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Banco Ambrosiano

Banco Ambrosiano was an Italian bank that collapsed in 1982. At the centre of the bank's failure was its chairman, Roberto Calvi and his membership in the illegal Masonic Lodge Propaganda Due (aka P2). The Institute for the Works of Religion, commonly known as the Vatican Bank, was Banco Ambrosiano's main shareholder. The Vatican Bank was also accused of funneling covert United States funds to Solidarity and the Contras through Banco Ambrosiano.

Members Before 1981

The Banco Ambrosiano was founded in Milan in 1896 by Giuseppe Tovini, a Catholic advocate in Valle Camonica, and was named after Saint Ambrose, the fourth century archbishop of the city. Tovini's purpose was to create a Catholic bank as a counterbalance to Italy's "lay" banks, and its goals were "serving moral organisations, pious works, and religious bodies set up for charitable aims." The bank came to be known as the "priests' bank"; one chairman was Franco Ratti, nephew to Pope Pius XI. In the 1960s, the bank began to expand its business, opening a holding company in Luxembourg in 1963 which came to be known as Banco Ambrosiano Holding. This was under the direction of Carlo Canesi, then a senior manager, and from 1965 chairman.

In 1967, Canesi brought Roberto Calvi into Ambrosiano. In 1971, Calvi became general manager, and in 1975 he was appointed chairman. Calvi expanded Ambrosiano's interests further; these included creating a number of off-shore companies in the Bahamas and South America; a controlling interest in the Banca Cattolica del Veneto; and funds for the publishing house Rizzoli to finance the Corriere della Sera newspaper (giving Calvi control behind the scenes for the benefit of his associates in the P2 masonic lodge). Calvi also involved the Vatican Bank, Istituto per le Opere di Religione, in his dealings, and was close to Bishop Paul Marcinkus, the bank's chairman. Ambrosiano also provided funds for political parties in Italy, and for both the Somoza dictatorship in Nicaragua and its Sandinista opposition. There are also rumours that it provided money for Solidarity in Poland (it has been widely alleged that the Vatican Bank funded Solidarity).

Calvi used his complex network of overseas banks and companies to move money out of Italy, to inflate share prices, and to secure massive unsecured loans. In 1978, the Bank of Italy produced a report on Ambrosiano that predicted future disaster and led to criminal investigations. However, soon afterward the investigating Milanese magistrate, Alessandrini, was killed by a left-wing terrorist group, while the Bank of Italy official who superintended the inspection, Mario Sarcinelli, found himself imprisoned on charges that were later dismissed.

After 1981

In 1981, police raided the office of Propaganda Due Masonic lodge to apprehend the Worshipful Master Licio Gelli and uncover further evidence against Roberto Calvi. Calvi was arrested, put on trial, and sentenced to four years in prison. However, he was released pending an appeal and retained his position at the bank. Other alarming developments followed: Carlo de Benedetti of Olivetti bought into the bank and became deputy chairman, only to leave two months later after receiving Mafia threats and lack of co-operation from Calvi. His replacement, a longtime employee named Roberto Rosone, was wounded in a Mafia shooting incident. The criminal organization responsible for this shooting was the Banda della Magliana (Magliana Gang) which had taken over Rome's underworld in the late 1970s, and has been related to various political events of the anni di piombo (years of lead).

In 1982, it was discovered that the bank was unable to account for $1.287 billion (equivalent to $3.26 billion in present-day terms). Calvi fled the country on a false passport, and Rosone arranged for the Bank of Italy to take over. Calvi's personal secretary, Graziella Corrocher, left a note denouncing Calvi before leaping to her death from her office window. Calvi's body was found hanging from Blackfriars Bridge in London on June 18 (see death of Roberto Calvi).

During July 1982, funds to the off-shore interests were cut off, leading to their collapse, and in August the bank was replaced by the Nuovo Banco Ambrosiano under Giovanni Bazoli. Pope John Paul II pledged full transparency regarding the bank's links to the Vatican and brought in lay bankers including German financial expert Hermann Abs, a move that was publicly criticized by Simon Wiesenthal, due to Abs' role as top banker to the Third Reich from 1938 to 1945.[2][3] There was much argument over who should take responsibility for losses incurred by the Old Ambrosiano's off-shore companies, and the Vatican eventually agreed to pay out a substantial sum without accepting liability.

In April 1992, Carlo De Benedetti, former deputy chairman of Banco Ambrosiano, and 32 other people were convicted of fraud by a Milan court in connection with the bank's collapse.[4] Benedetti was sentenced to six years and four months in prison,[4] but the sentence was overturned in April 1998 by the Court of Cassation.[5]

In 1994, former Socialist Prime Minister Bettino Craxi was indicted in the Banco Ambrosiano case, along with Licio Gelli, head of Propaganda Due, and former Justice minister Claudio Martelli.[6] In April 1998, the Court of Cassation confirmed a 12-year sentence for Licio Gelli for the Ambrosiano crash.[7]

Clearstream scandal

Just before the media revealed the Ambrosiano scandal, Gérard Soisson, manager of transaction clearing company Clearstream, was found dead in Corsica, two months after Ernest Backes's dismissal from Clearstream in May 1983. Banco Ambrosiano was one of the many banks to have un-published accounts in Clearstream. Backes, formerly the third highest-ranking officer of Clearstream and a primary source for Denis Robert's book on Clearstream's scandal, Revelation$, claims he "was fired because (he) knew too much about the Ambrosiano scandal. When Soisson died, the Ambrosiano affair wasn't yet known as a scandal. (After it was revealed) I realized that Soisson and I had been at the crossroads. We moved all those transactions known later in the scandal to Lima and other branches. Nobody even knew there was a Banco Ambrosiano branch in Lima and other South American countries."[8] As of 2005, while the Italian justice has opened up again the investigation concerning the murder of Roberto Calvi, Ambrosiano's chairman, it has asked the support of Ernest Backes, and will investigate Gerard Soisson's death, according to Lucy Komisar. Licio Gelli, headmaster of P2 masonic lodge, and mafioso Giuseppe "Pippo" Calò, are being prosecuted for the assassination of Roberto Calvi.

Falklands war involvement

France denied deliveries of Exocet AM39 missiles purchased by Peru to avoid the possibility of Peru giving them to Argentina, because they knew that payment would be made with a credit card from the Central Bank of Peru, but British intelligence had detected that the guarantee was a deposit of two hundred million dollars from the Banco Ambrosiano Andino, an owned subsidiary of the Banco Ambrosiano.[9][10]

Roberto Calvi's 1982 murder

David Yallop believes that Calvi, with the assistance of P2, may have been responsible for the death of Albino Luciani who, as Pope John Paul I, was planning a reform of Vatican finances. This is one of many conspiracy theories about Luciani, who died of a heart attack. However, Calvi's family maintains that he was an honest man manipulated by others. Their perspective informs Robert Hutchison's 1997 book Their Kingdom Come: Inside the Secret World of Opus Dei. According to the magistrates who indicted Licio Gelli, P2's headmaster, and Giuseppe Calò for Calvi's murder, Gelli would have ordered his death to punish him for embezzlement of his and the mafia's money, while the mafia wanted to stop him from revealing the way Calvi helped it in money laundering.

See also References
  1. Susana Viau and Eduardo Tagliaferro, Carlos Bartffeld, Mason y Amigo de Massera, Fue Embajador en Yugoslavia Cuando Se Vendieron Armas a Croacia - En el mismo barco, Pagina 12, December 14, 1998 (in Spanish)
  2. JTA. [1] "Expert Appointed by Vatican to Probe Bank Scandal Said to Be an Ex-Nazi"
  3. https://www.nytimes.com/1982/11/27/business/pope-vows-to-assist-bank-study.html
  4. (in English) "Court Convicts Financier, 23 Others in Billion-Dollar Failure of Italian Bank," Rocky Mountain News, April 17, 1992
  5. "High court overturns conviction of Olivetti chairman in bank collapse," Associated Press, April 22, 1998 (in English)
  6. "Former Italian premier indicted in bank scandal", The Tampa Tribune, May 13, 1994 (in English)
  7. "Top Italian fugitive Licio Gelli arrested in France," Associated Press, September 10, 1998 (in English)
  8. "hound-dogs.com". hound-dogs.com. Archived from the original on July 9, 2007.
  9. "The Official History of the Falklands Campaign: War and diplomacy". google.com.
  10. "Página/12 :: El país :: A las Malvinas en subte". pagina12.com.ar.
Bibliography
  • Rupert Cornwell, God's Banker: The Life and Death of Roberto Calvi, Victor Gollancz Ltd, 1984.
  • Malachi Martin - Rich Church, Poor Church (Putnam, New York, 1984) ISBN 0-399-12906-5
  • David Yallop, In God's Name: An Investigation into the Murder of Pope John Paul I, Corgi, 1987
  • Philip Willan, The Last Supper: the Mafia, the Masons and the Killing of Roberto Calvi, Constable & Robinson, 2007(ISBN 978-1-84529-296-6)
  • Sandom, J.G., Gospel Truths, Bantam/Random House, 1992 & 2009 (ISBN 0553589970)
External links
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1896 in Italy

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1896 in Italy

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Cassa di Risparmio di Verona, Vicenza, Belluno e Ancona

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Cassa di Risparmio di Verona, Vicenza, Belluno e Ancona

Cassa di Risparmio di Verona, Vicenza, Belluno e Ancona known as Cariverona in short, was an Italian savings bank headquartered in Verona. In 1991, due to Legge Amato, the bank was split into two organizations,[4] Cassa di Risparmio di Verona, Vicenza, Belluno e Ancona S.p.A. (trading as Cariverona Banca) and Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Verona, Vicenza, Belluno e Ancona. They joined Unicredito banking group as founding subsidiary and shareholder respectively. The banking foundation was a minority shareholder of the successor of the banking group UniCredit. PredecessorMonte di Pietà di Verona Photo of Piazza Monte, Verona by Moritz Lotze, 1886[5] Monte di Pietà di Verona is a mount of piety (Italian: monte di pietà) founded in 1490,[6] by the Franciscan Michele da Acqui[7][8] in the Republic of Venice, 28 years after the first recorded mount of Italy was founded in Perugia, by other Franciscans, Bernardine of Feltre and Michele Carcano, in the Papal States.[9] The mount was later known as Monte di ...more...



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Outline of Vatican City

The Flag of Vatican City The Coat of arms of Vatican City The location of Vatican City within Europe An enlargeable map of Vatican City State, including extraterritorial properties of the Holy See bordering Vatican City The following outline is provided as an overview of and introduction to Vatican City: Vatican City – an ecclesiastical or sacerdotal-monarchical state, being the sovereign territory of the Holy See and ruled by the Bishop of Rome—the Pope, the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. The territory of this landlocked sovereign city-state consists of a walled enclave within the city of Rome, Italy. It has an area of approximately 44 hectares (110 acres), and a population of just over 800. This makes Vatican City the smallest independent state in the world by both area and population. General reference View of Vatican City from the Castel Sant'Angelo in Rome Pronunciation:  ( listen) Common English country name: Vatican City Official English country name: Vatic ...more...



1982

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1982

Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1982. 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1982nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 982nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 82nd year of the 20th century, and the 3rd year of the 1980s decade. EventsJanuary January 1 – New ITV franchises, Central, TVS and TSW, are launched. January 7 – The Commodore 64 8-bit home computer is launched by Commodore International in Las Vegas[1] (released in August); it becomes the all-time best-selling single personal computer model.[2] January 8 – AT&T Corporation agrees to break up and divest itself of 22 subdivisions.[3] January 11 – Mark Thatcher, son of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, disappears in the Sahara during the Dakar Rally; he is rescued January 14. January 11 – January 17 – A brutal cold snap sends temperatures to all-time record lows in dozens of cities throughout the Midwestern United States. January 13 – Shortly ...more...



Arnaldo Forlani

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Arnaldo Forlani

This article is about the Italian legislator. For the similar name used as an alias by terrorist Ramzi Yousef for Philippine Airlines Flight 434, see Ramzi Yousef. Arnaldo Forlani, OMI OESSH (Italian pronunciation: ; born 8 December 1925) is an Italian politician who served as the 43rd Prime Minister of Italy from 18 October 1980 to 28 June 1981. He also held the office of Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Defence. Forlani, a member of the right-wing of the Christian Democracy, was one of the most prominent Italian politicians from the 1970s to early 1990s. At age 92, Forlani is currently the oldest living former Italian Prime Minister. Early life and career Arnaldo Forlani was born in Pesaro, Marche, from a middle-class family. In 1948, after the degree in law at the University of Urbino, Forlani began his political career, holding the position of provincial secretary of Christian Democracy for Pesaro; he was later elected in the municipal and provincial councils. In 1954 ...more...



1982 in the United Kingdom

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1982 in the United Kingdom

Events from the year 1982 in the United Kingdom. The year was dominated by the Falklands War. Incumbents Monarch – Elizabeth II Prime Minister – Margaret Thatcher (Conservative) Parliament – 48th EventsJanuary 1 January – ITV launches three regional TV stations – Central, TV South and TV South West, replacing ATV Midlands, Southern Television and Westward Television respectively. 2 January – The Welsh Army of Workers claims responsibility for a bomb explosion at the Birmingham headquarters of Severn Trent Water.[1] British Rail retire the Class 55 Deltic Diesel/Electric locomotives from service. 10 January – The lowest ever UK temperature of -27.2 °C is recorded at Braemar, in Aberdeenshire. This equals the record set in the same place in 1895, and the record will be equalled again at Altnaharra in 1995.[2] 11 January – Mark Thatcher, son of the Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, disappears in the Sahara during Paris-Dakar rally.[3] 14 January – Mark Thatcher is found safe and well in t ...more...



Cassa di Risparmio della Provincia di Viterbo

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Cassa di Risparmio della Provincia di Viterbo

Cassa di Risparmio della Provincia di Viterbo (Carivit) was an Italian bank and charity organization. The bank sector was acquired by Cariplo in 1990s. In 2015 Intesa Sanpaolo completely absorbed the bank. History Cassa di Risparmio di Viterbo was found in 1855 in Viterbo in the Papal States. The bank acquired the saving banks in Acquapendente, Bagnoregio and Carbognano in 1927 and Casse di Risparmio Riunite di Ronciglione, Sutri, Capranica e Caprarola in 1937, due to a reform to force small saving banks to merge with a larger one. In the same year the bank was renamed into Cassa di Risparmio della Provincia di Viterbo.[2] Due to Legge Amato, the bank was split into a limited company (S.p.A.) and a charity organization (Ente Cassa di Risparmio della Provincia di Viterbo).[3][4] In 1990s Cassa di Risparmio delle Provincie Lombarde (Cariplo) bought 41.1% shares of the S.p.A.[5] In 1997 it was increased to 64.32%[6] and 70.92% in 1998.[7] In the same year Cariplo was merged with Banco Ambrosiano Veneto to form ...more...



1982 in organized crime

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1982 in organized crime

Events Salvatore Ruggiero, a heroin trafficker and brother of Gambino crime family capo Angelo Ruggiero, is killed in a plane crash. Salvatore Lamberti, a Sicilian mafiosi, emigrates to the United States from Sicily. January 28 - The Federal Bureau of Investigation is granted concurrent jurisdiction by the office of the Attorney General in matters involving the Controlled Substances Act. February 26 - Chicago mobster Frank Renella is sentenced to seven years' imprisonment for violation of the Hobbs Act regarding extortion and jumping bail. Renella had previously been accused of involvement in the murder of local businessman Nick Velentzas, who had been threatened by Renella and his associates on numerous occasions regarding loansharking and protection payoffs. March 5 - Gambino crime family associates killed con artists Nicolina and Michael Lizak in retaliation for killing soldier Robert Russo. March 23 - Future pentito, Salvatore Contorno, is arrested in Rome where he had gone to prepare the killing o ...more...



Vincenzo Casillo

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Vincenzo Casillo

Vincenzo Casillo (? - January 29, 1983) was an Italian Camorrista and the second in command of the Nuova Camorra Organizzata, a Camorra organization in Naples. His nickname was "'o Nirone" (The Big Black). Second in Command He was one of the earliest members of the Nuova Camorra Organizzata, since its formation in 1970. Casillo was highly trusted and soon rose to become the deputy and main military chief of crime boss, Raffaele Cutolo, during the period when he was imprisoned in the prisons of Poggioreale and Ascoli Piceno. As the Nuova Camorra Organizzata's second in command, he participated in a high-level meeting with representatives of the Sicilian Mafia and Camorra clans to try to put an end to the bloody war between the Nuova Camorra Organizzata and their rivals from the Nuova Famiglia, together with Cutolo’s sister, Rosetta. Purported involvement in the Roberto Calvi murder In June 1996, the Sicilian Mafia pentito, Francesco Di Carlo claimed that Vincenzo Casillo together with another Camorrista, Ser ...more...



Beniamino Andreatta

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Beniamino Andreatta

Beniamino "Nino" Andreatta (11 August 1928 – 26 March 2007) was an Italian economist and politician. He was a member of the center right Christian Democrat and one of the founders of the center right Italian People's Party in 1994 and of the Ulivo (The Olive Tree (Italy)) coalition in 1996. Early life and career At the Liceo Classico Giovanni Prati di Trento was a school friend of Giorgio Grigolli, later President of the Autonomous Province of Trento. After graduating in law from University of Padua in 1950, receiving the award for "best graduate of the year", he later completed his studies in economics at the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore of Milan, and as a visiting scholar at Cambridge. In 1961, after his marriage to his wife Giana, he went to India on behalf of MIT, as a consultant to the Planning Commission of the government of Jawaharlal Nehru . The following year he became a full professor. During his academic career he taught at the Catholic University of Milan as a volunteer assistant, and ...more...



Manlio Vitale

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Manlio Vitale

Manlio Vitale (born 22 May 1949 in Rome) is an Italian criminal and high ranking member of the Banda della Magliana, an Italian criminal organization based in the city of Rome. He is known as "Er Gnappa", which is Romanesco for "short person". Biography Vitale began his criminal career in the early 70s under boss Tiberio Cason, specializing in armed robbery, house burglary and kidnapping. He later branched out to cocaine trafficking and became affiliated with the Banda della Magliana, in particular with the boss Gianfranco Urbani. Together with Urbani he was arrested on 18 October 1975 during a meeting at a restaurant together with the top bosses of the 'Ndrangheta at the time: Paolo De Stefano, Giuseppe Piromalli and Pasquale Condello.[1] After being released he participated in the kidnapping of duke Massimiliano Grazioli Lante della Rovere, who was taken away on November 7, 1977, for a ransom. When the Banda della Magliana divided each neighborhood in Rome, Vitale was given control of the Ostiense-Garbatel ...more...



FriulAdria

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FriulAdria

Crédit Agricole FriulAdria S.p.A. formerly known as Banca Popolare FriulAdria S.p.A., or known as FriulAdria in short (abb. of Friuli and Adriatic Sea), is an Italian bank, which is part of Crédit Agricole Italia, the Italian arm of French banking group Crédit Agricole. Since circa 2016 one website was used for the whole Italian banking group. History FriulAdria was found as Banca Cooperativa Popolare di Pordenone in 1911, as an urban co-operative bank. In the 1990s, the bank merged with Banca Cooperativa Operaia di Pordenone, Banca Popolare di Tarcento and Banca Popolare di Latisana,[3] the latter were located in the nearby Province of Udine. A report by Mediobanca, shown BP Pordenone was ranked 134th by total deposits (excluding inter-bank deposits) in 1988, among all type of commercial banks,[4]:452 while BP Latisana was ranked 313th[4]:470 and BP Tarcento, 374th.[4]:476 Their counterpart in Udine, Banca Popolare Udinese, was ranked 171st,[4]:456 which was acquired by Banca Popolare di Vicenza in 1998. ...more...



March 1981

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March 1981

1981 January February March April May June July August September October November December March 30, 1981: U.S. President Reagan shot and wounded by John Hinckley, Jr. Hinckley Secretary Haig "in control" The following events occurred in March 1981: March 1, 1981 (Sunday) Bobby Sands, a Provisional Irish Republican Army member incarcerated at the Maze prison, began a hunger strike seeking a change in the treatment of the other IRA member inmates.[1] Sands would die 65 days later, on May 5, and was followed in death by nine other prisoners.[2] Robert Goizueta became CEO of Coca-Cola. During his tenure, the Cuban-born businessman tripled the company's sales, and introduced both the successful "Diet Coke" and the disastrous "New Coke" [3] Born: Adam LaVorgna, American TV actor (7th Heaven), in New Haven, CT March 2, 1981 (Monday) The asteroids 4923 Clarke and 5020 Asimov were discovered on the same night by astronomer Schelte J. Bus, and named by him in honor of authors Arthur C. ...more...





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