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Creative peacebuilding

Creative peacebuilding is the larger name for artist approaches to peacebuilding within individuals, groups, and societies. It includes various forms of art therapy, whereby individuals and groups can express themselves to nurture healing and restoration. It is also used to overcome the recurrence of violence, as a preventative measure to make the foundations of peace stronger, especially in contexts of war and conflict. Creating an environment of lasting peace is the primary goal of creative peacebuilding.

War and conflict

According to Johan Galtung, peacebuilding is the process of creating self-supporting structures that "remove causes of wars and offer alternatives to war in situations where wars might occur."[1] For John Paul Lederach, peacebuilding is a comprehensive concept that encompasses, generates, and sustains the full array of processes, approaches, and stages needed to transform conflict toward more sustainable, peaceful relationships, which involves a wide range of activities. It has a diverse range of interaction and involves various stakeholders in various levels within the spectrum of governance and development.[2]

Creative peacebuilding facilitates the establishments of sustainable peace by preventing recurrence of violence, addresses the root causes, healing and effects of conflict, and offer alternatives to violence through reconciliation, economic and social transformation with the use of photography, film, painting, and the like. Jolyon Mitchell argues that the visual arts can both encourage peacebuilding and instigating violence. This is true of various forms of visual arts, ranging from posters, cartoons, and stained glass, to websites, radio, and films by reflecting on examples from around the world.[3]

Creative peacebuilding can be especially powerful when used with those suffering from a young demographic and those with post-traumatic stress disorder. For at-risk youth, it lays the roots for a peaceful lifestyle and to help children who have already experienced trauma in their lives become fully functional adults.[4]

Art therapy

Art therapy has been used to help rehabilitate child soldiers in Uganda as well as to help children who lost their homes in the tsunami of 2004 cope with their feelings. Many youth centers catering to impoverished children use art forms to build community, discipline and trust.[5]

Music

Music therapy can be used in several different fashions to build peace. It can be used to help individuals express themselves or to foster communication between individuals or groups of people. It can be used to nurture healing and reconciliation. Music is something that transcends language and national or ethnic boundaries. It has unique styles depending on the community it originates in and can also be adapted to fit individual's tastes. When two groups who have been in conflict or have the potential for conflict make music together communication and healing become possible. When individuals listen to or play music, they can reduce their stress levels and express their feelings.[6]

Visual arts

Visual art therapy can be used to help individuals cope with their feelings resulting from violent experiences. It is also used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder. Art therapy is especially useful for people who are having trouble verbalizing their feelings and are keeping them bottled up. By sharing their experiences and processing them through a tactical and visual activity, people are able to heal. No prior experience with visual art is needed to participate in and gain benefits from art therapy—it is about the process of creation, not about the aesthetic appeal of the product. Art therapy can be used in group settings as well—creating a collaborative art project can be an experience that bridges differences between people and builds feelings of trust.[7]

Visualization and technology

If people who have lived through traumatic or violent experiences can relive them and change the situation or their response to the situation they can come to terms with their past. Virtual technology and especially virtual reality simulations can be especially useful in cases like these and have been used to treat veterans of the Iraq war who are suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. If the technology needed for these simulations is too expensive to be practical, mental visualization, in which the victim uses their imagination to create situations and feel as if they are gaining control of the way events play out, can be used as an alternative.[8]

Examples
Create Peace Project

Create Peace Project is an arts-for-peace education organization working to promote the practices of peace and spread the message of hope and goodwill to children around the world using creativity. Create Peace Project was founded in San Francisco, California in 2007 by artist and peace activist Ross Holzman in response to the overwhelming amount of violence in the world, on the news, and in our communities. Violence, coupled with the lack of creativity in peoples lives sparked the creation of projects such as Banners for Peace and The Peace Exchange. Create Peace Project has included more than 25,000 children from around the world in its arts-for-peace projects since its inception and continues to work with schools in the US and beyond promoting peace through creativity to children of all ages.[9]

Barefoot artists

Artist Lily Yeh has helped to heal the wounds genocide left on a village of widows and orphans through her work with Barefoot Artists. The members of the community were provided with a chance to honor their lost loved ones through their construction of a beautiful and expressive monument commemorating the mass grave of the local victims of the genocide. The construction process also provided a sense of closure to their mourning. Other aspects of the peacebuilding process in the village included paintings on building walls created by the village children of things that they hoped to see in the future as well as things important to their everyday existence. On the economic side of this peacebuilding effort, the people of the village learned how to mosaic and pour concrete, two useful and marketable skills to help provide economic stability.[10]

River City Drum Corps

In the United State, creative peacebuilding is used in many inner-city areas in places such as New York, Philadelphia, and Louisville. The River City Drum Corps in Louisville, Ky provides a musical outlet for children who perhaps are not listened to in other parts of their lives. It is also a structured program where discipline and the importance of both uniqueness and teamwork are taught. The children learn drumming patterns and perform for different events and groups of people throughout the city. Both the children in the program and their audience benefit from the cultural exchange and communication that take place during drum corps performances.[11]

See also
References
  1. "Selected Definitions of Peacebuilding". Alliance for Peacebuilding. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  2. Lederach, John Paul (2010). The Moral Imagination: The Art and Soul of Building Peace. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-974758-0.
  3. Mitchell, Jolyon P. (2012). Promoting Peace, Inciting Violence: The Role of Religion and Media. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-55746-7.
  4. Ishaq, Ashfaq (December 2006). "Development of children's creativity to foster peace". The Lancet. 368: 26–27.
  5. Prutzman, Priscilla (October 1981). "Children's Creative Response to Conflict". Peace and Change. 7 (4): 77–79.
  6. Sutton, Julie P., ed. (2002). Music, Music Therapy and Trauma: International Perspectives. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN 978-1-84310-027-0.
  7. Avrahami, Dalia (2006). "Visual Art Therapy's Unique Contribution in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders". Journal of Trauma & Dissociation. 6 (4): 5–38. doi:10.1300/j229v06n04_02. ISSN 1529-9732.
  8. Jones, Brent (18 June 2007). "Iraq vets use virtual reality to ease post-battle trauma". www.usatoday.com. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  9. Holzman, Ross (8 May 2008). "Create Peace Project". Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  10. Yeh, Lily. "Barefoot Artists". Barefoot Artists. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  11. "About RCDC". River City Drum Corp. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
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Creative peacebuilding

topic

Creative peacebuilding is the larger name for artist approaches to peacebuilding within individuals, groups, and societies. It includes various forms of art therapy , whereby individuals and groups can express themselves to nurture healing and restoration. It is also used to overcome the recurrence of violence , as a preventative measure to make the foundations of peace stronger, especially in contexts of war and conflict. Creating an environment of lasting peace is the primary goal of creative peacebuilding. War and conflict According to Johan Galtung , peacebuilding is the process of creating self-supporting structures that "remove causes of wars and offer alternatives to war in situations where wars might occur." For John Paul Lederach , peacebuilding is a comprehensive concept that encompasses, generates, and sustains the full array of processes, approaches, and stages needed to transform conflict toward more sustainable, peaceful relationships, which involves a wide range of activities. It has a diverse ...more...



Creative peacebuilding (visual arts)

topic

In the visual arts , creative peacebuilding offers a creative means to bring about peace within conflicted contexts. The use of the visual arts for effective peacebuilding emphasizes a consideration of the nature of the context where the tools is applied by not necessarily following a set format or paradigm. It reflects the potential to transcend traditional ideas, rules, patterns, relationships, or the like, to create meaningful new ideas, forms, methods, and interpretations geared towards establishing and sustaining peace. Generally speaking, the arts refers to the theory and the physical expressions of creativity found in human societies and cultures. The major constituents of the arts include literature (poetry, novels, short stories, and epic poetry), performing arts (music, dance, and theatre), and the visual arts , the last of which includes creations that can be seen. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary , the term "creative" describes a quality of something created rather than imitated. In li ...more...



Peacebuilding

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Peacebuilding is an intervention that is designed to prevent the start or resumption of violent conflict by creating a sustainable peace . Peacebuilding activities address the root causes or potential causes of violence, create a societal expectation for peaceful conflict resolution and stabilize society politically and socioeconomically. The activities included in peacebuilding vary depending on the situation and the agent of peacebuilding. Successful peacebuilding activities create an environment supportive of self-sustaining, durable peace; reconcile opponents; prevent conflict from restarting; integrate civil society; create rule of law mechanisms; and address underlying structural and societal issues. Researchers and practitioners also increasingly find that peacebuilding is most effective and durable when it relies upon local conceptions of peace and the underlying dynamics which foster or enable conflict. Definition The exact definition varies depending on the actor, with some definitions specifying wh ...more...



Karuna Center for Peacebuilding

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Karuna Center for Peacebuilding (KCP) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization based in Amherst, Massachusetts. The stated mission of KCP is to empower people divided by conflict to develop mutual understanding and to create sustainable peace. The organization was named for the Sanskrit word for compassion. The organizations efforts in facilitating " post-conflict reconciliation " has led to active programs in more than 30 countries. They have co-implemented programs with the United States Agency for International Development , United States Department of State , United States Institute of Peace , and Fund for Peace , among others. History and purpose KCP provides educational training programs in conflict transformation and inter-communal dialogue in communities experiencing deeply rooted conflict. With a focus on relational peacebuilding , KCP facilitators aim to create a context in which shattered communal relations can be healed and programs fostering coexistence can be established and tested. KCP was found ...more...



Center for Justice and Peacebuilding

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Center for Justice and Peacebuilding (CJP) is an accredited graduate-level program founded in 1994. It also offers non-credit training. The program specializes in conflict transformation, restorative justice , trauma healing, equitable development, and addressing organizational conflict. CJP is housed at Eastern Mennonite University (EMU) in Harrisonburg, Virginia , which describes itself as "a leader among faith-based universities" in emphasizing "peacebuilding, creation care, experiential learning, and cross-cultural engagement." One of the three 2011 Nobel Peace Laureates, Leymah Gbowee of Liberia, earned a master's degree in conflict transformation from CJP in 2007. History The Center for Justice and Peacebuilding (CJP) is anchored in two currents within the Mennonite stream of Christianity : Its tradition of helping people suffering from violent conflict or natural calamities, regardless of their religion or ethnicity Its renunciation of all forms of violence Relieving Suffering The founding of the Cente ...more...



Conflict transformation

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Conflict transformation is a concept designed to reframe the way in which peacebuilding initiatives are discussed and pursued, particularly in contexts of ethnic conflict . Traditionally the emphasis has been on conflict resolution and conflict management methods, which focus on reducing or defusing outbreaks of hostility. Conflict transformation , in contrast, places a greater weight on addressing the underlying conditions which give rise to that conflict, preferably well in advance of any hostility, but also to ensure a sustainable peace. In other terms, it attempts to make explicit and then reshape the social structures and dynamics behind the conflict, often employing analytical tools borrowed from systems thinking . "The very structure of parties and relationships may be embedded in a pattern of conflictual relationships that extend beyond the particular site of conflict. Conflict transformation is therefore a process of engaging with and transforming the relationships, interests, discourses and, if nece ...more...



International Peace and Security Institute

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The International Peace and Security Institute or IPSI is a division of Creative Learning an international nonprofit organization with 501(c)(3) status headquartered in Washington, D.C. Founded in 2009, IPSI was acquired by Creative Learning in November 2016. The Institute's objective is to train young peacebuilding and International Justice leaders in the skills needed to effectively intervene in violent conflict scenarios in pursuit of sustainable peace. Currently IPSI has two flagship symposiums in Bologna , Italy, and The Hague , The Netherlands. Between 2009 and 2014 more than 400 young professionals and practitioners from over 100 countries have received training from the Institute. Programs Bologna Symposium on Conflict Prevention, Resolution, & Reconciliation Since 2010 and in cooperation with Johns Hopkins University SAIS, IPSI hosts a 4-week symposium in Italy, each year attended by more than 50 young professionals. Participants learn directly from world leaders, and undergo very intensive ...more...



Conflict resolution

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Conflict resolution is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict and retribution . Committed group members attempt to resolve group conflicts by actively communicating information about their conflicting motives or ideologies to the rest of the group (e.g., intentions; reasons for holding certain beliefs), and by engaging in collective negotiation . Dimensions of resolution typically parallel the dimensions of conflict in the way the conflict is processed. Cognitive resolution is the way disputants understand and view the conflict, with beliefs and perspectives and understandings and attitudes. Emotional resolution is in the way disputants feel about a conflict, the emotional energy. Behavioral resolution is how one thinks the disputants act, their behavior. Ultimately, a wide range of methods and procedures for addressing conflict exist, including negotiation , mediation , mediation-arbitration, diplomacy , and creative peacebuilding . The term con ...more...



Dispute resolution

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Dispute resolution is the process of resolving disputes between parties . The term dispute resolution may also be used interchangeably with conflict resolution , where conflict styles can be used for different scenarios. Methods Methods of dispute resolution include: lawsuits (litigation) arbitration collaborative law mediation conciliation many types of negotiation facilitation One could theoretically include violence or even war as part of this spectrum, but dispute resolution practitioners do not usually do so; violence rarely ends disputes effectively, and indeed, often only escalates them. Dispute resolution processes fall into two major types: Adjudicative processes, such as litigation or arbitration, in which a judge, jury or arbitrator determines the outcome. Consensual processes, such as collaborative law, mediation, conciliation, or negotiation, in which the parties attempt to reach agreement. Not all disputes, even those in which skilled intervention occurs, end in resolution. Such intractable disp ...more...



Hekima Institute of Peace Studies and International Relations

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Hekima Institute of Peace Studies and International Relations (HIPSIR) is an institute within Hekima University College run by the Jesuits in Nairobi , Kenya . Founded in 2004, HIPSIR offers both certificate courses and a master's degree (MA), while sponsoring conferences that bring together experts from across the continent and from abroad. Mission The Institute educates men and women in peacebuilding and conflict resolution. It aims "to build a society where human dignity is respected, human rights promoted, faith and justice upheld, economic and natural resources shared equitably, international relations founded on principles that promote and respect human life, individuals and institution in power are held accountable, and academic excellence is pursued with the aim of achieving full human potential for good." Programs The Master of Arts Degree in Peace Studies and International Relations is a two-year programme on conflict resolution and transitional justice in post-colonial Africa. The fourth semester ...more...



Eastern Mennonite University

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Eastern Mennonite University (EMU) is a private liberal arts university in the Shenandoah Valley of the U.S. state of Virginia , affiliated with one of the historic peace churches , the Mennonite Church USA . Its 97-acre (390,000 m ) main campus is located near Harrisonburg, Virginia . The university operates a satellite campus in Lancaster, Pennsylvania , which primarily caters to working adults. EMU's bachelor-degree holders traditionally engage in service-oriented work, such as health care, education, social work, and the ministry. As of 2014, the following are the most popular majors: education, health sciences and/or biology, liberal arts, visual/communications arts, and psychology. Overview EMU describes itself as "a leader among faith-based institutions" in emphasizing "peacebuilding, creation care, experiential learning, and cross-cultural engagement." Worldwide, EMU is probably best known for its Center for Justice and Peacebuilding (CJP), especially its graduate program in conflict transformation ...more...



Peace journalism

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Peace journalism has been developed from research that indicates that often news about conflict has a value bias toward violence. It uses Conflict analysis and transformation to update the concept of balance, fairness and accuracy in reporting. It also includes practical methods for correcting this bias by producing journalism in both the mainstream and alternative media, and working with journalists, media professionals, audiences, and organizations in conflict. This concept was proposed by Johan Galtung . Other terms for this broad definition of peace journalism include conflict solution journalism, conflict sensitive journalism, constructive conflict coverage, and reporting the world. War journalism is journalism about conflict that has a value bias towards violence and violent groups. This usually leads audiences to overvalue violent responses to conflict and ignore non-violent alternatives. This is understood to be the result of well documented news reporting conventions. These conventions focus only ...more...



Open Space Technology

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Open Space Technology ( OST ) is an approach to purpose-driven leadership, including a way for hosting meetings, conflict minded peacebuilding, conferences , corporate-style retreats, symposiums , and community summit events, focused on a specific and important purpose or task — but beginning without any formal agenda, beyond the overall purpose or theme. Open Space is the only process that focuses on expanding time and space for the force of self-organisation to do its thing. Although one can't predict specific outcomes, it's always highly productive for whatever issue people want to attend to. Some of the inspiring side effects that are regularly noted are laughter, hard work which feels like play, surprising results and fascinating new questions. —  Michael M Pannwitz, Open Space practitioner Self-organization Open Space meeting at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Seen by proponents as especially scalable and adaptable, the OST event format has been used in meetings of 5 to 2,100 people (in self-discovery ...more...



Reconciliation theology

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Reconciliation theology or the theology of reconciliation raises crucial theological questions about how reconciliation can be brought into regions of political conflict. The term differs from the conventional theological understanding of reconciliation , but likewise emphasises themes of justice, truth, forgiveness and repentance. Overview Reconciliation is conventionally understood as a central theological concept: God reconciles himself with humanity through the atonement of Christ and, likewise, the followers of Christ are called to become peacemakers and reconcile with one another. The Greek term for reconciliation katallagē means to "exchange enmity, wrath and war with friendship, love and peace." A number of theologians have developed this theological concept, such as Irenaeus (115-202), Tertullian (160-220), Augustine of Hippo (324-430), Martin Luther (1483–1546), John Calvin (1509-64), Albrecht Ritschl (1822–89), Karl Barth (1886-1968), Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906–45) and Gustavo Gutiérrez (1928). H ...more...



Creative Court

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Creative Court is an organisation that develops art projects and reflects on peace and justice. Creative Court is based in The Hague, the Netherlands. It was founded in November 2013. And now I am here. Project Description In 2015 two journalists, Els Duran and Evelien Vehof, conducted interviews regarding statelessness in Europe in which they came across complicated regulations, coping mechanisms and pragmatism. Creative Court developed the video installation ‘And now I am here’ based upon these findings. This video installation questions feelings of displacement from various angles through the use of interview, excerpts and quotes from literature and philosophy which are merged with the images of video artist Farah Rahman, whose work revolves around migration. This video installation was created as part of the framework of the Europe by People arts and design programme which took place during the Dutch presidency of the Council of the European Union in 2016. Artists and Experts Involved Video artist: Farah ...more...



Centre Stage Media Arts Foundation Zimbabwe

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Centre Stage Media Arts Foundation (CSMA) is a Zimbabwean non-profit organisation . CSMAs uses the human rights centred approach to implement projects on HIV / AIDs, legal education and human rights advocacy, sustainable development and youth development. In implementing development projects, CSMA, formal and informal participatory methods, education for sustainable development and broad advocacy strategies, including media and policy advocacy. To date CSMA has implemented projects on digital rights, access to justice, HIV prevention through biomedical interventions advocacy, freedom of information and expression, Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), urban youth entrepreneurship and broader peacebuilding and peacemaking initiatives. CSMA exists as a creative development hub, that responds to multifaceted development challenges facing marginalised and subordinate groups in Zimbabwe. It does this by harnessing the energy and talents of young people and professionals across the different development ...more...



Visual arts

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The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics , drawing , painting , sculpture , printmaking , design , crafts , photography , video , filmmaking , and architecture . Many artistic disciplines ( performing arts , conceptual art , textile arts ) involve aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. Also included within the visual arts are the applied arts such as industrial design , graphic design , fashion design , interior design and decorative art . Current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts , but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term 'artist' was often restricted to a person working in the fine arts (such as painting, sculpture, or printmaking) and not the handicraft , craft, or applied art media. The distinction was emphasized by artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement, who valued vernacular art forms as much as high forms. Art scho ...more...



Abigail Disney

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Abigail E. Disney (born 1960) is an American documentary filmmaker, scholar, philanthropist, and activist known for her documentary films focused on social themes. She is the Executive Producer and Director of the film The Armor of Light, which premiered at the 2015 Tribeca Film Festival . Biography Early life Abigail Disney was raised in North Hollywood, California , and was educated at Yale (BA), Stanford (MA, English Lit ), and Columbia (PhD, English Lit). She is the daughter of Patricia Ann (née Dailey) and Roy E. Disney and granddaughter of Roy O. Disney , co-founder of The Walt Disney Company with her great uncle Walt Disney . Career Filmmaking She turned to the family business of filmmaking with a documentary film, Pray the Devil Back to Hell, directed by Academy Award -nominated, Emmy -winning filmmaker Gini Reticker. Pray the Devil Back to Hell brought to light the work of Liberian peace activist Leymah Gbowee by telling the story about the critical role women played in bringing peace to war torn ...more...



John D. Marks

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John D. Marks (born 1943) is the founder and former president of Search for Common Ground (SFCG), a non-profit organization based in Washington, DC that focuses on international conflict management programming. Marks now acts as a Senior Adviser to SFCG. He is also a former Foreign Service Officer of the U.S. Department of State and co-authored the 1974 controversial non-fiction book The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence with Victor Marchetti . Biography Marks is a graduate of Phillips Academy and Cornell University . He worked for five years with the State Department, first in Vietnam and then as an analyst and staff assistant to the Director of the Bureau of Intelligence and Research . After leaving the State Department, he became Executive Assistant for foreign policy to US Senator Clifford Case (R-NJ), responsible within the Senator's office for passage of the Case–Church Amendment , which eventually cut off funding for the Vietnam War. He also worked with Marchetti on a book about the need to reform th ...more...



Center for World Religions, Diplomacy and Conflict Resolution

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The Center for World Religions, Diplomacy and Conflict Resolution (CRDC) is an arm of George Mason University 's School for Conflict Analysis and Resolution (S-CAR). CRDC engages in practice, education, and research concerning peace-building in conflicts where religion and culture play a significant role in a destructive conflict. CRDC specializes in entrepreneurial engagement with partners, students and supporters who share the goal of promoting emerging networks of indigenous and global peacemakers; mobilizing support for them; and forging links between such people, citizen-diplomats, and policymakers. History CRDC began in 2003 with a gift from the Catalyst Fund, which endowed the James H. Laue Chair in World Religions, Diplomacy, and Conflict Resolution, and created CRDC to be directed by the chair. The chair is named for James H. Laue, the inaugural Vernon M. and Minnie I. Lynch Professor of Conflict Resolution at George Mason from 1987 until his death in 1993. Activities CRDC offers public presentations ...more...



Institute of World Affairs

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The Institute of World Affairs ( IWA ) was founded 1924 in Geneva, Switzerland by Maude Miner Hadden and Alexander Mectier Hadden. The IWA started at the Student’s International Union (SIU) in Geneva. The SIU had been established at the League of Nations during its 5th assembly, and the creation of the SIU was at the bequest of students at the nearby university of Geneva and an idea by Gilbert Murray . The IWA, in time, would grow to not only have the office in Geneva, but also have offices in New York City, Washington, D.C., and Salisbury, Connecticut. In 1941, due to the outbreak of World War II , the IWA was moved to the United States because of security concerns. The website for the IWA states as its mission statement that “IWA is a not-for-profit, non-governmental organization working across cultural and political boundaries to advance creative approaches to conflict analysis, conflict management, and post-conflict peace-building.” Foundation Maude and Alexander, met when the two of them founded the i ...more...



Teen court

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Teen court (sometimes called youth court or peer court ) is a problem-solving court within the juvenile justice system where teens charged with certain types of offenses can be sentenced by a jury of same-aged peers. Their purpose is to provide an alternative disposition for juveniles who have committed a delinquent act, have committed a minor offense , or have been charged with a misdemeanor , and are otherwise eligible for diversion . Depending on their training, community support, and agreements with traditional court systems, most teen or youth courts are recognized as valid, legal venues for the process of hearing cases , sentencing and sentence fulfillment. Teen courts and their verdicts are not authorized by public law . Court Structure Teen courts are staffed by youth volunteers who serve in various capacities within the program, trained and acting in the roles of jurors , lawyers , bailiffs , clerks and judges . Teen courts usually function in cooperation with local juvenile courts and youth detenti ...more...



United Nations Secretariat

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The United Nations Secretariat ( French : le Secrétariat des Nations unies ) is one of the six major organs of the United Nations , with the others being (a) the General Assembly ; (b) the Security Council ; (c) the Economic and Social Council ; (d) the defunct Trusteeship Council ; and (e) the International Court of Justice . The Secretariat is the United Nations' executive arm. The Secretariat has an important role in setting the agenda for the UN's deliberative and decision making bodies of the UN (the General Assembly, Economic and Social Council, and Security Council), and the implementation of the decision of these bodies. The Secretary-General , who is appointed by the General Assembly, is the head of the secretariat. The mandate of the secretariat is a wide one. Dag Hammarskjöld , the United Nations' second Secretary-General, described its power as follows: "The United Nations is what member nations made it, but within the limits set by government action and government cooperation, much depends on w ...more...



Religious views on same-sex marriage

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Many views are held or have been expressed by religious organisations in relation to same-sex marriage . Arguments both in favor of and in opposition to same-sex marriage (or equal marriage rights ) is often made on religious grounds and/or formulated in terms of religious doctrine. Although the majority of world religions oppose to same-sex marriage, the number of religious denominations that are conducting same-sex marriages have been increasing in recent times. Religious views on same-sex marriage are closely related to religious views on homosexuality . Religious support Christianity Support and affirmation of marriage rights for same-sex couples generally comes from certain Christian denominations that are considered theologically liberal. Some examples of religious organizations voicing their support for same-sex marriage include Metropolitan Community Church , the United Church of Christ , the United Church of Canada , the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) , the Episcopal Church of the United St ...more...



Dispute mechanism

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A dispute mechanism is a structured process that addresses disputes or grievances that arise between two or more parties engaged in business, legal, or societal relationships. Dispute mechanisms are used in dispute resolution , and may incorporate conciliation , conflict resolution , mediation , and negotiation . Otherwise known as grievance mechanisms , dispute mechanisms are typical non-judicial in nature, meaning that they are not resolved within the court of law. According to research produced by the non-judicial grievance mechanism task force of John Ruggie, Special Representative of Business and Human Rights to the United Nations, those who design and oversee non-judicial mechanisms should acknowledge core human rights processes defined by "all core UN human rights treaties.” Dispute mechanisms comprise a way for socially responsible businesses to meet requirements of corporate responsibility-related agreements or pacts, reduce risk while capacity-building or developing internationally, and assist lar ...more...



The Creators (film)

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The Creators: South Africa Through the Eyes of Its Artists is a 2012 South African documentary film produced and directed by Laura Gamse which interweaves the lives of diverse South African artists including Faith47 , Cashril+, Warongx, Emile Jansen of Black Noise , Markus Wormstorm and Spoek Mathambo of Sweat.X, Blaq Pearl, and Mthetho Mapoyi. Synopsis The story begins in the mind of Cashril Plus, a twelve-year-old animator and son of graffiti artist Faith47 . Through Cashril's eyes, we see his mother paint the streets and forgotten townships haloing Cape Town . Weaving through the lives of Faith47, Warongx (afro-blues), Emile Jansen (hip hop), Sweat.X (glam rap), Blaq Pearl (spoken word) and Mthetho (opera), the film culminates in an intertwined story. Born into separate areas of a formerly-segregated South Africa, the artists recraft history—and the impacts of apartheid —in their own artistic languages. The lens reveals the impulse behind the artists’ social consciousness, the individuals’ eccentricities, ...more...



Artraker

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Artraker is a UK -based Community Interest Company established in 2012 and the brain-child of political artist, Manali Jagtap . Artraker annually recognizes artworks that helps shape and inspire through visual arts how people and organisations understand, engage and respond to war , violent conflict and social upheaval. The Artraker Annual Award Artraker celebrates and awards art works and art projects that make a direct positive change in countries which have experienced war , violent conflict and social upheaval. The Artraker Awards differ from other awards such as the Turner Prize or the Deutsche Börse Photography Prize . Although like them, Artraker awards contemporary art , it is not primarily interested in the significance of the artists’ contribution to the disciplines of art or photography , but is focused instead on the ability of art to create opportunities for change and to co-create experiences of freedom even in the midst of conflict. The Artraker Annual Awards are announced during the week of I ...more...



John Kufuor

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John Kofi Agyekum Kufuor (born 8 December 1938) is a Ghanaian politician who was President of Ghana from 7 January 2001 to 7 January 2009. He was also Chairperson of the African Union from 2007 to 2008. His victory over John Evans Atta Mills after the end of Jerry Rawlings' second term marked the first peaceful democratic transition of power in Ghana since independence in 1957. Kufuor's career has been spent on the liberal-democratic side of Ghanaian politics, in the parties descended from the United Gold Coast Convention and the United Party . He was a minister in Kofi Abrefa Busia 's Progress Party government during Ghana's Second Republic , and a Popular Front Party opposition frontbencher during the Third Republic . In the Fourth Republic he stood as the New Patriotic Party 's candidate at the 1996 election, and then led it to victory in 2000 and 2004. Having served two terms, in 2008 he was no longer eligible for the presidency. Early life John and Theresa Kufuor (2008) An Asante , Kufuor married Theresa ...more...



Information and communication technologies for development

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Information and communication technologies for development ( ICT4D ) refers to the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) toward social, economic, and political development, with a particular emphasis on helping poor and marginalized people and communities. It aims to help in international development by bridging the digital divide and providing equitable access to technologies. ICT4D is grounded in the notions of "development", "growth", "progress" and "globalization" and is often interpreted as the use of technology to deliver a greater good. Another similar term used in the literature is "digital development". ICT4D draws on theories and frameworks from many disciplines, including sociology, economics, development studies, library, information science, and communication studies. History A telecentre in Gambia ICT4D grew out of the attempts to use emerging computing technologies to improve conditions in the developing countries. According to a paper by Crysta Highfield, ([https:// ...more...

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Peace

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2008. A " Kind Angel of Peace monument " in the city of Donetsk, Ukraine, by Russian artist Peter Stronsky . Peace is a certain quality of existence which has been sought after, yet seldom found in a long enduring form, since time immemorial. In a behavioral sense, peace is generally understood to be a lack of conflict and freedom from fear of violence between heterogenous social groups. Throughout history benevolent leaders have often exhibited a certain type of behavioral or political restraint, which in turn has often resulted in the establishment of regional peace or economic growth through various forms of agreements or peace treaties . Such behavioral restraint has often resulted in the de-escalation of conflicts, or in multilateral or bilateral peace talks. The avoidance of war or violent hostility is often the result of compromise, and is often initiated with thoughtful active listening and communication, which may tend to enable a greater genuine mutual understanding. In a psychological sense, peace ...more...



Literacy

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World map indicating literacy rate by country in 2015 (2015 CIA World Factbook ) Grey = no data World illiteracy halved between 1970 and 2015 . Brain areas involved in literacy acquisition Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write . The modern term's meaning has been expanded to include the ability to use language, numbers, images, computers, and other basic means to understand, communicate, gain useful knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture. The concept of literacy is expanding in OECD countries to include skills to access knowledge through technology and ability to assess complex contexts. A person who travels and resides in a foreign country but is unable to read or write in the language of the host country would also be regarded by the locals as being illiterate. The key to literacy is reading development, a progression of skills that begins with the ability to understand spoken words and decode written words, and culminates in the ...more...



Human security

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Human security is an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state. Human security holds that a people-centred, multi-disciplinary understanding of security involving a number of research fields, including development studies , international relations , strategic studies, and human rights . The United Nations Development Programme 's 1994 Human Development Report is considered a milestone publication in the field of human security, with its argument that insuring " freedom from want " and " freedom from fear " for all persons is the best path to tackle the problem of global insecurity. Critics of the concept argue that its vagueness undermines its effectiveness, that it has become little more than a vehicle for activists wishing to promote certain causes, and that it does not help the research community understand what security mea ...more...



Negotiation

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Signing the Treaty of Trianon on 4 June 1920. Albert Apponyi standing in the middle. The ministers of foreign affairs of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, Germany, France, China, the European Union and Iran negotiating in Lausanne for a Comprehensive agreement on the Iranian nuclear programme (30 March 2015). Negotiation is a dialogue between two or more people or parties intended to reach a beneficial outcome over one or more issues where a conflict exists with respect to at least one of these issues. This beneficial outcome can be for all of the parties involved, or just for one or some of them. It is aimed to resolve points of difference, to gain advantage for an individual or collective , or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests. It is often conducted by putting forward a position and making small concessions to achieve an agreement. The degree to which the negotiating parties trust each other to implement the negotiated solution is a major factor in determining whether negotiations ...more...



Alternative dispute resolution

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Alternative dispute resolution ( ADR ; known in some countries, such as India, as external dispute resolution ) includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation . It is a collective term for the ways that parties can settle disputes, with (or without) the help of a third party. Despite historic resistance to ADR by many popular parties and their advocates, ADR has gained widespread acceptance among both the general public and the legal profession in recent years. In fact, some courts now require some parties to resort to ADR of some type, usually mediation , before permitting the parties' cases to be tried (indeed the European Mediation Directive (2008) expressly contemplates so-called "compulsory" mediation; this means that attendance is compulsory, not that settlement must be reached through mediation). Additionally, parties to merger and acquisition transactions are increasingly turning to ADR to resolve post-acqui ...more...



Restorative justice

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Restorative justice is an approach to justice that personalizes the crime by having the victims and the offenders mediate a restitution agreement to the satisfaction of each, as well as involving the community. This contrasts to more punitive approaches where the main aim is retributive justice or to satisfy abstract legal principles. Victims take an active role in the process. Meanwhile, offenders take meaningful responsibility for their actions, seizing the opportunity to right their wrongs and redeem themselves, in their own eyes and in the eyes of the community. In addition, the restorative justice approach aims to help the offender to avoid future offenses. The approach is based on a theory of justice that considers crime and wrongdoing to be an offense against an individual or community, rather than the State. Restorative justice that fosters dialogue between victim and offender has shown the highest rates of victim satisfaction and offender accountability. Definition According to John Braithwaite , re ...more...



Steve Killelea

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Stephen (Steve) Killelea AM is an Australian IT entrepreneur and the founder of the global think tank, the Institute for Economics and Peace . He began his career, after doing a crash course in computing and working for a computer manufacturer, by developing a product for computer systems management that became internationally successful and led him to set up a US company, Software Products, that went public. Career In August 1988, Killelea formed the Australian company Integrated Research, which was listed on the Australian Stock Exchange in 2000. The company's main business is providing its PROGNOSIS performance monitoring software for business-critical computing and IP telephony environments used by corporations such as Visa , MasterCard and American Express ; the New York, London and Hong Kong stock exchanges; and most of the world's ATMs . Having stepped down as chief executive November 2004, he is still chairman of the company that now branches into the field of internet telephony . Killelea also has ...more...



Elliott Yamin

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Efraym Elliott Yamin (born July 20, 1978) is an American singer known for his hit single " Wait for You " and placing third on the fifth season of American Idol . His self-titled album , released March 20, 2007, debuted at number one on the Billboard Independent Albums chart and at number three on the Billboard 200 . The album was certified gold in the United States in October 2007. Retitled Wait for You, the album was released in Japan in May 2008 and certified gold in that country in September 2008. Yamin also released two Christmas collections: Sounds of the Season: The Elliott Yamin Holiday Collection in October 2007 and My Kind of Holiday in October 2008. Yamin's second album, titled Fight for Love , was released on May 5, 2009. The album's first single, " Fight for Love ", premiered on AOL Music on February 13, 2009. His third album, Gather 'Round was released in Japan in 2011. It was retitled in the United States as Let's Get to What's Real and released in 2012. The first single in Japan and the United ...more...



Pacifism

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A peace sign , which is widely associated with pacifism World Day of Prayer for Peace in Assisi , 2011 Pacifism is opposition to war , militarism , or violence . The word pacifism was coined by the French peace campaigner Émile Arnaud (1864–1921) and adopted by other peace activists at the tenth Universal Peace Congress in Glasgow in 1901. A related term is ahimsa (to do no harm), which is a core philosophy in Buddhism and Jainism . While modern connotations are recent, having been explicated since the 19th century, ancient references abound. In modern times, interest was revived by Leo Tolstoy in his late works, particularly in The Kingdom of God Is Within You . Mohandas Gandhi (1869–1948) propounded the practice of steadfast nonviolent opposition which he called " satyagraha ", instrumental in its role in the Indian Independence Movement . Its effectiveness served as inspiration to Martin Luther King Jr. , James Lawson , James Bevel , Thich Nhat Hanh and many others in the Civil Rights Movement . Pacifism ...more...



Alfred Nobel University

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Alfred Nobel University, Ukraine ( Ukrainian : Університет імені Альфреда Нобеля ) is a higher educational institution with the IV level of accreditation. It is committed to enhancing innovative technologies in teaching and it helps to strengthen the country's position in the international arena, which is reflected in its mission. The university creates up-to-date education and scientific values that correspond to the demands of the 21st century and are geared towards dynamic development of the economy and society, towards European and global integration of Ukraine. History Alfred Nobel University was founded in 1993 as a private higher education institution with a focus on management and economics. Until 2010, it was known as "University of Economics and Law, Dnipropetrovsk". From the start, it was the central mission of DUAN to meet the demands of the Ukrainian labour market – especially small and medium-size enterprises – for qualified personnel with a background in Management, Economics and Law and additi ...more...



Peace and Truce of God

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The Peace and Truce of God ( Latin : Pax et treuga Dei ; German : Gottesfrieden ; French : Paix de Dieu ; Español : Paz y tregua de Dios.) was a movement in the Middle Ages led by the Catholic Church that applied spiritual sanctions to limit the violence of feuding . It began with very limited provisions in 989 due to the political and territorial upheaval in France caused by the Frankish nobility and the movement survived in some form until the thirteenth century. Georges Duby summarized the widening social repercussions of Pax Dei: The Peace and Truce of God, by attaching sacred significance to privacy, helped create a space in which communal gatherings could take place and thus encouraged the reconstitution of public space at the village level ... In the eleventh and twelfth centuries many a village grew up in the shadow of the church , in the zone of immunity where violence was prohibited under peace regulations. Background The eighteenth-century historian Edward Gibbon , interpreting Tacitus , Germania ...more...



Technology for peace

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Technology for Peace is a Cyprus-based peoples' initiative launched in 1995 to serve the needs of peace pioneers on the divided island. History The peace portal was born because it was deemed needed. What led to its birth was neither the availability of relevant technology nor the availability of funding, because both were not there. The ban of bi-communal meetings imposed by the Turkish Cypriot Authorities following the EU’s decision to postpone accession negotiations with Turkey (summit meeting in Luxembourg, December 1997) stopped face-to-face dialogues (during the time window 1994-1997) and threatened to nullify all peace building efforts on the island. The idea came out of several (# 9, 10 & 11) of the 15 peace promoting projects, which made it to the final Cyprus Peace Bazaar organized by the Cyprus Conflict Resolution Trainers Group in 1995. Tech4Peace vision The vision, which underpinned the project Technology For Peace (Tech4Peace) was to enhance in Cyprus one of the most basic human rights, t ...more...



Islamic republic

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Map showing countries with "Islamic Republic" in their official titles An Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws , including the Islamic Republics of Afghanistan , Iran , Pakistan , and Mauritania . Pakistan first adopted the title under the constitution of 1956. Mauritania adopted it on 28 November 1958. Iran adopted it after the 1979 Iranian Revolution that overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty . Afghanistan adopted it in 2004 after the fall of the Taliban . Despite the similar name the countries differ greatly in their governments and laws. The term "Islamic republic" has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. To some Muslim religious leaders in the Middle East and Africa who advocate it, an Islamic republic is a state under a particular Islamic form of government . They see it as a compromise between a purely Islamic caliphate and secular nationalism and republicanism . In their conception of the Islamic republic, the penal code ...more...



Mark Stephens (solicitor)

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Mark Howard Stephens CBE (born 7 April 1957) is an English solicitor specialising in media law , intellectual property rights and human rights with the firm Howard Kennedy LLP. Stephens studied law at North East London Polytechnic (now the University of East London ), graduating in 1978. After further study in Brussels he was admitted as a solicitor in 1982. Stephens started his career as a lawyer providing advice to artists and soon established his own practice with a partner. In 1987 Stephens helped defend the American artist J. S. G. Boggs from a counterfeiting charge. He gained a reputation as "the patron solicitor of previously lost causes" following this case and others where he defended artists' freedom of expression, as well as representing the leaders of the miners' strike of 1984–85 and James Hewitt when allegations of his affair with Diana, Princess of Wales first emerged. During the 1990s Stephens worked on cases arising from the occupation of the Brent Spar oil platform. He also provided advice t ...more...



Creativity (religion)

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Creativity is a pantheistic white separatist new religious movement which has been classified as a hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center . It was founded in Lighthouse Point, Florida by Ben Klassen as the Church of the Creator in 1973. The church's worldview is based on the veneration of the white race and the supposed safeguarding of its survival. Creativity is promoted by two organizations: the Creativity Alliance (CA - also known as the Church of Creativity) and the skinhead oriented (The) Creativity Movement (TCM). The groups have common origins. Name Adherents of Creativity are known as Creators. The church was originally founded as the Church of the Creator by Ben Klassen in 1973. Matthew F. Hale in 1996 formed a separate group known as the World Church of the Creator which largely supplanted the original Ben Klassen Church. The World Church of the Creator which - as of 2003 - has devolved into The Creativity Movement. Rights to use the name "Church of the Creator" was lost by Hale in the Unite ...more...



Christian pacifism

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Blessed are the Peacemakers (1917) by George Bellows Christian pacifism is the theological and ethical position that any form of violence is incompatible with the Christian faith. Christian pacifists state that Jesus himself was a pacifist who taught and practiced pacifism and that his followers must do likewise. Notable Christian pacifists include Martin Luther King, Jr. , Leo Tolstoy , and Ammon Hennacy . Hennacy believed that adherence to Christianity required not just pacifism but, because governments inevitably threatened or used force to resolve conflicts, anarchism . However, most Christian pacifists, including the peace churches , Christian Peacemaker Teams and individuals such as John Howard Yoder , make no claim to be anarchists. Origins Old Testament Roots of Christian pacifism can be found in the scriptures of the Old Testament according to Baylor University professor of religion, John A. Wood. Millard C. Lind explains the theology of warfare in ancient Israel as God directing the people of Isra ...more...



Outline of the United Nations

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the United Nations: United Nations – international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its missions. Legal foundation: The United Nations Charter United Nations Charter – foundational treaty of the United Nations which states that obligations to the United Nations prevail over all other treaty obligations and is binding for all United Nations members. Type of document: treaty Signed: 26 June 1945 Location: San Francisco, California, United States Effective: 24 October 1945 Condition: Ratification by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, United States and by a majo ...more...



Helena Group

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Helena, Helena Group , The Helena Group , or The Helena Group Foundation is a global non-governmental organization and think-tank composed of prominent leaders from multiple generations of society. Its membership includes senior military and political figures , Fortune 500 executives , Nobel Laureates , entertainment figures , leading scientists , technology leaders and philanthropists . Helena is structurally designed to produce initiatives that address global issues , which are devised and executed during frequent meetings between its members. Helena’s current members include Nicolas Berggruen , Brian Grazer , Rt Hon. David Miliband , Beth Comstock , Gen. Norton A. Schwartz , Chloe Grace Moretz , Sylvia Earle , Dynamo , Myron Scholes , Alaa Murabit , Gen. Stanley McChrystal , Deepak Chopra , and Yeonmi Park . Origins Helena was conceived in late 2015 by Henry Elkus and Zachary Bohn as a way to encourage dialogue and collaboration between leaders of different generations. Bohn exited the project shortly ...more...



Daisaku Ikeda

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Daisaku Ikeda ( 池田 大作 Ikeda Daisaku, born 2 January 1928, Japan) is a Buddhist philosopher, educator, author, and nuclear disarmament advocate. He has served as the third president and then honorary president of the Soka Gakkai , the largest of Japan's new religious movements . Ikeda is the founding president of the Soka Gakkai International (SGI), the world's largest Buddhist lay organization with approximately 12 million practitioners in 192 countries and territories. Ikeda was born in Tokyo, Japan, in 1928, to a family of seaweed farmers . He survived the devastation of World War II as a teenager, which he said left an indelible mark on his life and fueled his quest to solve the fundamental causes of human conflict. At age 19, Ikeda began practicing Nichiren Buddhism and joined a youth group of the Soka Gakkai Buddhist association, which led to his lifelong work developing the global peace movement of SGI and founding dozens of institutions dedicated to fostering peace, culture and education. Ikeda's v ...more...



Jewish-Palestinian Living Room Dialogue Group

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The Jewish-Palestinian Living Room Dialogue Group is a non-violent conflict resolution group established in 1992 in San Mateo, California . Its first meeting was held in a local neighborhood residence. As of June 2017, the group remained active and continued to meet monthly in members' homes. The one-to-one, face-to-face method of conflict resolution , modeled by this dialogue group, was increasingly looked to globally by educators, researchers, journalists, activists, trainers, and strategists including the U.S. Department of State , which distributes the dialogue group's instructive films in Africa. Members of the group have initiated and provided facilitation support at seminars, conferences and youth gatherings, created both printed and video facilitation guidelines, and responded to requests for media interviews. Interest in their work increased in national media during the 2000 Intifada . The group co-founders gave the 2017 Commencement Address at Notre Dame de Namur University, "STORIES ...more...



Feminism in India

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Feminism in India is a set of movements aimed at defining, establishing, and defending equal political, economic, and social rights and equal opportunities for Indian women. It is the pursuit of women's rights within the society of India . Like their feminist counterparts all over the world, feminists in India seek gender equality: the right to work for equal wages, the right to equal access to health and education, and equal political rights. Indian feminists also have fought against culture-specific issues within India's patriarchal society, such as inheritance laws and the practice of widow immolation known as Sati . The history of feminism in India can be divided into three phases: the first phase, beginning in the mid-eighteenth century, initiated when male European colonists began to speak out against the social evils of Sati; the second phase, from 1915 to Indian independence, when Gandhi incorporated women's movements into the Quit India movement and independent women's organisations began to emerge ...more...




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