The Border Guard Unit (reporting name: BGU) is a national security and paramilitary unit of the Customs Excise and Preventive Service Division of the Ghana Revenue Authority and the Ghana Armed Forces (GAF). Established in October 1964, BGU's primary role is to guard Ghana's international borders during peacetime and prevent trans-border crime.
In October 1964, the Border Guard Unit (BGU) was formed as a police unit led by an assistant commissioner of police. The Border Guard Unit (BGU) acted as customs agents examining passengers and baggage aboard ships and aircraft. 
In 1988 the Border Guard Unit (BGU) was re-integrated into the Customs Excise and Preventive Service as a military unit. BGU designs and implements effective strategies and programmes to facilitate the movement of people across Ghana's international borders. 
The BGU's primary operation is detection and apprehension of illegal aliens and smugglers of aliens at or near the land borders. Some of the major BGU operational activities include maintaining traffic checkpoints and security checkpoints along highways (Ghana Road Network) leading from border areas, conducting snap checks and anti-smuggling within Ghana. These BGU operational activities are performed with the use of UCAVs, UAVs, attack helicopters, armoured fighting vehicles, pick-up vehicles, and all purpose motorbikes .
The BGU physically examines containerized goods at Boankra Inland Port, Akosombo Port, Takoradi Harbour and Tema Harbour. BGU is working to streamline and fully automate customs processes and procedures under the Ghana Customs Management System (GCMS) and the Ghana Community Network (GCNET).