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Banco Ambrosiano

Banco Ambrosiano was an Italian bank that collapsed in 1982. At the centre of the bank's failure was its chairman, Roberto Calvi and his membership in the illegal Masonic Lodge Propaganda Due (aka P2). The Institute for the Works of Religion, commonly known as the Vatican Bank, was Banco Ambrosiano's main shareholder. The Vatican Bank was also accused of funneling covert United States funds to Solidarity and the Contras through Banco Ambrosiano.

The death of Pope John Paul I in 1978 is rumoured to be linked to the Ambrosiano scandal.

Before 1981

The Banco Ambrosiano was founded in Milan in 1896 by Giuseppe Tovini, a Catholic advocate in Valle Camonica, and was named after Saint Ambrose, the fourth century archbishop of the city. Tovini's purpose was to create a Catholic bank as a counterbalance to Italy's "lay" banks, and its goals were "serving moral organisations, pious works, and religious bodies set up for charitable aims." The bank came to be known as the "priests' bank"; one chairman was Franco Ratti, nephew to Pope Pius XI. In the 1960s, the bank began to expand its business, opening a holding company in Luxembourg in 1963 which came to be known as Banco Ambrosiano Holding. This was under the direction of Carlo Canesi, then a senior manager, and from 1965 chairman.

In 1967, Canesi brought Roberto Calvi into Ambrosiano. In 1971, Calvi became general manager, and in 1975 he was appointed chairman. Calvi expanded Ambrosiano's interests further; these included creating a number of off-shore companies in the Bahamas and South America; a controlling interest in the Banca Cattolica del Veneto; and funds for the publishing house Rizzoli to finance the Corriere della Sera newspaper (giving Calvi control behind the scenes for the benefit of his associates in the P2 masonic lodge). Calvi also involved the Vatican Bank, Istituto per le Opere di Religione, in his dealings, and was close to Bishop Paul Marcinkus, the bank's chairman. Ambrosiano also provided funds for political parties in Italy, and for both the Somoza dictatorship in Nicaragua and its Sandinista opposition. There are also rumours that it provided money for Solidarity in Poland (it has been widely alleged that the Vatican Bank funded Solidarity).

Calvi used his complex network of overseas banks and companies to move money out of Italy, to inflate share prices, and to secure massive unsecured loans. In 1978, the Bank of Italy produced a report on Ambrosiano that predicted future disaster and led to criminal investigations. However, soon afterward the investigating Milanese magistrate, Alessandrini, was killed by a left-wing terrorist group, while the Bank of Italy official who superintended the inspection, Mario Sarcinelli, found himself imprisoned on charges that were later dismissed.

After 1981

In 1981, police raided the office of Propaganda Due Masonic lodge to apprehend the Worshipful Master Licio Gelli and uncover further evidence against Roberto Calvi. Calvi was arrested, put on trial, and sentenced to four years in prison. However, he was released pending an appeal and retained his position at the bank. Other alarming developments followed: Carlo de Benedetti of Olivetti bought into the bank and became deputy chairman, only to leave two months later after receiving Mafia threats and lack of co-operation from Calvi. His replacement, a longtime employee named Roberto Rosone, was wounded in a Mafia shooting incident. The criminal organization responsible for this shooting was the Banda della Magliana (Magliana Gang) which had taken over Rome's underworld in the late 1970s, and has been related to various political events of the anni di piombo (years of lead).

In 1982, it was discovered that the bank was unable to account for $1.287 billion (equivalent to $3.19 billion in present-day terms). Calvi fled the country on a false passport, and Rosone arranged for the Bank of Italy to take over. Calvi's personal secretary, Graziella Corrocher, left a note denouncing Calvi before leaping to her death from her office window. Calvi's body was found hanging from Blackfriars Bridge in London on June 18 (see death of Roberto Calvi).

During July 1982, funds to the off-shore interests were cut off, leading to their collapse, and in August the bank was replaced by the Nuovo Banco Ambrosiano under Giovanni Bazoli. Pope John Paul II pledged full transparency regarding the bank's links to the Vatican and brought in lay bankers including German financial expert Hermann Abs, a move that was publicly criticized by Simon Wiesenthal, due to Abs' role as top banker to the Third Reich from 1938 to 1945.[2] [3] There was much argument over who should take responsibility for losses incurred by the Old Ambrosiano's off-shore companies, and the Vatican eventually agreed to pay out a substantial sum without accepting liability.

In April 1992, Carlo De Benedetti, former deputy chairman of Banco Ambrosiano, and 32 other people were convicted of fraud by a Milan court in connection with the bank's collapse.[4] Benedetti was sentenced to six years and four months in prison,[4] but the sentence was overturned in April 1998 by the Court of Cassation.[5]

In 1994, former Socialist Prime Minister Bettino Craxi was indicted in the Banco Ambrosiano case, along with Licio Gelli, head of Propaganda Due, and former Justice minister Claudio Martelli.[6] In April 1998, the Court of Cassation confirmed a 12-year sentence for Licio Gelli for the Ambrosiano crash.[7]

Clearstream scandal

Just before the media revealed the Ambrosiano scandal, Gérard Soisson, manager of transaction clearing company Clearstream, was found dead in Corsica, two months after Ernest Backes's dismissal from Clearstream in May 1983. Banco Ambrosiano was one of the many banks to have un-published accounts in Clearstream. Backes, formerly the third highest-ranking officer of Clearstream and a primary source for Denis Robert's book on Clearstream's scandal, Revelation$, claims he "was fired because (he) knew too much about the Ambrosiano scandal. When Soisson died, the Ambrosiano affair wasn't yet known as a scandal. (After it was revealed) I realized that Soisson and I had been at the crossroads. We moved all those transactions known later in the scandal to Lima and other branches. Nobody even knew there was a Banco Ambrosiano branch in Lima and other South American countries."[8] As of 2005, while the Italian justice has opened up again the investigation concerning the murder of Roberto Calvi, Ambrosiano's chairman, it has asked the support of Ernest Backes, and will investigate Gerard Soisson's death, according to Lucy Komisar. Licio Gelli, headmaster of P2 masonic lodge, and mafioso Giuseppe "Pippo" Calò, are being prosecuted for the assassination of Roberto Calvi.

Falklands war involvement

France denied deliveries of Exocet AM39 missiles purchased by Peru to avoid the possibility of Peru giving them to Argentina, because they knew that payment would be made with a credit card from the Central Bank of Peru, but British intelligence had detected that the guarantee was a deposit of two hundred million dollars from the Banco Ambrosiano Andino, an owned subsidiary of the Banco Ambrosiano.[9] [10]

Roberto Calvi's 1982 murder

David Yallop believes that Calvi, with the assistance of P2, may have been responsible for the death of Albino Luciani who, as Pope John Paul I, was planning a reform of Vatican finances. This is one of many conspiracy theories about Luciani, who died of a heart attack. However, Calvi's family maintains that he was an honest man manipulated by others. Their perspective informs Robert Hutchison's 1997 book Their Kingdom Come: Inside the Secret World of Opus Dei. According to the magistrates who indicted Licio Gelli, P2's headmaster, and Giuseppe Calò for Calvi's murder, Gelli would have ordered his death to punish him for embezzlement of his and the mafia's money, while the mafia wanted to stop him from revealing the way Calvi helped it in money laundering.

See also
  1. Susana Viau and Eduardo Tagliaferro, Carlos Bartffeld, Mason y Amigo de Massera, Fue Embajador en Yugoslavia Cuando Se Vendieron Armas a Croacia - En el mismo barco, Pagina 12, December 14, 1998 (in Spanish)
  2. JTA. [1] "Expert Appointed by Vatican to Probe Bank Scandal Said to Be an Ex-Nazi"
  3. https://www.nytimes.com/1982/11/27/business/pope-vows-to-assist-bank-study.html
  4. (in English) "Court Convicts Financier, 23 Others in Billion-Dollar Failure of Italian Bank," Rocky Mountain News, April 17, 1992
  5. "High court overturns conviction of Olivetti chairman in bank collapse," Associated Press, April 22, 1998 (in English)
  6. "Former Italian premier indicted in bank scandal", The Tampa Tribune, May 13, 1994 (in English)
  7. "Top Italian fugitive Licio Gelli arrested in France," Associated Press, September 10, 1998 (in English)
  8. "hound-dogs.com". hound-dogs.com. Archived from the original on July 9, 2007.
  9. "The Official History of the Falklands Campaign: War and diplomacy". google.com.
  10. "Página/12 :: El país :: A las Malvinas en subte". pagina12.com.ar.
  • Rupert Cornwell, God's Banker: The Life and Death of Roberto Calvi, Victor Gollancz Ltd, 1984.
  • Malachi Martin - Rich Church, Poor Church (Putnam, New York, 1984) ISBN 0-399-12906-5
  • David Yallop, In God's Name: An Investigation into the Murder of Pope John Paul I, Corgi, 1987
  • Philip Willan, The Last Supper: the Mafia, the Masons and the Killing of Roberto Calvi, Constable & Robinson, 2007(ISBN 978-1-84529-296-6)
  • Sandom, J.G., Gospel Truths, Bantam/Random House, 1992 & 2009 (ISBN 0553589970)
External links
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Banco Ambrosiano


Banco Ambrosiano was an Italian bank that collapsed in 1982. At the centre of the bank's failure was its chairman, Roberto Calvi and his membership in the illegal Masonic Lodge Propaganda Due (aka P2). The Institute for the Works of Religion , commonly known as the Vatican Bank , was Banco Ambrosiano's main shareholder. The Vatican Bank was also accused of funneling covert United States funds to Solidarity and the Contras through Banco Ambrosiano. The death of Pope John Paul I in 1978 is rumoured to be linked to the Ambrosiano scandal. Members Roberto Calvi . Franco Ratti, chairman. Carlo Canesi, senior manager then chairman of Banco Ambrosiano Holding starting from 1965. Roberto Calvi , general manager of Banco Ambrosiano since 1971, appointed chairman from 1975 to his death in June 1982. He was often referred to as "God's Banker" because of his close financial ties with the Vatican. Paul Marcinkus , president of Vatican Bank (aka " Istituto per le Opere di Religione "), had been a director of Ambrosiano Ove

Banco Ambrosiano Veneto


Banco Ambrosiano Veneto , also known as Banco Ambroveneto for short, was an Italian bank formed in 1989 by the merger of Nuovo Banco Ambrosiano (the bank replacing the collapsed Banco Ambrosiano ) with Banca Cattolica del Veneto . Since 1989, Crédit Agricole also held a portion of shares of Banco Ambrosiano Veneto. From 1991 until the merger in 1998, BAV acquired Banca Vallone di Galatin , Citibank Italia (later named Banco Ambroveneto Sud ), Società di Banche Siciliane , Banca Massicana di Sessa Aurunca , Banca di Trento e Bolzano and Caboto . The newly formed bank continued operation until 1998, when it agreed with the Cassa di Risparmio delle Provincie Lombarde ( Cariplo ) to form the Banca Intesa . 60 branches under the brand of Banco Ambroveneto, located in Friuli-Venezia Giulia , were transferred to FriulAdria as an intragroup transaction in 2000. References Crédit Agricole. "History" . credit-agricole.com. "Banco Ambrosiano Veneto - Intesa Sanpaolo Bank" . intesasanpaolo.com. Sources michaelpage.com Ba

Nuovo Banco Ambrosiano


The Nuovo Banco Ambrosiano was the bank replacing the Banco Ambrosiano after its collapse. In 1989 the bank merged with the Banca Cattolica del Veneto to form the Banco Ambrosiano Veneto . In 1998 the latter bank formed the Banca Intesa together with the Cassa di Risparmio delle Provincie Lombarde (Cariplo). Sources [1] The Nuovo Banco Ambrosiano was the bank replacing the Banco Ambrosiano after its collapse. In 1989 the bank merged with the Banca Cattolica del Veneto to form the Banco Ambrosiano Veneto . In 1998 the latter bank formed the Banca Intesa together with the Cassa di Risparmio delle Provincie Lombarde (Cariplo). Sources [1]

Roberto Calvi


Roberto Calvi (13 April 1920 – 17 June 1982) was an Italian banker dubbed "God's Banker" ( Italian : Banchiere di Dio ) by the press because of his close association with the Holy See . A native of Milan , Calvi was Chairman of Banco Ambrosiano , which collapsed in one of modern Italy's biggest political scandals . His death in London in June 1982 is a source of enduring controversy and was ruled a murder after two coroner 's inquests and an independent investigation. In Rome , in June 2007, five people were acquitted of the murder. Claims have been made that factors in Calvi's death were the Vatican Bank , Banco Ambrosiano's main shareholder; the Mafia , which may have used Banco Ambrosiano for money laundering ; and the clandestine Masonic lodge Propaganda Due . The Banco Ambrosiano scandal Roberto Calvi was the chairman of Italy's second largest private bank, Banco Ambrosiano , when it collapsed in 1982. In 1978, the Bank of Italy produced a report on Banco Ambrosiano which found that several billion lire

Ambrosiano (disambiguation)


Ambrosiano was a national (domestic) Italian express train which connected Rome with Milan. Ambrosiano may also refer to: Banco Ambrosiano , Italian bank which collapsed in 1982 Nuovo Banco Ambrosiano , the Italian bank replacing the Banco Ambrosiano after its collapse. Banco Ambrosiano Veneto , bank formed in 1989 by merger of Nuovo Banco Ambrosiano and Banca Cattolica del Veneto. In 1998 the latter bank formed the Banca Intesa together with the Cassa di Risparmio delle Provincie Lombarde (Cariplo) Premio Ambrosiano , Group 3 flat horse race in Italy open to thoroughbreds aged four years or older Ambrosiano was a national (domestic) Italian express train which connected Rome with Milan. Ambrosiano may also refer to: Banco Ambrosiano , Italian bank which collapsed in 1982 Nuovo Banco Ambrosiano , the Italian bank replacing the Banco Ambrosiano after its collapse. Banco Ambrosiano Veneto , bank formed in 1989 by merger of Nuovo Banco Ambrosiano and Banca Cattolica del Veneto. In 1998 the latter bank formed the

Banca Intesa


Banca Intesa S.p.A. was an Italian bank formed in 1998 from the merger of Cassa di Risparmio delle Provincie Lombarde (a.k.a. Cariplo ) and Banco Ambrosiano Veneto (former Banco Ambrosiano ). Description In 1999 Banca Commerciale Italiana entered the group, which pursuant to the merger in 2001 changed its name in IntesaBCi; on 1 January 2003, the group's name changed to Banca Intesa. The group also acquired many regional banks, such as Cariparma and FriulAdria (both sold to Crédit Agricole after 2007 merger), Carisap , Carifol However also sold some of them, for example Carispezia (to Banca CR Firenze in 2004), Cassa di Risparmio di Alessandria , Banca di Legnano (to Banca Popolare di Milano ), Cassa di Risparmio di Carrara (to Banca Carige ) and Banca Carime (to Banca Popolare Commercio e Industria in 2001). Crédit Agricole was the major shareholder of the group for 25.51% in circa before the merger of Intesa with BCI. In 2007, Sanpaolo IMI merged into Banca Intesa and name changed to Intesa Sanpaolo SpA. Ac

Pavol Hnilica


Pavol Hnilica (March 30, 1921 in Uňatín – October 8, 2006) was a Slovak Roman-Catholic bishop and Jesuit . Bishop Pavol Hnilica. He was a clandestine priest and bishop (since January 2, 1951). He consecrated Ján Chryzostom Korec . In 1952 he fled from Slovakia and studied and worked mainly in Rome . He held the title of Titular Bishop of Rusadus, but never held an official post for the Church after his emigration to Italy. Banco Ambrosiano scandal In 1992, Bishop Hnilica was charged with receiving stolen documents in connection with the Banco Ambrosiano scandal of the 1980s. He was convicted in 1993 of money laundering after he paid $2.8 million in an attempt to obtain evidence that would allegedly clear officials of the "Vatican bank", the Institute for Works of Religion , of blame in the affair. See also Notes Bishop Pavel Mária Hnilica [Catholic-Hierarchy] Inside Catholic The Economist Buffalo News Pavol Hnilica (March 30, 1921 in Uňatín – October 8, 2006) was a Slovak Roman-Catholic bishop and Jesuit . B

Francesco Pazienza


Francesco Pazienza (born in Monteparano in the 1946) is an Italian businessman , and former officer of the Italian military intelligence agency, SISMI . As of April 2007, he has been paroled to the community of Lerici , after serving many years in prison, including a 1993 conviction due to his role in the Banco Ambrosiano scandal , and a 1982 conviction for mishandling state secrets. Pazienza holds a degree in medicine from the University of Rome . He worked as a business consultant in France during the 1970s. In 1979 he was hired into SISMI, and became an assistant to SISMI director, General Giuseppe Santovito . Pazienza left the intelligence agency in wake of the Propaganda Due scandal that rocked the Italian political scene in 1981. The Banco Ambrosiano scandal, Roberto Calvi 's "suicide," and charges of mishandling state secrets concerned with the 1980 Bologna bombing , made Pazienza a fugitive from Italian law. Eventually, Pazienza ended up in the United States . A first extradition request from Italy

Banca Cattolica del Veneto


Banca Cattolica del Veneto was an Italian bank based in Vicenza, Veneto. in 1989 it was merged with Nuovo Banco Ambrosiano to form Banco Ambrosiano Veneto . History Founded in 1892 as Banca Cattolica Vicentina by the Catholic church. In 1930 the bank was renamed to Banca Cattolica del Veneto , as well as absorbing Banca Cadorina , Banca Cattolica Atestina and Banca Cattolica di Udine in 1930, Banca Feltrina , Banca Provinciale di Belluno and Banca Cattolica San Liberale in 1931, Banca Depositi e Prestiti di Feltre in 1936, Banca Depositi e Prestiti G. Fabris, F. Favero and Banca Bassanese A. Girardello in 1938. In 1946 the bank acquired Banca Agricola Distrettuale ; Banca Veneziana di Crediti e Conti Correnti in 1948, Banca Mandamentale di Maniago e Sacile in 1950, Banca San Daniele in 1951 and Banca Triestina in 1969. References http://www.intesasanpaolo.mappastorica.com/profili/029.html http://www.intesasanpaolo.mappastorica.com/profili/028.html http://www.intesasanpaolo.mappastorica.com/alberi/vicenza.html

Giovanni Bazoli


Giovanni Bazoli ( Brescia , 18 December 1932) is an Italian banker. He is president emeritus of Italian bank Intesa Sanpaolo Family Bazoli is the descendant of a well known Brescian family involved in politics since the early twentieth century (his grandfather, Luigi Bazoli, was one of the founders of Italian People’s Party in 1919, and his father was a member of the Constituent Assembly). His daughter Cienne Andres also entered politics in 2017 and was elected as the president of the Association of Communities Helping Other Communities Help Each Other. Career Bazoli was professor of Administrative Law and Public Law at the Università Cattolica Milano until retiring from his university career in 2001. While serving as a director of Banca San Paolo di Brescia in 1982, then Treasury Minister Nino Andreatta asked him to contribute to the bailout of Banco Ambrosiano , the Italian bank overwhelmed by the Calvi scandal. He became chairman of Nuovo Banco Ambrosiano and managed the sale of Rizzoli-Corriere della Se

The Bankers of God: The Calvi Affair


The Bankers of God: The Calvi Affair ( Italian : I banchieri di Dio also known as The God's Bankers) is an Italian drama film directed in 2002 by Giuseppe Ferrara . Plot The film tells the story of the scandal of Banco Ambrosiano , mainly related to the figure of Roberto Calvi . The Clearstream scandal exploded as a case full of intricate affairs involving the financial world, the Vatican , the Masonic Lodge P2 , the Italian Secret Service , the Secret Intelligence Service , the Italian politics , the Mafia and the Banda della Magliana . The movie narrates in detail all these connections, trying to reconstruct events and plots. The film ends with the death of Calvi under the Blackfriars Bridge , in London , openly supporting the murder-hypothesis. Cast Omero Antonutti : Roberto Calvi Giancarlo Giannini : Flavio Carboni Alessandro Gassman : Francesco Pazienza Rutger Hauer : Bishop Paul Marcinkus Pamela Villoresi : Clara Calvi Vincenzo Peluso : Silvano Vittor Pier Paolo Capponi : Roberto Rosone Franco Diogene :

Carlo De Benedetti


Carlo De Benedetti (born 14 November 1934) is an Italian industrialist , engineer and publisher . He is both an Italian and naturalized Swiss citizen. He was awarded the Order of Merit for Labour by the Italian state in 1983, the Medaglia d'oro ai benemeriti della cultura e dell'arte (Gold medal of culture and art) and the Legion d'Honneur in 1987. De Benedetti is chairman of the Rodolfo De Benedetti Foundation (Fondazione Rodolfo Debenedetti) in Milan, which he founded in 1998 in memory of his father. It promotes research into economic policy decisions regarding the labor market and welfare systems in Europe. He is currently married to the former actress Silvia Monti . Life and career Born into a wealthy Jewish family, on 14 November 1934, Carlo De Benedetti is the brother of Italian Senator Franco Debenedetti , whose surname is different owing to a spelling error. In 1943, during the World War II , the De Benedetti family fled to Switzerland . After Carlo returned to Italy, he received a degree in elec

Banda della Magliana


The Banda della Magliana ( Italian pronunciation:  , Magliana Gang) is an Italian criminal organization based in Rome founded in 1975. Given by the media , the name refers to the original neighborhood, the Magliana , of some of its members. The Banda della Magliana was involved in criminal activities during the Italian years of lead (anni di piombo). The Italian justice tied it to other criminal organizations such as the Cosa Nostra , Camorra or 'Ndrangheta , but most importantly also to neofascist activists such as the Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari (NAR), responsible for the 1980 Bologna massacre , the secret services ( SISMI ) and political figures such as Licio Gelli , grand-master of the freemasonic lodge Propaganda Due (P2). Along with Gladio , the NATO clandestine anti-communist organization, P2 was involved in a strategy of tension during the years of lead which included false flag terrorist attacks. These ties, underground compared to their standard (i.e. "run-of-the-mill") activities (drug dealing, hor

In God's Name


Book Cover In God's Name: An Investigation into the Murder of Pope John Paul I is a book by David A. Yallop about Pope John Paul I death. It was published in 1984 by Bantam Books . Potential danger Yallop proposes the theory that the pope was in "potential danger" because of corruption in the Istituto per le Opere Religiose (IOR, Institute of Religious Works, the Vatican's most powerful financial institution, commonly known as the Vatican Bank), which owned many shares in Banco Ambrosiano . The Vatican Bank lost about a quarter of a billion dollars. P2 Lodge This corruption was real and is known to have involved the bank's head, Paul Marcinkus , along with Roberto Calvi of the Banco Ambrosiano . Calvi was a member of P2 , an illegal Italian Masonic lodge. Calvi was found dead in London, after disappearing just before the corruption became public. His death was initially ruled suicide, and a second trial — ordered by his family — then returned an "open verdict". The day before Calvi's corpse was discovered, hi

Paul Marcinkus


Paul Marcinkus ( ), GCOIH (January 15, 1922 – February 20, 2006) was an American archbishop of the Roman Catholic Church . He was best known for his tenure as President of the Vatican Bank from 1971 to 1989. Biography Early life Marcinkus was born in Cicero, Illinois , the son of an immigrant window cleaner who arrived in Cicero in 1914. His father, Mykolas, had left Lithuania to escape possible induction into the Russian army. Moving to the United States , he briefly lived in Pittsburgh before moving to Fond du Lac, Wisconsin , to work for a cousin as a farm hand, then moving to Cicero after finding work in a Chicago steel mill . By the time his fourth son, Paulius, arrived, he had started cleaning windows for the Leo Sheridan Co., a job he would hold for thirty years. After attending Archbishop Quigley Preparatory Seminary and St. Mary of the Lake Seminary , Paul was ordained to the priesthood for the Archdiocese of Chicago on May 3, 1947, and served parish assignments with both St. Christina's and Holy Cro

Licio Gelli


Licio Gelli ( Italian pronunciation:  ; April 21, 1919 – December 15, 2015) was an Italian financier , liaison officer between the Italian government and Nazi Germany, chiefly known for his role in the Banco Ambrosiano scandal . He was revealed in 1981 as being the Venerable Master of the clandestine lodge Propaganda Due (P2). Fascist volunteer Gelli as a fascist volunteer in 1941 Gelli was born in Pistoia , Tuscany . During the 1930s, Gelli volunteered for the Blackshirts expeditionary forces sent by Mussolini in support of Francisco Franco 's rebellion in the Spanish Civil War . He participated in the Italian Social Republic with Giorgio Almirante , founder of the neofascist Italian Social Movement (MSI). After a sales job with the Italian mattress factory Permaflex, Gelli founded his own textile and importing company. Involvement in failed coup and fugitive years in Argentina In 1970, during the failed Golpe Borghese , he was delegated the role of arresting the Italian President, Giuseppe Saragat . As

Cassa di Risparmio delle Provincie Lombarde


Cassa di Risparmio delle Provincie Lombarde known as Cariplo SpA , was an Italian bank. On 2 January 1998 the bank merged with Banco Ambrosiano Veneto to form Banca Intesa . The company became a short-lived sub-holding company in late 1990s, which was completely absorbed circa 2000. History The bank was formed on 12 June 1823 by the count Giovanni Pietro Porro , in Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia , decades before the unification of Italy. Situated in industrialized Northern Italy, the Lombard firm had become one of the major bank in Italy. In 1926 the bank absorbed Cassa di Risparmio di Voghera and Cassa di Risparmio di Novara in 1928. In December 1991, due to Legge Amato , the bank, as società per azioni , and Fondazione Cariplo were formed to separate ownership, charity and daily banking operation. The bank also started its own expansion strategy 1990s, which acquired shares of the saving banks of Alessandria , Carrara and Spezia to form Carinord Holding SpA in 1995, (Ca.Ri." Nord ", a joint venture of the owne

Banco di Santo Spirito


The Bank of the Holy Spirit ( Italian : Il Banco di Santo Spirito ) was a bank founded by Pope Paul V on December 13, 1605. The Bank was the first national bank in Europe (as the bank of the Papal States ), the first public deposit bank in Rome, and the oldest continuously-operating bank in Rome until its merger in 1992. First period (1605–1923) Pope Paul V founded the Bank in 1605. The Bank was founded by Pope Paul V in the Bench of S. Spirit building (which became known as the Palazzo del Banco di S. Spirito) on December 13, 1605. The construction of the building was started in 1513 by Pope Leo X , on what became known as the "Street of the Banks." The newly founded bank provided a new source of income for the Archhospital of Santo Spirito (founded 1201), whose financial difficulties had been increasing throughout the 16th century, and in 1607 the bank began supervising the finances of the hospital, which owned the bank. From February 20, 1606 to 1923, the Bank of the Holy Spirit provided capital for c

Società Generale Immobiliare


Società Generale Immobiliare (English: The General Company of Real Estate) was the largest Italian real estate and construction company. It was founded in Turin in 1862 but then moved to Rome in 1870 with the unification of Italy. After moving to Rome , the company became interested in the pastoral land around Rome and ended up buying it. With the growth of Rome, the company grew as real estate prices rose. With time, the company's activities changed from focusing on real estate to focusing on construction. One of the people to lead Immobiliare in the construction direction was Aldo Samaritani who joined the company in 1933. The company is famous for building numerous residential buildings throughout Italy. Immobiliare's largest share holder was the Vatican , which held fifteen percent of the shares. However, most of the Vatican's holdings in the company were sold in the late 1960s to Gulf and Western . It is the predecessor of group SGI which was brought under the control of the Opus Dei in the early 1990s.

Intesa Sanpaolo


Intesa Sanpaolo is a banking group resulting from the merger between Banca Intesa and Sanpaolo IMI based in Torre Intesa Sanpaolo , Turin , Italy . It has clear leadership in the Italian market and a minor but growing international presence focused on Central-Eastern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (97% of the bank's revenue from Europe and 86% of all loans to customers come from business in Italy). When it was formed in 2007 it overtook Unicredit Group as the largest bank in Italy with 13 million customers and $ 690 billion worth of assets. By 2010 its assets had grown to $ 877.66 billion 26th highest among all of the world's companies. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index . As of January 2016, it is the first banking group in Italy by market capitalization, but second by total assets (using 2014 data). History Intesa Sanpaolo former headquarters in piazza San Carlo, Turin Banca Intesa and Sanpaolo IMI , the two banks that merged in 2007 to create Intesa Sanpaolo,

Francesco Di Carlo


Francesco Di Carlo (born February 18, 1941) is a member of the Mafia who turned state witness ( pentito - a mafioso turned informer) in 1996. He has been accused of being the killer of the Roberto Calvi – nicknamed "God's banker" because he was in charge of Banco Ambrosiano and his close association with the Vatican Bank . Early career Di Carlo was initiated in the Altofonte Mafia family in 1966 by the boss at the time, Salvatore La Barbera (not to be confused with the Palermo Centro boss who was killed in 1963). He became capo famiglia in the mid 1970s. Altofonte was part of the mandamento of San Giuseppe Jato , headed by Antonio Salamone and Bernardo Brusca . According to the pentito Giuseppe Marchese , Di Carlo was an influential mafioso and a very competent drug trafficker connected with the Corleonesi . Di Carlo is described as an elegant and intelligent mafioso who received an education at the prestigious Jesuit college of Gonzaga in Palermo where he met the prince Alessandro Vanni Calvello , who would

Banca San Paolo di Brescia


Banca San Paolo di Brescia was an Italian bank based in Brescia, Lombardy. The owner of Banca San Paolo di Brescia and Credito Agrario Bresciano formed a new holding company Banca Lombarda in 1998, as well as merging the two banks into Banco di Brescia on 1 January 1999. History Banca San Paolo di Brescia was found in 1888 in Brescia. One of the main founder, Giuseppe Tovini , also participated in the foundation of Banca di Valle Camonica (1872) and Banco Ambrosiano (1896). St. Paul Bank of Brescia acquired Banca di Valle Camonica in 1963. References "Le origini" (in Italian). Fondazione Banca San Paolo di Brescia . Retrieved 14 February 2016 . External links Fondazione Banca San Paolo di Brescia (in Italian) Banca San Paolo di Brescia was an Italian bank based in Brescia, Lombardy. The owner of Banca San Paolo di Brescia and Credito Agrario Bresciano formed a new holding company Banca Lombarda in 1998, as well as merging the two banks into Banco di Brescia on 1 January 1999. History Banca San Paolo di Bresc

Giuseppe Tovini


Blessed Giuseppe Antonio Tovini (14 March 1841 – 16 January 1897) was an Italian banker and lawyer who became a member of the Secular Franciscan Order . He was one of the founder of Banca di Valle Camonica , Banca San Paolo di Brescia and Banco Ambrosiano . His nephew was Blessed Mosè Tovini . He was beatified in 1998 after a miracle was found to have been attributed to his intercession. The cause still continues as it awaits confirmation of another miracle. Biography Giuseppe Antonio Tovini was born in 1841 as the first of seven children to Mosè Tovini and Rosa Malaguzzi. He went to high school in Bergamo from 1852 to 1858, and later graduated from the University of Pavia in August 1865. He then moved to Brescia in 1867 to become a lawyer and obtained all the appropriate qualifications to become a lawyer in 1868. He later married Emilia Corbolani on 6 January 1875 and they went on to have a total of ten children. One son became a Jesuit priest and two daughters became nuns . From 1871 to 1874, Tovini serve

Pope John Paul I conspiracy theories


Pope John Paul I died suddenly in September 1978, 33 days after his election. Following contradictory reports about the circumstances of his death and apparent anomalies about the issuing of the death certificate and other procedures, several conspiracy theories have gained currency. Many of these concern the serious corruption in the Vatican Bank (Istituto per le Opere Religiose), possibly linked to freemasonry, which is forbidden by church law. None of the claims have been proven. Rationale Discrepancies in the Vatican's account of the events surrounding John Paul I 's death – its inaccurate statements about who found the body; what he had been reading; when, where, and whether an autopsy could be carried out – produced a number of conspiracy theories , many associated with the Vatican Bank , which owned many shares in Banco Ambrosiano . Some conspiracy theorists connect the death of John Paul in September 1978 with the image of the " bishop dressed in white " said to have been seen by Lucia Santos and h

Giuseppe Calò


Giuseppe 'Pippo' Calò (born September 30, 1931) is a member of the Sicilian Mafia . He was referred to as the "cassiere di Cosa Nostra" (Mafia's Cashier) because he was heavily involved in the financial side of organized crime, primarily money laundering . He has been charged with ordering the murder of Roberto Calvi – nicknamed "Il banchiere di Dio" (The God's banker) – of the Banco Ambrosiano in 1982, but has been cleared in 2007 because of "insufficient evidence" in a surprise verdict. Boss of the Porta Nuova Mafia family Born and raised in Palermo , the capital of Sicily , he was inducted into the Porta Nuova Mafia Family at the age of twenty-three after carrying out a murder to avenge his father. By 1969 he was the boss of Porta Nuova, and amongst his men was the future informant ( pentito ) Tommaso Buscetta . Calò was on the Sicilian Mafia Commission , a group of the most powerful Mafia bosses in Sicily who regularly met, supposedly to iron out differences and solve disputes. In the beginning of the 197

Crime in Vatican City


Crime in the Vatican City consists largely of purse snatching, pick-pocketing and shoplifting — by outsiders. The tourist foot-traffic in St. Peter's Square is one of the main locations for pickpockets in Vatican City. Petty crimes per capita The Vatican's small size results in a few statistical oddities. There are 18 million visitors to the state each year, and the most common crime is petty theft — purse snatching, pick-pocketing and shoplifting, perpetrated — and suffered — by outsiders. Based on a population of 455 in 1992, the 397 civil offences in that year represent a crime rate of 0.87 crimes per capita, with 608 penal offences or 1.33 per capita. Policing The Corpo della Gendarmeria dello Stato della Città del Vaticano (English: Corps of Gendarmerie of Vatican City State) is the gendarmerie , or police and security force, of Vatican City and the extraterritorial properties of the Holy See . The corps is responsible for security, public order , border control , traffic control , criminal investigati

Propaganda Due


Propaganda Due ( Italian pronunciation:  ; P2 ) was a Masonic lodge founded in 1945 that, by the time its Masonic charter was withdrawn in 1976, had transformed into a clandestine, pseudo- Masonic, ultraright organization operating in contravention of Article 18 of the Constitution of Italy that banned secret associations . In its latter period, during which the lodge was headed by Licio Gelli , P2 was implicated in numerous Italian crimes and mysteries, including the collapse of the Vatican -affiliated Banco Ambrosiano , the murders of journalist Mino Pecorelli and banker Roberto Calvi , and corruption cases within the nationwide bribe scandal Tangentopoli . P2 came to light through the investigations into the collapse of Michele Sindona 's financial empire. P2 was sometimes referred to as a " state within a state " or a " shadow government ". The lodge had among its members prominent journalists, members of parliament, industrialists, and military leaders—including Silvio Berlusconi , who later became Pri

Cardinal Lamberto


Cardinal Lamberto is a fictional character appearing in The Godfather Part III . He is portrayed by Raf Vallone . In the film Lamberto is a cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church , and the man favoured to succeed the terminally ill Pope Paul VI as head of the Church. He is visited by Michael Corleone on the advice of Don Tommasino , and Michael tells him of his swindle at the hands of Frederick Keinszig, Licio Lucchesi, and Archbishop Gilday . Lamberto encourages Michael to confess his sins; Michael is initially reluctant, but eventually gives in under the Cardinal's gentle prodding. He breaks down in tears when confessing that he ordered the murder of his brother Fredo . Upon the conclusion of the confession, Lamberto tells Michael that he deserves to suffer for his terrible sins, yet absolves him and tells him he still has a chance for redemption. Upon the death of Paul VI, Lamberto is elected the new Pontiff; he takes the name John Paul I upon his accession. A moral, thoroughly honest man, he immediately ca



Interbanca S.p.A. is an Italian merchant bank that specializes in lending and financing transactions for medium-sized firms. Its headquarters are in Milan and it has 10 branches in major cities throughout Italy . Following a series of acquisitions in the Italian banking industry, Interbanca became a subsidiary of Banco Santander . In March 2008, the bank was purchased by GE Commercial Finance and renamed to GE Capital Interbanca . It was sold to Banca IFIS in November 2016, as part of a strategy by GE to reduce its financial services division. The bank is under Banca IFIS Impresa division of the group. History A consortium of banks comprising Banco Ambrosiano , Banca d'America e d'Italia , and Banca Nazionale dell'Agricoltura , founded Interbanca – Banca per i Finanziamenti a Medio Termine in 1961. By 1997 it had come under the control of Banca Antonveneta , which in 1999 acquired Banca Nazionale dell'Agricoltura. In June 1999, its parent listed Interbanca on the stock exchange, but then in February 2003 whol

Giuseppe Ciarrapico


Giuseppe Ciarrapico (born 28 January 1934) is an Italian entrepreneur, publisher and former politician. He has been president of football club AS Roma from 1991 and 1993, and a senator of Italy for Silvio Berlusconi 's The People of Freedom party in 2008-2012. Ciarrapico has been convicted and imprisoned several times due to his involvement in financial scandals. Biography Ciarrapico was born in Rome , but grew up in Ciociaria . A supporter of Fascism in his youth, he was the printer for the manifestoes of the Italian neo-Fascist party, MSI , in his printing plant at Cassino . His publishing house also released revisionist books and pamphlets. Later in his life became nearer to Giulio Andreotti 's right-wing current within Democrazia Cristiana (then Italy's major centre party). Ciarrapico was also the owner of the large mineral water plants at Fiuggi , as well as of a series of private hospitals in Rome, of the aerotaxi company Air Capitol and of the Roman restaurant Casina Valadier . His holding Italfin '80

Enrico De Pedis


Enrico De Pedis (May 15, 1954 − February 2, 1990) was an Italian criminal and one of the bosses of the Banda della Magliana , an Italian criminal organization based in the city of Rome , particularly active throughout the late 1970s until the early 1990s. His nickname was "'Renatino". Unlike other members of his gang, De Pedis possessed a strong entrepreneurial spirit. While other members squandered their earnings, he invested his illicit proceeds (in construction companies, restaurants, boutiques, etc.). Along with many of the crimes committed by his gang, De Pedis has also been linked to the disappearance of Emanuela Orlandi , whose case has been linked with the Pope John Paul II assassination attempt . On February 2, 1990, De Pedis was ambushed and murdered by his former colleagues on Via del Pellegrino near Campo de' Fiori . He was buried in the Sant'Apollinare Basilica in Rome. The unusual interment has been linked to the case of Emanuela Orlandi 's kidnapping. In 2009, the Rome prosecutor's offices inv

Barings Bank


Barings Bank was a British merchant bank based in London , and the world's second oldest merchant bank (after Berenberg Bank ). It was founded in 1762 and was owned by the German-originated Baring family of merchants and bankers. The bank collapsed in 1995 after suffering losses of £827 million ($1.3 billion) resulting from poor speculative investments, primarily in futures contracts , conducted by an employee named Nick Leeson working at its office in Singapore . History Sir Francis Baring (left), with brother John Baring and son-in-law Charles Wall, in a painting by Sir Thomas Lawrence 1762–1890 Barings Bank was founded in 1762 as the John and Francis Baring Company by Francis Baring , with his older brother John Baring as a mostly silent partner. They were sons of John (né Johann) Baring , wool trader of Exeter , born in Bremen , Germany . The company began in offices off Cheapside and within a few years moved to larger quarters in Mincing Lane . Barings gradually diversified from wool into many other co

Peter Curry


Thomas Peter Ellison Curry Q.C. (22 July 1921 – 25 January 2010) was a prominent English Barrister and athlete . The only man to take silk twice, he won triple Blues at Oxford and represented Great Britain in the 1948 Olympic Games . Personal life Thomas Peter Ellison Curry was born in Muree , India as his father was stationed there with the Royal Artillery . He was educated at Tonbridge and Oriel College, Oxford . At Oxford, he read law and graduated with the first, winning Middle Temple 's Harmsworth Scholarship. He married Pamela Joyce Curry (née Holmes) in 1951 and had four children. He lived most of his married life in Surrey , latterly in the village of Dunsfold near Godalming . Athletics Curry was a good sportsman awarded Blues in squash , athletics , and cross-country . He won the 1947 Varsity Race and represented Great Britain in the 1947 World Student Games where he finished fourth in the three-mile-race. He won the 3000 metres steeplechase in the 1948 AAA Championships and was selected for that eve

Institute for the Works of Religion


The Institute for the Works of Religion ( Italian : Istituto per le Opere di Religione – IOR ), commonly known as the Vatican Bank , is a private bank situated inside Vatican City and run by a Board of Superintendence which reports to a Supervisory Commission of Cardinals and the Pope . The Bank Identifier Code of the Institute for the Works of Religion is IOPRVAVX. Since 9 July 2014, its president is Jean-Baptiste de Franssu. The IOR is regulated by the Vatican's financial supervisory body AIF (Autorità di Informazione Finanziaria). The institute was founded by papal decree of Pope Pius XII in June 1942. Its assets are not the property of the Holy See , and therefore it is outside the jurisdiction of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See . In June 2012, the IOR gave a first presentation of its operations. In July 2013, the Institute launched its own website. On 1 October 2013 it also published its first-ever annual report which has been available for download since then. On 24 June 2013, P

The Assassini


The Assassini is a 1990 thriller novel by American author Thomas Gifford , published by Bantam Books . Plot summary Set in 1982, while the Roman Catholic Church is preparing to elect a successor to the dying pope , Callistus IV, the book describes the attempts of lawyer Ben Driskill to solve the murder of his sibling, Sister Valentine, a nun who was an outspoken activist and a thorn in the Church's side. Driskill's world-spanning investigation leads him to the discovery of a document from a forgotten monastery in Ireland , which proves the existence of the Assassini, an age-old brotherhood of killers, once hired by princes of the Church to protect it in dangerous times; and the person who now controls them in his Machiavellian bid for power. Inspiration and influences The novel was inspired by, and weaved together in its dramatic structure, numerous historical controversies about the Roman Catholic Church : Constantine I and Christianity Constantine I and the bishops of Rome The Doctrine of Two Swords The Avi

Gerardo D'Ambrosio


Gerardo D'Ambrosio (29 November 1930 – 30 March 2014) was an Italian magistrate and politician. Born in Santa Maria a Vico , Caserta , D'Ambrosio graduated in law in Naples in 1952. In 1957 he was assigned to the Public Prosecutor at the Court of Nola , then he was transferred to the Court of Voghera , and finally in Milan ; there D'Ambrosio conducted the criminal investigation of the Piazza Fontana bombing , and was prosecutor in the Banco Ambrosiano trial, among other things. In 1989, he was chosen to direct the department against organized crime and since 1991 he directed the special department covering the crimes against the public administration. In 1992 he entered the mani pulite pool of magistrates which gave him a large notoriety. From 1999, he was the head of the Public Prosecutor's Office until his retirement in 2002. He was later senator for two terms, with the Democrats of the Left and then with the Democratic Party . He died of cardiorespiratory failure . Links Piazza Fontana bombing Refer



Banca Popolare FriulAdria S.p.A. or FriulAdria in short (abb. of Friuli and Adriatic Sea ), is an Italian regional bank, which is part of Crédit Agricole Italia , the Italian arm of French banking group Crédit Agricole . Since circa 2016 one website was used for the whole Italian banking group. History FriulAdria was found as Banca Cooperativa Popolare di Pordenone in 1911. In the 1990s, the bank merged with Banca Popolare di Tarcento and Banca Popolare di Latisana . Banca Intesa era The bank was part of Banca Intesa Group, which held 100% shares in 1998. Banca Intesa issued new shares of Banca Intesa to the owners of FriulAdria, and purchased the shares of FriulAdria from them. In 1999, the former shareholder fully subscribed the warrants of FriulAdria's shares, made Banca Intesa's ownership ratio reduced to 66.47%. In the next year Banca Intesa increased the ownership ratio to 76.05%, by transferring 60 branches of Banco Ambrosiano Veneto located in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, to FriulAdria, thus the bank beca

List of companies of Italy


This is a list of notable companies from Italy . Aerospace and defence Aermacchi , defunct, aircraft, now Leonardo (former Alenia Aermacchi ) Alenia Aermacchi , defunct, aerospace, defence, now Leonardo Alenia Aeronautica , defunct, aerospace engineering, now Leonardo AgustaWestland , defunct, helicopters, now Leonardo Beretta , firearms Leonardo , aerospace, defence and security Fiocchi Munizioni , ammunition Gio. Ansaldo & C. , defunct OTO Melara , defunct, defence, now Leonardo Piaggio Aerospace , aerospace manufacturing Partenavia , defunct aircraft Selex ES , defunct, aerospace and defence electronics, now Leonardo SIAI-Marchetti , defunct aircraft Airlines Alitalia , flag carrier Air Dolomiti , regional airline owned by Lufthansa Air Italy , subsidiary of Meridiana Air One , defunct airline, merged in Alitalia Blue Panorama Airlines , private airline C.A.I. Second , subsidiary of Alitalia Eurofly , defunct airline, merged in Meridiana Livingston Energy Flight , defunct airline Meridiana , airline M

The Godfather Part III


The Godfather Part III is a 1990 American crime film written by Mario Puzo and Francis Ford Coppola , and directed by Coppola. A sequel to The Godfather (1972) and The Godfather Part II (1974), it completes the story of Michael Corleone , a Mafia kingpin who attempts to legitimize his criminal empire. The film also includes fictionalized accounts of two real-life events: the 1978 death of Pope John Paul I and the Papal banking scandal of 1981–82, both linked to Michael Corleone's business affairs. The film stars Al Pacino , Diane Keaton , Talia Shire , and Andy García , and features Eli Wallach , Joe Mantegna , George Hamilton , Bridget Fonda , and Sofia Coppola . Coppola and Puzo preferred the title, The Death of Michael Corleone, but Paramount Pictures found that unacceptable. Coppola subsequently stated that The Godfather series is two films and that Part III is the epilogue . Part III received mixed reviews compared to the critical acclaim that the first two films received. It grossed $136,766,062 and was

Giorgio Ambrosoli


Giorgio Ambrosoli (October 17, 1933 – July 11, 1979) was an Italian lawyer who was gunned down while investigating the malpractice of banker Michele Sindona . Liquidating Sindona’s financial empire Appointed by the court as liquidator of the Banca Privata Italiana , one of the Italian banks controlled by Sicilian banker Michele Sindona , which was forced into liquidation, he found evidences of criminal manipulations. He provided the US Justice Department with evidence to convict Sindona for his role in the collapse of the Franklin National Bank . According to Ambrosoli, Sindona paid a US$5.6 million commission to "an American bishop and a Milanese banker." Official Italian sources confirmed that it concerned Paul Marcinkus , of the Vatican Bank , and Roberto Calvi , President of Banco Ambrosiano . Murder On July 11, 1979, only hours after talking to US authorities, he was shot dead by three Mafia hitmen commissioned by Michele Sindona. Sindona feared that Ambrosoli would expose his manipulations in the Banca

Salad Oil scandal


The Salad Oil scandal , also referred to as the "Soybean Scandal", was a major corporate scandal in 1963 that ultimately caused over $150 million – approximately $1.1 billion in 2008 dollars – in losses to corporations including American Express , Bank of America and Bank Leumi , as well as many international trading companies. The scandal's ability to push otherwise cautious and conservative lenders into increasingly risky practices has prompted some comparisons to recent financial crises including the 2007–2008 subprime mortgage financial crisis . Description The scandal involved the company Allied Crude Vegetable Oil in New Jersey, led by Anthony "Tino" De Angelis , a former commodities broker who had been in trouble previously for providing the federal school lunch program with poorly prepared meat. Despite this, he was able to obtain a contract with Food for Peace , a federal program which sold excess food stocks to poor countries. De Angelis discovered that he could obtain loans based upon the company'

Cassa di Risparmio di Ascoli Piceno


Cassa di Risparmio di Ascoli Piceno known as Carisap , is a former Italian regional bank based in Ascoli Piceno, Marche. A subsidiary of Intesa Sanpaolo , the bank merged with another subsidiary of the group, Banca dell'Adriatico in 2013. The former owner of the bank, Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Ascoli Piceno (Fondazione Carisap), still operated as a charity organization. The foundation still held 0.3537% shares of Intesa Sanpaolo, as of 31 December 2013. History Cassa di Risparmio di Ascoli Piceno was found in Ascoli Piceno, Papal States in 1842, the bank became Società per azioni in 1992 due to Legge Amato . In 1990s Cariplo acquired 25% shares of Carisap from Fondazione Carisap. Carisap followed the parent company Cariplo to merged with Banco Ambrosiano Veneto to form Banca Intesa on 1 January 1998, which in July in the same year the group reached 66% ownership on the bank. In 2001, Ascoli became part of an intermediate holding company Holding IntesaBCI Centro , which already consist of 5 others savi

Francesco Marino Mannoia


Francesco Marino Mannoia (born March 5, 1951) is a former member of the Sicilian Mafia who became a pentito (government witness) in 1989. His nickname was Mozzarella. He is considered to be one of the most reliable government witnesses against the Mafia. Antimafia magistrate Giovanni Falcone , who was first to interrogate him, recalled Marino Mannoia as an intelligent and reliable witness. Criminal career He was raised in Palermo , the capital of Sicily, and joined the Santa Maria di Gesù Mafia Family, headed by Stefano Bontade . He was highly sought after by all Mafia families for his skills in chemistry to be used to refine heroin for the Spatola-Inzerillo-Gambino ring. Marino Mannoia recalled having refined at least 1000 kilograms of heroin for Bontade. He had learned how to refine heroin through Antonino Vernengo , alias ‘u dutturi’ (the doctor) who was the first to set up a refinery in 1977. He was also suspected of being involved in at least seventeen homicides . During the Second Mafia War of the ear



Miniassegni were a special kind of money, a type of notgeld , that circulated in Italy in the late 1970s in place of small change; which, in that period, was scarce and that, until then, had been replaced by candy, stamps, coin-operated telephone tokens , and in some cities, public transport tickets. History The first miniassegni made their appearance in December 1975 (10 December 1975 as part of the ' Istituto Bancario San Paolo and had the value of 100 Italian lire ) and were subsequently issued by many banks; had the nominal values of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 lire. They were so called because they were cashier's checks (assegni in Italian) but smaller than normal. To overcome the prohibition to issue currency (exclusive prerogative of the Bank of Italy ), banks emitted real bank drafts made payable to cut small entities and companies already equipped their turn; in practice, as well bearer securities , were exchanged from hand to hand as if they were real currency. They circulated 835 different

Cassa di Risparmio di Fermo


Cassa di Risparmio di Fermo S.p.A. (Carifermo) is an Italian saving bank based in Fermo, Marche region. History Cassa di Risparmio di Fermo was found on 5 July 1857 in the Papal States , which was approved by Pope Pius IX on 29 April. In 1920s, the bank absorbed Cassa di Risparmio di Montottone , Cassa Rurale di Montottone , Cassa di Risparmio di Falerone and Cassa Rurale di Santo Stefano di Monterubbiano. In 1940 Cassa di Risparmio di Sant'Elpidio was absorbed into the bank. Due to Legge Amato , the bank was split into a company limited by shares ( Italian : società per azioni ) and Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Fermo (the banking foundation) in 1991 (approved on 21 December 1991; gazetted on 24 January 1992). Cassa di Risparmio delle Provincie Lombarde (Cariplo) acquired a minority interests in the bank for 33.3% shares in late 1990s. Cariplo also had a minority interests in neighboring saving bank ( Italian : Cassa di Risparmio ): Ascoli Piceno (Marche), Teramo , Pescara , Chieti (Abruzzo), Foligno , Sp

Banca Carime


Banca Carime S.p.A. was an Italian bank based in Cosenza , Calabria. The bank was a subsidiary of UBI Banca . As of 31 December 2015, the bank had 216 branches (all located in Southern Italy), serving Calabria (84 branches), Apulia (93 branches), Campania (where Salerno located; 20 branches) and Basilicata (19 branches). In 1999 the bank had 341 branches: 146 in Calabria, 45 in Basilicata, 122 in Apulia, 27 in Campania and 1 in Molise. History The bank was formed by the union of the saving banks ( Italian : Cassa di Risparmio ) of Calabria–Basilicata (Carical, found 1861 ), Apulia (Caripuglia, found 1949), and Salerno (Carisal, found 1956) by Cariplo . In 1996, Cariplo held 80% shares of Carisal and 63.71% shares of Caripuglia directly, as well as around 60% shares of Carical through direct ownership and through Fincarime , Caripuglia and Carisal. In 1997, Fincarime was renamed to Banca Carime S.p.A. with Cariplo SpA owned 98.70% shares directly and indirectly, as well as Cariplo reached 100% ownership for

Pope John Paul II


Pope Saint John Paul II ( Latin : Ioannes Paulus II ; Italian : Giovanni Paolo II ; Polish : Jan Paweł II ; born Karol Józef Wojtyła ; Polish:  ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) was Pope from 1978 to 2005. He is called Saint John Paul the Great by some Catholics. He was elected by the second Papal conclave of 1978 , which was called after Pope John Paul I , who had been elected in August to succeed Pope Paul VI , died after thirty-three days. Cardinal Wojtyła was elected on the third day of the conclave and adopted his predecessor's name in tribute to him. John Paul II is recognised as helping to end Communist rule in his native Poland and eventually all of Europe. John Paul II significantly improved the Catholic Church's relations with Judaism , Islam , the Eastern Orthodox Church , and the Anglican Communion . He upheld the Church's teachings on such matters as artificial contraception and the ordination of women , but also supported the Church's Second Vatican Council and its reforms. He was one of the mos

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Corrado Passera


Corrado Passera (born 30 December 1954) is an Italian manager and banker who has held numerous executive-level positions in various industrial and financial sectors and served as minister of economic development and infrastructure and transport in the Mario Monti Cabinet . Biography Corrado Passera was born in Como on 30 December 1954. He graduated from Bocconi University and from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania in 1980 with a Master in Business Administration . He refers to his time at Wharton as one of the most formative periods in his life. Professional career He began his professional career in 1980 at McKinsey where he remained for five years. Shortly thereafter, he embarked on a long working relationship with the Carlo De Benedetti Group, initially at Cir, the group's holding company where he served as general manager until 1990. In 1991, he became general manager of Arnoldo Mondadori Editore and, subsequently, of Gruppo Editoriale L'Espresso . Continuing his working relationship wi

List of unsolved deaths


This list of unsolved deaths includes notable cases where victims have been murdered or have died under unsolved circumstances, including murders committed by unknown serial killers . The mysteriously-deceased are listed chronologically by year. (For " serial killer cases" which span multiple years, entries are listed under the year the first murder took place.) Unsolved murders Before 1800 Dagobert II , 679; he was one of the last kings of the Merovingian line, murdered by persons unknown in the Ardennes Forest on December 23. Giovanni Borgia, 2nd Duke of Gandia , 1497; his body was recovered in the Tiber with his throat slit and about nine stab wounds on his torso. His father, Pope Alexander VI , launched an investigation only for it to end abruptly a week later. Theories range from the Orsini family to his own brothers, Cesare Borgia and Gioffre Borgia , having committed the crime. Moctezuma II , 1520, Aztec emperor; according to Spanish accounts he was killed by his own people; according to Aztec accounts

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