed saw the death of her mother, birth of her first child, divorce from her first husband and relative poverty until the first novel in the series, Harry Potter and the Philo ...more...

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Ho Chi Minh

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Ho Chi Minh

Hồ Chí Minh (;[2] Vietnamese:  ( listen), Saigon:  ( listen); Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung,[3][4][5] also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành and Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam. He was also Prime Minister (1945–1955) and President (1945–1969) of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). He was a key figure in the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945 as well as the People's Army of Vietnam and the Việt Cộng during the Vietnam War. Hồ Chí Minh led the Việt Minh independence movement from 1941 onward, establishing the Communist-ruled Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945 and defeating the French Union in 1954 at the battle of Điện Biên Phủ. He officially stepped down from power in 1965 due to health problems. After the war, Saigon, the former capital of the Republic of Vietnam, was renamed Hồ Chí Minh City. Any description of Hồ Chí Minh's life befo ...more...

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Sensation (art exhibition)

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Sensation (art exhibition)

Sensation installed at Brooklyn Museum (October 1999 – January 2000) Sensation was an exhibition of the collection of contemporary art owned by Charles Saatchi, including many works by Young British Artists, (YBAs), which first took place 18 September – 28 December 1997 at the Royal Academy of Arts in London and later toured to the Hamburger Bahnhof in Berlin and the Brooklyn Museum in New York City. A proposed showing at the National Gallery of Australia was cancelled when the gallery's director decided the exhibition was "too close to the market." The show generated controversy in London and New York City due to the inclusion of images of Myra Hindley and the Virgin Mary. It was criticised by New York City mayor Rudolph Giuliani and others for attempting to boost the value of the work by showing it in institutions and public museums.[1] Works Myra: 1995 depiction of the child killer Myra Hindley by the YBA Marcus Harvey The artworks in Sensation were from the collection of Charles Saatchi, a lead ...more...

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List of Amazon products and services

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List of Amazon products and services

This is a list of products and services offered by American corporation Amazon. Retail goods Amazon product lines include several media (books, DVDs, music CDs, videotapes, and software), apparel, baby products, consumer electronics, beauty products, gourmet food, groceries, health and personal-care items, industrial & scientific supplies, kitchen items, jewelry and watches, lawn and garden items, musical instruments, sporting goods, tools, automotive items and toys & games. The company launched amazon.com Auctions, a web auctions service, in March 1999. However, it failed to chip away at the large market share of the industry pioneer, eBay. Later, the company launched a fixed-price marketplace business, zShops, in September 1999, and the now defunct partnership with Sotheby's, called Sothebys.amazon.com, in November. Auctions and zShops evolved into Amazon Marketplace, a service launched in November 2000 that let customers sell used books, CDs, DVDs, and other products alongside new items. As of ...more...

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2008 Wimbledon Championships

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2008 Wimbledon Championships

The two singles champions, Rafael Nadal and Venus Williams. The 2008 Wimbledon Championships was a tennis tournament played on grass courts at the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club in Wimbledon, London in England.[1][2] It was the 122nd edition of the Wimbledon Championships and were held from 23 June to 6 July 2008. It was the third Grand Slam tennis event of the year. Spanish player Rafael Nadal won the first Wimbledon title of his career; the first Grand Slam tournament he had won other than the French Open. Nadal defeated five-time defending champion Roger Federer in the final in what many regard as the greatest tennis match of all time.[3][4][5] In the women's singles, Venus Williams claimed her fifth title, and first win over her sister Serena in a Wimbledon final (she had lost the previous two). The performances of Britons Andy Murray in the men's singles and Laura Robson in the girls' singles were able to arouse significant interest from the home crowd. Following the completion of the 2007 ...more...

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E. P. Thompson

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E. P. Thompson

Edward Palmer Thompson (3 February 1924 – 28 August 1993), usually cited as E. P. Thompson, was a British historian, writer, socialist and peace campaigner. He is probably best known today for his historical work on the British radical movements in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, in particular The Making of the English Working Class (1963).[1] He also published influential biographies of William Morris (1955) and (posthumously) William Blake (1993) and was a prolific journalist and essayist. He also published the novel The Sykaos Papers and a collection of poetry. His work is considered to have been among the most important contributions to labour history and social history in the latter twentieth-century, with a global impact, including on scholarship in Asia and Africa.[2] Thompson was one of the principal intellectuals of the Communist Party in Great Britain. Although he left the party in 1956 over the Soviet invasion of Hungary, he nevertheless remained a "historian in the Marxist tradition", cal ...more...

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Transition from Ming to Qing

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Transition from Ming to Qing

The transition from Ming to Qing or the Ming–Qing transition, also known as the Manchu conquest of China, was a period of conflict between the Qing dynasty, established by Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in Manchuria (contemporary Northeastern China), and the Ming dynasty of China in the south (various other regional or temporary powers were also associated with events, such as the short-lived Shun dynasty). Leading up to the Qing conquest, in 1618, Aisin Gioro leader Nurhaci commissioned a document entitled the Seven Grievances, which enumerated grievances against the Ming and began to rebel against their domination. Many of the grievances dealt with conflicts against Yehe, which was a major Manchu clan, and Ming favoritism of Yehe. Nurhaci's demand that the Ming pay tribute to him to redress the seven grievances was effectively a declaration of war, as the Ming were not willing to pay money to a former tributary. Shortly afterwards, Nurhaci began to rebel against the Ming in Liaoning in southern Manchuria. At the ...more...

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Jahangir Khoja

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Jahangir Khoja

Battle at the River Honbasi near Aksu, 1828 Jahanghir Khoja,[1] Jāhangīr Khwāja,[2] or Jihangir Khoja (Uyghur: جهانگیر خوجا‎ , جهانگير خوجة , Chinese: 張格爾; pinyin: Zhānggé'ěr; 1788 – 1828) was a member of the influential East Turkestan Afaqi khoja clan, who managed to wrest Kashgaria from the Qing Empire's power for a few years in the 1820s. Career Burhan ad-Din, a Khoja of the White Mountain faction, was the grandfather of Jahangir.[3] Before rebellion broke out in May 1826 and during a fortuitously timed earthquake that destroyed most towns in the Ferghana Valley, Jahangir Khoja managed to flee to Kashgar from Kokand, where he had been held in prison in accordance with a secret agreement concluded between the Khanate of Kokand and Qing dynasty China concerning descendants of Appak khoja.[4] Among Jahangir's troops were Kirghiz, Tajiks and White Mountain fighters. After appearing in Kashgar with only several hundred of his followers, he quickly increased his force with volunteers, and within several month ...more...

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