Business semantics management

Business Semantics Management [1] [2] (BSM) encompasses the technology, methodology, organization, and culture that brings business stakeholders together to collaboratively realize the reconciliation of their heterogeneous metadata; and consequently the application of the derived business semantics patterns to establish semantic alignment[3] between the underlying data structures.

BSM is established by two complementary process cycles each grouping a number of activities. The first cycle is the semantic reconciliation cycle, and the second cycle is the semantic application cycle. The two cycles are tied together by the unification process. This double process cycle is iteratively applied until an optimal balance of differences and commonalities between stakeholders are reached that meets the semantic integration requirements. This approach is based on research on community-based ontology engineering ([1][2]) that is validated in European projects, government and industry.

Semantic Reconciliation

Semantic reconciliation is a process cycle constituted of four subsequent activities: scope, create, refine, and articulate. First, the community is scoped: user roles and affordances are appointed. Next, relevant facts are collected from documentation such as, e.g., natural language descriptions, (legacy) logical schemas, or other metadata and consequently decomposing this scope in elicitation contexts. The deliverable of scoping is an initial upper common ontology that organizes the key upper common patterns that are shared and accepted by the community. These upper common patterns define the current semantic interoperability requirements of the community. Once the community is scoped, all stakeholders syntactically refine and semantically articulate these upper common patterns.

Unification

During unification, a new proposal for the next version of the upper common ontology is produced, aligning relevant parts from the common and divergent stakeholder perspectives. If the semantic reconciliation results in a number of reusable language-neutral and context-independent patterns for constructing business semantics that are articulated with informal meaning descriptions, then the unification is worthwhile.

Semantic Application

Semantic application is a process cycle constituted of two subsequent activities: select and commit where the scoped information systems are committed to selected consolidated business semantic patterns. This is done by first selecting relevant patterns from the pattern base. Next, the interpretation of this selection is semantically constrained. Finally, the various scoped sources and services are mapped on (read: committed to) this selection. The selection and axiomatization of this selection should approximate the intended business semantics. This can be verified by automatically verbalization into natural language, and validation of the unlocked data. Validation or deprecation of the commitments may result in another iteration of the semantic reconciliation cycle.

Business semantics

Business semantics [1] are the information concepts that live in the organization, understandable for both business and IT. Business Semantics describe the business concepts as they are used and needed by the business instead of describing the information from a technical point of view.

One important aspect of business semantics is that they are shared between many disparate data sources. Many data sources share the same semantics but have different syntax, or format to describe the same concepts.

The way these business semantics are described is less important. Several approaches can be used such as UML, object-role modeling, XML, etc. This corresponds to Robert Meersman’s statement that semantics are "a (set of) mapping(s) from your representation language to agreed concepts (objects, relationships, behavior) in the real-world".[4] In the construction of information systems, semantics have always been crucial. In previous approaches, these semantics were left implicit (i.e. In the mind of reader or writer), hidden away in the implementation itself (e.g., in a database table or column code) or informally captured in textual documentation.[5] According to Dave McComb, "The scale and scope of our systems and the amount of information we now have to deal with are straining that model."[6]

Nowadays, information systems need to interact in a more open manner, and it becomes crucial to formally represent and apply the semantics these systems are concerned with.

Application

Business semantics management empowers all stakeholders in the organization by a consistent and aligned definition of the important information assets of the organization.

The available business semantics can be leveraged in the so-called business/social layer of the organization. They can for example be coupled to a content management application to provide the business with a consistent business vocabulary or enable better navigation or classification of information, leveraged by enterprise search engines to make richer semantic-web-ready websites, etc..

Business semantics can also be used to increase operational efficiency in the technical/operation layer of the organization. It provides an abstracted way to access and deliver data in a more efficient manner. In that respect, it is similar to Enterprise Information Integration (EII) with the added benefit that the shared models are not described in technical terms but in a way that is easily understood by the business.

Collibra is the first organization to commercialize the idea behind business semantics management. Collibra's approach to Business Semantics Management is based on DOGMA, a research project at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

See also
References
  1. De Leenheer, Pieter (2010). "Business Semantics Management: A Case Study for Competency-centric HRM". Elsevier.
  2. De Leenheer, Pieter (2009). "On community-based Ontology Evolution. PhD thesis, Vrije Universiteit Brussel".
  3. "Information Management Resources - Information Management" (PDF).
  4. Sheth, Amit (1997). "Data Semantics: what, where and how?". Proceedings of the 6th IFIP Working Conference on Data Semantics (DS-6). Chapman and Hall. pp. 601–610.
  5. Morgan, Tony (2005). "Expressing Business Semantics" (PDF). Presentation at the European Semantic Web Conference (2005).
  6. DMReview.com. "Why is Business Semantics the New Hot Topic?". Retrieved 23 November 2008.
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Business semantics management

topic

Business semantics management

Business Semantics Management [1] [2] (BSM) encompasses the technology, methodology, organization, and culture that brings business stakeholders together to collaboratively realize the reconciliation of their heterogeneous metadata; and consequently the application of the derived business semantics patterns to establish semantic alignment[3] between the underlying data structures. BSM is established by two complementary process cycles each grouping a number of activities. The first cycle is the semantic reconciliation cycle, and the second cycle is the semantic application cycle. The two cycles are tied together by the unification process. This double process cycle is iteratively applied until an optimal balance of differences and commonalities between stakeholders are reached that meets the semantic integration requirements. This approach is based on research on community-based ontology engineering ([1][2]) that is validated in European projects, government and industry. Semantic Reconciliation Semantic r ...more...

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Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules

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Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules

The Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules (SBVR) is an adopted standard of the Object Management Group (OMG) intended to be the basis for formal and detailed natural language declarative description of a complex entity, such as a business. SBVR is intended to formalize complex compliance rules, such as operational rules for an enterprise, security policy, standard compliance, or regulatory compliance rules. Such formal vocabularies and rules can be interpreted and used by computer systems. SBVR is an integral part of the OMG's model-driven architecture (MDA). Overview The SBVR standard defines the vocabulary and rules for documenting the semantics of business vocabularies, business facts, and business rules; as well as an XMI schema for the interchange of business vocabularies and business rules among organizations and between software tools. SBVR allows the production of business vocabularies and rules; vocabulary plus rules constitute a shared domain model with the same expressive power of ...more...

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Business Process Model and Notation

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Business Process Model and Notation

Example of a Business Process Model and Notation for a process with a normal flow. Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) is a graphical representation for specifying business processes in a business process model. Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI) developed BPMN, which has been maintained by the Object Management Group since the two organizations merged in 2005. Version 2.0 of BPMN was released in January 2011,[1] at which point the name was adapted to Business Process Model and Notation as execution semantics were also introduced alongside the notational and diagramming elements. Overview Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) is a standard for business process modeling that provides a graphical notation for specifying business processes in a Business Process Diagram (BPD),[2] based on a flowcharting technique very similar to activity diagrams from Unified Modeling Language (UML).[3] The objective of BPMN is to support business process management, for both technical users and busines ...more...

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BSM

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BSM

BSM may refer to: Education Benilde-St. Margaret's, a Catholic, co-educational college prep school in Saint Loius Park, Minnesota, USA Black-Scholes-Merton_formula, a formula to calculate option prices Black Student Movement, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, US Bloomingdale School of Music, Manhattan, New York City, USA British School of Motoring, a British driving school Budapest Semesters in Mathematics, program for North American students, Budapest, Hungary Military Band Sergeant Major, a warrant officer appointment in the British Army Battery Sergeant Major, a warrant officer appointment in some Commonwealth artillery corps Bronze Star Medal Organizations Bangladesh Society of Microbiologists Big Scary Monsters Recording Company, a record label based in the UK Brick Squad Monopoly, a subsidiary of the 1017 Brick Squad Record label Blue Star Mothers Science and technology Bag Source Message, corresponding to an airline bag tag Basic Safety Message, a ...more...



Semantic Intelligence

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Semantic Intelligence

Semantic Intelligence is the ability to gather the necessary information to allow to identify, detect and solve semantic gaps on all level of the organization. Similar to Operational Intelligence or Business Process Intelligence, which aims to identify, detect and then optimize business processes, semantic intelligence targets information instead of processes. It aims to enable better understanding and insight in data by all stakeholders. This will support better information sharing, reuse and governance and support better business decision-making. Semantic Gap Several types of semantic gaps can be identified: The semantic gap between different data sources - structured or unstructured The semantic gap between the operational data and the human interpretation of this data The semantic gap between people communicating about a certain information concept. One application of semantic intelligence is the management of unstructured information, leveraging semantic technology. These applications tackle R&# ...more...

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Enterprise application integration

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Enterprise application integration

Enterprise application integration (EAI) is the use of software and computer systems' architectural principles to integrate a set of enterprise computer applications. Overview Enterprise application integration is an integration framework composed of a collection of technologies and services which form a middleware or "middleware framework" to enable integration of systems and applications across an enterprise. Many types of business software such as supply chain management applications, ERP systems, CRM applications for managing customers, business intelligence applications, payroll and human resources systems typically cannot communicate with one another in order to share data or business rules. For this reason, such applications are sometimes referred to as islands of automation or information silos. This lack of communication leads to inefficiencies, wherein identical data are stored in multiple locations, or straightforward processes are unable to be automated. Enterprise application integration is t ...more...

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Cambridge Semantics

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Cambridge Semantics

Cambridge Semantics is a privately held company headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts with an office in San Diego, California. The company is an enterprise Big Data management and exploratory analytics software company. History Cambridge Semantics was founded in 2007 by Sean Martin, Lee Feigenbaum, Simon Martin, Rouben Meschian, Ben Szekely and Emmett Eldred who all previously worked at IBM's Advanced Technology Internet Group.[1][2] In 2012, Cambridge Semantics appointed Chuck Pieper as chief executive. Pieper was previously of Credit Suisse.[3] In January 2016, Cambridge Semantics acquired SPARQL City and its graph database intellectual property.[4] Products Anzo Smart Data Lake uses Semantic Web Technologies.[5][6] It allows IT departments and their business users to access data.[7][8][9][10][11] Marketing Cambridge Semantics named SIIA CODiE Award 2016 finalist.[12] Cambridge Semantics named KMWorld’s 2016 ‘100 Companies That Matter in Knowledge Management’[13] and KMWorld Trend-Setting Pro ...more...

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Business Process Definition Metamodel

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Business Process Definition Metamodel

The Business Process Definition Metamodel (BPDM) is a standard definition of concepts used to express business process models (a metamodel), adopted by the OMG (Object Management Group). Metamodels define concepts, relationships, and semantics for exchange of user models between different modeling tools. The exchange format is defined by XSD (XML Schema) and XMI (XML for Metadata Interchange), a specification for transformation of OMG metamodels to XML. Pursuant to the OMG's policies, the metamodel is the result of an open process involving submissions by member organizations, following a Request for Proposal (RFP) issued in 2003. BPDM was adopted in initial form in July 2007, and finalized in July 2008. BPDM provides abstract concepts as the basis for consistent interpretation of specialized concepts used by business process modelers. For example, the ordering of many of the graphical elements in a BPMN (Business Process Model and Notation) diagram is depicted by arrows between those elements, but the speci ...more...

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Business architecture

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Business architecture

Aspects of the Business Represented by Business Architecture[1] Business architecture is defined as "a blueprint of the enterprise that provides a common understanding of the organization and is used to align strategic objectives and tactical demands."[2] People who develop and maintain business architecture are known as business architects. Business architecture is the bridge between the enterprise business model and enterprise strategy on one side, and the business functionality of the enterprise on the other side. Overview The term "business architecture" is often used to mean an architectural description of an enterprise or a business unit, an architectural model, or the profession itself. The Business Architecture Working Group of the Object Management Group (OMG) (2010) describes it as "a blueprint of the enterprise that provides a common understanding of the organization and is used to align strategic objectives and tactical demands." [2] According to the OMG, a blueprint of this type describes " ...more...

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Object Management Group

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Object Management Group

The Object Management Group (OMG) is an international, open membership, not-for-profit technology standards consortium. OMG Task Forces develop enterprise integration standards for a wide range of technologies and industries. OMG modeling standards enable visual design, execution and maintenance of software and other processes. Originally aimed at standardizing distributed object-oriented systems, the company now focuses on modeling (programs, systems and business processes) and model-based standards. Overview OMG provides only specifications, and does not provide implementations. But before a specification can be accepted as a standard by OMG, the members of the submitter team must guarantee that they will bring a conforming product to market within a year. This is an attempt to prevent unimplemented (and unimplementable) standards. Other private companies or open source groups are encouraged to produce conforming products and OMG is attempting to develop mechanisms to enforce true interoperability. OMG ...more...

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Enterprise resource planning

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Enterprise resource planning

Diagram showing some typical ERP modules Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is the integrated management of core business processes, often in real-time and mediated by software and technology. ERP is usually referred to as a category of business-management software — typically a suite of integrated applications—that an organization can use to collect, store, manage, and interpret data from these many business activities. ERP provides an integrated and continuously updated view of core business processes using common databases maintained by a database management system. ERP systems track business resources—cash, raw materials, production capacity—and the status of business commitments: orders, purchase orders, and payroll. The applications that make up the system share data across various departments (manufacturing, purchasing, sales, accounting, etc.) that provide the data.[1] ERP facilitates information flow between all business functions and manages connections to outside stakeholders.[2] Enterprise sys ...more...

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Semantic Web

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Semantic Web

The Semantic Web is an extension of the World Wide Web through standards by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).[1] The standards promote common data formats and exchange protocols on the Web, most fundamentally the Resource Description Framework (RDF). According to the W3C, "The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries".[2] The Semantic Web is therefore regarded as an integrator across different content, information applications and systems. The term was coined by Tim Berners-Lee for a web of data (or data web)[3] that can be processed by machines[4]—that is, one in which much of the meaning is machine-readable. While its critics have questioned its feasibility, proponents argue that applications in industry, biology and human sciences research have already proven the validity of the original concept.[5] Berners-Lee originally expressed his vision of the Semantic Web as follows: I have a dream for the Web [in ...more...

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Identity management

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Identity management

Identity management, also known as identity and access management (IAM) is, in computer security, the security and business discipline that "enables the right individuals to access the right resources at the right times and for the right reasons". It addresses the need to ensure appropriate access to resources across increasingly heterogeneous technology environments and to meet increasingly rigorous compliance requirements.[1] The terms "identity management" (IdM) and "identity and access management" are used interchangeably in the area of Identity access management.[2] "Identity management" comes under the umbrella of IT security.[3] Identity-management systems, products, applications and platforms manage identifying and ancillary data about entities that include individuals, computer-related hardware, and software applications. IdM covers issues such as how users gain an identity, the protection of that identity and the technologies supporting that protection (e.g., network protocols, digital certificat ...more...

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Business Process Modeling Language

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Business Process Modeling Language

Business Process Modeling Language (BPML) is an XML-based language for business process modeling. It was maintained by the Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI) until June 2005 when BPMI and OMG (Object Management Group) announced the merger of their respective Business Process Management (BPM) activities to form the Business Modeling and Integration Domain Task Force (BMI DTF)[1]. It is deprecated since 2008. BPML was useful to OMG in order to enrich UML with process notation. History BPML, a superset of BPEL, was implemented by early stage vendors, such as Intalio Inc., but incumbents such as IBM and Microsoft did not implement BPML in their existing workflow and integration engine implementations like BizTalk or Websphere. They pushed for the simpler language BPEL. In view of the lack of market acceptance, the BPMI dropped support of BPML in favor of BPEL4WS.[1][2] Following the merger of BPMI and OMG, BPML will be definitively deprecated in 2008, with OMG's adoption of BPDM.[3] Application BP ...more...

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Capability management in business

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Capability management in business

Capability management is the approach to the management of an organization, typically a business organization or firm, based on the "theory of the firm" as a collection of capabilities that may be exercised to earn revenues in the marketplace and compete with other firms in the industry. "Capability Management" seeks to manage the stock of capabilities within the firm to ensure its position in the industry and its ongoing profitability and survival. Prior to the emergence of capability management, the dominant theory explaining the existence and competitive position of firms, based on Ricardian economics, was the resource-based view of the firm (RBVF). The fundamental thesis of this theory is that firms derive their profitability from their control of resources – and are in competition to secure control of resources. Perhaps the best-known exposition of the Resource-based View of the Firm is that of one of its key originators: economist Edith Penrose.[1] "Capability management" may be regarded as both an ex ...more...

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Logical data model

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Logical data model

A logical data model or logical schema is a data model of a specific problem domain expressed independently of a particular database management product or storage technology (physical data model) but in terms of data structures such as relational tables and columns, object-oriented classes, or XML tags. This is as opposed to a conceptual data model, which describes the semantics of an organization without reference to technology. Overview Logical data models represent the abstract structure of a domain of information. They are often diagrammatic in nature and are most typically used in business processes that seek to capture things of importance to an organization and how they relate to one another. Once validated and approved, the logical data model can become the basis of a physical data model and form the design of a database. Logical data models should be based on the structures identified in a preceding conceptual data model, since this describes the semantics of the information context, which the log ...more...

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Serendipity

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Serendipity

The photo was intended to be of a black-crowned night heron; the photographer was initially unaware of the pileated woodpecker flashing through. Serendipity means an unplanned, fortuitous discovery.[1] The term was coined by Horace Walpole in 1754. In a letter he wrote to his friend Horace Mann, Walpole explained an unexpected discovery he had made about a (lost) painting[2] of Bianca Cappello by Giorgio Vasari by reference to a Persian fairy tale, The Three Princes of Serendip. The princes, he told his correspondent, were "always making discoveries, by accidents and sagacity, of things which they were not in quest of".[3] The notion of serendipity is a common occurrence throughout the history of scientific innovation. Examples are Alexander Fleming's accidental discovery of penicillin in 1928, the invention of the microwave oven by Percy Spencer in 1945, and the invention of the Post-it note by Spencer Silver in 1968. In June 2004, a British translation company voted the word to be one of the ten English ...more...

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Data integration

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Data integration

Data integration involves combining data residing in different sources and providing users with a unified view of them.[1] This process becomes significant in a variety of situations, which include both commercial (such as when two similar companies need to merge their databases) and scientific (combining research results from different bioinformatics repositories, for example) domains. Data integration appears with increasing frequency as the volume (that is, big data[2]) and the need to share existing data explodes.[3] It has become the focus of extensive theoretical work, and numerous open problems remain unsolved. History Figure 1: Simple schematic for a data warehouse. The Extract, transform, load (ETL) process extracts information from the source databases, transforms it and then loads it into the data warehouse. Figure 2: Simple schematic for a data-integration solution. A system designer constructs a mediated schema against which users can run queries. The virtual database interfaces with the s ...more...

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Process ontology

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Process ontology

In philosophy, a process ontology refers to a universal model of the structure of the world as an ordered wholeness.[1][2] Such ontologies are fundamental ontologies, in contrast to the so-called applied ontologies. Fundamental ontologies do not claim to be accessible to any empirical proof in itself, but to be a structural design pattern, out of which empirical phenomena can be explained and put together consistently. Throughout Western history, the dominating fundamental ontology is the so-called substance theory. However, fundamental process ontologies are becoming more important in recent times, because the progress in the discovery of the foundations of physics spurred the development of a basic concept able to integrate such boundary notions as "energy," "object", and those of the physical dimensions of space and time. In computer science, a process ontology is a description of the components and their relationships that make up a process. A formal process ontology is an ontology in the knowledge domai ...more...

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Business rule

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Business rule

A business rule is a rule that defines or constrains some aspect of business and always resolves to either true or false. Business rules are intended to assert business structure or to control or influence the behavior of the business.[1] Business rules describe the operations, definitions and constraints that apply to an organization. Business rules can apply to people, processes, corporate behavior and computing systems in an organization, and are put in place to help the organization achieve its goals. For example, a business rule might state that no credit check is to be performed on return customers. Other examples of business rules include requiring a rental agent to disallow a rental tenant if their credit rating is too low, or requiring company agents to use a list of preferred suppliers and supply schedules. While a business rule may be informal or even unwritten, documenting the rules clearly and making sure that they don't conflict is a valuable activity. When carefully managed, rules can be used ...more...

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Subject-oriented business process management

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Subject-oriented business process management

Subject-oriented business process management (S-BPM) is a communication based view on actors (the subjects), which compose a business process orchestration or choreography.[1] The modeling paradigm uses five symbols to model any process and allows direct transformation into executable form. Each business process consists of two or more subjects which exchange messages. Each subject has an internal behavior (capsulation), which is defined as a control flow between different states, which are receive and send message and do something. For practical usage and for syntactical sugaring there are more elements available, but not necessary. In 2011 and 2012 S-BPM has been included in Gartner's Hype Cycle. Foundation Process calculi The S-BPM methodology in its essence is based on the CCS-Calculus of Robin Milner.[2] The main objective of CCS was to provide a mathematical framework to describe communicating systems in a formal way. Milner states that every interesting concurrent system is built from independent a ...more...

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International Conference on Business Process Management

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International Conference on Business Process Management

The International Conference on Business Process Management is an academic conference organized annually by the BPM community.[1] The conference was first organized in 2003 Eindhoven, Netherlands. Since then the conference has been organized annually. The conference is the premium forum for researchers, practitioners and developers in the field of Business Process Management (BPM). The conference typically attracts over 300 participants from all over the world. The BPM Steering Committee is responsible for the conference, including selection of organizers, invited speakers, workshops, etc.[2] Topics BPM 2003 logo. Topics covered by the conference include: Business process modeling BPM/WFM systems Process mining Business process intelligence Workflow automation Process change management Reference process models Process modeling languages Case management Process variability and configuration Operations research for business processes Collaborative business process management Qualitative a ...more...

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Procurement

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Procurement

Procurement is the process of finding, agreeing terms and acquiring goods, services or works from an external source, often via a tendering or competitive bidding process. The process is used to ensure the buyer receives goods, services or works at the best possible price, when aspects such as quality, quantity, time, and location are compared.[1] Corporations and public bodies often define processes intended to promote fair and open competition for their business while minimizing risk, such as exposure to fraud and collusion. Almost all purchasing decisions include factors such as delivery and handling, marginal benefit, and price fluctuations. Procurement generally involves making buying decisions under conditions of scarcity. If good data is available, it is good practice to make use of economic analysis methods such as cost-benefit analysis or cost-utility analysis. Overview An important distinction should be made between analyses without risk and those with risk. Where risk is involved, either in the ...more...

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OMG Business Architecture Special Interest Group

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OMG Business Architecture Special Interest Group

The Business Architecture Special Interest Group (BASIG) is a working group on business architecture of the Object Management Group (OMG), known for their contribution to the history of business architecture. This working group was founded in 2007 as the Business Architecture Working Group (BAWG). History Foundation The 2007 announcement for the OMG Technical Meeting on Dec. 12, 2007 in Burlingame, California gave the following rationale for the foundation of a specialized working group on business architecture: In looking at the link between IT and the business, it has become apparent that there needs to be more formally defined sets of relationships between IT architecture and business architecture. In addition, the concept of business architecture is probably 10-15 years behind the maturity of the IT architecture world. For example, the relationship between business rules and processes is not apparent and the role of organizational governance is similarly disconnected. Therefore, we are initiating th ...more...

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Igor Hawryszkiewycz

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Igor Hawryszkiewycz

Igor Titus Hawryszkiewycz (born c. 1948) is an American computer scientist, organizational theorist, and Professor at the School of Systems, Management and Leadership of the University of Technology, Sydney, known for his work in the field of database systems,[1] systems analysis,[2] and knowledge management.[3] Biography Hawryszkiewycz obtained his PhD in computer science from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1973[4] with the thesis, entitled "Semantics of data base systems."[5] developed within the Project MAC. Hawryszkiewycz started his academic career as lecturer in information Systems at the University of Canberra in 1975. Since 1986 he is Professor at the University of Technology, Sydney and Head of its Department of Information Systems.From 1989 to 1993 he also directed its Key Center of Advanced Computing Sciences.[4] Hawryszkiewycz's research interest is focussed on "developing design thinking environments to provide business solutions in complex environments by integrating processes, kno ...more...

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Profile (UML)

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Profile (UML)

A profile in the Unified Modeling Language (UML) provides a generic extension mechanism for customizing UML models for particular domains and platforms. Extension mechanisms allow refining standard semantics in strictly additive manner, preventing them from contradicting standard semantics.[1] Profiles are defined using stereotypes, tag definitions, and constraints which are applied to specific model elements, like Classes, Attributes, Operations, and Activities. A Profile is a collection of such extensions that collectively customize UML for a particular domain (e.g., aerospace, healthcare, financial) or platform (J2EE, .NET). Examples The UML Profile for XML is defined by David Carlson in the book "Modeling XML Applications with UML" pp. 310 and describes a set of extensions to basic UML model elements to enable accurate modeling of XSD schemas. SysML is an Object Management Group (OMG)-standardized profile of Unified Modeling Language which is used for system engineering applications. MARTE is the OMG ...more...

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Production Rule Representation

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Production Rule Representation

The Production Rule Representation (PRR) is a proposed standard of the Object Management Group (OMG) to provide a vendor-neutral rule-model representation in UML for production rules as used in forward-chaining rule engines. History The OMG set up a Business Rules Working Group in 2002 as the first standards body to recognize the importance of the "Business Rules Approach". It issued 2 main RFPs in 2003 – a standard for modeling production rules (PRR), and a standard for modeling business rules as business documentation (BSBR, now SBVR). PRR was mostly defined by and for vendors of Business Rule Engines (BREs) (sometimes termed Business Rules Engine(s), like in Wikipedia). Contributors have included all the major BRE vendors, members of RuleML, and leading UML vendors. Evolution The PRR RFP originally suggested that PRR use a combination of UML OCL and Action Semantics for rule conditions and actions. However, expecting modellers to learn 2 relatively obscure UML languages in order to define a productio ...more...

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Workflow

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Workflow

Wikimedia developer workflow An IMRAD model for developing research articles A workflow consists of an orchestrated and repeatable pattern of business activity enabled by the systematic organization of resources into processes that transform materials, provide services, or process information.[1] It can be depicted as a sequence of operations, the work of a person or group,[2] the work of an organization of staff, or one or more simple or complex mechanisms. From a more abstract or higher-level perspective, workflow may be considered a view or representation of real work.[3] The flow being described may refer to a document, service, or product that is being transferred from one step to another. Workflows may be viewed as one fundamental building block to be combined with other parts of an organization's structure such as information technology, teams, projects and hierarchies.[4] Historical development The development of the concept of workflow occurred above a series of loosely defined, overlapping e ...more...

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Business Motivation Model

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Business Motivation Model

Business Motivation Model The Business Motivation Model (BMM) in enterprise architecture provides a scheme and structure for developing, communicating, and managing business plans in an organized manner.[1] Specifically, the Business Motivation Model does all of the following: identifies factors that motivate the establishing of business plans; identifies and defines the elements of business plans; and indicates how all these factors and elements inter-relate. History Initially developed by the Business Rules Group (BRG),[2] in September 2005, the Object Management Group (OMG) voted to accept the Business Motivation Model as the subject of a Request for Comment (RFC). This meant that the OMG was willing to consider the Business Motivation Model as a specification to be adopted by the OMG, subject to comment from any interested parties. Adoption as an OMG specification carries the intention that the Business Motivation Model would, in time, be submitted to the International Organization for Standardiz ...more...

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Activity diagram

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Activity diagram

UML 1.x Activity diagram for a guided brainstorming process. Activity diagrams are graphical representations of workflows of stepwise activities and actions[1] with support for choice, iteration and concurrency. In the Unified Modeling Language, activity diagrams are intended to model both computational and organizational processes (i.e., workflows), as well as the data flows intersecting with the related activities.[2][3] Although activity diagrams primarily show the overall flow of control, they can also include elements showing the flow of data between activities through one or more data stores. Construction Activity diagrams are constructed from a limited number of shapes, connected with arrows.[4] The most important shape types: rounded rectangles represent actions; diamonds represent decisions; bars represent the start (split) or end (join) of concurrent activities; a black circle represents the start (initial node) of the workflow; an encircled black circle represents the end (final node). ...more...

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XPDL

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XPDL

Process represented in XPDL (healthcare domain example, Hepatitis A immunization)[1] The XML Process Definition Language (XPDL) is a format standardized by the Workflow Management Coalition (WfMC) to interchange business process definitions between different workflow products, i.e. between different modeling tools and management suites. XPDL defines an XML schema for specifying the declarative part of workflow / business process. XPDL is designed to exchange the process definition, both the graphics and the semantics of a workflow business process. XPDL is currently the best file format for exchange of BPMN diagrams; it has been designed specifically to store all aspects of a BPMN diagram. XPDL contains elements to hold graphical information, such as the X and Y position of the nodes, as well as executable aspects which would be used to run a process. This distinguishes XPDL from BPEL which focuses exclusively on the executable aspects of the process. BPEL does not contain elements to represent the graphi ...more...

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Information

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Information

The ASCII codes for the word "Wikipedia" represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding textual computer information Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty. It is thus related to data and knowledge, as data represents values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of real things or abstract concepts.[1] As it regards data, the information's existence is not necessarily coupled to an observer (it exists beyond an event horizon, for example), while in the case of knowledge, the information requires a cognitive observer. Information is conveyed either as the content of a message or through direct or indirect observation. That which is perceived can be construed as a message in its own right, and in that sense, information is always conveyed as the content of a message. Information can be encoded into various forms for transmission and interpretation (for example, information may be encoded ...more...

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Process management (Project Management)

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Process management (Project Management)

Process management in civil engineering and project management is the management of "systematic series of activities directed towards causing an end result such that one or more inputs will be acted upon to create one or more outputs."[1] Process management offers project organizations a means of applying the same quality improvement and defect reduction techniques used in business and manufacturing processes by taking a process view of project activity; modeling discrete activities and high-level processes.[2][1][3] Overview The term process management usually refers to the management of engineering processes and project management processes where a process is a collection of related, structured tasks that produce a specific service or product to address a certain goal for a particular actor or set of actors.[4] Processes can be executed with procedures.[1] They can be described as a sequence of steps that can execute a process and their value lies in that they are an accepted method of accomplishing a c ...more...

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Data cube

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Data cube

In computer programming contexts, a data cube (or datacube) is a multi-dimensional ("n-D") array of values. Typically, the term datacube is applied in contexts where these arrays are massively larger than the hosting computer's main memory; examples include multi-Terabyte/Petabyte data warehouses and time series of image data. The data cube is used to represent data along some measure of interest. Even though it is called a 'cube', it can be 1-dimensional, 2-dimensional, 3-dimensional, or higher-dimensional. Every dimension represents a new measure whereas the cells in the cube represent the facts of interest. History Multi-dimensional arrays have long been familiar in programming languages. Fortran offers 1-D arrays and arrays of arrays, which allows the construction higher-dimensional arrays. APL supports n-D arrays with a rich set of operations. All these have in common that arrays must fit into main memory and are available only while the particular program maintaining them (such as image processing so ...more...

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Semantic reasoner

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Semantic reasoner

A semantic reasoner, reasoning engine, rules engine, or simply a reasoner, is a piece of software able to infer logical consequences from a set of asserted facts or axioms. The notion of a semantic reasoner generalizes that of an inference engine, by providing a richer set of mechanisms to work with. The inference rules are commonly specified by means of an ontology language, and often a description logic language. Many reasoners use first-order predicate logic to perform reasoning; inference commonly proceeds by forward chaining and backward chaining. There are also examples of probabilistic reasoners, including Pei Wang's non-axiomatic reasoning system,[1] and probabilistic logic networks.[2] List of semantic reasoners Existing semantic reasoners and related software: Commercial software Bossam (software), an RETE-based rule engine with native supports for reasoning over OWL ontologies, SWRL rules, and RuleML rules. RacerPro OntoBroker is an inference engine with native reasoning over F-Logic, Object ...more...

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Social Semantic Web

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Social Semantic Web

The concept of the Social Semantic Web subsumes developments in which social interactions on the Web lead to the creation of explicit and semantically rich knowledge representations. The Social Semantic Web can be seen as a Web of collective knowledge systems, which are able to provide useful information based on human contributions and which get better as more people participate.[1] The Social Semantic Web combines technologies, strategies and methodologies from the Semantic Web, social software and the Web 2.0.[2] Overview The social-semantic web (s2w) aims to complement the formal Semantic Web vision by adding a pragmatic approach relying on description languages for semantic browsing using heuristic classification and semiotic ontologies. A socio-semantic system has a continuous process of eliciting crucial knowledge of a domain through semi-formal ontologies, taxonomies or folksonomies. S2w emphasize the importance of humanly created loose semantics as means to fulfil the vision of the semantic web. In ...more...

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World Wide Web

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Semantic query

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Semantic query

Semantic queries allow for queries and analytics of associative and contextual nature. Semantic queries enable the retrieval of both explicitly and implicitly derived information based on syntactic, semantic and structural information contained in data. They are designed to deliver precise results (possibly the distinctive selection of one single piece of information) or to answer more fuzzy and wide open questions through pattern matching and digital reasoning. Semantic queries work on named graphs, linked-data or triples. This enables the query to process the actual relationships between information and infer the answers from the network of data. This is in contrast to semantic search, which uses semantics (the science of meaning) in unstructured text to produce a better search result (see natural language processing). From a technical point of view semantic queries are precise relational-type operations much like a database query. They work on structured data and therefore have the possibility to utilize ...more...

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Function model

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Function model

A function model or functional model in systems engineering and software engineering is a structured representation of the functions (activities, actions, processes, operations) within the modeled system or subject area.[1] Example of a function model of the process of "Maintain Reparable Spares" in IDEF0 notation. A function model, similar with the activity model or process model, is a graphical representation of an enterprise's function within a defined scope. The purposes of the function model are to describe the functions and processes, assist with discovery of information needs, help identify opportunities, and establish a basis for determining product and service costs.[2] History The function model in the field of systems engineering and software engineering originates in the 1950s and 1960s, but the origin of functional modelling of organizational activity goes back to the late 19th century. In the late 19th century the first diagrams appeared that pictured business activities, actions, proc ...more...

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Oracle BI server

topic

Oracle BI server

Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise Edition is a business intelligence server developed by Oracle.[1] It includes advanced business intelligence tools built upon a unified architecture. The server provides centralized data access to all business related information in a corporate entity.[2] It integrates data via sophisticated capabilities from multiple sources.[3] Component of OBIEE Oracle BI Server is a query, reporting and analysis server and provides services to the other components of the Business Intelligence suite such as Data mining, Reporting, and Analytic Applications. The Server uses ODBC 2.0 which provides a standard software API method for using database management systems and JDBC (Java Database Connectivity) which is an API for the Java programming language. The BI server compiles incoming query requests into an executable code and then execute the code. Clients of the BI Server work with a logical data independent of the data sources, and they submit them to the BI server. The server tra ...more...

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YAWL

topic

YAWL

YAWL (Yet Another Workflow Language) is a workflow language based on workflow patterns. The language is supported by a software system that includes an execution engine, a graphical editor and a worklist handler. The system is available as Open source software under the LGPL license. Production-level uses of the YAWL system include a deployment by first:utility and first:telecom in the UK to automate front-end service processes, and by the Australian film television and radio school to coordinate film shooting processes. The YAWL system has also been used for teaching in more than 20 universities.[1] Features Comprehensive support for the workflow patterns. Support for advanced resource allocation policies, including four-eyes principle and chained execution. Support for dynamic adaptation of workflow models through the notion of worklets. Sophisticated workflow model validation features (e.g. deadlock detection at design-time). XML-based model for data definition and manipulation based on XML Schema, ...more...

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Oracle Spatial and Graph

topic

Oracle Spatial and Graph

Oracle Spatial and Graph, formerly Oracle Spatial, forms a separately-licensed option component of the Oracle Database. The spatial features in Oracle Spatial and Graph aid users in managing geographic and location-data in a native type within an Oracle database, potentially supporting a wide range of applications — from automated mapping, facilities management, and geographic information systems (AM/FM/GIS), to wireless location services and location-enabled e-business. The graph features in Oracle Spatial and Graph include Oracle Network Data Model (NDM) graphs used in traditional network applications in major transportation, telcos, utilities and energy organizations and RDF semantic graphs used in social networks and social interactions and in linking disparate data sets to address requirements from the research, health sciences, finance, media and intelligence communities. Components The geospatial feature of Oracle Spatial and Graph provides a SQL schema and functions that facilitate the storage, retr ...more...

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Unified Modeling Language

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Unified Modeling Language

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a general-purpose, developmental, modeling language in the field of software engineering, that is intended to provide a standard way to visualize the design of a system.[1] The creation of UML was originally motivated by the desire to standardize the disparate notational systems and approaches to software design. It was developed by Grady Booch, Ivar Jacobson and James Rumbaugh at Rational Software in 1994–1995, with further development led by them through 1996.[1] In 1997 UML was adopted as a standard by the Object Management Group (OMG), and has been managed by this organization ever since. In 2005 UML was also published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as an approved ISO standard.[2] Since then the standard has been periodically revised to cover the latest revision of UML.[3] History History of object-oriented methods and notation Before UML 1.0 UML has been evolving since the second half of the 1990s and has its roots in the object- ...more...

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Static program analysis

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Static program analysis

Static program analysis is the analysis of computer software that is performed without actually executing programs, in contrast with dynamic analysis, which is analysis performed on programs while they are executing.[1] In most cases the analysis is performed on some version of the source code, and in the other cases, some form of the object code. The term is usually applied to the analysis performed by an automated tool, with human analysis being called program understanding, program comprehension, or code review. Software inspections and software walkthroughs are also used in the latter case. Rationale The sophistication of the analysis performed by tools varies from those that only consider the behaviour of individual statements and declarations, to those that include the complete source code of a program in their analysis. The uses of the information obtained from the analysis vary from highlighting possible coding errors (e.g., the lint tool) to formal methods that mathematically prove properties abou ...more...

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Commercial and Government Entity code

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Commercial and Government Entity code

The Commercial and Government Entity Code, or CAGE Code, is a unique identifier assigned to suppliers to various government or defense agencies, as well as to government agencies themselves and various organizations. CAGE codes provide a standardized method of identifying a given facility at a specific location. CAGE Codes are used internationally as part of the NATO Codification System (NCS), where they are sometimes called NCAGE Codes. CAGE codes are referenced in various databases of the NCS, where they are used along with the supplier's part number to form a reference which is held on the National Stock Number (NSN) record. This reference enables users of the NCS to determine who supplies any given part. The information associated with the entities - name, address, phone numbers, etc. - is catalogued in the H4 and H8 Handbooks. The National Codification Bureau (NCB) of each NATO or NATO-sponsored Nation is responsible for maintaining the CAGE code information for entities in these respective countries. ...more...

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NATO

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Data virtualization

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Data virtualization

Data virtualization is any approach to data management that allows an application to retrieve and manipulate data without requiring technical details about the data, such as how it is formatted at source, or where it is physically located,[1] and can provide a single customer view (or single view of any other entity) of the overall data.[2] Data virtualization can be deemed to be an alternative to data warehousing and ETL.[3] Unlike the traditional extract, transform, load ("ETL") process, the data remains in place, and real-time access is given to the source system for the data. This reduces the risk of data errors, of the workload moving data around that may never be used, and it does not attempt to impose a single data model on the data (an example of heterogeneous data is a federated database system). The technology also supports the writing of transaction data updates back to the source systems.[4] To resolve differences in source and consumer formats and semantics, various abstraction and transformatio ...more...

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SQL

topic

SQL

SQL ( ( listen) S-Q-L,[4] "sequel"; Structured Query Language)[5][6][7][8] is a domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS). It is particularly useful in handling structured data where there are relations between different entities/variables of the data. SQL offers two main advantages over older read/write APIs like ISAM or VSAM: first, it introduced the concept of accessing many records with one single command; and second, it eliminates the need to specify how to reach a record, e.g. with or without an index. Originally based upon relational algebra and tuple relational calculus, SQL consists of many types of statements,[9] which may be informally classed as sublanguages, commonly: a data query language (DQL),[a] a data definition language (DDL),[b] a data control language (DCL), and a data manipulation language (DML)[c].[10] The scope of SQ ...more...

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Data lake

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Data lake

A data lake is a system or repository of data stored in its natural format,[1] usually object blobs or files. A data lake is usually a single store of all enterprise data including raw copies of source system data and transformed data used for tasks such as reporting, visualization, analytics and machine learning. A data lake can include structured data from relational databases (rows and columns), semi-structured data (CSV, logs, XML, JSON), unstructured data (emails, documents, PDFs) and binary data (images, audio, video). [2] A data swamp is a deteriorated data lake either inaccessible to its intended users or providing little value.[3][4] Background James Dixon, then chief technology officer at Pentaho, allegedly coined the term[5] to contrast it with data mart, which is a smaller repository of interesting attributes derived from raw data.[6] In promoting data lakes, he argued that data marts have several inherent problems, such as information siloing. PricewaterhouseCoopers said that data lakes could ...more...

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Metadata standard

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Metadata standard

A metadata standard is a requirement which is intended to establish a common understanding of the meaning or semantics of the data, to ensure correct and proper use and interpretation of the data by its owners and users. To achieve this common understanding, a number of characteristics, or attributes of the data have to be defined, also known as metadata.[1] Metadata Metadata is often defined as data about data.[2][3][4] It is “structured information that describes, explains, locates, or otherwise makes it easier to retrieve, use or manage an information resource”, especially in a distributed network environment like for example the internet or an organization.[5] A good example of metadata is the cataloging system found in libraries, which records for example the author, title, subject, and location on the shelf of a resource. Another is software system knowledge extraction of software objects such as data flows, control flows, call maps, architectures, business rules, business terms, and database schemas. ...more...

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Action item

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Action item

In management, an action item is a documented event, task, activity, or action that needs to take place. Action items are discrete units that can be handled by a single person. Planning actions Action items are usually created during a discussion by a group of people who are meeting about one or more topics and during the discussion it is discovered that some kind of action is needed. The act required is then documented as an action item and usually assigned to someone, usually a member of the group. The person to whom the action is assigned is then obligated to perform the action and report back to the group on the results. Action items are usually documented in the meeting minutes and are recorded in the task list of the group. As people complete action items, the items are documented as being completed and the item is removed from the list of outstanding action items. Attributes There are many attributes that can be associated with an action item - e.g.: Identifier - Unique mark to reference event o ...more...

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Machine-Readable Documents

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Machine-Readable Documents

Machine-readable documents are documents whose content can be readily processed by computers. Such documents are distinguished from machine-readable data by virtue of having sufficient structure to provide the necessary context to support the business processes for which they are created. Definition Data without context (language use) is meaningless and lacks the four essential characteristics of trustworthy business records specified in ISO 15489 Information and documentation -- Records management: Reliability Authenticity Integrity Usability The vast bulk of information is unstructured data and, from a business perspective, that means it is "immature", i.e., Level 1 (chaotic) of the Capability Maturity Model. Such immaturity fosters inefficiency, diminishes quality, and limits effectiveness. Unstructured information is also ill-suited for records management functions, provides inadequate evidence for legal purposes, drives up the cost of discovery in litigation, and makes access and usage needlessl ...more...

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