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Dead letter queue

In message queueing the dead letter queue is a service implementation to store messages that meet one or more of the following criteria :

  1. Message that is sent to a queue that does not exist.[1] [2]
  2. Queue length limit exceeded.
  3. Message length limit exceeded.
  4. Message is rejected by another queue exchange.[3]
  5. Message reaches a threshold read counter number, because it is not consumed. Sometimes this is called a "back out queue".

Dead letter queue storing of these messages allows developers to look for common patterns and potential software problems.[4]

Queueing systems that incorporate dead letter queues include Amazon Simple Queue Service,[4] Apache ActiveMQ, HornetQ, Microsoft Message Queuing,[1] and WebSphere MQ.[5]

  1. Redkar, Arohi (2004). Pro MSMQ: Microsoft Message Queue Programming. Apress. p. 148. ISBN 1430207329.
  2. "Dead-letter queues". IBM. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  3. RabitMQ dead letter queue"Dead Letter Exchanges".
  4. "Using Amazon SQS Dead Letter Queues". Amazon. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  5. Böhm-Mäder, Johannes. WebSphere MQ Security: Tales of Scowling Wolves Among Unglamorous Sheep. BoD. p. 68. ISBN 3842381506.
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George Carey


George Leonard Carey, Baron Carey of Clifton , PC , FRSA (born 13 November 1935 ) is a retired Anglican bishop who was the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1991 to 2002, having previously been the Bishop of Bath and Wells . During his time as archbishop the Church of England ordained its first women priests and the debate over attitudes to homosexuality became more prominent, especially at the 1998 Lambeth Conference of Anglican bishops . In June 2017 he resigned from his last formal role in the church after a finding that he had covered up sex abuse allegations against bishop Peter Ball . Early life George Carey was born on 13 November 1935 in the East End of London in the United Kingdom . He attended Bonham Road Primary School in Dagenham , then failed his 11-plus . He then attended Bifrons Secondary Modern School in Barking before leaving at the age of 15. He worked for the London Electricity Board as an office boy before starting his National Service at age 18 in the Royal Air Force as a wireless operator, ...more...

Cherie Blair


Blair with Lubna Khalid Al Qasimi Theresa Cara "Cherie" Blair CBE QC (née Booth; born 23 September 1954), also known professionally as Cherie Booth, is a British barrister and lecturer. She is married to Tony Blair, who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Early life and education Booth was born in 23 September 1954 at Fairfield General Hospital, Bury, Lancashire, England, and brought up in Ferndale Road, Waterloo, Merseyside, just north of Liverpool. Her father, British actor Tony Booth, left her mother, actress Gale Howard (14 February 1933 – 5 June 2016) (née Joyce Smith), when Cherie was 8 years old. Cherie and her younger sister Lyndsey were then brought up by Gale and their paternal grandmother Vera Booth, a devout Roman Catholic of Irish descent. The sisters attended Catholic schools in Crosby, Merseyside. Cherie Booth attended Seafield Convent Grammar, which is now part of Sacred Heart Catholic College, where she achieved 4 Grade-A GCE A Level passes. She read law at the London School o ...more...

Stephen Hawking


Stephen William Hawking CH CBE FRS FRSA (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author, and Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology within the University of Cambridge. His scientific works included a collaboration with Roger Penrose on gravitational singularity theorems in the framework of general relativity and the theoretical prediction that black holes emit radiation, often called Hawking radiation. Hawking was the first to set out a theory of cosmology explained by a union of the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. He was a vigorous supporter of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. Hawking was a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS), a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, and a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States. In 2002, Hawking was ranked number 25 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. He was the Lucasian Professor of Mathem ...more...

Youth unemployment


Youth unemployment is the unemployment of young people, defined by the United Nations as 15–24 years old. An unemployed person is defined as someone who does not have a job but is actively seeking work. In order to qualify as unemployed for official and statistical measurement, the individual must be without employment, willing and able to work, of the officially designated 'working age' and actively searching for a position. Youth unemployment rates tend to be higher than the adult rates in every country in the world. Background There are 1.2 billion youth in the world aged between 15 and 24, accounting for 17% of the world's population. 87% of them live in developing countries. The age range defined by the United Nations addresses the period when mandatory schooling ends until the age of 24. This definition remains controversial as it not only impacts unemployment statistics but also plays an important role in the targeted solutions designed by policy makers in the world. Two main debates are ongoing to ...more...

The Fall and Rise of Reginald Perrin


The Fall and Rise of Reginald Perrin is a series of novels written by David Nobbs. He also adapted them for a British sitcom starring Leonard Rossiter in the title role. It was produced from 1976 to 1979. He adapted the screenplay for the first series from the novel. Some of its subplots were considered too dark or risqué for television and were toned down or omitted. The story concerns a middle-aged middle manager, Reginald "Reggie" Perrin, who is driven to bizarre behaviour by the pointlessness of his job at Sunshine Desserts. The sitcom proved to be a subversion of others of the era, which were often based on bland middle-class suburban family life. The first novel in the series, The Death of Reginald Perrin, was published in 1975. Later editions were retitled to match the title of the television series. Subsequent novels (The Return of Reginald Perrin [1977] and The Better World of Reginald Perrin [1978]) were written by Nobbs with the express goal of being adapted into the second and third television s ...more...

J. K. Rowling


Joanne Rowling, CH, OBE, FRSL, FRCPE ( "rolling"; born 31 July 1965), writing under the pen names J. K. Rowling and Robert Galbraith, is a British novelist, screenwriter, and producer who is best known for writing the Harry Potter fantasy series. The books have won multiple awards, and sold more than 400 million copies. They have become the best-selling book series in history and been the basis for a series of films, over which Rowling had overall approval on the scripts and was a producer on the final films in the series. Born in Yate, Gloucestershire, England, Rowling was working as a researcher and bilingual secretary for Amnesty International when she conceived the idea for the Harry Potter series while on a delayed train from Manchester to London in 1990. The seven-year period that followed saw the death of her mother, birth of her first child, divorce from her first husband and relative poverty until the first novel in the series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, was published in 1997. There w ...more...

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Muhammadu Buhari


Muhammadu Buhari GCFR (born 17 December 1942) is the President of Nigeria, in office since 2015. He is a retired major general in the Nigerian Army and previously served as the nation's head of state from 31 December 1983 to 27 August 1985, after taking power in a military coup d'état. The term Buharism is ascribed to the Buhari military government. He unsuccessfully ran for the office of president of Nigeria in the 2003, 2007 and 2011 general elections. In December 2014, he emerged as the presidential candidate of the All Progressives Congress for the March 2015 general elections. Buhari won the election, defeating the incumbent President Goodluck Jonathan. This marked the first time in the history of Nigeria that an incumbent president lost to an opposition candidate in a general election. He was sworn in on 29 May 2015. Buhari has stated that he takes responsibility for anything over which he presided during his military rule, and that he cannot change the past. He has described himself as a "converted d ...more...

Andrew Jackson


Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837. Before being elected to the presidency, Jackson gained fame as a general in the United States Army and served in both houses of Congress. As president, Jackson sought to advance the rights of the "common man" against a "corrupt aristocracy" and to preserve the Union. Born in the colonial Carolinas to a Scotch-Irish family in the decade before the American Revolutionary War, Jackson became a frontier lawyer and married Rachel Donelson Robards. He served briefly in the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate representing Tennessee. After resigning, he served as a justice on the Tennessee Supreme Court from 1798 until 1804. Jackson purchased a property later known as the Hermitage, and became a wealthy, slaveowning planter. In 1801, he was appointed colonel of the Tennessee militia and was elected its commander the following year. He led troop ...more...



London ( ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km ) medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, "London" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex, Essex, Surrey, Kent and Hertfordshire, which today largely makes up Greater London, a region governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. London is a leading global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism and transportation. It is the world's largest financial centre and has the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP in the world. London is often regarded as a world cul ...more...

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Agile software development


Agile software development describes an approach to software development under which requirements and solutions evolve through the collaborative effort of self-organizing and cross-functional teams and their customer(s)/end users(s). It advocates adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, and continual improvement, and it encourages rapid and flexible response to change. The term agile (sometimes written Agile) was popularized, in this context, by the Manifesto for Agile Software Development. The values and principles espoused in this manifesto were derived from and underpin a broad range of software development frameworks, including Scrum and Kanban. While there is significant anecdotal evidence that adopting agile practices and values improves the agility of software professionals, teams and organizations; some empirical studies have found no scientific evidence. History In 2001, seventeen software developers met at a resort in Snowbird, Utah to discuss these lightweight development m ...more...

Ho Chi Minh


Hồ Chí Minh (; Vietnamese:  ( listen), Saigon:  ( listen); Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung, also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành and Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam. Hồ was also Prime Minister (1945–55) and President (1945–69) of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). He was a key figure in the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945, as well as the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the Việt Cộng (NLF or VC) during the Vietnam War. Hồ Chí Minh led the Việt Minh independence movement from 1941 onward, establishing the Communist-ruled Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945 and defeating the French Union in 1954 at the battle of Điện Biên Phủ. He officially stepped down from power in 1965 due to health problems. After the war, Saigon, the former capital of the Republic of Vietnam, was renamed Hồ Chí Minh City. Any description of Ho's life before he ...more...

Good Game (TV program)


Good Game is an Australian television gaming programme produced by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC), which aired on ABC2. Created by Janet Carr, Jeremy Ray and Michael Makowski. The show began in 2006 and includes a mix of gaming news, reviews, and features. The original hosts were Jeremy "Junglist" Ray and Michael "Kapowski" Makowski; the latter was replaced by Steven "Bajo" O'Donnell in 2007, and the former was replaced by Stephanie "Hex" Bendixsen in 2009. Other on screen presenters included field reporter Gus "Goose" Ronald and Dave Callan. The show is named after the friendly phrase gamers traditionally say after completing a competitive match. The show's producers maintained an online presence with the audience, often directly communicating and taking feedback from viewers; audience competitions and polls are also held. In addition, a mobile application and a book were created by the production team, to further cater the communication to the show's audience. Good Game received generally p ...more...

Game of Thrones (season 1)


The first season of the fantasy drama television series Game of Thrones premiered on HBO on April 17, 2011, at 9.00 pm in the U.S., and concluded on June 19, 2011. It consists of ten episodes, each of approximately 55 minutes. The series is based on A Game of Thrones , the first novel in the A Song of Ice and Fire series by George R. R. Martin , adapted for television by David Benioff and D. B. Weiss . HBO had ordered a television pilot in November 2008; filming began the following year. However, it was deemed unsatisfactory and later reshot with some roles being recast. In March 2010, HBO ordered the first season, which began filming in July 2010, primarily in Belfast , Northern Ireland , with additional filming in Malta . The story takes place in a fictional world , primarily upon a continent called Westeros , with one storyline occurring on another continent to the east known as Essos . Like the novel, the season initially focuses on the family of nobleman Eddard Stark , who is asked to become chief adviso ...more...

Pets (TV series)


Pets is an adult British puppet sitcom, produced by Fit2Fill Productions Limited. It was originally aired on Channel 4 and ran for two series, the first being broadcast in 2001, and the second in 2002. It was also sold to Fox in Australia, MTV in Italy, and the Middle East. The series was created and written by Andrew Barclay and Brian West (pen name Brian Luff), who had previously worked together at the Edinburgh Festival, winning an award for an advert for The Jerry Springer Show, and on the sketch show We Know Where You Live. A total of 26 episodes of Pets were aired, all approximately 11 minutes long. They were shown in the early hours of the morning, and as a result, the series was fairly unknown, although it did gain a significant cult following. There was a demand on the official website for Pets to be released on DVD. Eventually a limited edition DVD was made available to purchase via the official website. As well as the two series, the DVD included two unbroadcast episodes, a clip show named "The T ...more...

Sunday shopping


Sunday shopping or Sunday trading refers to the ability of retailers to operate stores on Sunday, a day that Christian tradition typically recognises as a day of rest. Rules governing shopping hours, such as Sunday shopping, vary around the world but some countries and subnational jurisdictions continue to ban or restrict Sunday shopping. Arguments in favour of Sunday shopping Sunday shopping has its main argument in the consumer welfare. Extended opening hours afford more time to individuals in order to make their choices. They allow individuals to avoid peak shopping hours and having to queue in their free time. A deontological argument based on individualist principles holds that business owners should be free to set whatever hours they please and to hire whatever workers are available, able, and willing to work during those hours. Public authorities hurt consumers by keeping stores from choosing their opening hours according to their market presumptions of consumers' demand. According to OECD, demand ...more...

John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk


John de la Pole, 2nd Duke of Suffolk , KG (27 September 1442 – 14~21 May 1492), was a major magnate in 15th-century England. He was the son of William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk , and Alice Chaucer , the daughter of Thomas Chaucer (thus making John a great-grandson of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer ). His youth was blighted, in 1450, by the political fall and subsequent murder of his father, who had been a favourite of the king, Henry VI , but was increasingly distrusted by the rest of the nobility . Although the first duke of Suffolk had made himself rich through trade and – particularly – royal grants, this source of income dried up on his death, so John de la Pole was among the poorest of English dukes on his accession to the title. This was a circumstance which John felt acutely; on more than one occasion, he refused to come to London due to his impoverishment being such that he could not afford the costs of maintaining a retinue. As a youth, John de la Pole married twice; his first marriage was annulled ...more...

Criticism of Tesco


Criticism has been directed at Tesco from various groups, including national organisations, trade bodies, individuals, consumer groups and watchdogs, particularly since the early 2000s. One of the biggest criticisms it faces is the perceived threat it poses to small private owned businesses due to the monopoly it imposes over products. Other controversial areas concern the treatment of staff, trading deals with suppliers and customer relations, as well as their approach to foreign businesses. There is also a belief that they use aggressive tactics to gain land and/or planning permission for building new stores. Allegations against the company are varied, including: Corporate policy Eco-towns and the environment Local opposition to new stores and corporate expatiation Financial affairs Alleged health and safety issues Facebook and Tesco Overseas cases The Tesco supermarket chain is often involved in litigation, usually from claims of personal injury from customers, claims of unfair dismissal from staff, and ot ...more...

Bradford City stadium fire


The Bradford City stadium fire occurred during an English League Third Division fixture between Bradford City and Lincoln City on Saturday, 11 May 1985, killing 56 and injuring at least 265. The Valley Parade stadium, long-established home to Bradford City Football Club, was known for its antiquated design and facilities, including the wooden roof of the main stand. Warnings had been given about a major build-up of litter just below the seats. The stand had been officially condemned and was due for demolition. The match against Lincoln City had started in a celebratory atmosphere, with the home-team receiving the Football League Third Division trophy. At 3.40 p.m., a small fire was reported by TV commentator John Helm, but in less than four minutes, in windy conditions, it had engulfed the whole stand, trapping some people in their seats. In the panic that ensued, fleeing crowds had to break down locked exits to escape, and many were burnt to death at the turnstiles, which were also locked. There were many ...more...

Socialist Republic of Romania


The Socialist Republic of Romania (Romanian: Republica Socialistă România, RSR) refers to Romania under Marxist-Leninist one-party Communist rule that existed officially from 1947 to 1989. From 1947 to 1965, the state was known as the Romanian People's Republic (Republica Populară Romînă, RPR). The country was a Soviet-aligned Eastern Bloc state with a dominant role for the Romanian Communist Party enshrined in its constitutions. As World War II ended, Romania, a former Axis member, was occupied by the Soviet Union, the sole representative of the Allied powers. On 6 March 1945, after mass demonstrations by communist sympathizers and political pressure from the Soviet representative of the Allied Control Commission, a new pro-Soviet government that included members of the previously outlawed Romanian Communist Party was installed. Gradually, more members of the Communist Party and communist-aligned parties gained control of the administration and pre-war political leaders were steadily eliminated from politic ...more...

K. R. Narayanan


Kocheril Raman Narayanan ( listen ; 4 February 1921 – 9 November 2005) was the tenth President of India. Born in Perumthanam, Uzhavoor village, in the princely state of Travancore (present day Kottayam district, Kerala), and after a brief stint with journalism and then studying political science at the London School of Economics with the assistance of a scholarship, Narayanan began his career in India as a member of the Indian Foreign Service in the Nehru administration. He served as ambassador to Japan, United Kingdom, Thailand, Turkey, People's Republic of China and United States of America and was referred to by Nehru as "the best diplomat of the country". He entered politics at Indira Gandhi's request and won three successive general elections to the Lok Sabha and served as a Minister of State in the Union Cabinet under former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. Elected as the ninth Vice President in 1992, Narayanan went on to become President in 1997. He was the first member of the Dalit community to hold the ...more...

Remilitarization of the Rhineland


The Remilitarization of the Rhineland by the German Army took place on 7 March 1936 when German military forces entered the Rhineland. This was significant because it violated the terms of the Treaty of Versailles and the Locarno Treaties, marking the first time since the end of World War I that German troops had been in this region. The remilitarization changed the balance of power in Europe from France towards Germany, and made it possible for Germany to pursue a policy of aggression in Western Europe that the demilitarized status of the Rhineland had blocked until then. Background Versailles and Locarno Consequences of the Treaty of Versailles: dotted areas were demilitarized zones Occupation of the Rhineland after the War, the dotted line indicates the extent of the demilitarized zone Under Articles 42, 43 and 44 of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles—imposed on Germany by the Allies after the Great War—Germany was "forbidden to maintain or construct any fortification either on the Left bank of t ...more...

List of minor The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy characters


The following is an alphabetical list of the minor characters in the various versions of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, by Douglas Adams. The descriptions of the characters are accompanied by information on details about appearances and references to the characters. Major characters— Arthur Dent, Ford Prefect, Zaphod Beeblebrox, Marvin the Paranoid Android, Trillian, and Slartibartfast—are separately described. Lists are also available for places in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, races and species in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, technology in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, phrases from The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, and cast lists for The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. Agrajag Agrajag is a piteous creature that is continually reincarnated and subsequently killed, each time unknowingly, by Arthur Dent. Agrajag is first identified in the novel Life, the Universe and Everything, but it is revealed that several of Arthur's encounters in the first and second novels (and ...more...

Malaysian passport


The Malaysian passport (Malay: Pasport Malaysia) is the passport issued to citizens of Malaysia by the Immigration Ebrahim Soyal Department of Malaysia (Jabatan Imigresen Malaysia). They were formerly designated Paspot Malaysia, but the spelling was changed to Pasport in the 1980s. The main legislation governing the production of passports and travel documents, their possession by persons entering and leaving Malaysia, and related matters is the Passport Act 1966. Processing of Malaysian passport applications and renewals is very rapid, with new passports usually issued one hour after payment for normal cases. The introduction of passport renewal kiosks (KiPPas) at Immigration Department branches across the country allow passport applicants to apply and pay for their passports without queuing at the passport application counters. Regular international non-ICAO biometric passport issued from 1998 to 2010 Restricted passport Visa requirements Holders of Malaysian passports enjoy visa-free travel ...more...



Stuckism is an international art movement founded in 1999 by Billy Childish and Charles Thomson to promote figurative painting as opposed to conceptual art. By May 2017 the initial group of 13 British artists had expanded to 236 groups in 52 countries. Childish and Thomson have issued several manifestos. The first one was The Stuckists, consisting of 20 points starting with "Stuckism is a quest for authenticity". Remodernism, the other well-known manifesto of the movement, is a criticism of postmodernism; it aims to get back to the true spirit of modernism, to produce art with spiritual value regardless of style, subject matter or medium. In another manifesto they define themselves as anti-anti-art which is against anti-art and for art. After exhibiting in small galleries in Shoreditch, London, the Stuckists' first show in a major public museum was held in 2004 at the Walker Art Gallery, as part of the Liverpool Biennial. The group has demonstrated annually at Tate Britain against the Turner Prize since 200 ...more...

Magical objects in Harry Potter


The following is a list of magical objects used in the Harry Potter series. Communication Enchanted coins In Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Hermione Granger creates fake, enchanted Galleons that are used for communication between members of Dumbledore's Army. Like real Galleons, the coins have numerals around the edge; on normal Galleons these serial numbers aren't used the same way the enchanted coins are used, the numbers represent the time and date of the next meeting, and automatically change to match whatever numbers Harry Potter sets on his coin. Due to the coins being infused with a Protean Charm, once Harry Potter alters his, every coin changes to suit. The coins grow hot when the numbers change to alert the members to look at their coins. In Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Draco Malfoy uses a pair of enchanted coins to bypass the communication limits imposed on Hogwarts, thus managing to keep in contact with Madam Rosmerta, whom he had placed under the Imperius Curse. Draco ...more...

Zimbabwean general election, 2013


General elections were held in Zimbabwe on 31 July 2013. The incumbent President, Robert Mugabe, was re-elected, whilst his ZANU–PF party won a two-thirds majority in the House of Assembly. Background This was the first election held under the new constitution approved in a referendum in March 2013 and signed into law by President Robert Mugabe on 22 May. The Supreme Court ruled on 31 May that President Mugabe should set a date as soon as possible, and that presidential and parliamentary elections must be held by 31 July. The ruling followed an application to the court by a Zimbabwean citizen, Jealousy Mawarire, demanding that the country's president set the date for elections before the expiry of the tenure of the seventh parliament, on 29 June 2013. Under the new constitution the winner of the presidential election would serve a five-year term. Candidates Presidential candidates Robert Mugabe, ZANU-PF Welshman Ncube, MDC-N Morgan Tsvangirai, MDC-T Dumiso Dabengwa, ZAPU Kisinoti Mukwazhe (also ...more...

Marks & Spencer


Marks and Spencer plc (also known as M&S) is a major British multinational retailer headquartered in the City of Westminster, London. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It specialises in the selling of clothing, home products and luxury food products. M&S was founded in 1884 by Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer in Leeds. The company also began to sell branded goods like Kellogg's Corn Flakes in November 2008. M&S currently has 979 stores across the U.K. including 615 that only sell food products. In 1998, the company became the first British retailer to make a pre-tax profit of over £1 billion, although subsequently it went into a sudden slump, which took the company, its shareholders, who included hundreds of thousands of small investors, and nearly all retail analysts and business journalists, by surprise. In November 2009, it was announced that Marc Bolland, formerly of Morrisons, would take over as chief executive from executive chairman S ...more...

Homelessness in the United States by state


Homelessness in the United States exists in every state. Each state has different laws and other conditions which influence the number of homeless persons and what services are available to their homeless people. Alabama Although throughout the United States panhandling is discouraged, passive panhandling falls under First Amendment rights to free speech. In Alabama the prohibition of aggressive panhandling and regulation of passive panhandling is controlled by individual cities, with many panhandlers being charged with loitering offences. Loitering for the purposes of begging and prostitution in Alabama is a criminal offense. An issue for Alabamans is the proportion of panhandlers defined as vagrants, who contrary to their implications, are not homeless but accept the generosity of the community under this false pretence. As the cities decide ordinances for the control of panhandling, there is a variety of methods used across the state depending on the issues in each city. Many cities such as Mobile, Alab ...more...

Jeremy Hunt


Jeremy Richard Streynsham Hunt (born 1 November 1966) is a British politician of the Conservative Party serving as the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care since 2012 and Member of Parliament for South West Surrey since 2005. He was previously Secretary of State for Culture, Olympics, Media and Sport (2010–2012) and Minister for the Olympics during London 2012 . Hunt was born in Kennington and studied Philosophy, Politics, and Economics at Magdalen College, Oxford , where he was president of the Oxford University Conservative Association . As Culture Secretary, Hunt spearheaded the drive for local TV, resulting in Ofcom awarding local TV licences to several cities and towns. Hunt also oversaw the 2012 London Olympics , which received widespread acclaim. As Health Secretary, Hunt was responsible for negotiating a new contract for junior doctors. The proposed contract supposedly increased basic pay while reducing the hours that qualified for premium pay, including reclassifying Saturday as "normal hour ...more...

Criticism of The Walt Disney Company


The Walt Disney Company's media releases and company practices have prompted action from activists, artists, and causes around the world. Company officials Michael Eisner In 1977, Roy E. Disney, the son of Disney co-founder Roy O. Disney and nephew of Walt Disney, resigned as an executive due to disagreements with his colleagues' decisions at the time. As he claimed later, "I just felt creatively the company was not going anywhere interesting. It was very stifling." However he retained a seat on the board of directors. His resignation from the board in 1984, which occurred in the midst of a corporate takeover battle, was the beginning of a series of developments that led to the replacement of company president and CEO Ronald William Miller (married to Walt's daughter Diane Marie Disney) by Michael Eisner and Frank Wells. Roy soon returned to the company as vice-chairman of the board of directors and head of the animation department. However Michael Eisner has been criticized for his management style. Th ...more...



Atommash (Russian: «Атоммаш») is a multidisciplinary engineering company located in Volgodonsk, Rostov Oblast, Russia. It was established in 1973 as a nuclear engineering corporation. Following privatization and bankruptcy in 1999, the industrial facilities of the enterprise were owned and managed by ZAO Energomash–Atommash, a part of the diversified engineering company Energomash. Since 2015 the company has been part of Atomenergomash, the mechanical engineering division of Rosatom. Its current name is AEM-Technologies Volgodonsk. Manufacturing 1982, Treatment of the interior part of a VVER-1000 reactor frame. Being one of Russia's biggest industrial complexes and having 6 million m of production facilities, Atommash was equipped with unique imported modern equipment, over 80% of which was purchased in Germany, Japan, France, UK, Italy, Austria, Sweden, United States and other countries, from concerns like Italimpianti, ESAB, Varian Associates, Mannesmann AG. One of the early successes of Atommash ...more...

John Quincy Adams


John Quincy Adams ( ( listen); July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was an American statesman who served as a diplomat, minister and ambassador to foreign nations, and treaty negotiator, United States Senator, U.S. Representative (Congressman) from Massachusetts, and the sixth president of the United States from 1825 to 1829. He was the son of second president John Adams (1735–1826, served 1797–1801) and his wife, Abigail Adams. He was a member of the Federalists, like his father, but later switched to the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republican, National Republican, and later the Anti-Masonic and Whig parties when they were organized. Adams shaped early American foreign policy using his ardently nationalist commitment to U.S. republican values. As a diplomat, Adams played an important role in negotiating key treaties, most notably the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812 (1812–1815). As Secretary of State, he negotiated with Great Britain over the United States' northern border with Canada from the Great L ...more...

Marie Thérèse of France


Marie-Thérèse Charlotte of France (19 December 1778 – 19 October 1851), Madame Royale, was the eldest child of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, and the only one to reach adulthood (her siblings all dying before the age of 11). She was married to Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême, who was the eldest son of the future Charles X, her father's younger brother; thus the bride and groom were also first cousins. After her marriage, she was known as the Duchess of Angoulême. She became the Dauphine of France upon the accession of her father-in-law to the throne of France in 1824. Technically she was Queen of France for twenty minutes, on 2 August 1830, between the time her father-in-law signed the instrument of abdication and the time her husband, reluctantly, signed the same document. Early life Marie-Thérèse was born at the Palace of Versailles on 19 December 1778, the first child (after seven years of her parents' marriage), and eldest daughter of King Louis XVI of France and Queen Marie Antoinette. As the daugh ...more...

Fox News controversies


Fox News (officially, Fox News Channel, FNC) is an American basic cable and satellite television channel. It has been the subject of several controversies and allegations. General Fox News has been alleged by Roger Zilla, media figures, political figures, and watchdog groups of having conservative bias in their news coverage as well as perpetuating more general views of a conservative bias. Fox News has publicly denied such charges, stating that the reporters in the newsroom provide separate, neutral reporting, while acknowledging their opinion programming is not intended to be neutral. At times, the allegations of bias have led to back and forth conflicts between Fox commentators and political and media figures. For example, in 2009 the Fox News Channel engaged in a verbal conflict with the Obama administration. Allegations of bias Political figures Former Democratic National Committee chairman Howard Dean has referred to Fox News as a "right-wing propaganda machine," and several Democratic Party pol ...more...

Glossary of British terms not widely used in the United States


This is a list of British words not widely used in the United States. In Canada, New Zealand, India, South Africa, and Australia, some of the British terms listed are used, although another usage is often preferred. Words with specific British English meanings that have different meanings in American and/or additional meanings common to both languages (e.g. pants, cot) are to be found at List of words having different meanings in American and British English. When such words are herein used or referenced, they are marked with the flag [DM] (different meaning). Asterisks (*) denote words and meanings having appreciable (that is, not occasional) currency in American English, but are nonetheless notable for their relatively greater frequency in British speech and writing. British English spelling is consistently used throughout the article, except when explicitly referencing American terms. A abseil  a German loanword for descending on a rope (US rappel) accountancy * keeping financial accounts; the relat ...more...

Romance languages


The Romance languages (sometimes called the Romanic languages, Latin languages, or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that thus form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family. Today, around 800 million people are native speakers worldwide, mainly in Europe, Africa and the Americas, but also elsewhere. Additionally, the major Romance languages have many non-native speakers and are in widespread use as lingua francas. This is especially the case for French, which is in widespread use throughout Central and West Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius and the Maghreb. The five most widely spoken Romance languages by number of native speakers are Spanish (470 million), Portuguese (250 million), French (150 million), Italian (60 million), and Romanian (25 million). Because of the difficulty of imposing boundaries on a continuum, various counts of the modern Romance languages are given; for example, Dalby li ...more...

Jahangir Khoja


Battle at the River Honbasi near Aksu, 1828 Jahanghir Khoja, Jāhangīr Khwāja, or Jihangir Khoja (Uyghur: جهانگیر خوجا‎ , جهانگير خوجة , Chinese: 張格爾; pinyin: Zhānggé'ěr; 1788 – 1828) was a member of the influential East Turkestan Afaqi khoja clan, who managed to wrest Kashgaria from the Qing Empire's power for a few years in the 1820s. Career Burhan ad-Din, a Khoja of the White Mountain faction, was the grandfather of Jahangir. Before rebellion broke out in May 1826 and during a fortuitously timed earthquake that destroyed most towns in the Ferghana Valley, Jahangir Khoja managed to flee to Kashgar from Kokand, where he had been held in prison in accordance with a secret agreement concluded between the Khanate of Kokand and Qing dynasty China concerning descendants of Appak khoja. Among Jahangir's troops were Kirghiz, Tajiks and White Mountain fighters. After appearing in Kashgar with only several hundred of his followers, he quickly increased his force with volunteers, and within several months had coll ...more...

Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace


Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace is a 1999 American epic space opera film written and directed by George Lucas, produced by Lucasfilm and distributed by 20th Century Fox. It is the first installment in the Star Wars prequel trilogy and stars Liam Neeson, Ewan McGregor, Natalie Portman, Jake Lloyd, Ian McDiarmid, Anthony Daniels, Kenny Baker, Pernilla August, and Frank Oz. The film is set 32 years before the original film, and follows Jedi Knight Qui-Gon Jinn and his apprentice Obi-Wan Kenobi as they protect Queen Amidala, in hopes of securing a peaceful end to a large-scale interplanetary trade dispute. Joined by Anakin Skywalker—a young slave with unusually strong natural powers of the Force—they simultaneously contend with the mysterious return of the Sith. Lucas began production of this film after he determined that film special effects had advanced to the level he wanted for the fourth film in the saga. Filming started on June 26, 1997, at locations including Leavesden Film Studios and the Tunis ...more...

British soldiers in the eighteenth century


Redcoat soldier of the 29th Regiment of Foot in 1742 A redcoat soldier in the British Army during the 18th century would have faced war in a number of theatres throughout the European continent, the Americas and the colonies of the British Empire; the Jacobite rising of 1745, the Seven Years' War between 1756–63, the American War of Independence between 1775–83, and the French Revolutionary Wars between 1792–1802. At the start of the 19th century, and as part of an army going through extensive gradual reform, he would face the ensuing Napoleonic Wars from 1803–15. Life for a redcoat soldier was often tough and challenging. Plenty of training was needed before a soldier could enter the battlefield; drills and exercises had to be strictly followed as punishments were applied for even the most minor of mistakes. A soldier in the army British Grenadier of the 40th Regiment of Foot in 1767 The British Army in the 18th century was commonly seen as disciplined, regimented and harsh. Camp life was dirty an ...more...

List of bank runs


2007 run on Northern Rock, a UK bank This is a list of bank runs. A bank run occurs when a large number of bank customers withdraw their deposits because they believe the bank might fail. As more people withdraw their deposits, the likelihood of default increases, and this encourages further withdrawals. This can destabilize the bank to the point where it faces bankruptcy. 1600s In 1656, after several attempts, Johan Palmstruch was given permission by the Crown of Sweden to start a bank, Stockholm Banco. In 1661 it became the first in Europe to give out banknotes. As lending rose rapidly in just a few years, the value of the banknotes began to fall. In 1664 the bank closed operations, unable to give back the customers money. Palmstruch was imprisoned, the Crown took over the bank, and formed what is still today Rikets Ständers Bank, the national bank of Sweden, operated by the parliament. 1800s In 1866, Overend, Gurney and Company suffered a bank run. It incorporated as a limited liability company in ...more...

Eton College


Eton College is an English independent boarding school for boys in Eton, Berkshire, near Windsor. It educates more than 1,300 pupils, aged 13 to 18 years. It was founded in 1440 by King Henry VI as "The King's College of Our Lady of Eton besides Wyndsor", making it the 18th-oldest Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference (HMC) school. Eton is one of the original seven public schools as defined by the Public Schools Act 1868. Following the public school tradition, Eton is a full boarding school, which means all pupils live at the school, and it is one of four such remaining single-sex boys' public schools in the United Kingdom (the others being Harrow, Radley, and Winchester) to continue this practice. Eton has educated 19 British prime ministers and generations of the aristocracy and has been referred to as the chief nurse of England's statesmen. Eton charges up to £12,910 per term, with three terms per academic year, in 2017/18. Eton was noted as being the sixth most expensive HMC boarding school in th ...more...

Nebula Award for Best Short Story


The Nebula Award for Best Short Story is a literary award assigned each year by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA) for science fiction or fantasy short stories . A work of fiction is defined by the organization as a short story if it is less than 7,500 words; awards are also given out for longer works in the categories of novel , novella , and novelette . To be eligible for Nebula Award consideration a short story must be published in English in the United States. Works published in English elsewhere in the world are also eligible provided they are released on either a website or in an electronic edition. The Nebula Award for Best Short Story has been awarded annually since 1966. The award has been described as one of "the most important of the American science fiction awards" and "the science-fiction and fantasy equivalent" of the Emmy Awards . Selection process Nebula Award nominees and winners are chosen by members of the SFWA, though the authors of the nominees do not need to be a ...more...

2010 Tonight Show conflict


The 2010 Tonight Show conflict was a media and public relations conflict involving American television network NBC and two of its then-late-night talk show hosts, Conan O'Brien and Jay Leno. Leno, the host of long-running franchise The Tonight Show since 1992, and O'Brien, host of Late Night since 1993, were strong ratings leaders for the network for much of the decade. When O'Brien's contract neared its end and he was courted by other networks in 2001, NBC extended his contract and essentially guaranteed him he would be the fifth host of The Tonight Show. The network neglected to let Leno know this until his contract extension in 2004, when they informed him he would remain host for five more years and then transition the show to O'Brien in 2009. When that time arrived, other networks conveyed interest in Leno; NBC, in an effort to keep both of its late-night stars, offered Leno a nightly primetime show before the local news and O'Brien's Tonight Show. The Tonight Show with Conan O'Brien and The Jay Leno Sh ...more...

List of Latin words with English derivatives


This is a list of Latin words with derivatives in English (and other modern languages). Ancient orthography did not distinguish between i and j or between u and v. Many modern works distinguish u from v but not i from j. In this article, both distinctions are shown as they are helpful when tracing the origin of English words. See also Latin spelling and pronunciation. Nouns and adjectives The citation form for nouns (the form normally shown in Latin dictionaries) is the Latin nominative singular, but that typically does not exhibit the root form from which English nouns are generally derived. Latin nouns and adjectives A–M Citation form Declining stem Meaning English derivatives abdomen abdomin- belly abdomen, abdominal, abdominous, intraabdominal accipiter accipitr- hawk Accipiter, accipitrine acer acer- maple aceric ācer ācr- sharp acrid, acridine, acridity, acrimonious, acrimony, acritude, acrity, acrolein, eager, vinegar acerbus • acerbior • acerbissimus acerb- bitter acerbic, acerbity, exacerbate, e ...more...



R101 was one of a pair of British rigid airships completed in 1929 as part of a British government programme to develop civil airships capable of service on long-distance routes within the British Empire. It was designed and built by an Air Ministry-appointed team and was effectively in competition with the government-funded but privately designed and built R100. When built it was the world's largest flying craft at 731 ft (223 m) in length, and it was not surpassed by another hydrogen-filled rigid airship until the Hindenburg flew seven years later. After some trial flights and subsequent modifications to increase lifting capacity, which included lengthening the airship by 46 ft (14 m), it crashed on 5 October 1930 in France during its maiden overseas voyage, killing 48 of the 54 people on board. Among the passengers killed were Lord Thomson, the Air Minister who had initiated the programme, senior government officials, and almost all the dirigible's designers from the Royal Airship Works. The crash of R101 ...more...



Memory cards are a popular physical medium for transferring files and have become smaller in size as technology has advanced Sneakernet is an informal term describing the transfer of electronic information by physically moving media such as magnetic tape , floppy disks , compact discs , USB flash drives or external hard drives from one computer to another; rather than transmitting the information over a computer network . The term, a tongue-in-cheek play on net(work) as in Internet or Ethernet , refers to the wearing of sneakers as the transport mechanism for the data. Summary and background Sneakernets, also known as trainnets or pigeonets, are in use throughout the computer world. Sneakernet may be used when computer networks are prohibitively expensive for the owner to maintain, in high-security environments where manual inspection (for re-classification of information) is necessary, where information needs to be shared between networks with different levels of security clearance, when data transfer is imp ...more...

Alfred Denning, Baron Denning


Alfred Thompson “Tom” Denning, Baron Denning, OM, PC, DL (23 January 1899 – 5 March 1999) was an English lawyer and judge. He was called to the bar in 1923 as a barrister, and became a King's Counsel in 1938. Denning became a judge in 1944 with an appointment to the Probate, Divorce and Admiralty Division of the High Court of Justice and was made a Lord Justice of Appeal in 1948 after less than five years in the High Court. He became a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary in 1957 and after five years in the House of Lords returned to the Court of Appeal as Master of the Rolls in 1962, a position he held for twenty years. In retirement he wrote several books and continued to offer opinions on the state of the common law through his writing and his position in the House of Lords. Margaret Thatcher said that Denning was “probably the greatest English judge of modern times”. Mark Garnett and Richard Weight argue that he was a conservative Christian who "remained popular with morally conservative Britons who were dismayed ...more...

Organ donation


Organ donation is when a person allows an organ of theirs to be removed, legally, either by consent while the donor is alive or after death with the assent of the next of kin. Donation may be for research, or, more commonly healthy transplantable organs and tissues may be donated to be transplanted into another person. Common transplantations include: kidneys, heart, liver, pancreas, intestines, lungs, bones, bone marrow, skin, and corneas. Some organs and tissues can be donated by living donors, such as a kidney or part of the liver, part of the pancreas, part of the lungs or part of the intestines, but most donations occur after the donor has died. As of February 2, 2018, there were 115,085 people waiting for life-saving organ transplants in the US. Of these, 74,897 people were active candidates waiting for a donor. While views of organ donation are positive there is a large gap between the numbers of registered donors compared to those awaiting organ donations on a global level. Process Organ donors ...more...

Death in June


Death in June are a neofolk group led by English folk musician Douglas Pearce, better known as Douglas P. The band was originally formed in Britain in 1981 as a trio, but after the other members left in 1984 and 1985 to work on other projects, the group became the work of Douglas P. and various collaborators. Douglas P. now lives in Australia. Over the band's three decades of existence, they have made numerous shifts in style and presentation, resulting in an overall shift from initial post-punk and Industrial Records influence to a more acoustic and folk music-oriented approach. They are sometimes considered controversial (largely due to usage of themes and imagery relating to Nazi Germany). Douglas P.'s influence was instrumental in sparking neofolk, of which his music has subsequently become a part. In 2017, Douglas P. claimed he will be retiring from live performances, perhaps putting an end to the project. History Origin Pearce formed Death in June in 1981 in England, along with Patrick Leagas and ...more...

List of shoe-throwing incidents


American President George W. Bush ducking a thrown shoe, while Prime Minister of Iraq Nouri al-Maliki attempts to catch it. Shoe-throwing, or shoeing, showing the sole of one's shoe or using shoes to insult are forms of protest in many parts of the world. Shoe-throwing as an insult dates back to ancient times, even mentioned at Psalm 108:9 in the Old Testament. Modern incidents where shoes were thrown at political figures have taken place in Australia, India, Ireland, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Pakistan, the United Kingdom, the United States, and most notably the Arab world. Posters of George W. Bush's face have long appeared through the Middle East with shoes attached to them, and some people have called former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice kundara, meaning "shoe". Shoeing received attention after Muntadhar al-Zaidi threw his shoes at then U.S. President George W. Bush in a 14 December 2008 press conference in Baghdad, Iraq. Since the al-Zaidi incident, copycat incidents in Europe, North America, India, Ch ...more...

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