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Atrocity propaganda

Atrocity propaganda is a term referring to the spreading of deliberate fabrications or exaggerations about the crimes committed by an enemy, constituting a form of psychological warfare.

The inherently violent nature of war means that exaggeration and invention of atrocities often becomes the main staple of propaganda. Patriotism is often not enough to make people hate, and propaganda is also necessary.[1] "So great are the psychological resistances to war in modern nations", wrote Harold Lasswell, "that every war must appear to be a war of defense against a menacing, murderous aggressor. There must be no ambiguity about who the public is to hate."[2] Human testimony is deemed unreliable even in ordinary circumstances, but in wartime, it can be further muddled by bias, sentiment, and misguided patriotism, becoming of no value whatsoever in establishing the truth.[3]

According to Paul Linebarger, atrocity propaganda leads to real atrocities, as it incites the enemy into committing more atrocities, and, by heating up passions, it increases the chances of one's own side committing atrocities, in revenge for the ones reported in propaganda.[4] Atrocity propaganda might also lead the public to mistrust reports of actual atrocities. In January 1944, Arthur Koestler wrote of his frustration at trying to communicate what he had witnessed in Nazi-occupied Europe: the legacy of anti-German stories during World War I, many of which were debunked in the postwar years, meant that these reports were received with considerable amounts of skepticism.[5]

Like propaganda, atrocity rumors detailing exaggerated or invented crimes perpetrated by enemies are also circulated to vilify the opposing side.[6]

Techniques

By establishing a baseline lie and painting the enemy as a monster, atrocity propaganda serves as an intelligence function, since it wastes the time and resources of the enemy's counterintelligence services to defend itself. Atrocity propaganda can either be white, gray, or black. Atrocity propaganda is often white, as it makes no attempt to hide its source and is overt in nature. The propagandists' goal is to influence perceptions, attitudes, opinions, and policies; often targeting officials at all levels of government. Atrocity propaganda is violent, gloomy, and portrays doom to help rile up and get the public excited. It dehumanizes the enemy, making them easier to kill. Wars have become more serious, and less gentlemanly; the enemy must now be taken into account not merely as a man, but as a fanatic.[7] So, "falsehood is a recognized and extremely useful weapon in warfare, and every country uses it quite deliberately to deceive its own people, attract neutrals, and to mislead the enemy."[8] Harold Lasswell saw it as a handy rule for arousing hate, and that "if at first they do not enrage, use an atrocity. It has been employed with unvarying success in every conflict known to man."[2]

The extent and devastation of World War I required nations to keep morale high. Propaganda was used here to mobilize hatred against the enemy, convince the population of the justness of one's own cause, enlist the active support and cooperation of neutral countries, and strengthen the support of one's allies.[9] The goal was to make the enemy appear savage, barbaric, and inhumane.

Atrocity propaganda in history
Before the 20th century
Accounts of Irish atrocities during the Rebellion of 1641 are now dismissed as propaganda, but led to real massacres.[10]

In a sermon at Clermont during the Crusades, Urban II justified the war against Islam by claiming that the enemy "had ravaged the churches of God in the Eastern provinces, circumcised Christian men, violated women, and carried out the most unspeakable torture before killing them."[11] Urban II's sermon succeeded in mobilizing popular enthusiasm in support of the People's Crusade.

Lurid tales purporting to unveil Jewish atrocities against Christians were widespread in the Middle Ages.[12] The charge against Jews of kidnapping and murdering Christian children to drink their blood during passover became known as blood libel.[13]

In the 17th century, the English press fabricated graphic descriptions of atrocities allegedly committed by Irish Catholics against English Protestants, including the torture of civilians and the raping of women. The English public reacted to these stories with calls for stern reprisals.[14] During the Irish rebellion of 1641, lurid reports of atrocities, including of pregnant women who had been ripped open and had their babies pulled out, provided Oliver Cromwell with justification for his subsequent slaughter of defeated Irish rebels.[10]

In 1782, Benjamin Franklin wrote and published an article purporting to reveal a letter between a British agent and the governor of Canada, listing atrocities supposedly perpetrated by Native American allies of Britain against colonists, including detailed accounts of the scalping of women and children. The account was a fabrication, published in the expectation that it would be reprinted by British newspapers and therefore sway British public opinion in favor of peace with the United States.[15]

After the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny, stories began to circulate in the British and colonial press of atrocities, especially rapes of European women, in places like Cawnpore; a subsequent official inquiry found no evidence for any of the claims.[16]

In the lead up to the Spanish–American War, Pulitzer and Hearst published stories of Spanish atrocities against Cubans. While occasionally true, the majority of these stories were fabrications meant to boost sales.[17]

20th century
World War I
It was reported that some thirty to thirty-five German soldiers entered the house of David Tordens, a carter, in Sempst; they bound him, and then five or six of them assaulted and ravished in his presence his thirteen-year-old daughter, and afterwards fixed her on bayonets. After this horrible deed, they bayoneted his nine-year-old boy and then shot his wife.
[18]
Stories of German soldiers impaling children on their bayonets were based on extremely flimsy evidence.[19]

Atrocity propaganda was widespread during World War I, when it was used by all belligerents, playing a major role in creating the wave of patriotism that characterised the early stages of the war.[20] British propaganda is regarded as having made the most extensive use of fictitious atrocities to promote the war effort.[20]

One such story was that German soldiers were deliberately mutilating Belgian babies by cutting off their hands, in some versions even eating them. Eyewitness accounts told of having seen a similarly mutilated baby. As Arthur Ponsonby later pointed out, in reality a baby would be very unlikely to survive similar wounds without immediate medical attention.[21]

Another atrocity story involved a Canadian soldier, who had supposedly been crucified with bayonets by the Germans (see The Crucified Soldier). Many Canadians claimed to have witnessed the event, yet they all provided different version of how it had happened. The Canadian high command investigated the matter, concluding that it was untrue.[22]

Other reports circulated of Belgian women, often nuns, who had their breasts cut off by the Germans.[23] A story about German corpse factories, where bodies of German soldiers were supposedly turned into glycerine for weapons, or food for hogs and poultry, was published in a Times article on April 17, 1917.[24] In the postwar years, investigations in Britain and France revealed that these stories were false.[20]

In 1915, the British government asked Viscount Bryce, one of the best-known contemporary historians, to head the Committee on Alleged German Outrages which was to investigate the allegations of atrocities. The report purported to prove many of the claims, and was widely published in the United States, where it contributed to convince the American public to enter the war. Few at the time criticised the accuracy of the report. After the war, historians who sought to examine the documentation for the report were told that the files had mysteriously disappeared. Surviving correspondence between the members of the committee revealed they actually had severe doubts about the credibility of the tales they investigated.[25]

World War II

During World War II, atrocity propaganda was not used on the same scale as in World War I, as by then it had long been discredited by its use during the previous conflict.[26] There were exceptions in some propaganda films, such as Hitler's Children, Women in Bondage, and Enemy of Women, which portrayed the Germans (as opposed to just Nazis) as enemies of civilization, abusing women and the innocent.[27] Hitler's Children is now spoken of as "lurid", while Women in Bondage is described as a low-budget exploitation film; the latter carries a disclaimer that "everything in the film is true", but facts are often distorted or sensationalized.[28]

Soviet-Afghan War
The PFM-1 mine was claimed to have been deliberately designed to attract children

According to a 1985 UN report backed by Western countries, the KGB had deliberately designed mines to look like toys, and deployed them against Afghan children during the Soviet war in Afghanistan.[29]

Newspapers such as the New York Times ran stories denouncing the "ghastly, deliberate crippling of children" and noting that while the stories had been met with skepticism by the public, they had been proven by the "incontrovertible testimony" of a UN official testifying the existence of booby-trap toys in the shape of harmonicas, radios, or birds.[30]

The story likely originated from the PFM-1 mine, which was made from brightly colored plastic and had been directly copied from the American BLU-43 Dragontooth design. The Mine Action Coordination Center of Afghanistan reported that the allegations "gained a life for obvious journalist reasons", but otherwise had no basis in reality.[29]

Yugoslav Wars

In November 1991, a Serbian photographer claimed to have seen the corpses of 41 children, which had allegedly been killed by Croatian soldiers. The story was published by media outlets worldwide, but the photographer later admitted to fabricating his account. The story of this atrocity was blamed for inciting a desire for vengeance in Serbian rebels, who summarily executed Croatian fighters who were captured near the alleged crime scene the day after the forged report was published.[31]

Gulf war

Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990. On October 10, 1990, a young Kuwaiti girl known only as "Nayirah" appeared in front of a congressional committee and testified that she witnessed the mass murdering of infants, when Iraqi soldiers had snatched them out of hospital incubators and threw them on the floor to die. Her testimony became a lead item in newspapers, radio and TV all over the US. The story was eventually exposed as a fabrication in December 1992, in a CBC-TV program called To Sell a War. Nayirah was revealed to be the daughter of Kuwait's ambassador to the United States, and actually hadn't seen the "atrocities" she described take place; the PR firm Hill & Knowlton, which had been hired by the Kuwaiti government to devise a PR campaign to increase American public support for a war against Iraq, had heavily promoted her testimony.[32]

21st century
Iraq War

In the runup to the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, press stories appeared in the United Kingdom and United States of a plastic shredder or wood chipper[33] [34] into which Saddam and Qusay Hussein fed opponents of their Baathist rule. These stories attracted worldwide attention and boosted support for military action, in stories with titles such as "See men shredded, then say you don't back war".[35] A year later, it was determined there was no evidence to support the existence of such a machine.[36]

In 2004, former Marine Staff Sgt. Jimmy Massey claimed that he and other Marines intentionally killed dozens of innocent Iraqi civilians, including a 4-year-old girl. His allegations were published by news organizations worldwide, but none of the five journalists who covered his battalion said they saw reckless or indiscriminate shooting of civilians. The St. Louis Post-Dispatch dismissed his claim as "either demonstrably false or exaggerated".[37]

In July 2003 an Iraqi woman, Jumana Hanna, testified that she had been subjected to inhumane treatment by Baathist policemen during two years of imprisonment, including being subjected to electric shocks and raped repeatedly. The story appeared on the front page of The Washington Post, and was presented to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee by then-Deputy Defense Secretary Paul D. Wolfowitz. In January 2005, articles in Esquire and The Washington Post concluded that none of her allegations could be verified, and that her accounts contained grave inconsistencies. Her husband, who she claimed had been executed in the same prison where she was tortured, was in fact still alive.[38]

Other cases

During the Battle of Jenin, Palestinian officials claimed there was a massacre of civilians in the refugee camp, which was proven false by subsequent international investigations.[39]

During the 2010 South Kyrgyzstan ethnic clashes, a rumor spread among ethnic Kyrgyz that Uzbek men had broken into a local women's dormitory and raped several Kyrgyz women. Local police never provided any confirmation that such an assault occurred.[40]

During the Arab Spring, Libyan media was reporting atrocities by Muammar Gaddafi loyalists, who were ordered to perform mass "Viagra-fueled rapes" (see 2011 Libyan rape allegations).[41] A later investigation by Amnesty International has failed to find evidence for these allegations, and in many cases has discredited them, as the rebels were found to have deliberately lied about the claims.[42]

In July 2014, the Russian public broadcaster Channel 1 aired a report claiming that Ukrainian soldiers in Sloviansk had crucified a three-year-old boy to a board, and later dragged his mother with a tank, causing her death.[43] The account of the only witness interviewed for the report was not corroborated by anyone else,[44] and other media have been unable to confirm the story,[45] despite claims in the testimony that many of the city's inhabitants had been forced to watch the killings.[44] A reporter for Novaya Gazeta similarly failed to find any other witnesses in the city.[46]

See also
Notes
  1. Rogerson, Sidney (1938). Propaganda in the Next War. Great Britain: MacKays Limited. p. 27.
  2. Delwiche, Aaron. "Domestic Propaganda During the First World War". Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  3. Ponsonby, p.128
  4. Budge, Kent. "Propaganda". The Pacific War Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  5. "Inventing Atrocities". National Review Online. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  6. David L. Miller (6 August 2013). Introduction to Collective Behavior and Collective Action: Third Edition. Waveland Press. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-4786-1095-3.
  7. Linebarger, Paul (1948). Psychological Warfare. Landisville, Pennsylvania: Coachwhip Publications. p. 22. ISBN 1-61646-055-5.
  8. "Falsehood in Wartime". Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  9. Cull, Culbert, Welch, p.24
  10. "How lies about Irish 'barbarism' in 1641 paved way for Cromwell's atrocities". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  11. Cull, Culbert, Welch, p. 23–4
  12. Carl R. Trueman (2010-01-01). Histories and Fallacies: Problems Faced in the Writing of History. Crossway. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-4335-2080-8.
  13. McLeod, Kembrew (2014-01-01). Pranksters: Making Mischief in the Modern World. NYU Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-8147-6436-7.
  14. James David Drake (1999). King Philip's War: Civil War in New England, 1675–1676. Univ of Massachusetts Press. p. 134. ISBN 1-55849-224-0.
  15. "The Atrocity Propaganda Ben Franklin Circulated to Sway Public Opinion in America’s Favor". Slate. 1 July 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  16. Tickell, Alex (2013-06-17). Terrorism, Insurgency and Indian-English Literature, 1830–1947. Routledge. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-136-61841-3.
  17. Golay, Michael (2009-01-01). Spanish-American War, Updated Edition. Infobase Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-4381-0013-5.
  18. Ponsonby, p.129
  19. "Alleged German atrocities: Bryce report". The National Archives. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  20. Nicholas John Cull; David Holbrook Culbert; David Welch (2003-01-01). Propaganda and Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present. ABC-CLIO. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-57607-820-4.
  21. Celia M. Kingsbury (2010-07-01). For Home and Country: World War I Propaganda on the Home Front. U of Nebraska Press. p. 67. ISBN 0-8032-2832-5.
  22. Jennifer Keene; Michael Neiberg (2011). Finding Common Ground: New Directions in First World War Studies. BRILL. p. 32. ISBN 90-04-19182-8.
  23. Hollander, Neil (2013-12-27). Elusive Dove: The Search for Peace During World War I. McFarland. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-7864-7891-0.
  24. Celia M. Kingsbury (2010-07-01). For Home and Country: World War I Propaganda on the Home Front. U of Nebraska Press. p. 49. ISBN 0-8032-2832-5.
  25. "The Historian Who Sold Out". History News Network. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  26. Philip M. Taylor (15 November 2003). Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda, Third Edition (PDF). Manchester University Press. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-7190-6767-9.
  27. Philip M. Taylor (15 November 2003). Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda, Third Edition (PDF). Manchester University Press. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-7190-6767-9.
  28. Bernard F. Dick. The Star-spangled Screen: The American World War II Film. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 189–190. ISBN 0-8131-2821-8.
  29. Braithwaite, Rodric (2011). Afgantsy: The Russians in Afghanistan, 1979–89. Profile Books. p. 223. ISBN 1-84668-054-9.
  30. "Soviet Toys of Death". The New York Times. 10 December 1985. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  31. "Media : Truth Is Again a Casualty of War : Fabricated accounts of atrocities in Yugoslavia have often led to fierce reprisals". Los Angeles Times.
  32. "When contemplating war, beware of babies in incubators". CSMonitor.com. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  33. Saddam Executed; An Era Comes to an End
  34. Prison Stands as Testament to Saddam's Evil
  35. Clwyd, Ann (March 18, 2003). "See men shredded, then say you don't back war". Times Online. Archived from the original on 5 September 2008. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  36. "Brendan O'Neill: The missing people-shredder". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  37. "Is Jimmy Massey telling the truth about Iraq?". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Archived from the original on December 5, 2005. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  38. "Iraqi Refugee's Tale of Abuse Dissolves Upon Later Scrutiny". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  39. Dickey, Christopher. "The Crying Game". Newsweek. - "histrionic claims by Palestinian leader Yasir Arafat that 1,000 civilians had been killed. (In fact, about 50 Palestinians had fought and died in a ferocious battle that also cost the lives of 23 Israeli soldiers.)"
  40. "Barriers Removed in Kyrgyzstan Despite Uzbek Protests". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  41. MacAskill, Ewen (29 April 2011). "Gaddafi 'supplies troops with Viagra to encourage mass rape', claims diplomat". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  42. "Amnesty questions claim that Gaddafi ordered rape as weapon of war". The Independent. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  43. "Malaysia Airlines crash: Russian media blame Kiev". FT.com.
  44. "Russians Hear News About Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 That's Good for Kremlin". WSJ. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  45. "Russian TV sparks outrage with Ukraine child 'crucifixion' claim". Yahoo News. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  46. "There's No Evidence the Ukrainian Army Crucified a Child in Slovyansk". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
References
  • Ponsonby, Arthur (1928). Falsehood in Wartime. Institute for Historical Review. p. 128. ISBN 0-939484-39-0.
  • Nicholas Cull; David Culbert; David Welch (2003). Propaganda and Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present. ABC-CLIO. pp. 23–25. ISBN 1-57607-820-5.
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Overview of 21st-century propaganda

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Since the end of the 20th century, propaganda has evolved significantly. Today's propaganda is characterised by psych-ops and disinformation , whereas a few decades ago it was dominated by posters and simple films. This article delineates propaganda usage in the 21st century. Middle East Afghan War In the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan , psychological operations tactics were employed to demoralise the Taliban and to win the sympathies of the Afghan population. At least six EC-130E Commando Solo aircraft were used to jam local radio transmissions and transmit replacement propaganda messages. Leaflets were also dropped throughout Afghanistan, offering rewards for Osama bin Laden and other individuals, portraying Americans as friends of Afghanistan and emphasising various negative aspects of the Taliban. Another shows a picture of Mohammed Omar in a set of crosshairs with the words: "We are watching." Iraq War Both the United States and Iraq employed propaganda during the Iraq War . The United States established c



List of Star Wars Rebels episodes

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Star Wars Rebels is an American 3D CGI animated television series produced by Lucasfilm and Lucasfilm Animation . Beginning fourteen years after Revenge of the Sith and five years before A New Hope , Rebels takes place during an era when the Galactic Empire is securing its grip on the galaxy. Imperial forces are hunting down the last of the Jedi Knights while a fledgling rebellion against the Empire is taking form. The series was previewed throughout August 2014 with a set of shorts introducing the main characters before the television film pilot episode premiered on Disney Channel on October 3, 2014. The regular series premiered on Disney XD on October 13, 2014. The second season started on June 20, 2015, and the third season premiered on September 24, 2016. As of March 25, 2017, 59 episodes of Star Wars Rebels have aired. The two-part season three finale aired on March 25, 2017. On March 31, it was announced that the show would return for a fourth season. On April 15, Dave Filoni announced that the fou



Propaganda during the Yugoslav Wars

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During the Yugoslav Wars , propaganda was widely used in the media of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Croatia , and in Bosnian media. Serbian media In the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), one of the indictments against Serbian leader Slobodan Milošević was his use of the Serbian state-run mass media to create an atmosphere of fear and hatred among Yugoslavia's Orthodox Serbs by spreading "exaggerated and false messages of ethnically based attacks by Bosnian Muslims and Catholic Croats against the Serb people..." A falsified image (left) with a caption stating a " Serbian boy whose whole family was killed by Bosnian Muslims ", published by Večernje novosti during the Bosnian War . The image was originally a painting (right) made in 1888 by Serbian artist Uroš Predić . The original title is "Siroče na majčinom grobu" (Orphan at mother's grave). Milošević's reign and control of media in Serbia Slobodan Milošević began his efforts to gain control over the media in 1986- 87



History of public relations

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Most textbooks date the establishment of the "Publicity Bureau" in 1900 as the start of the modern public relations (PR) profession. Of course, there were many early forms of public influence and communications management in history. Basil Clark is considered the founder of the public relations profession in Britain with his establishment of Editorial Services in 1924. Academic Noel Turnball points out that systematic PR was employed in Britain first by religious evangelicals and Victorian reformers, especially opponents of slavery. In each case the early promoters focused on their particular movement and were not for hire more generally. Propaganda was used by both sides to rally domestic support and demonize enemies during the First World War. PR activists entered the private sector in the 1920s. Public relations became established first in the US by Ivy Lee or Edward Bernays , then spread internationally. Many American companies with PR departments spread the practice to Europe after 1948 when they created



Insurgency weapons and tactics

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Improvised molotov cocktails Insurgency weapons and tactics are weapons and tactics, most often involving firearms or explosive devices, intended for use by insurgents to engage in guerrilla warfare against an occupier, or for use by rebels against an established government. One type of insurgency weapon are "homemade" firearms made by non-professionals, such as the Błyskawica (Lightning) submachine gun produced in underground workshops by the Polish resistance movement . Another insurgency weapon is a sanitized weapon, which is a weapon of any sort that has had normal markings, such as the manufacturer's name and/or serial number, omitted or obscured in an attempt to hide the origin of the weapon. A weapon that is part of the conventional military arsenal, but which has been taken up to great effect by insurgents, is the RPG. Two examples of an improvised weapon used by insurgents would be the improvised explosive devices used in Iraq and the Molotov cocktails (glass bottles filled with gasoline) used agains



My Lai Massacre

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The Mỹ Lai Massacre ( Vietnamese : Thảm sát Mỹ Lai , ; , , or ) was the Vietnam War mass killing of between 347 and 504 unarmed civilians in South Vietnam on March 16, 1968. It was committed by U.S. Army soldiers from Company C, 1st Battalion , 20th Infantry Regiment , 11th Brigade , 23rd (Americal) Infantry Division . Victims included men, women, children, and infants. Some of the women were gang-raped and their bodies mutilated. Twenty-six soldiers were charged with criminal offenses, but only Lieutenant William Calley Jr. , a platoon leader in C Company, was convicted. Found guilty of killing 22 villagers, he was originally given a life sentence, but served only three and a half years under house arrest . The massacre, which was later called "the most shocking episode of the Vietnam War", took place in two hamlets of Sơn Mỹ village in Quảng Ngãi Province . These hamlets were marked on the U.S. Army topographic maps as My Lai and My Khe. The U.S. Army slang name for the hamlets and sub-hamlets in that



RT (TV network)

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RT (formerly Russia Today ) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government . It operates cable and satellite television channels directed to audiences outside of Russia, as well as providing Internet content in various languages, including English, Spanish and Russian. RT International, based in Moscow , presents around-the-clock news bulletins, documentaries, talk shows, debates, sports news, and cultural programmes that it says provide "a Russian viewpoint on major global events". RT operates as a multilingual service with conventional channels in three languages: the original English-language channel was launched in 2005, the Arabic-language channel in 2007, and the Spanish-language channel in 2009. RT America (since 2010), and RT UK (since 2014) offer some locally based content for those countries. It was announced that in December 2017, a French-language channel will be launched. RT is a brand of "TV-Novosti", an "autonomous non-profit organization", founded by the Rus



Spanish Civil War

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The Spanish Civil War ( Spanish : Guerra Civil Española ), widely known in Spain simply as The Civil War ( Spanish : Guerra Civil ) or The War ( Spanish : La Guerra ), took place from 1936 to 1939. The Republicans , who were loyal to the democratic, left -leaning and relatively urban Second Spanish Republic , in an alliance of convenience with the Anarchists, fought against the Nationalists , a Falangist , Carlist , and largely aristocratic conservative group led by General Francisco Franco . Although the war is often portrayed as a struggle between democracy and fascism , some historians believe it should more accurately be described as a struggle between leftist revolution and rightist counter-revolution. Ultimately, the Nationalists won, and Franco then ruled Spain for the next 36 years, from April 1939 until his death in November 1975. The war began after a pronunciamiento (declaration of opposition) by a group of generals of the Spanish Republican Armed Forces , originally under the leadership of José



Wellington House

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Wellington House is the more common name for Britain's War Propaganda Bureau , which operated during World War I from Wellington House, a building located in Buckingham Gate, London, which was the headquarters of the National Insurance Commission before the War. The Bureau, which operated under the supervision of the Foreign Office , was mainly directed at foreign targets, including Allied nations and neutral countries, especially (until 1917) the United States. The building itself has since been demolished, and its former site is now occupied by a block of flats. History In August 1914, after discovering that Germany had a Propaganda Agency, David Lloyd George , the Chancellor of the Exchequer , was given the task of setting up a British War Propaganda Bureau. Lloyd George appointed the writer and fellow Liberal MP , Charles Masterman to head the organization, whose headquarters were set up at Wellington House, the London headquarters of the National Insurance Commission, of which Masterman was the chairman



Blood libel

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Blood libel (also blood accusation ) is an accusation that Jews kidnapped and murdered the children of Christians in order to use their blood as part of their religious rituals during Jewish holidays . Historically, these claims – alongside those of well poisoning and host desecration  – have been a major theme of the persecution of Jews in Europe . Blood libels typically say that Jews require human blood for the baking of matzos for Passover , although this element was allegedly absent in the earliest cases which claimed that then-contemporary Jews reenacted the crucifixion . The accusations often assert that the blood of the children of Christians is especially coveted, and, historically, blood libel claims have been made in order to account for the otherwise unexplained deaths of children. In some cases, the alleged victim of human sacrifice has become venerated as a martyr , a holy figure around whom a martyr sect might arise. Three of these – William of Norwich , Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln ,



Hate week

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Hate Week is an event in George Orwell 's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four , designed to increase the hatred for the current enemy of the Party, as much as possible, whichever of the two opposing superstates that may be. Plot summary During one particular Hate Week, Oceania switched allies while a public speaker is in the middle of a sentence, though the disruption was minimal: the posters against the previous enemy were deemed to be "sabotage" of Hate Week conducted by Emmanuel Goldstein and his supporters, summarily torn down by the crowd, and quickly replaced with propaganda against the new enemy, thus demonstrating the ease with which the Party directs the hatred of its members. This ease of direction could also be partially attributed to the similarity in the terms "Eastasia" and "Eurasia" because they are more easily confused. All members of Oceania are expected to show appropriate enthusiasm during Hate Week, as well as the daily Two Minutes Hate . While participation in this event is not legally required, a



Ingsoc

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INGSOC Ingsoc ( Newspeak for English Socialism or the English Socialist Party ) is the political ideology of the totalitarian government of Oceania in George Orwell 's Dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four . Occurs commonly with the term newspeak which is as referred by Syme (one of Winston's co-workers) as nothing but destroying words and synonyms and antonyms to eliminate confusion. Fictional origins Oceania appears to have emerged as a formal political union of the United States and the countries of the British Commonwealth , which later annexed the remainder of the Americas and all of Southern Africa. Big Brother and Emmanuel Goldstein led the Party to power in Oceania after a revolution of some kind. After the Party achieved control of Oceania, Ingsoc became the official governing ideology and other political beliefs were increasingly marginalized. Goldstein and Big Brother later became enemies, and differed in their interpretation of Ingsoc. As political philosophy The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical



Criticism of Islam

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Criticism of Islam has existed since its formative stages. Early written criticism came from Christians , before the ninth century, many of whom viewed Islam as a radical Christian heresy . Later the Muslim world itself suffered criticism. Criticism of Islam in the West was renewed after the September 11 attacks and other terrorist attacks in the early 21st century. Objects of criticism include the morality of the life of Muhammad , the last prophet according to Islam , both in his public and personal life. Issues relating to the authenticity and morality of the Quran , the Islamic holy book, are also discussed by critics. Figures in Africa and India have described what they perceive as destruction of indigenous cultures by Islam. Other criticism focuses on the question of human rights in the Islamic world historically and in modern Islamic nations, including the treatment of women , LGBT people and religious and ethnic minorities in Islamic law and practice. In the wake of the recent multiculturali



Nazi crimes against the Polish nation

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Nazi German crimes against the Polish nation claimed the lives of 2.77 million ethnic Poles and 2.7 to 2.9 million Polish Jews , according to estimates of the Polish government-affiliated Institute of National Remembrance (IPN). Historians outside Poland put the number of Jewish victims of the Holocaust in occupied Poland at 3.0 million. The original assumptions of Generalplan Ost were based on Nazi plans to exterminate around 85% (over 20 million) of the ethnically Polish citizens of Poland, with the remaining 15% to be used as slaves . The dissemination of knowledge on the subject of Nazi German crimes in World War II was entrusted by an Act of the Polish Parliament in 2000 to the Institute, which replaced the former Main Commission for the Investigation of German Crimes against the Polish Nation. The crimes were committed during the course of the 1939 invasion , as well as the subsequent occupation of Poland . The genocidal policy of the German Third Reich against the Polish nation was the epicenter



Evacuation of East Prussia

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The evacuation of East Prussia was the movement of the ethnic German civilian population and military personnel in East Prussia and the Klaipėda region between 20 January and March 1945 as part of the evacuation of German civilians towards the end of World War II. It is not to be confused with the expulsion after the war had ended, under Soviet occupation. The evacuation, which had been delayed for months, was initiated due to fear of the Red Army advances during the East Prussian Offensive . Some parts of the evacuation were planned as a military necessity, Operation Hannibal being the most important military operation involved in the evacuation. However, many refugees took to the roads on their own initiative because of reported Soviet atrocities against Germans in the areas under Soviet control. Both spurious and factual accounts of Soviet atrocities were disseminated through the official news and propaganda outlets of Nazi Germany and by rumors that swept through the military and civilian populations. Des



Anti-Russian sentiment

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Anti-Russian sentiment or Russophobia is a diverse spectrum of negative feelings, dislikes, fears, aversion, derision and/or prejudice of Russia , Russians or Russian culture . A wide variety of mass culture clichés about Russia and Russians exists. Many of these stereotypes were developed during the Cold War , and were used as elements of political war against the Soviet Union . Some of these prejudices are still observed in the discussions of the relations with Russia. Negative representation of Russia and Russians in modern popular culture is also often described as functional, as stereotypes about Russia may be used for framing reality, like creating an image of an enemy, or an excuse, or an explanation for compensatory reasons. Decades after the end of the Cold War , Russians are still portrayed as "Hollywood's go-to villains". On the other hand, Russian nationalists and apologists of the politics of Russia often use the allegations of "Russophobia" as a form of propaganda to counter the criticism



Che Guevara

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Ernesto " Che " Guevara ( Spanish pronunciation:  June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967) was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary , physician , author, guerrilla leader, diplomat and military theorist . A major figure of the Cuban Revolution , his stylized visage has become a ubiquitous countercultural symbol of rebellion and global insignia in popular culture . As a young medical student , Guevara traveled throughout South America and was radicalized by the poverty, hunger and disease he witnessed. His burgeoning desire to help overturn what he saw as the capitalist exploitation of Latin America by the United States prompted his involvement in Guatemala 's social reforms under President Jacobo Árbenz , whose eventual CIA-assisted overthrow at the behest of the United Fruit Company solidified Guevara's political ideology. Later in Mexico City , Guevara met Raúl and Fidel Castro , joined their 26th of July Movement and sailed to Cuba aboard the yacht Granma with the intention of overthrowing U.S.-backed Cuban dict



Soviet war crimes

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War crimes perpetrated by the Soviet Union and its armed forces from 1919 to 1991 include acts committed by the Red Army (later called the Soviet Army ) as well as the NKVD , including the NKVD 's Internal Troops . In some cases, these acts were committed upon the orders of the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in pursuance of the early Soviet Government's policy of Red Terror , in other instances they were committed without orders by Soviet troops against prisoners of war or civilians of countries that had been in armed conflict with the USSR , or they were committed during partisan warfare . A significant number of these incidents occurred in Northern and Eastern Europe before, during and in the aftermath of World War II , involving summary executions and the mass murder of prisoners of war , such as in the Katyn massacre and mass rape by troops of the Red Army in territories they occupied . When the Allied Powers of World War II founded the post-war International Military Tribunal to examine war crimes committed



Mass suicides in 1945 Nazi Germany

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During the final weeks of the Third Reich and the war in Europe , many civilians, government officials and military personnel throughout Nazi Germany committed suicide. Aside from high-ranking Nazi officials like Adolf Hitler , Joseph Goebbels , Heinrich Himmler , Philipp Bouhler and Martin Bormann , many others chose  Selbstmord ( German : Self-murder ) rather than accept the defeat of Germany. Studies have shown that the suicides were influenced through Nazi propaganda (reaction to the suicide of Adolf Hitler ), the tenets of the Nazi Party , and the anticipated reprisals following the Allied occupation of Nazi Germany . For example in April 1945, at least 1,000 people killed themselves and others within 72 hours as the Red Army neared the East German town of Demmin . Three distinct periods of suicides have been identified between January and May 1945 when thousands of people took their own lives. Life Magazine reported that: "In the last days of the war the overwhelming realization of utter defeat was too



Liberty bond

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Joseph Pennell 's poster That Liberty Shall Not Perish from the Earth, for the fourth Liberty Loan (1918) A 1917 government poster using the Statue of Liberty to promote the development sale of bonds of the 2nd Liberty Loan Act. Douglas Fairbanks , movie star, speaking to a large crowd in front of the Sub-Treasury building, New York City , to aid the third Liberty Loan, in April 1918 Mary Pickford signing the entrance to the Mary Pickford War Funds bungalow. A Liberty bond (or liberty loan ) was a war bond that was sold in the United States to support the allied cause in World War I . Subscribing to the bonds became a symbol of patriotic duty in the United States and introduced the idea of financial securities to many citizens for the first time. The Act of Congress which authorized the Liberty Bonds is still used today as the authority under which all U.S. Treasury bonds are issued. Securities, also known as Liberty Bonds, were issued in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks to finance t



Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

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The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant ( ISIL , IPA : ), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria ( ISIS ), Islamic State ( IS ), and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh ( Arabic : داعش ‎‎ dāʿish, IPA:  ), is a Salafi jihadist militant group and unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist , Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam . ISIL gained global prominence in early 2014 when it drove Iraqi government forces out of key cities in its Western Iraq offensive , followed by its capture of Mosul and the Sinjar massacre . This group has been designated a terrorist organisation by the United Nations and many individual countries. ISIL is widely known for its videos of beheadings of both soldiers and civilians, including journalists and aid workers, and its destruction of cultural heritage sites . The United Nations holds ISIL responsible for human rights abuses and war crimes , and Amnesty International has charged the group with ethnic cleansing on a "historic scale" in northern Iraq. ISIL o



Syrian Civil War

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The Syrian Civil War ( Arabic : الحرب الأهلية السورية ‎‎, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the government of President Bashar al-Assad , along with its allies, and various forces opposing the government. The unrest in Syria, part of a wider wave of 2011 Arab Spring protests, grew out of discontent with the Assad government and escalated to an armed conflict after protests calling for his removal were violently suppressed. The war is being fought by several factions: the Syrian government and its allies, a loose alliance of Sunni Arab rebel groups (including the Free Syrian Army ), the majority-Kurdish Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), Salafi jihadist groups (including al-Nusra Front ) and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), with a number of countries in the region and beyond being either directly involved , or rendering support to one or another faction. Syrian opposition groups formed the Free Syrian Army (FSA) and seized



Napoleon

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Imperial coat of arms Napoléon Bonaparte ( ; French:  ; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars . As Napoleon I , he was Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, and again briefly in 1815 (during the Hundred Days ). Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars . He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. One of the greatest commanders in history, his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history . He was born Napoleone di Buonaparte ( Italian:  ) in Corsica , to a relatively modest family from minor I

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When he proclaimed himself Emperor of the French in 1804, he decided his hometown needed to look like a world capital and set about creating the Paris we know today.

Much of what Napoleon did to make Paris a great capital city is also underway here in Ottawa, where the Government of Canada, City of Ottawa and Province of Ontario are spending billions of dollars to give our capital a facelift for its 150th birthday next year.

Napoleon’s designs and constructions to have Paris edge out Rome as Europe’s principal capital city are on display across the Ottawa River in Gatineau.


International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone

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The International Committee was established in order to establish and manage the Nanking Safety Zone . Many Westerners were living in the city at that time, conducting trade or on missionary trips. As the Japanese army began to approach Nanking, most of them fled the city. A small number of Western businessmen, journalists and missionaries, however, chose to remain behind. The missionaries were primarily Americans from the Episcopal, Disciples of Christ, Presbyterian, and Methodist churches. To coordinate their efforts, the Westerners formed a committee, called the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone. German businessman John Rabe was elected as its leader, partly because of his status as a member of the Nazi party and the existence of the German-Japanese bilateral Anti-Comintern Pact . Rabe and other refugees from foreign countries tried to protect the civilians from getting killed by the Japanese. The Japanese didn't recognize the Safety Zone, and hundreds of men and women were raped and kil



Nuremberg Rally

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The Totenehrung (honoring of the dead) at the 1934 Nuremberg Rally. SS leader Heinrich Himmler , Adolf Hitler and SA leader Viktor Lutze (from L to R) on the stone terrace in front of the Ehrenhalle (Hall of Honor) in the Luitpoldarena . In the background is the crescent-shaped Ehrentribüne (the Tribune of Honor). The Nuremberg Rally (officially   Reichsparteitag   , meaning Imperial Party Convention) was the annual rally of the Nazi Party in Germany , held from 1923 to 1938. They were large Nazi propaganda events, especially after Adolf Hitler's rise to power in 1933. These events were held at the Nazi party rally grounds in Nuremberg from 1933 to 1938 and are usually referred to in English as the "Nuremberg Rallies". Many films were made to commemorate them, the most famous of which is Leni Riefenstahl 's Triumph of the Will and Der Sieg des Glaubens . History and purpose The first Nazi Party rallies took place in 1923 in Munich and in 1926 in Weimar . From 1927 on, they took place exclusively in Nuremberg



Henry Kissinger

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Henry Alfred Kissinger ( ; born Heinz Alfred Kissinger , German: ; May 27, 1923) is an American diplomat and political scientist who served as the United States Secretary of State and National Security Advisor under the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford . Born in Germany, Kissinger was a Jewish refugee who fled the Nazi regime with his family in 1938. He became National Security Advisor in 1969 and later concurrently United States Secretary of State in 1973. For his actions negotiating a ceasefire in Vietnam , Kissinger received the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize under controversial circumstances, with two members of the committee resigning in protest. Kissinger later sought, unsuccessfully, to return the prize after the ceasefire failed . A proponent of Realpolitik , Kissinger played a prominent role in United States foreign policy between 1969 and 1977. During this period, he pioneered the policy of détente with the Soviet Union , orchestrated the opening of relations with the People



Strategy and tactics of guerrilla warfare

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The main strategy and tactics of guerrilla warfare tend to involve the use of a small attacking, mobile force against a large, unwieldy force. The guerrilla force is largely or entirely organized in small units that are dependent on the support of the local population. Tactically, the guerrilla army makes the repetitive attacks far from the opponent's center of gravity with a view to keeping its own casualties to a minimum and imposing a constant debilitating strain on the enemy. This may provoke the enemy into a brutal, excessively destructive response which will both anger their own supporters and increase support for the guerrillas, ultimately compelling the enemy to withdraw. Guerrilla warfare as a continuum Simplified guerrilla warfare organization An insurgency , or what Mao Zedong referred to as a war of revolutionary nature, guerrilla warfare can be conceived of as part of a continuum . On the low end are small-scale raids, ambushes and attacks. In ancient times these actions were often associated wi



Jumana Hanna

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Jumana Michael/Mikhail Hanna (born c. 1962) is an Iraqi woman of Assyrian Christian background who was imprisoned at the facility known as loose dog's during the rule of Saddam Hussein. After the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime, Hanna visited the Al Kelab Al Sayba prison in Iraq with a western reporter, resulting in a Washington Post front page story in which she related stories of the atrocities that she had allegedly suffered. During the visit, she told the reporters that she had been jailed and tortured in the facility, and that her husband had been killed in a nearby prison. The Washington Post story was later mentioned by Paul Wolfowitz while testifying before the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Hanna was resettled to northern California by US authorities to protect her from possible reprisals. Sara Solovitch , a journalist based in California, became interested in the story and met with Hanna for a series of interviews, as she intended to write a book about her life. After their first meeting,



El Mercurio

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El Mercurio is a conservative Chilean newspaper with editions in Valparaíso and Santiago . Its Santiago edition is considered the country's paper-of-record and it is considered the oldest daily in the Spanish language currently in circulation. El Mercurio is owned by El Mercurio S.A.P. (Sociedad Anónima Periodística 'joint stock news company'), which operates a network of 19 regional dailies and 32 radio stations across the country. (See List of newspapers in Chile .) History Main page of El Mercurio 's 28 May 1908 edition (number 24,878) The Valparaíso edition of El Mercurio was founded by Pedro Félix Vicuña ( Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna 's father) on September 12, 1827, and was later acquired by Agustín Edwards Ross in 1880. The Santiago edition was founded by Agustín Edwards Mac Clure , son of Edwards Ross, on June 1, 1900. In 1942 Edwards Mac Clure died and his son Agustín Edwards Budge took over as president. When Edwards Budge died in 1956, his son, Agustín Edwards Eastman , took control of the company. Ro



Nazi Germany

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Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was governed by a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP). Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state in which the Nazi Party controlled nearly all aspects of life. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich ("Greater German Reich") from 1943 to 1945. The period is also known under the names the Third Reich ( German : Drittes Reich ) and the National Socialist Period ( German : Zeit des Nationalsozialismus , abbreviated as NS-Zeit). The Nazi regime came to an end after the Allied Powers defeated Germany in May 1945, ending World War II in Europe . Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. The Nazi Party then began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934 and Hi



Viet Cong

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The Việt Cộng ( Vietnamese:  ), also known as the National Liberation Front , was a communist political organization with its own army – the People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam (PLAF) – in South Vietnam and Cambodia that fought the United States and South Vietnamese governments, eventually emerging on the winning side. It had both guerrilla and regular army units, as well as a network of cadres who organized peasants in the territory it controlled. Many soldiers were recruited in South Vietnam, but others were attached to the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), the regular North Vietnamese army. During the war, communists and anti-war activists insisted the Việt Cộng was an insurgency indigenous to the South, while the U.S. and South Vietnamese governments portrayed the group as a tool of Hanoi . Although the terminology distinguishes northerners from the southerners, communist forces were under a single command structure set up in 1958. North Vietnam established the National Liberation Front on De



To Sell a War

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To Sell A War is a documentary film , first aired in December 1992 as part of CBC programme the fifth estate . The programme was directed and produced by Neil Docherty . It chronicles the Citizens for a Free Kuwait campaign efforts to spin public relations sentiment in the United States in favor of the Gulf War , focusing on the story of Nurse Nayirah , who was, in fact, Nayirah al-Sabah, the daughter of Kuwait's ambassador to the United States Saud Nasir Al-Sabah . Her infamous testimony about Iraqi soldiers removing babies from incubators, which was widely disseminated, was a result of coaching by PR firm Hill & Knowlton . Awards 1993 – American Film and Video Festival - Blue Ribbon 1993 – Canadian Association of Journalists Awards for Investigative Reporting - CAJ Award - Network Television Category 1993 – The New York Festivals - Bronze Medal 1992 – Columbus International Film and Video Festival - Chris Award 1992 – Columbus International Film and Video Festival - Bronze Plaque 1992 – International E



Ku Klux Klan

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The Ku Klux Klan (pronounced ), commonly called the KKK or simply the Klan , is the name of three distinct movements in the United States that have advocated extremist reactionary positions such as white supremacy , white nationalism , anti-immigration and—especially in later iterations— Nordicism , anti-Catholicism and antisemitism . Historically, the KKK used terrorism —both physical assault and murder—against groups or individuals whom they opposed. All three movements have called for the "purification" of American society and all are considered right-wing extremist organizations. The first Klan flourished in the Southern United States in the late 1860s, then died out by the early 1870s. It sought to overthrow the Republican state governments in the South during the Reconstruction Era , especially by using violence against African American leaders. With numerous chapters across the South, it was suppressed around 1871, through federal law enforcement . Members made their own, often colorful, costumes: r



AltNews.in

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AltNews.in is an India based anti-propaganda and fact-checking website run by ex-software engineer Pratik Sinha and two other anonymous people. The website was launched on February 9, 2017 to combat fake news. The founders have compiled a list of more than 40 fake news sites and most of them are related to the right-wing ideology. Content Other than busting the fake news, the portal covers important news items that are often left out by the mainstream media or get little coverage. They are related to politics, society, news, education, religion and science. The web portal doesn’t publish opinions. Notable work Following investigative stories by Alt News got the media coverage: Expose of Hindu right wing fake news website A video of beheading of Indian soldiers by Pakistan army was being circulated. Alt News came up with the truth. A video of Hindu man being lynched by Muslims in Bihar was being circulated. After investigation, it was found to be from Bangladesh . Guatemalan video featuring a girl being burnt



Sawney Bean

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Alexander "Sawney" Bean was said to be the head of a 48-member clan in Scotland anywhere between the 13th and 16th centuries, reportedly executed for the mass murder and cannibalisation of over 1,000 people. The story appears in The Newgate Calendar , a crime catalogue of Newgate Prison in London. While historians tend to believe Bean never existed or his story has been greatly exaggerated, his story has passed into local folklore and become part of the Edinburgh tourism industry . Legend According to The Newgate Calendar, Alexander Bean was born in East Lothian during the 1500s. His father was a ditch digger and hedge trimmer, and Bean tried to take up the family trade but quickly realized that he had little taste for honest labour. He left home with a vicious woman who apparently shared his inclinations. The couple ended up at a coastal cave in Bennane Head between Girvan and Ballantrae where they lived undiscovered for some twenty-five years. The cave was 200 yards deep and during high tide the entrance w



Karapatan

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Karapatan , which translates as rights, is a human rights non-governmental organization in the Philippines . The full name of the group is KARAPATAN: Alliance for the Advancement of People's Rights . History The organization's General Secretary, Marie Hilao-Enriquez , is a strong advocate for human rights in the Philippines and internationally. As the mandate of President Gloria Macapal-Arroyo has witnessed over 830 political killings, including a bishop, Alberto Ramento , and a state of emergency in February 2006. Further, the group has documented many cases of political killings and harassment and submitted them to the Joint Monitoring Committee (JMC) of the Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRP) and the National Democratic Front (NDFP) . In March 2007, in the capacity of representing KARAPATAN, she presented on the extra-judicial political killings before the United States East Asian and Pacific Affairs Subcommittee chaired by US Senator Barbara Boxer (D-Cal). On the eve of the Nov 01-02, 2007




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