Quizzes Lists Topics

Banco Ambrosiano

Banco Ambrosiano was an Italian bank that collapsed in 1982. At the centre of the bank's failure was its chairman, Roberto Calvi and his membership in the illegal Masonic Lodge Propaganda Due (aka P2). Vatican Bank was Banco Ambrosiano's main shareholder, and the death of Pope John Paul I in 1978 is rumored to be linked to the Ambrosiano scandal. Vatican Bank was also accused of funneling covert United States funds to Solidarity and the Contras through Banco Ambrosiano.

Members
Before 1981

The Banco Ambrosiano was founded in Milan in 1896 by Giuseppe Tovini, a Catholic advocate in Valle Camonica, and was named after Saint Ambrose, the fourth century archbishop of the city. Tovini's purpose was to create a Catholic bank as a counterbalance to Italy's "lay" banks, and its goals were "serving moral organisations, pious works, and religious bodies set up for charitable aims." The bank came to be known as the "priests' bank"; one chairman was Franco Ratti, nephew to Pope Pius XI. In the 1960s, the bank began to expand its business, opening a holding company in Luxembourg in 1963 which came to be known as Banco Ambrosiano Holding. This was under the direction of Carlo Canesi, then a senior manager, and from 1965 chairman.

In 1967, Canesi brought Roberto Calvi into Ambrosiano. In 1971, Calvi became general manager, and in 1975 he was appointed chairman. Calvi expanded Ambrosiano's interests further; these included creating a number of off-shore companies in the Bahamas and South America; a controlling interest in the Banca Cattolica del Veneto; and funds for the publishing house Rizzoli to finance the Corriere della Sera newspaper (giving Calvi control behind the scenes for the benefit of his associates in the P2 masonic lodge). Calvi also involved the Vatican Bank, Istituto per le Opere di Religione, in his dealings, and was close to Bishop Paul Marcinkus, the bank's chairman. Ambrosiano also provided funds for political parties in Italy, and for both the Somoza dictatorship in Nicaragua and its Sandinista opposition. There are also rumours that it provided money for Solidarity in Poland (it has been widely alleged that the Vatican Bank funded Solidarity).

Calvi used his complex network of overseas banks and companies to move money out of Italy, to inflate share prices, and to secure massive unsecured loans. In 1978, the Bank of Italy produced a report on Ambrosiano that predicted future disaster and led to criminal investigations. However, soon afterward the investigating Milanese magistrate, Alessandrini, was killed by a left-wing terrorist group, while the Bank of Italy official who superintended the inspection, Mario Sarcinelli, found himself imprisoned on charges that were later dismissed.

After 1981

In 1981, police raided the office of Propaganda Due Masonic lodge to apprehend the Worshipful Master Licio Gelli and uncover further evidence against Roberto Calvi. Calvi was arrested, put on trial, and sentenced to four years in prison. However, he was released pending an appeal and retained his position at the bank. Other alarming developments followed: Carlo de Benedetti of Olivetti bought into the bank and became deputy chairman, only to leave two months later after receiving Mafia threats and lack of co-operation from Calvi. His replacement, a longtime employee named Roberto Rosone, was wounded in a Mafia shooting incident. The criminal organization responsible for this shooting was the Banda della Magliana (Magliana Gang) which had taken over Rome's underworld in the late 1970s, and has been related to various political events of the anni di piombo (years of lead).

In 1982, it was discovered that the bank was unable to account for $1.287 billion (equivalent to $3.19 billion in present-day terms). Calvi fled the country on a false passport, and Rosone arranged for the Bank of Italy to take over. Calvi's personal secretary, Graziella Corrocher, left a note denouncing Calvi before leaping to her death from her office window. Calvi's body was found hanging from Blackfriars Bridge in London on June 18 (see death of Roberto Calvi).

During July 1982, funds to the off-shore interests were cut off, leading to their collapse, and in August the bank was replaced by the Nuovo Banco Ambrosiano under Giovanni Bazoli. There was much argument over who should take responsibility for losses incurred by the Old Ambrosiano's off-shore companies, and the Vatican eventually agreed to pay out a substantial sum without accepting liability.

In April 1992, Carlo De Benedetti, former deputy chairman of Banco Ambrosiano, and 32 other people were convicted of fraud by a Milan court in connection with the bank's collapse.[2] Benedetti was sentenced to six years and four months in prison,[2] but the sentence was overturned in April 1998 by the Court of Cassation.[3]

In 1994, former Socialist Prime Minister Bettino Craxi was indicted in the Banco Ambrosiano case, along with Licio Gelli, head of Propaganda Due, and former Justice minister Claudio Martelli.[4] In April 1998, the Court of Cassation confirmed a 12-year sentence for Licio Gelli for the Ambrosiano crash.[5]

Clearstream scandal

Just before the media revealed the Ambrosiano scandal, Gérard Soisson, manager of transaction clearing company Clearstream, was found dead in Corsica, two months after Ernest Backes's dismissal from Clearstream in May 1983. Banco Ambrosiano was one of the many banks to have un-published accounts in Clearstream. Backes, formerly the third highest-ranking officer of Clearstream and a primary source for Denis Robert's book on Clearstream's scandal, Revelation$, claims he "was fired because (he) knew too much about the Ambrosiano scandal. When Soisson died, the Ambrosiano affair wasn't yet known as a scandal. (After it was revealed) I realized that Soisson and I had been at the crossroads. We moved all those transactions known later in the scandal to Lima and other branches. Nobody even knew there was a Banco Ambrosiano branch in Lima and other South American countries."[6] As of 2005, while the Italian justice has opened up again the investigation concerning the murder of Roberto Calvi, Ambrosiano's chairman, it has asked the support of Ernest Backes, and will investigate Gerard Soisson's death, according to Lucy Komisar. Licio Gelli, headmaster of P2 masonic lodge, and mafioso Giuseppe "Pippo" Calò, are being prosecuted for the assassination of Roberto Calvi.

Falklands war involvement

France denied deliveries of Exocet AM39 missiles purchased by Peru to avoid the possibility of Peru giving them to Argentina, because they knew that payment would be made with a credit card from the Central Bank of Peru, but British intelligence had detected that the guarantee was a deposit of two hundred million dollars from the Banco Ambrosiano Andino, an owned subsidiary of the Banco Ambrosiano.[7] [8]

Roberto Calvi's 1982 murder

David Yallop believes that Calvi, with the assistance of P2, may have been responsible for the death of Albino Luciani who, as Pope John Paul I, was planning a reform of Vatican finances. This is one of many conspiracy theories about Luciani, who died of a heart attack. However, Calvi's family maintains that he was an honest man manipulated by others. Their perspective informs Robert Hutchison's 1997 book Their Kingdom Come: Inside the Secret World of Opus Dei. According to the magistrates who indicted Licio Gelli, P2's headmaster, and Giuseppe Calò for Calvi's murder, Gelli would have ordered his death to punish him for embezzlement of his and the mafia's money, while the mafia wanted to stop him from revealing the way Calvi helped it in money laundering.

See also
References
  1. Susana Viau and Eduardo Tagliaferro, Carlos Bartffeld, Mason y Amigo de Massera, Fue Embajador en Yugoslavia Cuando Se Vendieron Armas a Croacia - En el mismo barco, Pagina 12, December 14, 1998 (Spanish)
  2. (English) "Court Convicts Financier, 23 Others in Billion-Dollar Failure of Italian Bank," Rocky Mountain News, April 17, 1992
  3. "High court overturns conviction of Olivetti chairman in bank collapse," Associated Press, April 22, 1998 (English)
  4. "Former Italian premier indicted in bank scandal", The Tampa Tribune, May 13, 1994 (English)
  5. "Top Italian fugitive Licio Gelli arrested in France," Associated Press, September 10, 1998 (English)
  6. "hound-dogs.com". hound-dogs.com. Archived from the original on July 9, 2007.
  7. "The Official History of the Falklands Campaign: War and diplomacy". google.com.
  8. "Página/12 :: El país :: A las Malvinas en subte". pagina12.com.ar.
Bibliography
  • Rupert Cornwell, God's Banker: The Life and Death of Roberto Calvi, Victor Gollancz Ltd, 1984.
  • Malachi Martin - Rich Church, Poor Church (Putnam, New York, 1984) ISBN 0-399-12906-5
  • David Yallop, In God's Name: An Investigation into the Murder of Pope John Paul I, Corgi, 1987
  • Philip Willan, The Last Supper: the Mafia, the Masons and the Killing of Roberto Calvi, Constable & Robinson, 2007(ISBN 978-1-84529-296-6)
  • Sandom, J.G., Gospel Truths, Bantam/Random House, 1992 & 2009 (ISBN 0553589970)
External links
Continue Reading...
Content from Wikipedia Licensed under CC-BY-SA.

Vincenzo Casillo

topic

Vincenzo Casillo (? - January 29, 1983) was an Italian Camorrista and the second in command of the Nuova Camorra Organizzata , a Camorra organization in Naples . His nickname was "'o Nirone" (The Big Black). Second in Command He was one of the earliest members of the Nuova Camorra Organizzata, since its formation in 1970. Casillo was highly trusted and soon rose to become the deputy and main military chief of crime boss, Raffaele Cutolo , during the period when he was imprisoned in the prisons of Poggioreale and Ascoli Piceno . As the Nuova Camorra Organizzata's second in command, he participated in a high-level meeting with representatives of the Sicilian Mafia and Camorra clans to try to put an end to the bloody war between the Nuova Camorra Organizzata and their rivals from the Nuova Famiglia , together with Cutolo’s sister, Rosetta . Purported involvement in the Roberto Calvi murder In June 1996, the Sicilian Mafia pentito , Francesco Di Carlo claimed that Vincenzo Casillo together with another Camorrist



Beniamino Andreatta

topic

Beniamino "Nino" Andreatta (11 August 1928 – 26 March 2007) was an Italian economist and politician . He was a member of the center right Christian Democrat and one of the founders of the center right Italian People's Party in 1994 and of the Ulivo ( The Olive Tree (Italy) ) coalition in 1996. Early life and career At the Liceo Classico Giovanni Prati di Trento was a school friend of Giorgio Grigolli , then President of the Autonomous Province of Trento. After graduating in law from University of Padua in 1950, receiving the award for "best graduate of the year", he later completed his studies in economics at the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore of Milan, and as a visiting scholar at Cambridge . In 1961, after his marriage to his wife Giana, he went to India on behalf of MIT , as a consultant to the Planning Commission of the government of Jawaharlal Nehru . The following year he became a full professor. During his academic career he taught at the Catholic University of Milan as a volunteer assistant, and



1896 in Italy

topic

See also: 1895 in Italy , other events of 1896 , 1897 in Italy . Events from the year 1896 in Italy . Kingdom of Italy Monarch – Umberto I (1878–1900) Prime Minister - Francesco Crispi (1893–1896) Antonio di Rudinì (1896–1898) Events Menelik II at the battle of Adwa In 1896, the Banco Ambrosiano was founded in Milan by Giuseppe Tovini, a Catholic advocate, and was named after Saint Ambrose , the 4th century archbishop of the city. Tovini's purpose was to create a Catholic bank as a counterbalance to Italy's "lay" banks, and its goals were "serving moral organisations, pious works, and religious bodies set up for charitable aims." The bank came to be known as the "priests' bank." February February 1 – The world première performance of La bohème by Giacomo Puccini took place in Turin at the Teatro Regio and was conducted by the young Arturo Toscanini . March March – The first Italian cinema screening by the Lumière brothers occurred in Turin . March 1 – The Battle of Adwa between Ethiopia and Italy near the tow



The Godfather Part III

topic

The Godfather Part III is a 1990 American crime film written by Mario Puzo and Francis Ford Coppola , and directed by Coppola. A sequel to The Godfather (1972) and The Godfather Part II (1974), it completes the story of Michael Corleone , a Mafia kingpin who attempts to legitimize his criminal empire. The film also includes fictionalized accounts of two real-life events: the 1978 death of Pope John Paul I and the Papal banking scandal of 1981–82, both linked to Michael Corleone's business affairs. The film stars Al Pacino , Diane Keaton , Talia Shire , and Andy García , and features Eli Wallach , Joe Mantegna , George Hamilton , Bridget Fonda , and Sofia Coppola . Coppola and Puzo preferred the title, The Death of Michael Corleone, but Paramount Pictures found that unacceptable. Coppola subsequently stated that The Godfather series is two films and that Part III is the epilogue . Part III received mixed reviews compared to the critical acclaim that the first two films received. It grossed $136,766,062 and was



RCS MediaGroup

topic

RCS MediaGroup S.p.A. , (formerly Rizzoli-Corriere della Sera) based in Milan and listed on the Italian Stock Exchange , is an international multimedia publishing group that operates in daily newspapers, magazines and books, radio broadcasting, new media and digital and satellite TV. It is also one of the leading operators in the advertisement sales & distribution markets. History Founded in 1927 by entrepreneur Angelo Rizzoli as A. Rizzoli & Co., it started in the press industry by buying out four national magazines, and later entering the publishing industry. Restructured and taken over a number of times, particularly in the 1980s when two of its executives became involved in the collapse of Banco Ambrosiano and the illegal Masonic Lodge Propaganda Due – or P2 . Following the 1982 death of Roberto Calvi , the group applied for bankruptcy protection and greatly downsized. Operations RCS MediaGroup's sectors include newspapers , magazines and books , radio broadcasting , the internet and digital and



Disappearance of Emanuela Orlandi

topic

Emanuela Orlandi (born 14 January 1968) was a citizen of Vatican City who mysteriously disappeared on 22 June 1983. Sightings of Emanuela in various places have been reported over the years, even inside Vatican City, but all have been unreliable. The Orlandi case is still unsolved. Disappearance Orlandi was in her second year at a liceo scientifico (a scientific high school) in Rome. Although the school year had concluded, she continued to take flute lessons three times per week at the Tommaso Ludovico Da Victoria School , connected with the Pontificium Institutum Musicæ Sacræ (The Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music ). She was also part of the choir of Saint Anne's Church . Orlandi, the daughter of a Vatican bank employee who lived with her family inside Vatican City, was the fourth of Ercole and Maria Orlandi's five children. Emanuela usually travelled by bus to the music school. She would get off the bus after a few stops and then walk six or seven hundred feet (180 to 210 meters). On 22 June 1983, Emanue



1982 in organized crime

topic

Events Salvatore Ruggiero , a heroin trafficker and brother of Gambino crime family capo Angelo Ruggiero , is killed in a plane crash. Salvatore Lamberti, a Sicilian mafiosi, emigrates to the United States from Sicily. January 28 - The Federal Bureau of Investigation is granted concurrent jurisdiction by the office of the Attorney General in matters involving the Controlled Substances Act . February 26 - Chicago mobster Frank Renella is sentenced to seven years' imprisonment for violation of the Hobbs Act regarding extortion and jumping bail. Renella had previously been accused of involvement in the murder of local businessman Nick Velentzas, who had been threatened by Renella and his associates on numerous occasions regarding loansharking and protection payoffs. March 5 - Gambino crime family associates killed con artists Nicolina and Michael Lizak in retaliation for killing soldier Robert Russo. March 23 - Future pentito , Salvatore Contorno , is arrested in Rome where he had gone to prepare the killing of



List of West European Jews

topic

Apart from France , established Jewish populations exist in the Netherlands , Belgium , Italy and Switzerland . With the original medieval populations wiped out by the Black Death and the pogroms that followed it, the current Dutch and Belgian communities originate in the Jewish expulsion from Spain and Portugal , while a Swiss community was only established after emancipation in 1874. However, the vast majority of the population in the Netherlands and a large proportion of the one in Belgium were killed in the Holocaust , and much of the modern Jewish population of these countries (as well as of Switzerland) derives from post-Holocaust arrivals from other parts of Europe . Here is a list of some prominent Sephardi Jews in western Europe, arranged by country of origin. Austria Belgium Chantal Akerman (born 1950), director-screenwriter Saul Akkemay , publicist-journalist Zora Arkus-Duntov , father of the Chevrolet Corvette (Belgian-born) Gérard Blitz , Olympic water polo medallist, co-founder of Club Med Franç



Outline of Vatican City

topic

The Flag of Vatican City The Coat of arms of Vatican City The location of Vatican City within Europe An enlargeable map of Vatican City State , including extraterritorial properties of the Holy See bordering Vatican City The following outline is provided as an overview of and introduction to Vatican City: Vatican City – an ecclesiastical or sacerdotal - monarchical state, being the sovereign territory of the Holy See and ruled by the Bishop of Rome —the Pope, the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. The territory of this landlocked sovereign city-state consists of a walled enclave within the city of Rome , Italy . It has an area of approximately 44 hectares (110 acres), and a population of just over 800. This makes Vatican City the smallest independent state in the world by both area and population. General reference View of Vatican City from the Castel Sant'Angelo in Rome Pronunciation: Common English country name: Vatican City Official English country name: Vatican City State Common endonym (s): Vatic



Exocet

topic

The Exocet ( French for " flying fish " ) is a French -built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. Etymology The missile's name was given by M. Guillot, then the technical director at Nord Aviation . It is the French word for flying fish from the Latin name exocoetus, a transliteration of the Greek name for flying fish ἐξώκοιτος (exōkoitos), which literally means "lying down outside (ἒξω, κεῖμαι), sleeping outside", because it sometimes stranded itself in boats. Exocet missile launch Description The Exocet is built by MBDA , a European missile company. Development began in 1967 by Nord as a ship-launched weapon named the MM 38. A few years later Aerospatiale and Nord merged. The basic body design was based on the Nord AS30 air-to-ground tactical missile. The air-launched Exocet was developed in 1974 and entered service with the French Navy five years later. The relatively compact missile is designed for attacking small-



Arnaldo Forlani

topic

Arnaldo Forlani , OMI OESSH ( Italian pronunciation:  ; born 8 December 1925) is an Italian politician who served as the 43rd Prime Minister of Italy from 18 October 1980 to 28 June 1981. He also held the office of Deputy Prime Minister , Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Defence . Forlani, a member of the right-wing of the Christian Democracy , was one of the most prominent Italian politician from 1970s to early 1990s . At age 91, Forlani is currently the oldest living former Italian Prime Minister. Early life and career Arnaldo Forlani was born in Pesaro , Marche , from a middle-class family. In 1948, after the degree in law at the University of Urbino , Forlani began his political career, holding the position of provincial secretary of Christian Democracy for Pesaro; he was later elected in the municipal and provincial councils. In 1954 he became a member of the central committee of Christian Democracy. In the 1958 general election Forlani was elected in the Chamber of Deputies for the first ti



Pope John Paul II

topic

Pope Saint John Paul II ( Latin : Ioannes Paulus II ; Italian : Giovanni Paolo II ; Polish : Jan Paweł II ; born Karol Józef Wojtyła ; Polish:  ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) was Pope from 1978 to 2005. He is called by some Catholics Saint John Paul the Great . He was elected by the second Papal conclave of 1978 , which was called after Pope John Paul I , who had been elected in August after the death of Pope Paul VI , died after thirty-three days. Cardinal Wojtyła was elected on the third day of the conclave and adopted his predecessor's name in tribute to him. John Paul II is recognised as helping to end Communist rule in his native Poland and eventually all of Europe. John Paul II significantly improved the Catholic Church's relations with Judaism , Islam , the Eastern Orthodox Church , and the Anglican Communion . He upheld the Church's teachings on such matters as artificial contraception and the ordination of women , but also supported the Church's Second Vatican Council and its reforms. He was one o

User Writeups about Pope John Paul II:

Folder: People

Holly Thomas (HollyHoffmanThomas)

JPII--I LOVE YOU!


Crédit Agricole

topic

Crédit Agricole ( French:  ), sometimes called the “Green Bank” because of its historical ties to farming , is a French network of cooperative and mutual banks comprising the 39 Crédit Agricole Regional Banks. In 1990, it became an international full-service banking group. It is listed through its holding company , Crédit Agricole S.A., on Euronext Paris ’ first market and is part of the CAC 40 stock market index. In 2013, the Crédit Agricole Group reported revenues of €26.4 billion. It was the title sponsor of the Crédit Agricole professional road cycling team from 1998 to 2008. History Source for most of the "History" section. In the second half of the 19th Century, French farmers struggled to obtain long-term, flexible, reasonably-priced credit. There were several attempts to set up farming banks, including Crédit Foncier de France in 1861, but none was successful. Birth of Crédit Agricole and creation of the local and regional banks 1894 - 1900 Jules Méline spearheaded the creation of the first Local Ba



Salad Oil Scandal

topic

The Salad Oil Scandal , also referred to as the "Soybean Scandal", was a major corporate scandal in 1963 that ultimately caused over $150 million – approximately $1.1 billion in 2008 dollars – in losses to corporations including American Express , Bank of America and Bank Leumi , as well as many international trading companies. The scandal's ability to push otherwise cautious and conservative lenders into increasingly risky practices has prompted some comparisons to recent financial crises including the 2007–2008 subprime mortgage financial crisis . Description The scandal involved the company Allied Crude Vegetable Oil in New Jersey, led by Anthony "Tino" De Angelis , a former commodities broker who had been in trouble previously for providing the federal school lunch program with poorly prepared meat. Despite this, he was able to obtain a contract with Food for Peace , a federal program which sold excess food stocks to poor countries. De Angelis discovered that he could obtain loans based upon the company'



The Pope Must Die

topic

The Pope Must Die (U.S. alternate title The Pope Must Diet ) is a 1991 comedy film directed by Peter Richardson and released by Palace Pictures with the backing of Channel 4 Films . The script was written by Richardson with Pete Richens , derived from elements of an earlier screenplay for a three-part mini-series satirising the Catholic Church , which was rejected by Channel 4 . The Pope Must Die stars Robbie Coltrane as a low ranking priest who is mistakenly elected Pope , then has to avoid being assassinated by the Mafia . The film co-stars Adrian Edmondson , Annette Crosbie , Herbert Lom , Alex Rocco and Richardson. The film was originally planned as a part of a three-part mini series for Channel 4 , which was cancelled by the station after press outcry. This led Richardson to sever his long relationship with Channel 4 and move his future productions to the BBC. The budget for the film was later approved by Palace Pictures with the backing of Channel 4 Films. The production was filmed in 1990 in the former



1982 in the United Kingdom

topic

Events from the year 1982 in the United Kingdom . The year was dominated by the Falklands War . Incumbents Monarch – Elizabeth II Prime Minister – Margaret Thatcher ( Conservative ) Events January 1 January – ITV launches three regional TV stations – Central , TV South and TV South West , replacing ATV Midlands, Southern Television and Westward Television respectively. 2 January – The Welsh Army of Workers claims responsibility for a bomb explosion at the Birmingham headquarters of Severn Trent Water . British Rail retire the Class 55 Deltic Diesel/Electric locomotives from service. 10 January – the lowest ever UK temperature of -27.2 °C is recorded at Braemar , in Aberdeenshire . This equals the record set in the same place in 1895, and the record will be equalled again at Altnaharra in 1995. 11 January – Mark Thatcher , son of the Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher , disappears in the Sahara during Paris-Dakar rally . 14 January – Mark Thatcher is found safe and well in the Sahara Desert , six days after goin



Italian Socialist Party

topic

The Italian Socialist Party ( Italian : Partito Socialista Italiano , PSI ) was a socialist and, later, social-democratic political party in Italy . Founded in Genoa in 1892, the PSI dominated the Italian left until after World War II , when it was eclipsed in status by the Italian Communist Party . The Socialists came to special prominence in the 1980s, when their leader Bettino Craxi , who had severed the residual ties with the Soviet Union and re-branded the party as " liberal-socialist ", served as Prime Minister (1983–1987). The PSI was disbanded in 1994 as a result of the Tangentopoli scandals. History Early years The Italian Socialist Party was founded in 1892 as the Partito dei Lavoratori Italiani (Party of Italian Workers), by delegates of several workers' associations and parties, notably including the Italian Labour Party and the Italian Revolutionary Socialist Party . It was part of a wave of new socialist parties at the end of the 19th century and had to endure persecution by the Italian gove



Miniassegno

topic

Miniassegni were a special kind of money, a type of notgeld , that circulated in Italy in the late 1970s in place of small change; which, in that period, was scarce and that, until then, had been replaced by candy, stamps, coin-operated telephone tokens , and in some cities, public transport tickets. History The first miniassegni made their appearance in December 1975 (10 December 1975 as part of the ' Istituto Bancario San Paolo and had the value of 100 Italian lire ) and were subsequently issued by many banks; had the nominal values of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 lire. They were so called because they were cashier's checks (assegni in Italian) but smaller than normal. To overcome the prohibition to issue currency (exclusive prerogative of the Bank of Italy ), banks emitted real bank drafts made payable to cut small entities and companies already equipped their turn; in practice, as well bearer securities , were exchanged from hand to hand as if they were real currency. They circulated 835 different



Barings Bank

topic

Barings Bank was a British merchant bank based in London , and the world's second oldest merchant bank (after Berenberg Bank ). It was founded in 1762 and was owned by the German-originated Baring family of merchants and bankers. The bank collapsed in 1995 after suffering losses of £827 million ($1.3 billion) resulting from poor speculative investments, primarily in futures contracts , conducted by an employee named Nick Leeson working at its office in Singapore . History Sir Francis Baring (left), with brother John Baring and son-in-law Charles Wall, in a painting by Sir Thomas Lawrence 1762–1890 Barings Bank was founded in 1762 as the John and Francis Baring Company by Francis Baring , with his older brother John Baring as a mostly silent partner. They were sons of John (né Johann) Baring , wool trader of Exeter , born in Bremen , Germany . The company began in offices off Cheapside and within a few years moved to larger quarters in Mincing Lane . Barings gradually diversified from wool into many other co



Priory of Sion

topic

The Prieuré de Sion ( French : IPA/API: [pʁijœʁe də sjɔ̃]), translated as Priory of Sion , is the name given to a fringe fraternal organisation , founded and dissolved in France in 1956 by Pierre Plantard as part of a hoax. In the 1960s, Plantard created a fictitious history for that organization, describing it as a secret society founded by Godfrey of Bouillon on Mount Zion in the Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1099, conflating it with a genuine historical monastic order, the Abbey of Our Lady of Mount Zion . In Plantard's version, the Priory was devoted to installing a secret bloodline of the Merovingian dynasty on the thrones of France and the rest of Europe . This myth was expanded upon and popularised by the 1982 pseudohistorical book The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail and later claimed as factual in the preface of the 2003 novel The Da Vinci Code . After becoming a cause célèbre from the late 1960s to the 1980s, the mythical Priory of Sion was exposed as a ludibrium created by Plantard as a framework for his c



March 1981

topic

1981 January February March April May June July August September October November December March 30, 1981: U.S. President Reagan shot and wounded by John Hinckley, Jr. Hinckley Secretary Haig "in control" The following events occurred in March 1981 : March 1, 1981 (Sunday) Bobby Sands , a Provisional Irish Republican Army member incarcerated at the Maze prison , began a hunger strike seeking a change in the treatment of the other IRA member inmates. Sands would die 65 days later, on May 5, and was followed in death by nine other prisoners. Robert Goizueta became CEO of Coca-Cola. During his tenure, the Cuban-born businessman tripled the company's sales, and introduced both the successful "Diet Coke" and the disastrous "New Coke" Born: Adam LaVorgna , American TV actor (7th Heaven), in New Haven, CT March 2, 1981 (Monday) The asteroids 4923 Clarke and 5020 Asimov were discovered on the same night by astronomer Schelte J. Bus , and named by him in honor of authors Arthur C. Clarke and Isaac Asimov . Inventors



1982

topic

Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1982 . 1982 ( MCMLXXXII ) was a common year starting on Friday ( dominical letter C) of the Gregorian calendar , the 1982nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 982nd year of the 2nd millennium , the 82nd year of the 20th century , and the 3rd year of the 1980s decade. Events January January 1 – New ITV franchises, Central , TVS and TSW , are launched. January 7 – The Commodore 64 8-bit home computer is launched by Commodore International in Las Vegas (released in August); it becomes the all-time best-selling single personal computer model. January 8 – AT&T Corporation agrees to break up and divest itself of 22 subdivisions. January 11 – Mark Thatcher , son of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher , disappears in the Sahara during the Dakar Rally ; he is rescued January 14 . January 11 – January 17 – A brutal cold snap sends temperatures to all-time record lows in dozens of cities throughout the Midwestern United States . January 13



List of unsolved deaths

topic

This list of unsolved deaths includes notable cases where victims have been murdered or have died under unsolved circumstances, including murders committed by unknown serial killers . The mysteriously-deceased are listed chronologically by year. (For " serial killer cases" which span multiple years, entries are listed under the year the first murder took place.) Unsolved murders Before 1800 Dagobert II , 679; he was one of the last kings of the Merovingian line, murdered by persons unknown in the Ardennes Forest on December 23. Giovanni Borgia, 2nd Duke of Gandia , 1497; his body was recovered in the Tiber with his throat slit and about nine stab wounds on his torso. His father, Pope Alexander VI , launched an investigation only for it to end abruptly a week later. Theories range from the Orsini family to his own brothers, Cesare Borgia and Gioffre Borgia , having committed the crime. Moctezuma II , 1520, Aztec emperor; according to Spanish accounts he was killed by his own people; according to Aztec accounts



List of unsolved murders in the United Kingdom

topic

This is an incomplete list of unsolved known murders in the UK . Victims believed to have been murdered by the same perpetrator(s) are grouped together. This does not include the 3000 unsolved murders in Northern Ireland during the Troubles . Pre World War II Year Name of victim(s) Location body found Notes 1536 Robert Pakington London Probably the first murder with a handgun in London 1752 Colin Roy Campbell of Glenure Appin “ Appin Murder ”. At Appin, in the west of Scotland, in the aftermath of the Jacobite Rising of 1745, inspired events in Robert Louis Stevenson 's novel Kidnapped. 1857 Emile L'Angelier Glasgow His lover Madeleine Smith was accused of poisoning him with arsenic . The verdict was “ not proven ”. 1876 Charles Bravo Balham , London Known as the Charles Bravo Murder or the Murder at the Priory . Charles Bravo, a lawyer was poisoned with antimony: he took three days to die but gave no indication of the source of the poison. No-one was ever charged for the crime. 1888–1902 Emily Horsnail, Fair




Javascript Version
Revolvy Server //www.revolvy.com