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Chartered Certified Accountant

Chartered Certified Accountant (designatory letters ACCA or FCCA) was historically seen as a British qualified accountant designation awarded by the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA). However, although ACCA is UK based, it is a global body for professional accountants with 170,000 qualified members and 436,000 students globally. Support offices/centres exist in 91 countries.[1]

The term Chartered Certified Accountant was introduced in 1996. Prior to that date, ACCA members were known as Certified Accountant. It is still permissible for an ACCA member to use this term. Members of ACCA with post-qualification experience of more than five years and have completed the required continued professional development are designated Fellows, and use the designatory letters FCCA in place of ACCA.

The term Chartered refers to the Royal Charter granted by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.

Chartered Certified Accountants work in all fields of business and finance. Some are engaged in public practice work, others work in the private sector and some are employed by government bodies.

Since Chartered Certified Accountant is a legally protected term, individuals who describe themselves as such must be members of ACCA. If they carry out public practice engagements, they must comply with additional regulations such as holding a practising certificate, being insured against any possible liability claims and submitting to inspections.

Syllabus

The current syllabus is made up of 14 examinations, although some exemptions are available. The papers are split into two levels:

  • The fundamental level: 9 examinations consisting of
  • The Professional level - 5 examinations:
    • three compulsory papers:
      • P1 - Governance, Risk & Ethics
      • P2 - Corporate Reporting
      • P3 - Business Analysis
    • four optional papers, of which two must be selected:
      • P4 - Advanced Financial Management
      • P5 - Advanced Performance Management
      • P6 - Advanced Taxation
      • P7 - Advanced Audit and Assurance
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Chartered Certified Accountant

topic

Chartered Certified Accountant (designatory letters ACCA or FCCA ) was historically seen as a British qualified accountant designation awarded by the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) . However, although ACCA is UK based, it is a global body for professional accountants with 170,000 qualified members and 436,000 students globally. Support offices/centres exist in 91 countries. The term Chartered Certified Accountant was introduced in 1996. Prior to that date, ACCA members were known as Certified Accountant. It is still permissible for an ACCA member to use this term. Members of ACCA with post-qualification experience of more than five years and have completed the required continued professional development are designated Fellows, and use the designatory letters FCCA in place of ACCA. The term Chartered refers to the Royal Charter granted by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom . Chartered Certified Accountants work in all fields of business and finance. Some are engaged in ...more...



Association of Chartered Certified Accountants

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ACCA advertising on a Hong Kong tram Founded in 1904, the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants ( ACCA ) is the global professional accounting body offering the Chartered Certified Accountant qualification (ACCA or FCCA). From Dec 2017, ACCA recorded that it has 200,000 members and 486,000 students in 180 countries. ACCA's headquarters are in London with principal administrative office in Glasgow . ACCA works through a network of over 100 offices and centres and more than 7,200 Approved Employers worldwide, who provide employee development. The term 'Chartered' in ACCA qualification refers to the Royal Charter granted in 1974. Chartered Certified Accountant is a legally protected term. Individuals who describe themselves as Chartered Certified Accountants must be members of ACCA and if they carry out public practice engagements, must comply with additional regulations such as holding a practising certificate, carrying liability insurance and submitting to inspections. The Association of Authorised Pu ...more...



Chartered accountant

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Chartered Accountants were the first accountants to form a professional accounting body , initially established in Scotland in 1854. The Edinburgh Society of Accountants (1854), the Glasgow Institute of Accountants and Actuaries (1854) and the Aberdeen Society of Accountants (1867) were each granted a royal charter almost from their inception. The title is an internationally recognised professional designation; the American certified public accountant designation is generally equivalent to it. Chartered accountants work in all fields of business and finance, including audit, taxation, financial and general management. Some are engaged in public practice work, others work in the private sector and some are employed by government bodies. Chartered accountants' institutes require members to undertake a minimum level of continuing professional development to stay professionally competitive. They facilitate special interest groups (for instance, entertainment and media, or insolvency and restructuring) which lead ...more...



Certified Public Accountant

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Certified Public Accountant ( CPA ) is the title of qualified accountants in numerous countries in the English-speaking world. In the United States , the CPA is a license to provide accounting services to the public. It is awarded by each of the 50 states for practice in that state. Additionally, almost every state (49 out of 50) has passed mobility laws to allow CPAs from other states to practice in their state. State licensing requirements vary, but the minimum standard requirements include passing the Uniform Certified Public Accountant Examination , 150 semester units of college education, and one year of accounting related experience. Continuing professional education (CPE) is also required to maintain licensure. Individuals who have been awarded the CPA but have lapsed in the fulfillment of the required CPE or have requested to be converted to inactive status are in many states permitted to use the designation "CPA Inactive" or an equivalent phrase. In most U.S. states, only CPAs are legally able to pro ...more...



Certified Management Accountant

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IMA's CMA (Certified Management Accountant) certification is a professional certification credential in the management accounting and financial management fields. The certification signifies that the person possesses knowledge in the areas of financial planning , analysis, control, decision support, and professional ethics. The CMA is a U.S.-based, globally recognized certification offered by the Institute of Management Accountants . CMA-certified professionals work inside organizations of all sizes, industries, and types, including manufacturing and services, public and private enterprises, not-for-profit organizations, academic institutions, government entities, and multinational corporations. To date, more than 50,000 CMAs have been certified in more than 100 countries. To obtain certification, candidates must pass a rigorous exam, meet an educational requirement, experience requirement, and demonstrate a commitment to continuous learning through continuing professional education (CPE) . The Certified Man ...more...



Certified Accountant

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Look up certified accountant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Certified Accountant may refer to: Certified Public Accountant , a statutory title of qualified accountants in several countries Chartered Certified Accountant or Certified Accountant, a British qualified accountant designation Certified Practising Accountant , a title used by members of CPA Australia Certified General Accountant , a Canadian qualified accountant designation Certified Management Accountant , a qualified accountant designation in U.S.A. and Canada Certified National Accountant , a Nigerian qualified accountant designation Certified Practising Accountant, a non-statutory accountancy accreditation offered by the Institute of Certified Practising Accountants in the United Kingdom See also Chartered Accountant Chartered Professional Accountant Look up certified accountant in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Certified Accountant may refer to: Certified Public Accountant , a statutory title of qualified accountants in several countries ...more...



CPA Australia

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CPA Australia (Chartered Professional Accountant) is a professional accounting body in Australia , with over 150,000 members. Founded in 1886, CPA Australia is one of the world’s largest accounting bodies, with more than 150,000 members across 121 countries. Core services to members include education, training, knowledge exchange, technical support, networking and advocacy. CPA Australia was an early entrant into the Asian market, where their involvement began in the early 1950s and was aimed at developing and strengthening the accounting profession in the region. Today almost one-quarter of CPA Australia’s members now reside outside of Australia, with over 35,000 in Asia. CPA Australia currently has 19 staffed offices across Australia, China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Vietnam, New Zealand and the UK. History The current form of CPA Australia dates from 1952, when the Commonwealth Institute and Federal Institute merged to create the Australian Society of Accountants. In July 1990 the name cha ...more...



Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales

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The Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales ( ICAEW ) was established by royal charter in 1880. It has over 147,000 members. Over 15,000 of these members live and work outside the UK. In 2015, 8,256 students joined ICAEW - the highest ever figure. 82 of FTSE 100 (the leading UK) companies have an ICAEW Chartered Accountant on the board. Overview The Institute is a member of the Consultative Committee of Accountancy Bodies (CCAB), formed in 1974 by the major accountancy professional bodies in the UK and Ireland. The fragmented nature of the accountancy profession in the UK is in part due to the absence of any legal requirement for an accountant to be a member of one of the many Institutes, as the term accountant does not have legal protection. However, a person must belong to the ICAEW, ICAS or CAI to hold themselves out as a chartered accountant in the UK (although there are other chartered bodies of British qualified accountants whose members are likewise authorised to conduct restricted wor ...more...



Chartered Global Management Accountant

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Chartered Global Management Accountant ( CGMA ) is a professional management accounting designation issued beginning in January 2012. The Chartered Global Management Accountant's mission is to promote the science of management accounting on global stages. The Chartered Global Management Accountant "distinguishes professionals who have advanced proficiency in finance, operations, strategy and management". Chartered Global Management Accountant, a proprietary designation for management accountants, is powered by two accounting bodies, and advances the global discipline of management accounting. The Chartered Global Management Accountant demonstrates management accounting expertise, determination and commitment to achieving sustainable business success. The issuing body is a joint venture owned by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) and the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA). The designation is available through either an AICPA or CIMA Pathway. The AICPA Pathway requ ...more...



Certified Practising Accountant

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Certified Practising Accountant ( CPA ) is the title used by members of the CPA Australia professional accounting body . Accountants practising in Australia have the choice of becoming members of CPA Australia (and hence becoming a Certified Practising Accountant or "CPA"), joining the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Australia (and becoming a Chartered Accountant or "CA") or the Institute of Public Accountants (and becoming a Public Accountant or "MIPA"). International context The designation Certified Practising Accountant also exists as an accounting designation in the United Kingdom , unrelated to the Australian CPA designation. Accountants in the United Kingdom may obtain the Certified Practising Accountant designation through becoming a member of the Institute of Certified Practising Accountants (ICPA). The ICPA does not require its members to have achieved or possess any formal post-secondary accountancy education at the pre-qualification stage. It does however require a prospective member to have ...more...



Accountant

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An accountant is a practitioner of accounting or accountancy, which is the measurement, disclosure or provision of assurance about financial information that helps managers, investors, tax authorities and others make decisions about allocating resource(s). In many jurisdictions, professional accounting bodies maintain standards of practice and evaluations for professionals. Accountants who have demonstrated competency through their professional associations' certification exams are certified to use titles such as Chartered Accountant , Chartered Certified Accountant or Certified Public Accountant . Such professionals are granted certain responsibilities by statute, such as the ability to certify an organization's financial statements , and may be held liable for professional misconduct. Non-qualified accountants may be employed by a qualified accountant, or may work independently without statutory privileges and obligations. Cahan & Sun (2015) used archival study to find out that accountants’ personal c ...more...



Chartered Institute of Management Accountants

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The Chartered Institute of Management Accountants ( CIMA ) is a UK based professional body offering training and qualification in management accountancy and related subjects. It is focused on accountants working in industry, and provides ongoing support and training for members. CIMA is one of the professional associations for accountants in the UK and Ireland. Its particular emphasis is on developing the management accounting profession. CIMA is the largest management accounting body in the world with 106,095 members in 2016. CIMA is also a member of the International Federation of Accountants . History CIMA was founded in 1919 as "The Institute of Cost and Works Accountants" (ICWA). It specialised in the development of accounting techniques for use in the internal control of manufacturing, service and public sector operations. It developed a position as the leading professional body in the areas of product costing, budgeting, management accounting, investment appraisal and business decision making. In Octo ...more...



Institute of Chartered Accountants of India

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The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India ( ICAI ) is the national professional accounting body of India . It was established on 1 July 1949 as a statutory body under the Chartered Accountants Act, 1949 enacted by the Parliament (acting as the provisional Parliament of India ) to regulate the profession of Chartered Accountancy in India. ICAI is the second largest professional Accounting & Finance body in the world in terms of membership, after American Institute of Certified Public Accountants . ICAI is the only licensing cum regulating body of the financial audit and accountancy profession in India. It recommends the accounting standards to be followed by companies in India to National Advisory Committee on Accounting Standards (NACAS) . and sets the accounting standards to be followed by other types of organisations. ICAI is solely responsible for setting the Standards on Auditing (SAs) to be followed in the audit of financial statements in India. It also issues other technical standards like St ...more...



Chartered Professional Accountant

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Chartered Professional Accountant ( CPA ; French : comptable professionnel agréé ) is the professional designation which united the three Canadian accounting designations that previously existed: The CPA designation has been in use by members of all legislated provincial and territorial accounting bodies since 2014. As of May 2017, CPA legislation was in place in all provinces, Yukon and Bermuda , replacing legislation previously in effect for the CA, CGA and CMA designations. CPA Canada is the national organization that represents the profession. Background Origin of name "Chartered Professional Accountant" is borrowed from a similar but aborted Australian merger attempt in 1998. It has been registered as an EU Community trademark by the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales . However, applications to register "CPA" as such were either withdrawn or refused. History For more than 100 years, Canada has seen several accounting designations, which eventually coalesced around the titles of ...more...



Certified General Accountant

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Certified General Accountant ( CGA ) is a professional designation granted to Canadian accountants . A person who meets the education, experience and examination requirements of the Certified General Accountants of Canada (CGA-Canada) is entitled to use the professional designation and add the letters "CGA" to their title. A CGA is jointly a member of CGA-Canada and a provincial or territorial CGA association, or a CGA association overseas. CGAs work throughout the world in industry, commerce, finance, government, public practice and the not-for-profit sector. CGA-Canada is working with the Chartered Professional Accountants of Canada (CPA Canada) to integrate operations under the CPA banner in 2014. Those with a CGA designation will be automatically granted the Chartered Professional Accountant (CPA) designation and are required to use both concurrently until 2024, (noted as CPA, CGA) and then adjust to the CPA designation alone just for it. History The national association, first known as the Canadian Accou ...more...



Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants

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The Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants ( CICA ) was incorporated by an Act of the Parliament of Canada in 1902, which later became known as the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants Act. The CICA developed and supported accounting, auditing and assurance standards for organizations in Canada, developed and delivered education programs, and issued the professional designation of Chartered Accountant . The CICA was a founding member of the International Federation of Accountants and the Global Accounting Alliance . In 2014, CICA merged with Canada's two other major accounting designations to form the Chartered Professional Accountants of Canada . History 1902 – The Dominion Association of Chartered Accountants (DACA) is incorporated by Private Act of the Parliament of Canada. (SC 1902, c. 58) 1934 – The Canada Companies Act is amended to provide for the involvement of the DACA in setting standards for accounting policies. 1938 – All provinces agree that membership should be determined by a Unifo ...more...



American Institute of Certified Public Accountants

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AICPA offices in Durham, North Carolina . Founded in 1887, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants ( AICPA ) is the national professional organization of Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) in the United States , with more than 418,000 members in 143 countries in business and industry, public practice, government, education, student affiliates and international associates. It sets ethical standards for the profession and U.S. auditing standards for audits of private companies, non-profit organizations, federal, state and local governments. It also develops and grades the Uniform CPA Examination . The AICPA maintains offices in New York City ; Washington, DC ; Durham, NC ; and Ewing, NJ . The AICPA celebrated the 125th anniversary of its founding in 2012. The AICPA's founding defined accountancy as a profession characterized by educational requirements, professional standards, a code of professional ethics, and alignment with the public interest. History The AICPA and its predecessors date bac ...more...



Certified Management Accountants of Canada

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The Society of Management Accountants of Canada ( French : La Société des comptables en management du Canada ), also known as Certified Management Accountants of Canada ( French : Comptables en management accrédités du Canada ) and CMA Canada , awards the Certified Management Accountant designation in Canada . Activities Until September 2015, CMA Canada, through its provincial and territorial affiliates, granted the CMA professional designation in accounting and was responsible for standards-setting, accreditation and the continuing professional development of CMAs. CMAs applied expertise in accounting, management and strategy to ensure corporate accountability and help organizations maintain a long-term competitive advantage. In that regard, CMA Canada offered executive development programs, online courses, and knowledge management publications. Management Accounting Guidelines and Management Accounting Practices were published by CMA Canada to specify the best practice on key topics in management account ...more...



Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan

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Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan (ICAP) is a professional accountancy body in Pakistan . As of July 2016, it had 8,819 members working in and outside Pakistan. The institute was established on July 1, 1961 to regulate the profession of accountancy in Pakistan. It is a statutory autonomous body established under the Chartered Accountants Ordinance 1961. With the significant growth in the profession, the CA Ordinance and Bye-Laws were revised in 1983. In view of globalization of the accountancy profession, the Institute is in the process of updating the Ordinance and Bye-Laws once again. The course of ICAP involves a blend of theoretical education and practical training which run concurrently for a period of 3.5 years and equips a student with knowledge, ability, skills and other qualities required of a professional accountant. The head office of the institute is in Clifton, Karachi where it has its own premises. The institute also has regional offices at Lahore , Islamabad , Peshawar , Multan , ...more...



Institute of Singapore Chartered Accountants

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The Institute of Singapore Chartered Accountants (ISCA), formerly the Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Singapore, is the national professional body for accountants in Singapore . It sets out to develop, support and enhance the integrity, status and interests of the accountancy profession in Singapore. Membership Base Established in 1963, the professional body now has over 28,000 members. Requirement for registration as a practising public accountant Currently, the Singapore Public Accountants Oversight Committee (PAOC) of the Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority , established under the Accountants Act to determine, prescribe and review the requirements to be satisfied by people seeking to be registered as public accountants in Singapore, will not register any person as a public accountant unless the person is a member of ISCA. Working with Government and Stakeholders to Transform Singapore into a Global Accountancy Hub The Singapore Government has plans to develop Singapore into a global ...more...



Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland

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The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland (ICAS) is the world's first professional body of Chartered Accountants (CAs). It is a regulator, educator, influencer and thought leader. ICAS act as a thought leader and voice of the professional business community. Although other British accounting bodies use the title Chartered Accountant, the CA designation is unique to ICAS in the UK. ICAS has more than 21,000 members and students worldwide. ICAS provides support, advice and services to its CAs throughout their professional lives. ICAS members are business advisors, business leaders and entrepreneurs. They play leading roles in 80% of the FTSE 100 companies. Half of ICAS members are based in Scotland; the other half work in England and around the globe. History The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland (ICAS) is the world's first professional body of accountants, receiving its Royal Charter in 1854. The institute originated from: The Edinburgh Society of Accountants , formed in 1854; The Glasgo ...more...



Institute of Chartered Accountants of Guyana

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The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Guyana (ICAG) is a professional body in Guyana that regulates the accountancy industry and arranges for ongoing training of its members. History Until 1956, accountants in Guyana belonged to the UK-based Association of Certified Corporate Accountants. On 9 November 1966 the Guyana Association of Accountants was incorporated by eight professional accountants. On 11 July 1974 the organization was renamed the Institute of Chartered Accounts of Guyana. The current institute is incorporated under the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Guyana Act 1991, which defines the structure, duties, powers and so on. Activities The institute is engaged in training and regulation of professional accountants in Guyana. ICAG is a joint examination scheme partner of the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA). ICAG and ACCA jointly run a practice-monitoring programme, and by the end of 2010 all members had been visited once. ICAG is a member of the International Feder ...more...



Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants

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The Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants ( Chinese: 香港會計師公會) (HKICPA) is the professional accounting body of Hong Kong. Its main responsibilities are: Registering accountants and issuing practising certificates. Regulating the professional conduct and standards of members. Setting codes of ethics and standards of accounting and auditing. Regulating the quality of entry to the profession through its qualification programme and related courses. Providing continuing education and other services to members. Promoting the accountancy profession both in Hong Kong and overseas. Recognition with other institutions Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) Prior to 2002, Hong Kong accountants were allowed to obtain full memberships from both Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) and HKICPA under a joint examination scheme between the two institutions. A mutual recognition agreement was then announced between the two institutions; this has been renewed from 2010 until 2015. I ...more...



Institute of Certified Public Accountants in Ireland

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The Institute of Certified Public Accountants in Ireland (CPA Ireland) is a professional body for Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) in Ireland. It is one of the main Irish accountancy bodies, with 5,000 members and students. The CPA designation is the most commonly used designation worldwide for professional accountants. One million qualified accountants worldwide are CPAs. CPA Ireland was founded in 1926 and its members work in accountancy firms, the public sector, the financial services, and other private sector businesses. The institute is a member of the Consultative Committee of Accountancy Bodies – Ireland (CCAB – I), a founding member of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC), and a member of the Fédération des Experts Comptables Européens (FEE), the representative organisation for the profession in Europe. CPA Ireland has headquarters in Dublin and Belfast. History of CPA Ireland The Institute of Certified Public Accountants in Ireland was founded as the Irish Association of Accountants ...more...



Chartered Financial Analyst

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The Chartered Financial Analyst ( CFA ) Program is a professional credential offered internationally by the American-based CFA Institute (formerly the Association for Investment Management and Research, or AIMR) to investment and financial professionals. The program covers a broad range of topics relating to investment management , financial analysis , stocks , bonds and derivatives , and provides a generalist knowledge of other areas of finance . A candidate who successfully completes the program and meets other professional requirements is awarded the "CFA charter" and becomes a "CFA charterholder". As of June 2016, there are approximately 132,000 charterholders around the world. Successful candidates take an average of four years to earn their CFA charter. According to the CFA Institute, fewer than 20% of candidates who begin the program receive the CFA Charter. The top employers of CFA Charterholders globally are JP Morgan , UBS , RBC , Bank of America , and Wells Fargo . Functions of CFA Charterholder ...more...



Certified Financial Planner

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The Certified Financial Planner ( CFP ) designation is a professional certification mark for financial planners conferred by the Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards (CFP Board) in the United States, and by 25 other organizations affiliated with Financial Planning Standards Board (FPSB), the international owner of the CFP mark outside of the United States. To receive authorization to use the designation, the candidate must meet education, examination, experience and ethics requirements, and pay an ongoing certification fee. The information relates specifically to CFP certification in the United States. In the United Kingdom, the CFP licence/designation is available to financial planners through membership of the Chartered Institute of Securities & Investment (CISI). Requirements for initial certification For initial certification, an individual must meet four categories of requirements: education, examination, experience, and ethics. Education requirements The candidate must have a bachelor' ...more...



Indian Chartered Accountancy Course

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In India Chartered Accountancy course is provided by The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India . It is one of the biggest accounting bodies in the world in terms of members. Qualification A person can apply for membership either by passing all three levelons prescribed by Institute of Chartered Accountants of India and completing three years of practical training or by availing themselves of exemptions under mutual recognition agreements (MRAs). Examination The ICAI has recently revised its Scheme of Education and Training. The Scheme has become applicable from 1 July 2017. The first examination under the New Scheme will be held in May 2018. The Revised Scheme is as under: I.                  Revised Scheme of Education and Training Revised Scheme: Route I - Foundation Course# Under the Foundation Course Route, the following steps are required: •          Register with Board of Studies (BoS) after appearing in Class XII examination. •          Appear for Foundation examination after four months of study ...more...



Certified Accounting Technician

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The Certified Accounting Technician (CAT) UK qualification is offered by the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA). Upon completion of the exams and required practical work experience the CAT graduate will be able to apply to use the letters CAT after his or her name. In addition, they will have the opportunity to join the CAT alumni. Although CAT can be obtained as a stand-alone qualification, it is often the case that individuals study for CAT as an introductionary qualification in accountancy prior to training to become a Chartered Certified Accountant through the ACCA Professional Scheme. It usually takes one and a half years to complete the nine CAT exams. However, there is no restriction on the number of papers that can be attempted in each sitting. CAT's rival is the Association of Accounting Technicians (AAT) qualification. ACCA was a sponsor of the AAT before breaking its links in the mid 1990s in order to form the CAT qualification. The rationale behind this move was that it wanted ...more...



Institute of Management Accountants

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The Institute of Management Accountants ( IMA ) is a professional membership organization headquartered in Montvale, New Jersey , United States. The organization also has offices in Zurich, Switzerland; Dubai, UAE; Shanghai and Beijing, China, and Singapore. IMA members work in business, with job responsibilities distinct from those in public accounting . IMA raises awareness of management accounting, which includes jobs in decision support, planning and control positions. With a network of more than 90,000 professionals, IMA provides certification , the Certified Management Accountant (CMA), for internal financial management responsibilities, including planning , budgeting , business reporting , decision analysis and risk management . Members can achieve career development through access to one of IMA's 200 local chapters, online professional communities, continuing education, information and resources. The Institute of Certified Management Accountants (ICMA), the certification division of IMA, awards the Ce ...more...



Institute of Certified Management Accountants

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The Institute of Certified Management Accountants ( ICMA ) is an Australian organisation focused on management accounting, it differs from other Australian Accounting societies: CPA Australia , Institute of Chartered Accountants of Australia , Institute of Public Accountants due to this focus. The Institute has offices and members outside of Australia, in Asia, India, Lebanon, UK, UAE, Africa and Cyprus. Worldwide distribution of network education program, including China, India, Indonesia, Lebanon, Malaysia, Dubai, Singapore, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Canada and the European Union. (Note that some countries have established CMA-equivalent organisations such as CMA Canada now CPA Canada (Chartered Professional Accountants) , ICWAI India and CMA Sri Lanka ). The proposed merger of CMA Australia with IMA (USA) abandoned in 2006. Some discussion of becoming an IFAC member. There are four grades of membership (designations) within the Association: · Certified Management Accountant (CMA) - Require ...more...



New Zealand Institute of Chartered Accountants

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The New Zealand Institute of Chartered Accountants (NZICA) was the operating name for the Institute of Chartered Accountants of New Zealand. The Institute represented over 33,000 members in New Zealand and overseas. Most accountants in New Zealand belonged to the Institute. New Zealand Institute of Chartered Accountants and the Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia (ICAA) amalgamated to become Chartered Accountants Australia and New Zealand . The Institute adopted the name Institute of Chartered Accountants of New Zealand in 1996. Prior to that, it was known as the New Zealand Society of Accountants. In November 2013 Members of The Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia and the New Zealand Institute of Chartered Accountants voted yes on a proposal to create One New Institute: "Institute of Chartered Accountants Australia and New Zealand". Structure There are three "Colleges" or membership groupings within the Institute. New Zealand is unusual among the major CA Institutes worldwide in offer ...more...



Certified General Accountants Association of Canada

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Founded in 1908, the Certified General Accountants Association of Canada ( CGA-Canada ) serves Certified General Accountants and students in Canada and nearly 100 countries. CGA-Canada established the designation’s certification requirements and professional standards, offers professional development, conducts research and advocacy, and represents CGAs nationally and internationally. CGA-Canada is working with the Chartered Professional Accountants of Canada (CPA Canada) to integrate operations under the CPA banner in 2014. CPA Canada is the new national accounting body formed by the merger of the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants (CICA) and the Society of Certified Management Accountants (CMA) in 2013. In October 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 CGA-Canada was named one of "Canada's Top 100 Employers" by Mediacorp Canada Inc., CGA-Canada has also been named one of "BC's Top Employers" and one of "Canada's Greenest Employers". History The national association, first known as the Canadian Accoun ...more...



Institute of Chartered Accountants of Sri Lanka

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The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Sri Lanka (CA Sri Lanka) is a professional accountancy body in Sri Lanka . The Institute was established by Act of Parliament, No. 23 of 1959 as the sole organisation in Sri Lanka with the right to award the Chartered Accountant designation. The Institute is responsible for setting Accounting and Auditing Standards in Sri Lanka. Membership In Sri Lanka, only members of the CA Sri Lanka can practice as "Chartered Accountant". There are two grades members; Associate (ACA) Fellow (FCA) Associate membership is gained after completing three levels of examinations and serving as a clerk serving under articles with a member of the Institute in practice or with a member of the Institute who is a salaried employee in the service of a firm of accountants for a minimum three-year practical training period. They are known as articled clerks during this period. Fellowship is awarded to senior Chartered accountants. Chartered accountants holding practicing certificates may also be ...more...



British qualified accountants

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British qualified accountants are full voting members of United Kingdom professional bodies that evaluate individual experience and test competencies for accountants . The term accountant does not have the same legal protection in the United Kingdom as that given to other professions such as doctors and lawyers. Only certain functions are restricted to professionally qualified accountants; for example, individuals who operate in the areas of audit and insolvency must be registered, and only members of certain accountancy bodies are eligible for such registration. If working in public practice, these qualified accountants must comply with additional regulations such as holding professional indemnity insurance and submitting to regular and independent inspections. CCAB-qualified accountants is an informal shorthand for full members of any of the UK accountancy bodies formed by royal charter . All six of these bodies founded the Consultative Committee of Accountancy Bodies in 1974; CIMA left after 2011, but its ...more...



Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria

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The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria (ICAN) is a professional accountancy body in Nigeria . It is one of the two professional accountancy associations with regulatory authority in Nigeria , the other being the Association of National Accountants of Nigeria (ANAN). The relationship between the two organizations has been tense. In 2007 ICAN attempted to have the bill establishing ANAN declared void. Foundation and growth The Association of Accountants in Nigeria (AAN) was formed in 1960 with the goal of training accountants. Chief Akintola Williams playing a leading role in establishing the organization. ICAN was created by an Act of Parliament No. 15 of 1 September 1965 from existing accounting and auditing organizations including the AAN. At time of foundation, ICAN had 250 members. ICAN has the mission statement: "To Produce World-Class Chartered Accountants, Regulate and Continuously Enhance Their Ethical Standards and Technical Competence in the Public Interest". It has headquarters in La ...more...



Chartered (professional)

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A Chartered professional is a person who has gained a specific level of skill or competence in a particular field of work, which has been recognised by the award of a formal credential by a relevant professional organization. Chartered status is considered a mark of professional competency, and is awarded mainly by chartered professional bodies and learned societies . Common in Britain , it is also used in Ireland , the United States and the Commonwealth , and has been adopted by organizations around the world. Chartered status originates from Royal Charters issued to professional bodies in the UK by the British Monarch, although such is the prestige and credibility of a chartered designation that some non-UK organisations have taken to issuing chartered designations without Royal or Parliamentary approval. In the UK, chartered titles may still only be awarded by institutions that have been incorporated under Royal Charter , with the permission of the Privy Council . The standards for chartered titles in th ...more...



Chinese Institute of Certified Public Accountants

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The Chinese Institute of Certified Public Accountants or CICPA is a professional accounting organization based in Beijing with oversight responsibility for accountants in China . The Chinese Institute of Certified Public Accountants (CICPA) is an organization under the guidance of the Ministry of Finance and the State Council. Founded in November 1988 in accordance with The Law of the People’s Republic of China for Certified Public Accountants and The Regulations for the Registration and Administration of Social Organizations, the CICPA exercises the professional management and service functions by virtue of the powers vested in The Law of the People’s Republic of China for Certified Public Accountants, stipulated by The Charter of the Chinese Institute of Certified Public Accountants and the duties assigned by the Ministry of Finance. Presidents Yang Jiwan (Professor), (楊紀琬), founding president. Duties and Responsibilities To examine and approve applications for CICPA membership, and provide guidance to the ...more...



Chartered Financial Planner

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The CII's title "Chartered Financial Planner" is a widely accepted 'gold standard' qualification for professional financial planners and financial advisers in the United Kingdom. By definition, holders of the Chartered Financial Planner qualification are among the most experienced and most qualified advisers in the profession. As at May 2016, there were over 36,000 members of the Personal Finance Society (the principal professional body for financial advisers in the UK), of which over 5,000 hold Chartered Financial Planner status. Since 2012, financial adviser firms can apply for corporate Chartered Financial Planners status, if they qualify under a number of criteria. Fewer than 500 firms can boast corporate Chartered Financial Planners status. The titles of Chartered Financial Planner and Chartered Financial Planners were granted by the Chartered Insurance Institute (CII). The Privy Council authorised the CII to issue the Chartered title in 2005. Thus, a Chartered Financial Planner now carries comparable qu ...more...



South African Institute of Chartered Accountants

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The South African Institute of Chartered Accountants (SAICA), is a professional accountancy body in South Africa. As of August 2013, the institute has over 36 000 members. SAICA provides support, advice and services to its CAs throughout their professional lives. SAICA members are business advisors, business leaders and entrepreneurs. SAICA members can use the CA(SA) designation. Membership and Qualification To become a student and a member of South African Institute of Chartered Accountants the candidate needs to enroll for a B Com Accounting degree or an equivalent CA(SA) undergraduate qualification at a SAICA accredited university. Once the degree is completed the student is required to complete his Certificate in the Theory of Accounting (CTA). This course focuses on Accounting, Auditing, Taxation and Financial Management. The course takes a minimum of one year and must be completed at a SAICA accredited university. Upon completion of CTA, the candidates are eligible to enter into a 3-year learnership wi ...more...



Forensic accountant

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Forensic accountants are experienced auditors , accountants , and investigators of legal and financial documents that are hired to look into possible suspicions of fraudulent activity within a company; or are hired by a company who may just want to prevent fraudulent activities from occurring. They also provide services in areas such as accounting, antitrust , damages, analysis, valuation, and general consulting. Forensic accountants have also been used in divorces , bankruptcy , insurance claims, personal injury claims, fraudulent claims, construction, royalty audits, and tracking terrorism by investigating financial records. Many forensic accountants work closely with law enforcement personnel and lawyers during investigations and often appear as expert witnesses during trials. Tasks performed Forensic accounting or forensic accountancy has been used since the time of the ancient Egyptians when Pharaoh had scribes account for his gold and other assets. These scribes worked in Pharaoh's courts and were charg ...more...



Institute of Certified Management Accountants of Sri Lanka

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The Institute of Certified Management Accountants of Sri Lanka , ( CMA Sri Lanka ) is a professional body offering qualification in management accountancy in Sri Lanka . It mainly focuses of development and promoting the study of Management Accountancy, establishing management accountancy standards and promote the profession of management accountancy in Sri Lanka . History. The institute was initially established as "Society of Certified Management Accountants of Sri Lanka", on 3 June 2000 in Colombo Sri Lanka with the help technical assistance and the guidelines of Certified of Management Accountants of Canada (CMA Canada) , now CPA Canada and the Institute of Management Accountants (IMA) of USA and International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) which is the global organization for the accountancy profession. Initially the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) was funded the formulating of the new educational syllabus, preparation of study material and other related inauguration works. The CMA Sri ...more...



Certified General Accountants of Ontario

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Certified General Accountants of Ontario (CGA Ontario) is the professional association of certified general accountants in the province of Ontario , Canada . It is the largest affiliate organization of CGAs in the world, responsible for the accreditation, regulation and professional development of more than 20,000 CGAs in fields such as business and industry, government, the public sector, and professional practice. CGA Ontario also administers and delivers the CGA program of professional studies to more than 8,000 students, granting exclusive rights to the CGA designation in Ontario. About CGA Ontario CGA Ontario is headquartered in Toronto , Ontario. It is an affiliate of the Certified General Accountants Association of Canada (CGA Canada), the national accountancy body of CGAs in Canada, which comprises more than 10 provincial, territorial and international organizations. These organizations work collaboratively with CGA Canada as a federation . CGA Ontario is one of the three authorized designated bodies ...more...



Professional accounting body

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A professional accounting body is an organization or association of accountants in a particular jurisdiction . Usually a person needs to be a member of such professional body to hold out to the public of the jurisdiction as an accountant. The designations for qualified accountants vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, such as Chartered Accountant (CA/ACA), Chartered Certified Accountant (ACCA), Chartered Professional Accountant (CPA), Certified Public Accountant (CPA), Certified Practising Accountant (CPA), Chartered Management Accountant (ACMA), Certified Management Accountant (CMA), Cost & Management Accountant (CMA), Certified Commercial Professional Accountant (CCPA), Chartered Public Finance Accountant (CPFA). For Example in UK Certain bodies, known under the Companies Acts 1989 and 2006 as Recognised Qualifying Bodies (RQBs), award the qualifications necessary for audit work, as an entry requirement. A similar but not identical list of Recognised Supervisory Bodies (RSBs) may authorise their memb ...more...



Management accounting

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In management accounting or managerial accounting, managers use the provisions of accounting information in order to better inform themselves before they decide matters within their organizations, which aids their management and performance of control functions. Definition IFAC Definition of enterprise financial management concerning three broad areas: cost accounting; performance evaluation and analysis; planning and decision support. Managerial accounting is associated with higher value, more predictive information. Copyright July 2009, International Federation of Accountants One simple definition of management accounting is the provision of financial and non-financial decision-making information to managers. According to the Institute of Management Accountants (IMA): "Management accounting is a profession that involves partnering in management decision making, devising planning and performance management systems, and providing expertise in financial reporting and control to assist management in the formul ...more...



Forensic accounting

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Forensic accounting , forensic accountancy or financial forensics is the specialty practice area of accounting that describes engagements that result from actual or anticipated disputes or litigation . " Forensic " means "suitable for use in a court of law", and it is to that standard and potential outcome that forensic accountants generally have to work. Forensic accountants, also referred to as forensic auditors or investigative auditors, often have to give expert evidence at the eventual trial. All of the larger accounting firms, as well as many medium-sized and boutique firms and various police and government agencies have specialist forensic accounting departments. Within these groups, there may be further sub-specializations: some forensic accountants may, for example, just specialize in insurance claims , personal injury claims, fraud , anti-money-laundering , construction , or royalty audits . Financial forensic engagements may fall into several categories. For example: Economic damages calculations ...more...



Professional certification

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Professional certification , trade certification , or professional designation , often called simply certification or qualification, is a designation earned by a person to assure qualification to perform a job or task. Not all certifications that use post-nominal letters are an acknowledgement of educational achievement, or an agency appointed to safeguard the public interest. Overview A certification is a third-party attestation of an individual's level of knowledge or proficiency in a certain industry or profession. They are granted by authorities in the field, such as professional societies and universities, or by private certificate-granting agencies. Most certifications are time-limited; some expire after a period of time (e.g., the lifetime of a product that required certification for use), while others can be renewed indefinitely as long as certain requirements are met. Renewal usually requires ongoing education to remain up-to-date on advancements in the field, evidenced by earning the specified numbe ...more...



Association of Authorised Public Accountants

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The Association of Authorised Public Accountants ( AAPA ) is a British professional body for public accountants. The AAPA was formed in 1978 as a professional body for auditors recognised individually under the Companies Act 1948. AAPA achieved formal recognition by the Department of Trade and Industry in 1989 when the Companies Act received Royal Assent . In September 1991, AAPA achieved the status of a Recognised Supervisory Body and eligible AAPA members have since been entitled to use the designation Registered Auditor. AAPA is not an examining body: all of its members have been admitted either because they have individual audit authorisation or because they have obtained a qualification from another body which is recognised for audit purposes in the UK. At an Extraordinary General Meeting on 24 June 1996, members of AAPA voted for the body to become a subsidiary company of the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants ( ACCA ). AAPA is, therefore, a company limited by guarantee and registered in Eng ...more...



Assurance services

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Assurance service is an independent professional service, typically provided by Chartered or Certified Public Accountants or Chartered Certified Accountant , with the goal of improving information or the context of information so that decision makers can make more informed, and presumably better, decisions. Assurance services provide independent and professional opinions that reduce information risk (risk from incorrect information). Definition and distinction from other services The technical definition of assurance requires five components set out in the International Framework for Assurance Engagements : A three-party relationship – the responsible party who prepares the information to be assured; the independent practitioner who assures the information; and the users who are expected to rely on the information. In the case of an audit, the responsible party is the management of the company, the practitioner is the audit firm and the users are primarily the shareholders. Agreed subject matter – in the case ...more...



Institute of Cost and Management Accountants of Bangladesh

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The Institute of Cost and Management Accountants of Bangladesh ( ICMAB ) at Nilkhet , Dhaka , Bangladesh is the only institution in the country dedicated to Cost and Management Accounting education and research. It is managed as an autonomous professional body under the Ministry of Commerce. As well as education, it is also engaged in regulating and promoting the profession of cost and management accountant in Bangladesh. The Institute is managed by a National Council of 16 members. It is a member of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC), Confederation of Asian and Pacific Accountants (CAPA), and South Asian Federation of Accountants (SAFA). In 1972, the Institute was re-established in the name of Bangladesh Institute of Industrial Accountants (BIIA) again With the changing need of time the Government of Bangladesh renamed it as The Institute of Cost and Management Accountants of Bangladesh (ICMAB) through promulgation of The Cost and Management Accountants Ordinance 1977 (Ordinance No LIII of 19 ...more...



Institute of Chartered Accountants of the Caribbean

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The Institute of Chartered Accountants of the Caribbean (ICAC) is an association of accounting organizations in the Caribbean region that promotes professionalism and standards of best practice in the region. Purpose The ICAC was incorporated as a company on October 28, 1988 under the laws of Jamaica. Aims are to promote international standards for best accountancy practices, to build a strong and cohesive Accountancy profession, and to encourage exchange of ideas and information between accountants who belong to the member bodies. The ICAC supports self-regulation based on a regional monitoring program, and encourages standardization of qualifications and professional conduct rules. The institute seeks to give leadership on issues that affect the accounting profession in the region. Activities Following the meltdown of Enron at the end of 2001, ICAC came under increasing pressure to improve oversight of the accounting industry. In July 2003 ICAC was planning to introduce a regional practice-monitoring syste ...more...




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