Creative peacebuilding

Creative peacebuilding is the larger name for artist approaches to peacebuilding within individuals, groups, and societies. It includes various forms of art therapy, whereby individuals and groups can express themselves to nurture healing and restoration. It is also used to overcome the recurrence of violence, as a preventative measure to make the foundations of peace stronger, especially in contexts of war and conflict. Creating an environment of lasting peace is the primary goal of creative peacebuilding.

War and conflict

According to Johan Galtung, peacebuilding is the process of creating self-supporting structures that "remove causes of wars and offer alternatives to war in situations where wars might occur."[1] For John Paul Lederach, peacebuilding is a comprehensive concept that encompasses, generates, and sustains the full array of processes, approaches, and stages needed to transform conflict toward more sustainable, peaceful relationships, which involves a wide range of activities. It has a diverse range of interaction and involves various stakeholders in various levels within the spectrum of governance and development.[2]

Creative peacebuilding facilitates the establishments of sustainable peace by preventing recurrence of violence, addresses the root causes, healing and effects of conflict, and offer alternatives to violence through reconciliation, economic and social transformation with the use of photography, film, painting, and the like. Jolyon Mitchell argues that the visual arts can both encourage peacebuilding and instigating violence. This is true of various forms of visual arts, ranging from posters, cartoons, and stained glass, to websites, radio, and films by reflecting on examples from around the world.[3]

Creative peacebuilding can be especially powerful when used with those suffering from a young demographic and those with post-traumatic stress disorder. For at-risk youth, it lays the roots for a peaceful lifestyle and to help children who have already experienced trauma in their lives become fully functional adults.[4]

Art therapy

Art therapy has been used to help rehabilitate child soldiers in Uganda as well as to help children who lost their homes in the tsunami of 2004 cope with their feelings. Many youth centers catering to impoverished children use art forms to build community, discipline and trust.[5]

Music

Music therapy can be used in several different fashions to build peace. It can be used to help individuals express themselves or to foster communication between individuals or groups of people. It can be used to nurture healing and reconciliation. Music is something that transcends language and national or ethnic boundaries. It has unique styles depending on the community it originates in and can also be adapted to fit individual's tastes. When two groups who have been in conflict or have the potential for conflict make music together communication and healing become possible. When individuals listen to or play music, they can reduce their stress levels and express their feelings.[6]

Visual arts

Visual art therapy can be used to help individuals cope with their feelings resulting from violent experiences. It is also used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder. Art therapy is especially useful for people who are having trouble verbalizing their feelings and are keeping them bottled up. By sharing their experiences and processing them through a tactical and visual activity, people are able to heal. No prior experience with visual art is needed to participate in and gain benefits from art therapy—it is about the process of creation, not about the aesthetic appeal of the product. Art therapy can be used in group settings as well—creating a collaborative art project can be an experience that bridges differences between people and builds feelings of trust.[7]

Visualization and technology

If people who have lived through traumatic or violent experiences can relive them and change the situation or their response to the situation they can come to terms with their past. Virtual technology and especially virtual reality simulations can be especially useful in cases like these and have been used to treat veterans of the Iraq war who are suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. If the technology needed for these simulations is too expensive to be practical, mental visualization, in which the victim uses their imagination to create situations and feel as if they are gaining control of the way events play out, can be used as an alternative.[8]

Examples
Create Peace Project

Create Peace Project is an arts-for-peace education organization working to promote the practices of peace and spread the message of hope and goodwill to children around the world using creativity. Create Peace Project was founded in San Francisco, California in 2007 by artist and peace activist Ross Holzman in response to the overwhelming amount of violence in the world, on the news, and in our communities. Violence, coupled with the lack of creativity in peoples lives sparked the creation of projects such as Banners for Peace and The Peace Exchange. Create Peace Project has included more than 25,000 children from around the world in its arts-for-peace projects since its inception and continues to work with schools in the US and beyond promoting peace through creativity to children of all ages.[9]

Barefoot artists

Artist Lily Yeh has helped to heal the wounds genocide left on a village of widows and orphans through her work with Barefoot Artists. The members of the community were provided with a chance to honor their lost loved ones through their construction of a beautiful and expressive monument commemorating the mass grave of the local victims of the genocide. The construction process also provided a sense of closure to their mourning. Other aspects of the peacebuilding process in the village included paintings on building walls created by the village children of things that they hoped to see in the future as well as things important to their everyday existence. On the economic side of this peacebuilding effort, the people of the village learned how to mosaic and pour concrete, two useful and marketable skills to help provide economic stability.[10]

River City Drum Corps

In the United State, creative peacebuilding is used in many inner-city areas in places such as New York, Philadelphia, and Louisville. The River City Drum Corps in Louisville, Ky provides a musical outlet for children who perhaps are not listened to in other parts of their lives. It is also a structured program where discipline and the importance of both uniqueness and teamwork are taught. The children learn drumming patterns and perform for different events and groups of people throughout the city. Both the children in the program and their audience benefit from the cultural exchange and communication that take place during drum corps performances.[11]

See also
References
  1. "Selected Definitions of Peacebuilding". Alliance for Peacebuilding. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  2. Lederach, John Paul (2010). The Moral Imagination: The Art and Soul of Building Peace. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-974758-0.
  3. Mitchell, Jolyon P. (2012). Promoting Peace, Inciting Violence: The Role of Religion and Media. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-55746-7.
  4. Ishaq, Ashfaq (December 2006). "Development of children's creativity to foster peace". The Lancet. 368: 26–27. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(06)69915-7.
  5. Prutzman, Priscilla (October 1981). "Children's Creative Response to Conflict". Peace and Change. 7 (4): 77–79. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0130.1981.tb00454.x.
  6. Sutton, Julie P., ed. (2002). Music, Music Therapy and Trauma: International Perspectives. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. ISBN 978-1-84310-027-0.
  7. Avrahami, Dalia (2006). "Visual Art Therapy's Unique Contribution in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders". Journal of Trauma & Dissociation. 6 (4): 5–38. doi:10.1300/j229v06n04_02. ISSN 1529-9732.
  8. Jones, Brent (18 June 2007). "Iraq vets use virtual reality to ease post-battle trauma". www.usatoday.com. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  9. Holzman, Ross (8 May 2008). "Create Peace Project". Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  10. Yeh, Lily. "Barefoot Artists". Barefoot Artists. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  11. "About RCDC". River City Drum Corp. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
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Creative peacebuilding

topic

Creative peacebuilding

Creative peacebuilding is the larger name for artist approaches to peacebuilding within individuals, groups, and societies. It includes various forms of art therapy, whereby individuals and groups can express themselves to nurture healing and restoration. It is also used to overcome the recurrence of violence, as a preventative measure to make the foundations of peace stronger, especially in contexts of war and conflict. Creating an environment of lasting peace is the primary goal of creative peacebuilding. War and conflict According to Johan Galtung, peacebuilding is the process of creating self-supporting structures that "remove causes of wars and offer alternatives to war in situations where wars might occur."[1] For John Paul Lederach, peacebuilding is a comprehensive concept that encompasses, generates, and sustains the full array of processes, approaches, and stages needed to transform conflict toward more sustainable, peaceful relationships, which involves a wide range of activities. It has a diverse ...more...

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Creative peacebuilding (visual arts)

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Creative peacebuilding (visual arts)

In the visual arts, creative peacebuilding offers a creative means to bring about peace within conflicted contexts. The use of the visual arts for effective peacebuilding emphasizes a consideration of the nature of the context where the tool is applied by not necessarily following a set format or paradigm. It reflects the potential to transcend traditional ideas, rules, patterns, relationships, or the like, to create meaningful new ideas, forms, methods, and interpretations geared towards establishing and sustaining peace. Generally speaking, the arts refers to the theory and the physical expressions of creativity found in human societies and cultures. The major constituents of the arts include literature (poetry, novels, short stories, and epic poetry), performing arts (music, dance, and theatre), and the visual arts, the last of which includes creations that can be seen. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, the term "creative" describes a quality of something created rather than imitated.[1] In lig ...more...

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Peacebuilding

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Peacebuilding

Peacebuilding is an intervention technique or method that is designed to prevent the start or resumption of violent conflict by creating a sustainable peace. Peacebuilding activities address the root causes or potential causes of violence, create a societal expectation for peaceful conflict resolution, and stabilize society politically and socioeconomically. The activities included in peacebuilding vary depending on the situation and the agent of peacebuilding. Successful peacebuilding activities create an environment supportive of self-sustaining, durable peace; reconcile opponents; prevent conflict from restarting; integrate civil society; create rule of law mechanisms; and address underlying structural and societal issues. Researchers and practitioners also increasingly find that peacebuilding is most effective and durable when it relies upon local conceptions of peace and the underlying dynamics which foster or enable conflict.[1] Definition The exact definition varies depending on the actor, with some ...more...

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Conflict resolution

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Conflict resolution

Conflict resolution is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict and retribution. Committed group members attempt to resolve group conflicts by actively communicating information about their conflicting motives or ideologies to the rest of the group (e.g., intentions; reasons for holding certain beliefs) and by engaging in collective negotiation.[1] Dimensions of resolution typically parallel the dimensions of conflict in the way the conflict is processed. Cognitive resolution is the way disputants understand and view the conflict, with beliefs, perspectives, understandings and attitudes. Emotional resolution is in the way disputants feel about a conflict, the emotional energy. Behavioral resolution is reflective of how the disputants act, their behavior.[2] Ultimately a wide range of methods and procedures for addressing conflict exist, including negotiation, mediation, mediation-arbitration,[3] diplomacy, and creative peacebuilding. The term confli ...more...

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Dispute resolution

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Dispute resolution

Dispute resolution is the process of resolving disputes between parties. The term dispute resolution may also be used interchangeably with conflict resolution, where conflict styles can be used for different scenarios. Methods Methods of dispute resolution include: lawsuits (litigation) arbitration collaborative law mediation conciliation negotiation facilitation One could theoretically include violence or even war as part of this spectrum, but dispute resolution practitioners do not usually do so; violence rarely ends disputes effectively, and indeed, often only escalates them. Dispute resolution processes fall into two major types: Adjudicative processes, such as litigation or arbitration, in which a judge, jury or arbitrator determines the outcome. Consensual processes, such as collaborative law, mediation, conciliation, or negotiation, in which the parties attempt to reach agreement. Not all disputes, even those in which skilled intervention occurs, end in resolution. Such intractable ...more...

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Visual arts

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Visual arts

Vincent van Gogh: The Church at Auvers (1890) The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, design, crafts, photography, video, filmmaking, and architecture. Many artistic disciplines (performing arts, conceptual art, textile arts) involve aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. Also included within the visual arts[1] are the applied arts[2] such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design and decorative art.[3] Current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts, but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term 'artist' was often restricted to a person working in the fine arts (such as painting, sculpture, or printmaking) and not the handicraft, craft, or applied art media. The distinction was emphasized by artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement, who valued vernacular art fo ...more...

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Peace

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Peace

2008. A "Kind Angel of Peace monument" in the city of Donetsk, Ukraine, by Russian artist Peter Stronsky. Peace is the concept of harmony and the absence of hostility. In a behavioral sense, peace is a lack of conflict and freedom from fear of violence between individuals and heterogeneous social groups. Throughout history some of the most extraordinary and benevolent leaders have used peace talks to establish a certain type of behavioral restraint that has resulted in the establishment of regional peace or economic growth through various forms of agreements or peace treaties. Such behavioral restraint has often resulted in de-escalation of rhetorical and physical conflicts, greater economic interactivity, and consequently substantial prosperity. The avoidance of war or violent hostility can be the result of thoughtful active listening and communication that enables greater genuine mutual understanding and therefore compromise. Leaders often benefit tremendously from the prestige of peace talks and treaties ...more...

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Center for Justice and Peacebuilding

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Center for Justice and Peacebuilding

Center for Justice and Peacebuilding (CJP) is an accredited graduate-level program founded in 1994. It also offers non-credit training. The program specializes in conflict transformation, restorative justice, trauma healing, equitable development, and addressing organizational conflict. CJP is housed at Eastern Mennonite University (EMU) in Harrisonburg, Virginia, which describes itself as "a leader among faith-based universities" in emphasizing "peacebuilding, creation care, experiential learning, and cross-cultural engagement." One of the three 2011 Nobel Peace Laureates, Leymah Gbowee of Liberia, earned a master's degree in conflict transformation from CJP in 2007. History The Center for Justice and Peacebuilding (CJP) is anchored in two currents within the Mennonite stream of Christianity: Its tradition of helping people suffering from violent conflict or natural calamities, regardless of their religion or ethnicity[6] Its renunciation of all forms of violence[7] Relieving Suffering The founding ...more...

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Conflict transformation

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Conflict transformation

Conflict transformation is a concept designed to reframe the way in which peacebuilding initiatives are discussed and pursued, particularly in contexts of ethnic conflict. Traditionally the emphasis has been on conflict resolution and conflict management methods, which focus on reducing or defusing outbreaks of hostility. Conflict transformation, in contrast, places a greater weight on addressing the underlying conditions which give rise to that conflict, preferably well in advance of any hostility, but also to ensure a sustainable peace. In other terms, it attempts to make explicit and then reshape the social structures and dynamics behind the conflict, often employing analytical tools borrowed from systems thinking. "The very structure of parties and relationships may be embedded in a pattern of conflictual relationships that extend beyond the particular site of conflict. Conflict transformation is therefore a process of engaging with and transforming the relationships, interests, discourses and, if necessa ...more...

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Alternative dispute resolution

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Alternative dispute resolution

Alternative dispute resolution (ADR; known in some countries, such as India,[1] as external dispute resolution) includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation. It is a collective term for the ways that parties can settle disputes, with the help of a third party. Despite historic resistance to ADR by many popular parties and their advocates, ADR has gained widespread acceptance among both the general public and the legal profession in recent years. In fact, some courts now require some parties to resort to ADR of some type, usually mediation, before permitting the parties' cases to be tried (indeed the European Mediation Directive (2008) expressly contemplates so-called "compulsory" mediation; this means that attendance is compulsory, not that settlement must be reached through mediation). Additionally, parties to merger and acquisition transactions are increasingly turning to ADR to resolve post-acquisition disputes ...more...

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Reconciliation theology

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Reconciliation theology

Sign from Apartheid-era South Africa Reconciliation theology or the theology of reconciliation raises crucial theological questions about how reconciliation can be brought into regions of political conflict.[1] The term differs from the conventional theological understanding of reconciliation, but likewise emphasises themes of justice, truth, forgiveness and repentance. Overview Reconciliation is conventionally understood as a central theological concept: God reconciles himself with humanity through the atonement of Christ and, likewise, the followers of Christ are called to become peacemakers and reconcile with one another.[2] The Greek term for reconciliation katallagē means to "exchange enmity, wrath and war with friendship, love and peace."[3] A number of theologians have developed this theological concept, such as Irenaeus (115-202), Tertullian (160-220), Augustine of Hippo (324-430), Martin Luther (1483–1546), John Calvin (1509-64), Albrecht Ritschl (1822–89), Karl Barth (1886-1968), Dietrich Bonhoe ...more...

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Teen court

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Teen court

Teen court (sometimes called youth court or peer court) is a problem-solving court within the juvenile justice system where teens charged with certain types of offenses can be sentenced by a jury of same-aged peers.[1] Their purpose is to provide an alternative disposition for juveniles who have committed a delinquent act, have committed a minor offense, or have been charged with a misdemeanor, and are otherwise eligible for diversion. Depending on their training, community support, and agreements with traditional court systems, most teen or youth courts are recognized as valid, legal venues for the process of hearing cases, sentencing and sentence fulfillment. Teen courts and their verdicts are not authorized by public law. Court Structure Teen courts are staffed by youth volunteers who serve in various capacities within the program, trained and acting in the roles of jurors, lawyers, bailiffs, clerks and judges. Teen courts usually function in cooperation with local juvenile courts and youth detention cen ...more...

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Karuna Center for Peacebuilding

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Karuna Center for Peacebuilding

Karuna Center for Peacebuilding (KCP) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization based in Amherst, Massachusetts. The stated mission of KCP is to empower people divided by conflict to develop mutual understanding and to create sustainable peace. The organization was named for the Sanskrit word for compassion. The organizations efforts in facilitating "post-conflict reconciliation" has led to active programs in more than 30 countries. They have co-implemented programs with the United States Agency for International Development, United States Department of State, United States Institute of Peace, and Fund for Peace, among others.[1] History and purpose KCP provides educational training programs in conflict transformation and inter-communal dialogue in communities experiencing deeply rooted conflict.[2] With a focus on relational peacebuilding, KCP facilitators aim to create a context in which shattered communal relations can be healed and programs fostering coexistence can be established and tested.[3] KCP was fo ...more...

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International Peace and Security Institute

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International Peace and Security Institute

The International Peace and Security Institute or IPSI is a division of Creative Learning an international nonprofit organization with 501(c)(3) status headquartered in Washington, D.C. Founded in 2009, IPSI was acquired by Creative Learning in November 2016.[1] The Institute's objective is to train young peacebuilding and International Justice leaders in the skills needed to effectively intervene in violent conflict scenarios in pursuit of sustainable peace.[2][3] Currently IPSI has two flagship symposiums in Bologna, Italy, and The Hague, The Netherlands.[4] Between 2009 and 2014 more than 400 young professionals and practitioners from over 100 countries have received training from the Institute.[5] Programs Since 2010 and in cooperation with Johns Hopkins University[6][7] SAIS,[8] IPSI hosts a 4-week symposium in Italy,[9] each year attended by more than 50 young professionals. Participants learn directly from world leaders, and undergo very intensive training from experts, notable academics, and advoca ...more...

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Dispute mechanism

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Dispute mechanism

A dispute mechanism is a structured process[1] that addresses disputes or grievances that arise between two or more parties engaged in business, legal, or societal relationships. Dispute mechanisms are used in dispute resolution, and may incorporate conciliation, conflict resolution, mediation, and negotiation. Otherwise known as grievance mechanisms, dispute mechanisms are typical non-judicial[2] in nature, meaning that they are not resolved within the court of law. According to research produced by the non-judicial grievance mechanism task force of John Ruggie, Special Representative of Business and Human Rights to the United Nations, those who design and oversee non-judicial mechanisms should acknowledge core human rights processes defined by "all core UN human rights treaties.”[3] Dispute mechanisms comprise a way for socially responsible businesses to meet requirements of corporate responsibility-related agreements or pacts, reduce risk while capacity-building or developing internationally, and assist ...more...

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Creative Court

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Creative Court

Creative Court[1] is an organisation that develops art projects and reflects on peace and justice. Creative Court is based in The Hague, the Netherlands. It was founded in November 2013. And now I am here. Project Description In 2015 two journalists, Els Duran and Evelien Vehof, conducted interviews regarding statelessness in Europe in which they came across complicated regulations, coping mechanisms and pragmatism. Creative Court developed the video installation ‘And now I am here’ based upon these findings. This video installation questions feelings of displacement from various angles through the use of interview, excerpts and quotes from literature and philosophy which are merged with the images of video artist Farah Rahman, whose work revolves around migration. This video installation was created as part of the framework of the Europe by People arts and design programme which took place during the Dutch presidency of the Council of the European Union in 2016. Artists and Experts Involved Video artist ...more...

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Eastern Mennonite University

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Eastern Mennonite University

Eastern Mennonite University (EMU) is a private liberal arts university in the Shenandoah Valley of the U.S. state of Virginia, affiliated with one of the historic peace churches, the Mennonite Church USA.[4] Its 97-acre (390,000 m2) main campus is located near Harrisonburg, Virginia. The university operates a satellite campus in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, which primarily caters to working adults.[5] EMU's bachelor-degree holders traditionally engage in service-oriented work, such as health care, education, social work, and the ministry.[6] As of 2014, the following are the most popular majors: education, health sciences and/or biology, liberal arts, visual/communications arts, and psychology.[2] Overview EMU describes itself as "a leader among faith-based institutions" in emphasizing "peacebuilding, creation care, experiential learning, and cross-cultural engagement."[7] Worldwide, EMU is probably best known for its Center for Justice and Peacebuilding (CJP), especially its graduate program in conflict tra ...more...

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United Nations Department of Political Affairs

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United Nations Department of Political Affairs

The United Nations Department of Political Affairs (DPA) is a department of the Secretariat of the United Nations (UN) with responsibility for monitoring and assessing global political developments and advising and assisting the UN Secretary General and his envoys in the peaceful prevention and resolution of conflict around the world. The Department manages field-based political missions in Africa, Central Asia, and the Middle East, and has in recent years been increasing its professional capacities in conflict mediation and preventive diplomacy. DPA also oversees UN electoral assistance to Member States of the organization. Established in 1992, the Department's responsibilities also include providing secretariat support to the UN Security Council and two standing committees created by the General Assembly concerning the Rights of the Palestinian People and Decolonization. Staffing Jeffrey Feltman  United States – Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs Tayé-Brook Zerihoun  Ethiopia – Assistant Se ...more...

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Abigail Disney

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Abigail Disney

Abigail E. Disney (born January 24, 1960 in Los Angeles, California) is an American documentary filmmaker, scholar, philanthropist, and activist known for her documentary films focused on social themes. She is the Executive Producer and Director of the film The Armor of Light, which premiered at the 2015 Tribeca Film Festival.[1][2] Biography Early life Abigail Disney was raised in North Hollywood, California, and was educated at Yale (BA), Stanford (MA, English Lit), and Columbia (PhD, English Lit).[3] She is the daughter of Patricia Ann (née Dailey) and Roy E. Disney and granddaughter of Roy O. Disney, co-founder of The Walt Disney Company with her great uncle Walt Disney.[4] Career Filmmaking She turned to the family business of filmmaking with a documentary film, Pray the Devil Back to Hell, directed by Academy Award-nominated, Emmy-winning filmmaker Gini Reticker.[5][6][7] Pray the Devil Back to Hell brought to light the work of Liberian peace activist Leymah Gbowee by telling the story about the cri ...more...

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John D. Marks

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John D. Marks

John D. Marks (born 1943)[1] is the founder and former president of Search for Common Ground (SFCG), a non-profit organization based in Washington, DC that focuses on international conflict management programming.[2] Marks now acts as a Senior Adviser to SFCG. He is also a former Foreign Service Officer of the U.S. Department of State and co-authored the 1974 controversial non-fiction book The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence with Victor Marchetti. Biography Marks is a graduate of Phillips Academy and Cornell University. He worked for five years with the State Department, first in Vietnam and then as an analyst and staff assistant to the Director of the Bureau of Intelligence and Research. After leaving the State Department, he became Executive Assistant for foreign policy to US Senator Clifford Case (R-NJ), responsible within the Senator's office for passage of the Case–Church Amendment, which eventually cut off funding for the Vietnam War.[3] He also worked with Marchetti on a book about the need to refor ...more...

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United Nations Secretariat

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United Nations Secretariat

The United Nations Secretariat (French: le Secrétariat des Nations unies) is one of the six major organs of the United Nations, with the others being (a) the General Assembly; (b) the Security Council; (c) the Economic and Social Council; (d) the defunct Trusteeship Council; and (e) the International Court of Justice.[1][2] The Secretariat is the United Nations' executive arm. The Secretariat has an important role in setting the agenda for the UN's deliberative and decision making bodies of the UN (the General Assembly, Economic and Social Council, and Security Council), and the implementation of the decision of these bodies. The Secretary-General, who is appointed by the General Assembly, is the head of the secretariat.[2] The mandate of the secretariat is a wide one. Dag Hammarskjöld, the United Nations' second Secretary-General, described its power as follows: "The United Nations is what member nations made it, but within the limits set by government action and government cooperation, much depends on what ...more...

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Steve Killelea

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Steve Killelea

Stephen (Steve) Killelea AM is an Australian IT entrepreneur[8] and the founder of the global think tank, the Institute for Economics and Peace. He began his career, after doing a crash course in computing and working for a computer manufacturer, by developing a product for computer systems management that became internationally successful and led him to set up a US company, Software Products, that went public. Career In August 1988, Killelea formed the Australian company Integrated Research, which was listed on the Australian Stock Exchange in 2000. The company's main business is providing its PROGNOSIS performance monitoring software for business-critical computing and IP telephony environments used by corporations such as Visa, MasterCard and American Express; the New York, London and Hong Kong stock exchanges; and most of the world's ATMs.[8] Having stepped down as chief executive November 2004, he is still chairman of the company that now branches into the field of internet telephony. Killelea also has ...more...

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Peace journalism

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Peace journalism

Peace journalism has been developed from research that indicates that often news about conflict has a value bias toward violence. It also includes practical methods for correcting this bias by producing journalism in both the mainstream and alternative media, and working with journalists, media professionals, audiences, and organizations in conflict. This concept was proposed by Johan Galtung[1] Other terms for this broad definition of peace journalism include conflict solution journalism, conflict sensitive journalism,[2] constructive conflict coverage, and reporting the world.[3] War journalism is journalism about conflict that has a value bias towards violence and violent groups. This usually leads audiences to overvalue violent responses to conflict and ignore non-violent alternatives. This is understood to be the result of well documented news reporting conventions. These conventions focus only on physical effects of conflict (for example ignoring psychological impacts) and elite positions (which may ...more...

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Centre Stage Media Arts Foundation Zimbabwe

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Centre Stage Media Arts Foundation Zimbabwe

Centre Stage Media Arts Foundation (CSMA) is a Zimbabwean non-profit organisation.[1] CSMAs uses the human rights centred approach to implement projects on HIV / AIDs, legal education and human rights advocacy,[2] sustainable development and youth development. In implementing development projects, CSMA, formal and informal participatory methods, education for sustainable development and broad advocacy strategies, including media and policy advocacy. To date CSMA has implemented projects on digital rights,[3] access to justice, HIV prevention through biomedical interventions advocacy, freedom of information and expression,[4] Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), urban youth entrepreneurship and broader peacebuilding and peacemaking initiatives. CSMA exists as a creative development hub, that responds to multifaceted development challenges facing marginalised and subordinate groups in Zimbabwe. It does this by harnessing the energy and talents of young people and professionals across the different dev ...more...

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The Red Elephant Foundation

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The Red Elephant Foundation

The Red Elephant Foundation is a youth-led civilian peacebuilding initiative that works for gender equality and peace through storytelling, art advocacy, tech-for-good and digital media engagement. The initiative was founded by Kirthi Jayakumar in Chennai, India, on June 5, 2013.[1] On June 4, 2017, The Red Elephant Foundation was recommended by Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations, for Special Consultative Status with the Economic and Social Council.[2] Activities The Red Elephant Foundation's activities are chunked down into five key blocks: Storytelling In the long term, the initiative aims at shifting mindsets and pivot people naturally towards equality, peace and non-violence.[3] The storytelling wing curates stories of survivors, change-makers and peace-workers around the world so that these stories inspire action, empathy and awareness of the world.[4] The foundation has told stories of several activists, changemakers and survivors, including Maya Azucena,[5] Zak Ebrahim,[6] Kamla Bhasin,[7] ...more...

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Artraker

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Artraker

Artraker is a UK-based Community Interest Company established in 2012 and the brain-child of political artist, Manali Jagtap. Artraker annually recognizes artworks that helps shape and inspire through visual arts how people and organisations understand, engage and respond to war, violent conflict and social upheaval.[1] The Artraker Annual Award Artraker celebrates and awards art works and art projects that make a direct positive change in countries which have experienced war, violent conflict and social upheaval.[2] The Artraker Awards differ from other awards such as the Turner Prize or the Deutsche Börse Photography Prize. Although like them, Artraker awards contemporary art, it is not primarily interested in the significance of the artists’ contribution to the disciplines of art or photography, but is focused instead on the ability of art to create opportunities for change and to co-create experiences of freedom even in the midst of conflict.[3] The Artraker Annual Awards are announced during the week ...more...

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Institute of World Affairs

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Institute of World Affairs

The Institute of World Affairs (IWA) was founded 1924 in Geneva, Switzerland by Maude Miner Hadden and Alexander Mectier Hadden.[1] The IWA started at the Student’s International Union (SIU) in Geneva. The SIU had been established at the League of Nations during its 5th assembly, and the creation of the SIU was at the bequest of students at the nearby university of Geneva and an idea by Gilbert Murray.[2] The IWA, in time, would grow to not only have the office in Geneva, but also have offices in New York City, Washington, D.C., and Salisbury, Connecticut.[1] In 1941, due to the outbreak of World War II, the IWA was moved to the United States because of security concerns. The website for the IWA states as its mission statement that “IWA is a not-for-profit, non-governmental organization working across cultural and political boundaries to advance creative approaches to conflict analysis, conflict management, and post-conflict peace-building.” Foundation Maude and Alexander, met when the two of them founded ...more...

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John Kufuor

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John Kufuor

John Kofi Agyekum Kufuor (born 8 December 1938) is a Ghanaian politician who was President of Ghana from 7 January 2001 to 7 January 2009. He was also Chairperson of the African Union from 2007 to 2008. His victory over John Evans Atta Mills after the end of Jerry Rawlings' second term marked the first peaceful democratic transition of power in Ghana since independence in 1957. Kufuor's career has been spent on the liberal-democratic side of Ghanaian politics, in the parties descended from the United Gold Coast Convention and the United Party. He was a minister in Kofi Abrefa Busia's Progress Party government during Ghana's Second Republic, and a Popular Front Party opposition frontbencher during the Third Republic. In the Fourth Republic he stood as the New Patriotic Party's candidate at the 1996 election, and then led it to victory in 2000 and 2004. Having served two terms, in 2008 he was no longer eligible for the presidency. Early life John and Theresa Kufuor (2008) An Asante, Kufuor married Theresa ...more...

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Honorary Knights Grand Cross of the Order of th...

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Expo 91

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Expo 91

The International Exhibition in Plovdiv was an international exhibition that was held from June 7 to July 7 of 1991 in the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria, under the theme of "The creative activity of young inventors at the service of a world peace." The exhibition was coordinated by the Bureau International des Expositions.[1] Organizers The organizers of the exhibition were: The Ministry of Economy and Planning of Bulgaria The Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Bulgaria The Republican Council of scientific and technical creativity of the youth of Bulgaria International Foundation "Ludmila Jivkova" The Institute of inventions and rationalizations. The exhibition was organized with the cooperation of the World Intellectual Property Organization, a specialized agency of the United Nations. References "PLOVDIV 91". Archived from the original on June 8, 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2011. External links Official website of the BIE European Patent Office See also List of world's fairs ...more...

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The Creators (film)

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The Creators (film)

The Creators: South Africa Through the Eyes of Its Artists is a 2012 South African documentary film produced and directed by Laura Gamse which interweaves the lives of diverse South African artists including Faith47, Cashril+, Warongx, Emile Jansen of Black Noise, Markus Wormstorm and Spoek Mathambo of Sweat.X, Blaq Pearl, and Mthetho Mapoyi.[1] Synopsis The story begins in the mind of Cashril Plus, a twelve-year-old animator and son of graffiti artist Faith47. Through Cashril's eyes, we see his mother paint the streets and forgotten townships haloing Cape Town. Weaving through the lives of Faith47, Warongx (afro-blues), Emile Jansen (hip hop), Sweat.X (glam rap), Blaq Pearl (spoken word) and Mthetho (opera), the film culminates in an intertwined story. Born into separate areas of a formerly-segregated South Africa, the artists recraft history—and the impacts of apartheid—in their own artistic languages. The lens reveals the impulse behind the artists’ social consciousness, the individuals’ eccentricities, ...more...

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Films shot in South Africa

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Technology for peace

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Technology for peace

Technology for Peace is a Cyprus-based peoples' initiative launched in 1995 to serve the needs of peace pioneers on the divided island. History The peace portal [1] was born because it was deemed needed. What led to its birth was neither the availability of relevant technology nor the availability of funding, because both were not there. The ban of bi-communal meetings imposed by the Turkish Cypriot Authorities following the EU’s decision to postpone accession negotiations with Turkey (summit meeting in Luxembourg, December 1997) stopped face-to-face dialogues (during the time window 1994-1997) and threatened to nullify all peace building efforts on the island. The idea came out of several (# 9, 10 & 11) of the 15 peace promoting projects, which made it to the final Cyprus Peace Bazaar organized by the Cyprus Conflict Resolution Trainers Group in 1995. Tech4Peace vision The vision, which underpinned the project Technology For Peace (Tech4Peace) was to enhance in Cyprus one of the most basic human rig ...more...

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Ethics of science and technology

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Alfred Nobel University

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Alfred Nobel University

Alfred Nobel University, Ukraine (Ukrainian: Університет імені Альфреда Нобеля) is a higher educational institution with the IV level of accreditation. It is committed to enhancing innovative technologies in teaching and it helps to strengthen the country's position in the international arena, which is reflected in its mission. The university creates up-to-date education and scientific values that correspond to the demands of the 21st century and are geared towards dynamic development of the economy and society, towards European and global integration of Ukraine. History Alfred Nobel University was founded in 1993 as a private higher education institution with a focus on management and economics. Until 2010, it was known as "University of Economics and Law, Dnipropetrovsk". From the start, it was the central mission of DUAN to meet the demands of the Ukrainian labour market – especially small and medium-size enterprises – for qualified personnel with a background in Management, Economics and Law and addit ...more...

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Educational institutions started in 1993

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Negotiation

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Negotiation

Signing the Treaty of Trianon on 4 June 1920. Albert Apponyi standing in the middle. The ministers of foreign affairs of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, Germany, France, China, the European Union and Iran negotiating in Lausanne for a Comprehensive agreement on the Iranian nuclear programme (30 March 2015). Negotiation comes from the Latin neg (no) and otsia (leisure) referring to businessmen who, unlike the patricians, had no leisure time in their industriousness; it held the meaning of business (le négoce in French) until the 17th century when it took on the diplomatic connotation as a dialogue between two or more people or parties intended to reach a beneficial outcome over one or more issues where a conflict exists with respect to at least one of these issues.[1][2] Thus, negotiation is a process of combining divergent positions into a joint agreement under a decision rule of unanimity. It is aimed to resolve points of difference, to gain advantage for an individual or collective, or t ...more...

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Marketing

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Musicians without Borders

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Musicians without Borders

Musicians Without Borders (MWB) is one of the world’s pioneers in using the power of music to bridge divides, strengthen communities and heal the wounds of war. The organization was founded in 1999 by Laura Hassler, an American peace activist and musician.[1] MWB works with local organizations and musicians working to bring social change and peaceful, liveable conditions to their own communities. From their projects and programs, MWB has developed its training program, sharing skills and knowledge with musicians around the world, in support of their own work in their own communities. Researchers who have studied MWB’s work have implied that such intercultural creative music practices can be adapted to further social justice engagement.[2] Today, MWB engages with universities, social activists and artists worldwide: sharing expertise as they work to inspire and enable musicians around the globe to be advocates, activists, teachers, trainers, researchers and performers, together carrying the message: war divid ...more...

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Organizations started in 1999

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Elif Shafak

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Elif Shafak

Elif Shafak, in Turkish Elif Şafak (Turkish: ; born 25 October 1971), is a Turkish-British[1] novelist, essayist, academic, public speaker and women's rights activist. In English she publishes under the anglicized spelling of her pen-name Elif Shafak.[2] She is currently a Weidenfeld Visiting professor at Oxford University, St Anne's College. Shafak writes in both Turkish and English, and has published 16 books, 10 of which are novels, including the bestselling The Bastard of Istanbul, The Forty Rules of Love and Three Daughters of Eve. Her books have been translated into 49 languages and she has been awarded the prestigious Chevalier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres[3] She is an activist on women's rights, minority rights and freedom of speech. She also writes and speaks about a range of issues including global and cultural politics, the future of Europe, Turkey and the Middle East, democracy and pluralism. She is a twice TED Global speaker (both standing ovations)[4], a member of the Weforum Global Age ...more...

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Exophonic writers

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Unification movement

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Unification movement

The Unification movement or Unificationism, also called the Unification Church (UC) and its followers colloquially called the "Moonies", is a worldwide new religious movement founded and inspired by Sun Myung Moon, a Korean religious leader also known for his business ventures and engagement in social and political causes.[1][2][3] The movement is a nascent, spiritually-based movement of legally independent organizations.[4] It is sometimes known as the Unification Church, however its members point out that Rev. Moon repeatedly proclaimed the "end of religion" and his desire to not have a "church" so that hence movement is a more apt way of describing the theology, organizations, and individuals associated with him.[5][6][7][8][9] Although Rev. Moon is commonly known as a religious figure, commentators have mentioned his belief in a literal Kingdom of God on earth to be brought about by human effort as a motivation for his establishment of multitudinous groups that are not strictly religious in their purpos ...more...

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Christian new religious movements

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Jewish-Palestinian Living Room Dialogue Group

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Jewish-Palestinian Living Room Dialogue Group

The Jewish-Palestinian Living Room Dialogue Group is a non-violent conflict resolution group established in 1992 in San Mateo, California. Its first meeting was held in a local neighborhood residence. As of January 2018, the group remained active and continued to meet monthly in members' homes.[1] The one-to-one, face-to-face method of conflict resolution, modeled by this dialogue group, was increasingly looked to globally by educators, researchers, journalists, activists, trainers, and strategists including the U.S. Department of State, which distributes the dialogue group's instructive films in Africa.[2] Members of the group have initiated and provided facilitation support at seminars, conferences[3][4] and youth gatherings,[2] created both printed[5] and video[6] facilitation guidelines, and responded to requests for media interviews.[7][8][9][10] Interest in their work increased in national media during the 2000 Intifada.[11][12][13] The group co-founders gave the 2017 Commencement Address at Notre Dame ...more...

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Peace

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Center for World Religions, Diplomacy and Conflict Resolution

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Center for World Religions, Diplomacy and Conflict Resolution

The Center for World Religions, Diplomacy and Conflict Resolution (CRDC) is an arm of George Mason University's School for Conflict Analysis and Resolution (S-CAR). CRDC engages in practice, education, and research concerning peace-building in conflicts where religion and culture play a significant role in a destructive conflict. CRDC specializes in entrepreneurial engagement with partners, students and supporters who share the goal of promoting emerging networks of indigenous and global peacemakers; mobilizing support for them; and forging links between such people, citizen-diplomats, and policymakers. History CRDC began in 2003 with a gift from the Catalyst Fund, which endowed the James H. Laue Chair in World Religions, Diplomacy, and Conflict Resolution, and created CRDC to be directed by the chair. The chair is named for James H. Laue, the inaugural Vernon M. and Minnie I. Lynch Professor of Conflict Resolution at George Mason from 1987 until his death in 1993. Activities CRDC offers public presentati ...more...

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George Mason University

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Islamic republic

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Islamic republic

Map showing countries with "Islamic Republic" in their official titles An Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania. Pakistan first adopted the title under the constitution of 1956. Mauritania adopted it on 28 November 1958. Iran adopted it after the 1979 Iranian Revolution that overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty. Afghanistan adopted it in 2004 after the fall of the Taliban government. Despite having similar names the countries differ greatly in their governments and laws. The term "Islamic republic" has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. To some Muslim religious leaders in the Middle East and Africa who advocate it, an Islamic republic is a state under a particular Islamic form of government. They see it as a compromise between a purely Islamic caliphate and secular nationalism and republicanism. In their conception of the Islamic republic, the pe ...more...

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Elliott Yamin

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Elliott Yamin

Efraym Elliott Yamin (born July 20, 1978) is an American singer widely known for his hit single "Wait for You" and for placing third on the fifth season of American Idol. His self-titled album, released March 20, 2007, debuted at number one on the Billboard Independent Albums chart and at number three on the Billboard 200. The album was certified gold in the United States in October 2007. Retitled Wait for You, the album was released in Japan in May 2008 and certified gold in that country in September 2008. Yamin also released two Christmas collections: Sounds of the Season: The Elliott Yamin Holiday Collection in October 2007 and My Kind of Holiday in October 2008. Yamin's second album, titled Fight for Love, was released on May 5, 2009. The album's first single, "Fight for Love", premiered on AOL Music on February 13, 2009. His third album, Gather 'Round was released in Japan in 2011. It was retitled in the United States as Let's Get to What's Real and released in 2012. The first single in Japan and the ...more...

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Jewish singers

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Rosa Genoni

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Rosa Genoni

Rosa Genoni was a seamstress, fashion designer, teacher, feminist and advocate for workers' rights. She had a successful fashion design career, with innovative designs such as her Tanagra dress. Rosa Genoni was the Italian delegate at the International Congress of Women, The Hague, Netherlands, 28 April - 10 May 1915. Her activism efforts along with her desire to make Italy a fashion leader were thwarted under Fascism. Biography Rosa Genoni (1867–1954) was born in the town of Tirano in Lombardy, about 40 miles from Milan. She was the eldest of 19 children, 12 surviving. She moved to Milan at ten years old to look for a job, and found one at a relative's dressmaker shop. By the age of eighteen, she qualified as a master seamstress. During this time she began to associate with those in Milan's socialist circles. She was a strong advocate for emancipation of women, and for their right to have access to education.[1] Between 1884 and 1885, Genoni was sent to Paris as a delegate of the Italian Workers' Party, t ...more...

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People from Sondrio

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Information and communication technologies for development

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Information and communication technologies for development

An OLPC class in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Information and communication technologies for development (ICT4D) refers to the application of information and communication technologies (ICT) toward social, economic, and political development, with a particular emphasis on helping poor and marginalized people and communities. It aims to help in international development by bridging the digital divide and providing equitable access to technologies. ICT4D is grounded in the notions of "development", "growth", "progress" and "globalization" and is often interpreted as the use of technology to deliver a greater good.[1] Another similar term used in the literature is "digital development".[2] ICT4D draws on theories and frameworks from many disciplines, including sociology, economics, development studies, library, information science, and communication studies.[3] History A telecentre in Gambia ICT4D grew out of the attempts to use emerging computing technologies to improve conditions in the developing countries. ...more...

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Development

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A day to learn

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Human security

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Human security

Human security is an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state. Human security reveals a people-centred and multi-disciplinary understanding of security involves a number of research fields, including development studies, international relations, strategic studies, and human rights. The United Nations Development Programme's 1994 Human Development Report[1] is considered a milestone publication in the field of human security, with its argument that insuring "freedom from want" and "freedom from fear" for all persons is the best path to tackle the problem of global insecurity.[2] Critics of the concept argue that its vagueness undermines its effectiveness,[3] that it has become little more than a vehicle for activists wishing to promote certain causes, and that it does not help the research community understand what security mea ...more...

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International security

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Pacifism

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Pacifism

A peace sign, which is widely associated with pacifism World Day of Prayer for Peace in Assisi, 2011 Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence. The word pacifism was coined by the French peace campaigner Émile Arnaud (1864–1921) and adopted by other peace activists at the tenth Universal Peace Congress in Glasgow in 1901.[1] A related term is ahimsa (to do no harm), which is a core philosophy in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. While modern connotations are recent, having been explicated since the 19th century, ancient references abound. In modern times, interest was revived by Leo Tolstoy in his late works, particularly in The Kingdom of God Is Within You. Mohandas Gandhi (1869–1948) propounded the practice of steadfast nonviolent opposition which he called "satyagraha", instrumental in its role in the Indian Independence Movement. Its effectiveness served as inspiration to Martin Luther King Jr., James Lawson, James Bevel,[2] Thich Nhat Hanh[3] and many others in the civil rights movement. ...more...

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Bond Street Theatre

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Bond Street Theatre

Founded in 1976 in New York City, Bond Street Theatre initiates creative programming that inspires and educates youth, addresses human rights issues, heals communities affected by conflict, and promotes the value of the arts in shaping a peaceful future. The country's actor-educators work internationally in refugee camps, post-conflict zones, crisis areas, and with populations that have been victims of natural disaster, using theatre to promote healing, empowerment, and social development. Bond Street Theatre [1] is an NGO in association with the United Nations Department of Public Information. Overseas work Bond Street Theatre has initiated innovative theatre and theatre-based programs in over 40 countries worldwide, including: Afghanistan Since 2001, Bond Street Theatre has been working in Afghanistan to collaborate with local artists and rights groups, use the arts as a tool for education and community dialogue, revitalize the performing arts, introduce new styles of theatre, and work for women's rights. ...more...

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Theatres in Manhattan

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Refugee children

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Refugee children

Bantu refugee children from Somalia at a farewell party in Florida before being relocated to other places in the United States. Nearly half of all refugees are children, and almost one in three children living outside their country of birth is a refugee.[1] These numbers encompass children whose refugee status has been formally confirmed, as well as children in refugee-like situations. In addition to facing the direct threat of violence resulting from conflict, forcibly displaced children also face various health risks, including disease outbreaks[2] and long-term psychological trauma,[3] as well as inadequate access to water and sanitation,[4] nutritious food,[5] and regular vaccination schedules.[2] Refugee children, particularly those without documentation and those who travel alone, are also vulnerable to abuse and exploitation.[6] Although many communities around the world have welcomed them, forcibly displaced children and their families often face discrimination, poverty, and social marginalization i ...more...

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Mental health

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Christian pacifism

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Christian pacifism

Blessed are the Peacemakers (1917) by George Bellows Christian pacifism is the theological and ethical position that any form of violence is incompatible with the Christian faith. Christian pacifists state that Jesus himself was a pacifist who taught and practiced pacifism and that his followers must do likewise. Notable Christian pacifists include Martin Luther King, Jr., Leo Tolstoy,[1] and Ammon Hennacy. Hennacy believed that adherence to Christianity required not just pacifism but, because governments inevitably threatened or used force to resolve conflicts, anarchism. However, most Christian pacifists, including the peace churches, Christian Peacemaker Teams and individuals such as John Howard Yoder, make no claim to be anarchists. Origins Old Testament Roots of Christian pacifism can be found in the scriptures of the Old Testament according to Baylor University professor of religion, John A. Wood.[2] Millard C. Lind explains the theology of warfare in ancient Israel as God directing the people of Is ...more...

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Catherine Filloux

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Catherine Filloux

Catherine Filloux is a French-American playwright (her mother is from Oran, Algeria and her father from Guéret, France and she lives in New York City.) She has received awards from the Kennedy Center Fund for New American Plays, the O'Neill, the MAP Fund, and the Asian Cultural Council. Catherine is the winner of the 2017 Otto René Castillo Award for Political Theatre in New York City, and she received the 2015 Planet Activist Award "to acknowledge Filloux's dedication to art and activism, in the theater community," Planet Connections, New York City. She has been a Fulbright Senior Specialist in playwriting in Cambodia and Morocco. Filloux's plays have confronted the issue of human rights in many nations. She was first drawn to the subject upon reading of the psychosomatic blindness suffered by a group of Cambodian women after witnessing the massacres of the Khmer Rouge, a story that formed the basis of her 2004 play Eyes of the Heart. She worked with survivors of the Cambodian genocide, developing the oral ...more...

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American people of French descent

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Religious views on same-sex marriage

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Religious views on same-sex marriage

Many views are held or have been expressed by religious organisations in relation to same-sex marriage. Arguments both in favor of and in opposition to same-sex marriage (or equal marriage rights) is often made on religious grounds and/or formulated in terms of religious doctrine. Although the majority of world religions oppose to same-sex marriage, the number of religious denominations that are conducting same-sex marriages have been increasing in recent times. Religious views on same-sex marriage are closely related to religious views on homosexuality. Religious support Buddhism Due to the ambivalent language about homosexuality in Buddhist teachings, there has been no official stance put forth regarding the issue of marriage between members of the same gender.[1] There is no objection of the Buddha found in the Tipitaka. Buddha was neither supportive nor against marriages between members of the same gender. Also, from the Tipitaka, it is clear that the Buddha acknowledged the difference between hermaph ...more...

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Religion and politics

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American democracy promotion in the Middle East and North Africa

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American democracy promotion in the Middle East and North Africa

Voters in the 2005 Iraqi legislative election American democracy promotion in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) aims to encourage governmental and non-governmental actors in the region to pursue political reforms that will lead ultimately to democratic governance. As an area of the world vital to American interests[1] yet generally entrenched in non-democratic, authoritarian rule[2] (with the exceptions of Jewish-majority democratic Israel and semi-democratic Lebanon, Iraq, Palestinian National Authority and Turkey), MENA has been the subject of increasing interest on the part of the American government and democracy promoters, particularly after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, with many viewing democratic transition as essential to regional stability and international security.[3] American efforts to promote democracy in the region are generally characterized by top-down and bottom-up democratization strategies, which can be pursued simultaneously.[4] The former top-down approach invol ...more...

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