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Atrocity propaganda

Atrocity propaganda is the spreading information about the crimes committed by an enemy, especially deliberate fabrications or exaggerations. It is a form of psychological warfare.

The inherently violent nature of war means that exaggeration and invention of atrocities often becomes the main staple of propaganda. Patriotism is often not enough to make people hate, and propaganda is also necessary.[1] "So great are the psychological resistances to war in modern nations", wrote Harold Lasswell, "that every war must appear to be a war of defense against a menacing, murderous aggressor. There must be no ambiguity about who the public is to hate."[2] Human testimony is deemed unreliable even in ordinary circumstances, but in wartime, it can be further muddled by bias, sentiment, and misguided patriotism, becoming of no value whatsoever in establishing the truth.[3]

According to Paul Linebarger, atrocity propaganda leads to real atrocities, as it incites the enemy into committing more atrocities, and, by heating up passions, it increases the chances of one's own side committing atrocities, in revenge for the ones reported in propaganda.[4] Atrocity propaganda might also lead the public to mistrust reports of actual atrocities. In January 1944, Arthur Koestler wrote of his frustration at trying to communicate what he had witnessed in Nazi-occupied Europe: the legacy of anti-German stories during World War I, many of which were debunked in the postwar years, meant that these reports were received with considerable amounts of skepticism.[5]

Like propaganda, atrocity rumors detailing exaggerated or invented crimes perpetrated by enemies are also circulated to vilify the opposing side.[6]


By establishing a baseline lie and painting the enemy as a monster, atrocity propaganda serves as an intelligence function, since it wastes the time and resources of the enemy's counterintelligence services to defend itself. Atrocity propaganda can either be white, gray, or black. Atrocity propaganda is often white, as it makes no attempt to hide its source and is overt in nature. The propagandists' goal is to influence perceptions, attitudes, opinions, and policies; often targeting officials at all levels of government. Atrocity propaganda is violent, gloomy, and portrays doom to help rile up and get the public excited. It dehumanizes the enemy, making them easier to kill. Wars have become more serious, and less gentlemanly; the enemy must now be taken into account not merely as a man, but as a fanatic.[7] So, "falsehood is a recognized and extremely useful weapon in warfare, and every country uses it quite deliberately to deceive its own people, attract neutrals, and to mislead the enemy."[8] Harold Lasswell saw it as a handy rule for arousing hate, and that "if at first they do not enrage, use an atrocity. It has been employed with unvarying success in every conflict known to man."[2]

The extent and devastation of World War I required nations to keep morale high. Propaganda was used here to mobilize hatred against the enemy, convince the population of the justness of one's own cause, enlist the active support and cooperation of neutral countries, and strengthen the support of one's allies.[9] The goal was to make the enemy appear savage, barbaric, and inhumane.

Atrocity propaganda in history
Before the 20th century
Accounts of Irish atrocities during the Rebellion of 1641 are now dismissed as propaganda, but led to real massacres.[10]

In a sermon at Clermont during the Crusades, Urban II justified the war against Islam by claiming that the enemy "had ravaged the churches of God in the Eastern provinces, circumcised Christian men, violated women, and carried out the most unspeakable torture before killing them."[11] Urban II's sermon succeeded in mobilizing popular enthusiasm in support of the People's Crusade.

Lurid tales purporting to unveil Jewish atrocities against Christians were widespread in the Middle Ages.[12] The charge against Jews of kidnapping and murdering Christian children to drink their blood during passover became known as blood libel.[13]

In the 17th century, the English press fabricated graphic descriptions of atrocities allegedly committed by Irish Catholics against English Protestants, including the torture of civilians and the raping of women. The English public reacted to these stories with calls for stern reprisals.[14] During the Irish rebellion of 1641, lurid reports of atrocities, including of pregnant women who had been ripped open and had their babies pulled out, provided Oliver Cromwell with justification for his subsequent slaughter of defeated Irish rebels.[10]

In 1782, Benjamin Franklin wrote and published an article purporting to reveal a letter between a British agent and the governor of Canada, listing atrocities supposedly perpetrated by Native American allies of Britain against colonists, including detailed accounts of the scalping of women and children. The account was a fabrication, published in the expectation that it would be reprinted by British newspapers and therefore sway British public opinion in favor of peace with the United States.[15]

After the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny, stories began to circulate in the British and colonial press of atrocities, especially rapes of European women, in places like Cawnpore; a subsequent official inquiry found no evidence for any of the claims.[16]

In the lead up to the Spanish–American War, Pulitzer and Hearst published stories of Spanish atrocities against Cubans. While occasionally true, the majority of these stories were fabrications meant to boost sales.[17]

20th century
World War I
It was reported that some thirty to thirty-five German soldiers entered the house of David Tordens, a carter, in Sempst; they bound him, and then five or six of them assaulted and ravished in his presence his thirteen-year-old daughter, and afterwards fixed her on bayonets. After this horrible deed, they bayoneted his nine-year-old boy and then shot his wife.
Stories of German soldiers impaling children on their bayonets were based on extremely flimsy evidence.[19]

Atrocity propaganda was widespread during World War I, when it was used by all belligerents, playing a major role in creating the wave of patriotism that characterised the early stages of the war.[20] British propaganda is regarded as having made the most extensive use of fictitious atrocities to promote the war effort.[20]

One such story was that German soldiers were deliberately mutilating Belgian babies by cutting off their hands, in some versions even eating them. Eyewitness accounts told of having seen a similarly mutilated baby. As Arthur Ponsonby later pointed out, in reality a baby would be very unlikely to survive similar wounds without immediate medical attention.[21]

Another atrocity story involved a Canadian soldier, who had supposedly been crucified with bayonets by the Germans (see The Crucified Soldier). Many Canadians claimed to have witnessed the event, yet they all provided different version of how it had happened. The Canadian high command investigated the matter, concluding that it was untrue.[22]

Other reports circulated of Belgian women, often nuns, who had their breasts cut off by the Germans.[23] A story about German corpse factories, where bodies of German soldiers were supposedly turned into glycerine for weapons, or food for hogs and poultry, was published in a Times article on April 17, 1917.[24] In the postwar years, investigations in Britain and France revealed that these stories were false.[20]

In 1915, the British government asked Viscount Bryce, one of the best-known contemporary historians, to head the Committee on Alleged German Outrages which was to investigate the allegations of atrocities. The report purported to prove many of the claims, and was widely published in the United States, where it contributed to convince the American public to enter the war. Few at the time criticised the accuracy of the report. After the war, historians who sought to examine the documentation for the report were told that the files had mysteriously disappeared. Surviving correspondence between the members of the committee revealed they actually had severe doubts about the credibility of the tales they investigated.[25]

World War II

During World War II, atrocity propaganda was not used on the same scale as in World War I, as by then it had long been discredited by its use during the previous conflict.[26] There were exceptions in some propaganda films, such as Hitler's Children, Women in Bondage, and Enemy of Women, which portrayed the Germans (as opposed to just Nazis) as enemies of civilization, abusing women and the innocent.[27] Hitler's Children is now spoken of as "lurid", while Women in Bondage is described as a low-budget exploitation film; the latter carries a disclaimer that "everything in the film is true", but facts are often distorted or sensationalized.[28]

Soviet-Afghan War
The PFM-1 mine was claimed to have been deliberately designed to attract children

According to a 1985 UN report backed by Western countries, the KGB had deliberately designed mines to look like toys, and deployed them against Afghan children during the Soviet war in Afghanistan.[29]

Newspapers such as the New York Times ran stories denouncing the "ghastly, deliberate crippling of children" and noting that while the stories had been met with skepticism by the public, they had been proven by the "incontrovertible testimony" of a UN official testifying the existence of booby-trap toys in the shape of harmonicas, radios, or birds.[30]

The story likely originated from the PFM-1 mine, which was made from brightly colored plastic and had been directly copied from the American BLU-43 Dragontooth design. The Mine Action Coordination Center of Afghanistan reported that the allegations "gained a life for obvious journalist reasons", but otherwise had no basis in reality.[29]

Yugoslav Wars

In November 1991, a Serbian photographer claimed to have seen the corpses of 41 children, which had allegedly been killed by Croatian soldiers. The story was published by media outlets worldwide, but the photographer later admitted to fabricating his account. The story of this atrocity was blamed for inciting a desire for vengeance in Serbian rebels, who summarily executed Croatian fighters who were captured near the alleged crime scene the day after the forged report was published.[31]

Gulf war

Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990. On October 10, 1990, a young Kuwaiti girl known only as "Nayirah" appeared in front of a congressional committee and testified that she witnessed the mass murdering of infants, when Iraqi soldiers had snatched them out of hospital incubators and threw them on the floor to die. Her testimony became a lead item in newspapers, radio and TV all over the US. The story was eventually exposed as a fabrication in December 1992, in a CBC-TV program called To Sell a War. Nayirah was revealed to be the daughter of Kuwait's ambassador to the United States, and actually hadn't seen the "atrocities" she described take place; the PR firm Hill & Knowlton, which had been hired by the Kuwaiti government to devise a PR campaign to increase American public support for a war against Iraq, had heavily promoted her testimony.[32]

21st century
Iraq War

In the runup to the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, press stories appeared in the United Kingdom and United States of a plastic shredder or wood chipper[33] [34] into which Saddam and Qusay Hussein fed opponents of their Baathist rule. These stories attracted worldwide attention and boosted support for military action, in stories with titles such as "See men shredded, then say you don't back war".[35] A year later, it was determined there was no evidence to support the existence of such a machine.[36]

In 2004, former Marine Staff Sgt. Jimmy Massey claimed that he and other Marines intentionally killed dozens of innocent Iraqi civilians, including a 4-year-old girl. His allegations were published by news organizations worldwide, but none of the five journalists who covered his battalion said they saw reckless or indiscriminate shooting of civilians. The St. Louis Post-Dispatch dismissed his claim as "either demonstrably false or exaggerated".[37]

In July 2003 an Iraqi woman, Jumana Hanna, testified that she had been subjected to inhumane treatment by Baathist policemen during two years of imprisonment, including being subjected to electric shocks and raped repeatedly. The story appeared on the front page of The Washington Post, and was presented to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee by then-Deputy Defense Secretary Paul D. Wolfowitz. In January 2005, articles in Esquire and The Washington Post concluded that none of her allegations could be verified, and that her accounts contained grave inconsistencies. Her husband, who she claimed had been executed in the same prison where she was tortured, was in fact still alive.[38]

Other cases

During the Battle of Jenin, Palestinian officials claimed there was a massacre of civilians in the refugee camp, which was proven false by subsequent international investigations.[39]

During the 2010 South Kyrgyzstan ethnic clashes, a rumor spread among ethnic Kyrgyz that Uzbek men had broken into a local women's dormitory and raped several Kyrgyz women. Local police never provided any confirmation that such an assault occurred.[40]

During the Arab Spring, Libyan media was reporting atrocities by Muammar Gaddafi loyalists, who were ordered to perform mass "Viagra-fueled rapes" (see 2011 Libyan rape allegations).[41] A later investigation by Amnesty International has failed to find evidence for these allegations, and in many cases has discredited them, as the rebels were found to have deliberately lied about the claims.[42]

In July 2014, the Russian public broadcaster Channel 1 aired a report claiming that Ukrainian soldiers in Sloviansk had crucified a three-year-old boy to a board, and later dragged his mother with a tank, causing her death.[43] The account of the only witness interviewed for the report was not corroborated by anyone else,[44] and other media have been unable to confirm the story,[45] despite claims in the testimony that many of the city's inhabitants had been forced to watch the killings.[44] A reporter for Novaya Gazeta similarly failed to find any other witnesses in the city.[46]

See also
  1. Rogerson, Sidney (1938). Propaganda in the Next War. Great Britain: MacKays Limited. p. 27.
  2. Delwiche, Aaron. "Domestic Propaganda During the First World War". Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  3. Ponsonby, p.128
  4. Linebarger, Paul M.A. 1954. Psychological Warfare (2nd ed.) New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, as cited in: Budge, Kent. "Propaganda". The Pacific War Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  5. "Inventing Atrocities". National Review Online. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  6. David L. Miller (6 August 2013). Introduction to Collective Behavior and Collective Action: Third Edition. Waveland Press. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-4786-1095-3.
  7. Linebarger, Paul (1948). Psychological Warfare. Landisville, Pennsylvania: Coachwhip Publications. p. 22. ISBN 1-61646-055-5.
  8. "Falsehood in Wartime". Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  9. Cull, Culbert, Welch, p.24
  10. "How lies about Irish 'barbarism' in 1641 paved way for Cromwell's atrocities". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  11. Cull, Culbert, Welch, p. 23–4
  12. Carl R. Trueman (2010-01-01). Histories and Fallacies: Problems Faced in the Writing of History. Crossway. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-4335-2080-8.
  13. McLeod, Kembrew (2014-01-01). Pranksters: Making Mischief in the Modern World. NYU Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-8147-6436-7.
  14. James David Drake (1999). King Philip's War: Civil War in New England, 1675–1676. Univ of Massachusetts Press. p. 134. ISBN 1-55849-224-0.
  15. "The Atrocity Propaganda Ben Franklin Circulated to Sway Public Opinion in America's Favor". Slate. 1 July 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  16. Tickell, Alex (2013-06-17). Terrorism, Insurgency and Indian-English Literature, 1830–1947. Routledge. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-136-61841-3.
  17. Golay, Michael (2009-01-01). Spanish-American War, Updated Edition. Infobase Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-4381-0013-5.
  18. Ponsonby, p.129
  19. "Alleged German atrocities: Bryce report". The National Archives. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  20. Nicholas John Cull; David Holbrook Culbert; David Welch (2003-01-01). Propaganda and Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present. ABC-CLIO. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-57607-820-4.
  21. Celia M. Kingsbury (2010-07-01). For Home and Country: World War I Propaganda on the Home Front. U of Nebraska Press. p. 67. ISBN 0-8032-2832-5.
  22. Jennifer Keene; Michael Neiberg (2011). Finding Common Ground: New Directions in First World War Studies. BRILL. p. 32. ISBN 90-04-19182-8.
  23. Hollander, Neil (2013-12-27). Elusive Dove: The Search for Peace During World War I. McFarland. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-7864-7891-0.
  24. Celia M. Kingsbury (2010-07-01). For Home and Country: World War I Propaganda on the Home Front. U of Nebraska Press. p. 49. ISBN 0-8032-2832-5.
  25. "The Historian Who Sold Out". History News Network. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  26. Philip M. Taylor (15 November 2003). Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda, Third Edition (PDF). Manchester University Press. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-7190-6767-9.
  27. Philip M. Taylor (15 November 2003). Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda, Third Edition (PDF). Manchester University Press. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-7190-6767-9.
  28. Bernard F. Dick. The Star-spangled Screen: The American World War II Film. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 189–190. ISBN 0-8131-2821-8.
  29. Braithwaite, Rodric (2011). Afgantsy: The Russians in Afghanistan, 1979–89. Profile Books. p. 223. ISBN 1-84668-054-9.
  30. "Soviet Toys of Death". The New York Times. 10 December 1985. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  31. "Media : Truth Is Again a Casualty of War : Fabricated accounts of atrocities in Yugoslavia have often led to fierce reprisals". Los Angeles Times.
  32. "When contemplating war, beware of babies in incubators". Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  33. Saddam Executed; An Era Comes to an End
  34. Prison Stands as Testament to Saddam's Evil
  35. Clwyd, Ann (March 18, 2003). "See men shredded, then say you don't back war". Times Online. Archived from the original on 5 September 2008. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  36. "Brendan O'Neill: The missing people-shredder". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  37. "Is Jimmy Massey telling the truth about Iraq?". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Archived from the original on December 5, 2005. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  38. "Iraqi Refugee's Tale of Abuse Dissolves Upon Later Scrutiny". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  39. Dickey, Christopher. "The Crying Game". Newsweek. - "histrionic claims by Palestinian leader Yasir Arafat that 1,000 civilians had been killed. (In fact, about 50 Palestinians had fought and died in a ferocious battle that also cost the lives of 23 Israeli soldiers.)"
  40. "Barriers Removed in Kyrgyzstan Despite Uzbek Protests". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  41. MacAskill, Ewen (29 April 2011). "Gaddafi 'supplies troops with Viagra to encourage mass rape', claims diplomat". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  42. "Amnesty questions claim that Gaddafi ordered rape as weapon of war". The Independent. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  43. "Malaysia Airlines crash: Russian media blame Kiev".
  44. "Russians Hear News About Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 That's Good for Kremlin". WSJ. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  45. "Russian TV sparks outrage with Ukraine child 'crucifixion' claim". Yahoo News. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  46. "There's No Evidence the Ukrainian Army Crucified a Child in Slovyansk". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  • Ponsonby, Arthur (1928). Falsehood in Wartime. Institute for Historical Review. p. 128. ISBN 0-939484-39-0.
  • Nicholas Cull; David Culbert; David Welch (2003). Propaganda and Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present. ABC-CLIO. pp. 23–25. ISBN 1-57607-820-5.
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Soviet pro-Arab propaganda


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Demonizing the enemy


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Sinchon Massacre


The location of South Hwanghae Province . The location of Sinchon in South Hwanghae Province . The Sinchon Massacre ( Korean : 신천 양민학살 사건 , Hanja : 信川良民虐殺事件, Sinchon Civilian Massacre ) was a mass murder of civilians which North Korean sources claim was primarily committed by South Korean military forces under the authorization of the U.S. military between 17 October and 7 December 1950, in or near the town of Sinchon (currently part of South Hwanghae Province , North Korea). The event allegedly took place during the second phase of the Korean War and the retreat of the DPRK government from Hwanghae Province. North Korean claim North Korean sources claim that approximately 35,000 people were killed by American military forces and their supporters during the span of 52 days. This figure represents about one-quarter of the population of Sinchon at the time. The Sinchon Museum of American War Atrocities , established in 1958, displays the remains and belongings of those who were allegedly killed in the inciden ...more...



Karapatan , which translates as rights, is a human rights non-governmental organization in the Philippines . The full name of the group is KARAPATAN: Alliance for the Advancement of People's Rights . History The organization's General Secretary, Marie Hilao-Enriquez , is a strong advocate for human rights in the Philippines and internationally. As the mandate of President Gloria Macapal-Arroyo has witnessed over 830 political killings, including a bishop, Alberto Ramento , and a state of emergency in February 2006. Further, the group has documented many cases of political killings and harassment and submitted them to the Joint Monitoring Committee (JMC) of the Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRP) and the National Democratic Front (NDFP) . In March 2007, in the capacity of representing KARAPATAN, she presented on the extra-judicial political killings before the United States East Asian and Pacific Affairs Subcommittee chaired by US Senator Barbara Boxer (D-Cal). On the eve of the Nov 01-02, 2007 ...more...

Cambodian genocide denial


Cambodian genocide denial was the belief expressed by many Western academics that claims of atrocities by the Khmer Rouge government (1975-1979) in Cambodia were much exaggerated. Many scholars of Cambodia and intellectuals, opposed to the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, denied or minimized the human rights abuses of the Khmer Rouge, characterizing contrary information as "tales told by refugees" and U.S. propaganda. They viewed the assumption of power by the communist Khmer Rouge as a positive development for the people of Cambodia who had been severely impacted by the Vietnam War and the Cambodian Civil War. On the other side of the argument, anti-Communists in the United States and elsewhere saw in the rule of the Khmer Rouge vindication of their belief that the victory of communist governments in South-East Asia would lead to a "bloodbath". Scholar Donald W. Beachler, writing of the controversy about the range and extent of Khmer Rouge atrocities, concluded that "much of the posturing by academics ...more...

Blood libel


Blood libel (also blood accusation) is an accusation that Jews kidnapped and murdered the children of Christians in order to use their blood as part of their religious rituals during Jewish holidays. Historically, these claims – alongside those of well poisoning and host desecration – have been a major theme of the persecution of Jews in Europe. Blood libels typically say that Jews require human blood for the baking of matzos for Passover, although this element was allegedly absent in the earliest cases which claimed that then-contemporary Jews reenacted the crucifixion. The accusations often assert that the blood of the children of Christians is especially coveted, and, historically, blood libel claims have been made in order to account for the otherwise unexplained deaths of children. In some cases, the alleged victim of human sacrifice has become venerated as a martyr, a holy figure around whom a martyr sect might arise. Three of these – William of Norwich, Little Saint Hugh of Lincoln, and Simon of Tren ...more...

The Gulf War Did Not Take Place


The Gulf War Did Not Take Place ( French : La Guerre du Golfe n'a pas eu lieu ) is a collection of three short essays by Jean Baudrillard published in the French newspaper Libération and British paper The Guardian between January and March 1991. Part 1, "The Gulf War will not take place" (La guerre du Golfe n'aura pas lieu) was published in Libération on January 4, 1991. Part 2, "The Gulf War is not really taking place" (La guerre du Golfe a-t-elle vraiment lieu ?) was published in Libération on February 6, 1991 and Part 3, "The Gulf War did not take place" (La Guerre du Golfe n'a pas eu lieu) was published in Libération on March 29, 1991. Contrary to the title, the author believes that the events and violence of the Gulf War actually took place, whereas the issue is one of interpretation: were the events that took place comparable to how they were presented, and could these events be called a war? The title is a reference to the play The Trojan War Will Not Take Place by Jean Giraudoux (in which characters a ...more...

History of public relations


Most textbooks date the establishment of the "Publicity Bureau" in 1900 as the start of the modern public relations (PR) profession. Of course, there were many early forms of public influence and communications management in history. Basil Clarke is considered the founder of the public relations profession in Britain with his establishment of Editorial Services in 1924. Academic Noel Turnball points out that systematic PR was employed in Britain first by religious evangelicals and Victorian reformers, especially opponents of slavery. In each case the early promoters focused on their particular movement and were not for hire more generally. Propaganda was used by both sides to rally domestic support and demonize enemies during the First World War. PR activists entered the private sector in the 1920s. Public relations became established first in the US by Ivy Lee or Edward Bernays , then spread internationally. Many American companies with PR departments spread the practice to Europe after 1948 when they create ...more...

RT America


RT America is a TV channel based in Washington, D.C. , and part of the RT network , a global multilingual television news network based in Moscow, Russia. RT is a non-profit organization funded by the Russian government . RT America also has studios and bureaus in New York City , Miami , and Los Angeles . The channel is the home and the production base of RT's U.S. based programs. RT America focuses on covering news in the United States from an alternative perspective. Programs are hosted by American journalists. Similarly, most guests are American (and sometimes Canadian) activists, academics, speakers and analysts with alternative perspectives on "mainstream" issues. The channel covers issues that see lesser coverage in the mainstream media, such as using non-GMO ingredients in foods, capitalism, growing wealth inequality, corruption in politics, peace and environmental issues. It maintains a separate schedule of programs each weekday from 4 p.m. to 12 midnight Eastern Time, and like its counterpart in th ...more...

Villa Baviera


Villa Baviera (English: Bavaria Village) is the current organization occupying the location of the infamous and disgraced Colonia Dignidad (English: Dignity Colony), in Parral Commune, Linares Province, in the Maule Region of central Chile. Located in an isolated area, Colonia Dignidad was ~35 km southeast of the city of Parral, on the north bank of the Perquilauquén River. Colonia Dignidad was founded by German émigrés in the mid-1950s. Its most notorious leader, Paul Schäfer, arrived in the colony in 1961. The full name of the colony from the 1950s was Sociedad Benefactora y Educacional Dignidad (English: Dignity Charitable and Educational Society). At its largest, Colonia Dignidad was home to some three hundred German and Chilean residents, and covered 137 square kilometers (53 sq mi). The main legal economic activity of the colony was agriculture; at various periods it also was home to a school, a hospital, two airstrips, a restaurant, and a power station. Protesters asking for justice in 2015 Col ...more...

El Mercurio


El Mercurio is a Chilean newspaper with editions in Valparaíso and Santiago. Its Santiago edition is considered the country's paper-of-record and it is considered the oldest daily in the Spanish language currently in circulation. El Mercurio is owned by El Mercurio S.A.P. (Sociedad Anónima Periodística 'joint stock news company'), which operates a network of 19 regional dailies and 32 radio stations across the country. (See List of newspapers in Chile.) History Main page of El Mercurio's 28 May 1908 edition (number 24,878) The Valparaíso edition of El Mercurio was founded by Pedro Félix Vicuña (Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna's father) on September 12, 1827, and was later acquired by Agustín Edwards Ross in 1880. The Santiago edition was founded by Agustín Edwards Mac Clure, son of Edwards Ross, on June 1, 1900. In 1942 Edwards Mac Clure died and his son Agustín Edwards Budge took over as president. When Edwards Budge died in 1956, his son, Agustín Edwards Eastman, took control of the company. Role in 197 ...more...



A PFM-1 training mine, distinguishable from the live version by the presence of the Cyrillic character "У". PFM-1 schematic PFM-1 (Russian: ПФМ-1, short for противопехотная фугасная мина - anti-infantry high-explosive mine; NATO name: Green parrot , also known as butterfly mine ) is a land mine of Soviet production, very similar to the BLU-43 US Army landmine. Both devices are very similar in shape and principles, although they use different explosives. Action The mine is, in essence, a plastic bag containing explosive liquid. The mine is stored with a pin restraining a detonating plunger. Once the arming pin is removed, the plunger is slowly forced forward by a spring until it contacts the detonator, at which point it is armed. This takes between one and forty minutes, allowing the mine to be deployed manually, or air dropped. Deformation of the soft plastic skin of the mine forces the arming plunger to strike the detonator, detonating the mine. Because the body of the mine is a single cumulative pressure pr ...more...

Adolf Hitler's rise to power


Adolf Hitler's rise to power began in Germany in September 1919 when Hitler joined the political party known as the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – DAP (German Workers' Party). The name was changed in 1920 to the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei – NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers' Party, commonly known as the Nazi Party). This political party was formed and developed during the post-World War I era. It was anti-Marxist and opposed to the democratic post-war government of the Weimar Republic and the Treaty of Versailles; and it advocated extreme nationalism and Pan-Germanism as well as virulent anti-Semitism. Hitler's "rise" can be considered to have ended in March 1933, after the Reichstag adopted the Enabling Act of 1933 in that month. President Paul von Hindenburg had already appointed Hitler as Chancellor on 30 January 1933 after a series of parliamentary elections and associated backroom intrigues. The Enabling Act—when used ruthlessly and with authority—virtually assured that Hitler ...more...

LGBT rights in Russia


Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender ( LGBT ) people in Russia face legal and social challenges not experienced by non-LGBT persons. Although same-sex sexual activity between consenting adults in private was decriminalized in 1993, same-sex couples and households headed by same-sex couples are ineligible for the legal protections available to opposite-sex couples and there are currently no laws prohibiting discrimination regarding sexual orientation. Transgender people are allowed to change their legal gender following sex reassignment surgery , however, there are currently no laws prohibiting discrimination regarding gender identity or expression and recent laws could discriminate against transgender residents. Homosexuality has been declassified as a mental illness since 1999 and although gays and lesbians are allowed to serve openly in the military, there is an unofficial " Don’t ask, don’t tell " policy. Russia has been viewed as being socially conservative regarding homosexuality, with recent polls indic ...more...

Mass suicides in 1945 Nazi Germany


During the final weeks of the Third Reich and the war in Europe , many civilians, government officials and military personnel throughout Nazi Germany committed suicide. In addition to high-ranking Nazi officials like Adolf Hitler , Joseph Goebbels , Heinrich Himmler , Philipp Bouhler and Martin Bormann , many others chose  Selbstmord ( German : Self-murder ) rather than accept the defeat of Germany. Studies have shown that the suicides were influenced through Nazi propaganda (reaction to the suicide of Adolf Hitler ), the tenets of the Nazi Party , and the anticipated reprisals following the Allied occupation of Nazi Germany . For example in April 1945, at least 1,000 Germans killed themselves and others within 72 hours as the Red Army neared the East German town of Demmin . . In Berlin alone more than 7,000 suicides were reported in 1945. Three distinct periods of suicides have been identified between January and May 1945 when thousands of German people took their own lives. Life Magazine reported that: "In ...more...

John R. MacArthur


John R. "Rick" MacArthur (born June 4, 1956) is an American journalist and author of books about US politics. He is the president of Harper's Magazine . Biography MacArthur is the son of J. Roderick MacArthur and French-born Christiane L’Étendart. and the grandson of billionaire John D. MacArthur . He grew up in Winnetka , Illinois , graduating from North Shore Country Day School in 1974. He graduated from Columbia University with a B.A. in history in 1978. He lives with his wife and two daughters in New York City. Career MacArthur writes a monthly column, in French, for Le Devoir on a wide range of topics from politics to culture and is a regular contributor to the Spectator (U.K.), the Toronto Star, Le Monde Diplomatique and Le Monde. Though John D. MacArthur disinherited his son J. Roderick MacArthur , the latter served on the board of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation until his death in 1984. In 1980, John R. MacArthur persuaded the foundation to partner in creating and funding a Harper's ...more...

First They Killed My Father (film)


First They Killed My Father (Khmer: មុនដំបូងខ្មែរក្រហមសម្លាប់ប៉ារបស់ខ្ញុំ Moun dambaung Khmer Krahm samleab ba robsa khnhom) is a 2017 biographical historical thriller film directed by Angelina Jolie and written by Jolie and Loung Ung, based on Ung's memoir of the same name. Set in 1975, the film depicts 7-year-old Ung who is forced to be trained as a child soldier while her siblings are sent to labor camps during the Communist Khmer Rouge regime. The film screened at the Telluride Film Festival and 2017 Toronto International Film Festival, and was released worldwide on Netflix on September 15, 2017 to positive critical reception. Plot During the Vietnam War, the United States military begins bombing the neutral country of Cambodia, commencing the Cambodian Campaign. Facing constant U.S. bombardments, many Cambodians begin looking to the Khmer Rouge for protection. The U.S. pulls out of Cambodia and evacuates its embassy. A Lon Nol officer, Ung, known as "Pa" to his 7 children, including 7-year-old Loung ...more...

Operation Himmler


Operation Himmler (less often known as Operation Konserve or Operation Canned Goods ) was a 1939 false flag project planned by Nazi Germany to create the appearance of Polish aggression against Germany, which was subsequently used by the Nazis to justify the invasion of Poland . This included staging false attacks on themselves using innocent people or concentration camp prisoners. Operation Himmler was arguably the first act of the Second World War in Europe. Planning For months prior to the 1939 invasion, German newspapers and politicians like Adolf Hitler had carried out a national and international propaganda campaign accusing Polish authorities of organizing or tolerating violent ethnic cleansing of ethnic Germans living in Poland. The plan, named after its originator, Heinrich Himmler , was supervised by Reinhard Heydrich and managed by Heinrich Müller . The goal of this false flag project was to create the appearance of Polish aggression against Germany, which could be used to justify the German in ...more...

Congo Free State propaganda war


The Congo Free State propaganda war was a worldwide media propaganda campaign waged by both King Leopold II of Belgium and the critics of the Congo Free State . Leopold was very astute in using the media to support his virtual private control of the nation. Edmund Dene Morel , successfully campaigned against Leopold and focused public attention on the violence of Leopold's rule. Morel used the mass media of that time, from newspapers and pamphlets to books including evidence from reports, eye-witness testimony, and pictures obtained from missionaries and others involved directly in the Congo. As Morel gained high-profile supporters, the publicity generated by his campaign eventually forced Leopold to relinquish control of the Congo to the Belgian government. Background The Congo Free State propaganda war (1884–1912) occurred at the height of European Imperialism . Demand for goods drove European imperialism, and (with the important exception of British East India Company rule in India), the European stake in ...more...

Fabricator (intelligence)


A fabricator is an intelligence agent or officer that generates disinformation , falsehoods or bogus information, often without access to authentic resources. Fabricators often provide forged documents in order to substantiate their falsehoods. It is normal intelligence practice to place identified fabricators on a black list or to issue a burn notice on them and to recall intelligence sourced from them. A fabricator is often cited as a reliable source behind black propaganda or atrocity propaganda involving disinformation or information that has not been properly vetted but suits the agenda of the disseminating organization. Multiple fabricators are usually used to justify a Big Lie . The process of vetting to weed out fabricators and double agents is also referred to as source validation. Recent examples of this include the case of the Niger uranium forgeries and the mobile weapons laboratory in Iraq. There are numerous cases in which it is alleged that the Soviet Union and its satellite states employed ...more...

Fall of Saigon


The Fall of Saigon was the capture of Saigon , the capital of South Vietnam , by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (also known as the Việt Cộng ) on 30 April 1975. The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period to the formal reunification of Vietnam under the Socialist Republic of Vietnam . The PAVN, under the command of General Văn Tiến Dũng , began their final attack on Saigon on April 29, 1975, with the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) forces commanded by General Nguyễn Văn Toàn suffering a heavy artillery bombardment. This bombardment at the Tân Sơn Nhất Airport killed the last two American servicemen to die in Vietnam, Charles McMahon and Darwin Judge . By the afternoon of the next day, the PAVN had occupied the important points of the city and raised their flag over the South Vietnamese presidential palace . The city was renamed Hồ Chí Minh City, after the late North Vietnamese President Hồ Chí Minh . The captu ...more...

Angels of Mons


The Angels of Mons is a popular legend about a group of angels who supposedly protected members of the British Army in the Battle of Mons at the outset of the First World War . History On 22–23 August 1914, the first major engagement of the British Expeditionary Force in the First World War occurred at the Battle of Mons . Advancing German forces were thrown back by heavily outnumbered British troops, who suffered heavy casualties and, being outflanked, were forced into rapid retreat the next day. The retreat and the battle were rapidly perceived by the British public as being a key moment in the war. Despite the censorship going on in Britain at the time, this battle was the first indication the British public had that defeating Germany would not be as easy as some had thought. Arthur Machen and "The Bowmen" On 29 September 1914 Welsh author Arthur Machen published a short story entitled "The Bowmen" in the London newspaper the Evening News , inspired by accounts that he had read of the fighting at Mons and ...more...

Demographic history of Macedonia


The geographical region of Macedonia The position of the Balkan tribes, prior to the Macedonian expansion, according to Hammond. Ancient tribes in the region in the 5th. CBC. The region of Macedonia is known to have been inhabited since Paleolithic times. Еarliest historical inhabitants However, the earliest historical inhabitants of the region were the Bryges , Paionians , Thracians and Illyrians . The Bryges occupied northern Epirus , as well as Macedonia , mainly west of the Axios river and parts of Mygdonia . Thracians in early times occupied mainly the eastern parts of Macedonia ( Mygdonia , Crestonia , Bisaltia ) but were also present in Eordaea and Pieria . Illyrians once occupied many parts of west Macedonia. At one time all Emathia , Pieria and Pelagonia were subject to the Paionians. They occupied the entire valley of the Axios . The Ancient Macedonians are missing from early historical accounts because they had been living in the southern extremities of the region – the Orestian highlands – since ...more...



Ahnenerbe (German: , ancestral heritage) was a project in Nazi Germany to research the archaeological and cultural history of the Aryan race. Founded on July 1, 1935, as the Study Society for Primordial Intellectual history, German Ancestral Heritage (Studiengesellschaft für Geistesurgeschichte‚ Deutsches Ahnenerbe), by Heinrich Himmler, Herman Wirth, and Richard Walther Darré, the Ahnenerbe group later conducted experiments and launched expeditions in an attempt to prove that mythological Nordic populations had once ruled the world. Originally, the official mission of Ahnenerbe was to find new evidence of the racial heritage of the Germanic people; however, due to Himmler's obsession with occultism it quickly became his own occult tool and started using pseudoscience. In 1937 the project was renamed the Research and Teaching Community of the Ancestral Heritage (Forschungs- und Lehrgemeinschaft des Ahnenerbe). Heinrich Himmler, Reichsführer-SS and founder of the Ahnenerbe History and development ...more...

American mutilation of Japanese war dead


During World War II, some members of the United States military mutilated dead Japanese service personnel in the Pacific theater of operations. The mutilation of Japanese service personnel included the taking of body parts as "war souvenirs" and "war trophies". Teeth and skulls were the most commonly taken "trophies", although other body parts were also collected. The phenomenon of "trophy-taking" was widespread enough that discussion of it featured prominently in magazines and newspapers, and Franklin Roosevelt himself was reportedly given, by U.S. Representative Francis E. Walter, a gift of a letter-opener made of a Japanese soldier's arm (Roosevelt later ordered that the gift be returned and called for its proper burial). The behavior was officially prohibited by the U.S. military, which issued additional guidance as early as 1942 condemning it specifically. Nonetheless, the behavior continued throughout the war in the Pacific Theater, and has resulted in continued discoveries of "trophy skulls" of J ...more...

Evacuation of East Prussia


The evacuation of East Prussia was the movement of the German civilian population and military personnel in East Prussia and the Klaipėda region between 20 January and March 1945 as part of the evacuation of German civilians towards the end of World War II. It is not to be confused with the expulsion after the war had ended. The evacuation, which had been delayed for months, was initiated due to fear of the Red Army advances during the East Prussian Offensive . Some parts of the evacuation were planned as a military necessity, Operation Hannibal being the most important military operation involved in the evacuation. However, many refugees took to the roads on their own initiative because of reported Soviet atrocities against Germans in the areas under Soviet control. Both spurious and factual accounts of Soviet atrocities were disseminated through the official news and propaganda outlets of Nazi Germany and by rumors that swept through the military and civilian populations. Despite having detailed evacuation ...more...

Sawney Bean


Alexander "Sawney" Bean was said to be the head of a 48-member clan in Scotland anywhere between the 13th and 16th centuries, reportedly executed for the mass murder and cannibalisation of over 1,000 people. The story appears in The Newgate Calendar , a crime catalogue of Newgate Prison in London. While historians tend to believe Bean never existed or his story has been greatly exaggerated, his story has passed into local folklore and become part of the Edinburgh tourism industry . Legend According to The Newgate Calendar, Alexander Bean was born in East Lothian during the 1500s. His father was a ditch digger and hedge trimmer, and Bean tried to take up the family trade but quickly realized that he had little taste for honest labour. He left home with a vicious woman who apparently shared his inclinations. The couple ended up at a coastal cave in Bennane Head between Girvan and Ballantrae where they lived undiscovered for some twenty-five years. The cave was 200 yards deep and during high tide the entrance w ...more...

War film


Film poster for Kajiro Yamamoto's Hawai Mare oki kaisen, (ハワイ・マレー沖海戦, The War at Sea from Hawaii to Malaya), Toho Company, 1942 War film is a film genre concerned with warfare, typically about naval, air, or land battles, with combat scenes central to the drama. It has been strongly associated with the 20th century. The fateful nature of battle scenes means that war films often end with them. Themes explored include combat, survival and escape, camaraderie between soldiers, sacrifice, the futility and inhumanity of battle, the effects of war on society, and the moral and human issues raised by war. War films are often categorized by their milieu, such as the Korean War; the most popular subject is the Second World War. The stories told may be fiction, historical drama, or biographical. Critics have noted similarities between the Western and the war film. Nations such as China, Indonesia, Japan, and Russia have their own traditions of war film, centred on their own revolutionary wars but taking varied ...more...

Herbert Southworth


Herbert Rutledge Southworth (February 6, 1908 – October 30, 1999) was a writer, journalist and historian specializing in the Spanish Civil War and the subsequent Francoist State in Spain and whose work led the Francoist ministry of information to set up an entire department to counter his demolition of the State's propaganda. Early life Southworth was born in Canton, Oklahoma . He worked as a construction worker and in a copper mine in Arizona . There, he learned Spanish from the Mexican workers . At Texas Technological College (now Texas Tech University ) in Lubbock, Texas , he majored in history , with a minor in Spanish. In 1934, he started work in the document department at the US Library of Congress in Washington. Spanish Civil War When the Spanish civil war broke out, Southworth reviewed books on the conflict for the Washington Post . His articles brought him to the notice of the Spanish republic's ambassador, who asked him to work for the Spanish information bureau. He also took a master's degree at C ...more...

Nazi Germany


Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP). Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state in which the Nazi Party controlled nearly all aspects of life. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich ("German Reich") from 1933 to 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich ("Great-German Reich") from 1943 to 1945. The period is also known under the names the Third Reich (Drittes Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", with the Holy Roman Empire and the German Empire being the first two) and the National Socialist Period (Zeit des Nationalsozialismus, abbreviated as NS-Zeit, literally "Time of National Socialism"). The Nazi regime ended after the Allied Powers defeated Germany in May 1945, ending World War II in Europe. Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. The Nazi P ...more...

USSR anti-religious campaign (1928–1941)


"Monks - the bloody enemies of working people" (Banner on the Dormition Cathedral of the Kiev Cave Monastery, 1930s) The USSR anti-religious campaign of 1928–1941 was a new phase of anti-religious persecution in the Soviet Union following the anti-religious campaign of 1921–1928 . The campaign began in 1929, with the drafting of new legislation that severely prohibited religious activities and called for a heightened attack on religion in order to further disseminate atheism . This had been preceded in 1928 at the fifteenth party congress , where Joseph Stalin criticized the party for failure to produce more active and persuasive anti-religious propaganda . This new phase coincided with the beginning of the forced mass collectivization of agriculture and the nationalization of the few remaining private enterprises . Many of those who had been arrested in the 1920s would continue to remain in prison throughout the 1930s and beyond. The main target of the anti-religious campaign in the 1920s and 1930s was the R ...more...

Allied occupation of the Rhineland


Occupations of the Rhineland and Saar regions: — blue: France — yellow: Belgium — brown: United Kingdom — stripes : Ruhr, occupied by France and Belgium — green: Saar, occupied by France under the auspices of the League of Nations The Allied occupation of the Rhineland took place following the armistice that brought the fighting of World War I to a close on 11 November 1918. The occupying armies consisted of American, Belgian, British and French forces. The terms of the armistice provided for the immediate evacuation of German troops from Belgium, France, and Luxembourg as well as Alsace-Lorraine within 15 days. French forces continued to occupy German territory in the Rhineland until the end of 1930, while France continued to control the smaller Saarland region until 1935. Periods First Armistice (11 November 1918 – 13 December 1918) First prolongation of the armistice (13 December 1918 – 16 January 1919) Second prolongation of the armistice (16 January 1919 – 16 February 1919) Third prolongati ...more...

Gardelegen massacre


The barn set on fire in the Gardelegen Massacre Dead prisoners The Gardelegen massacre was a massacre perpetrated by German local population from Volkssturm , Hitlerjugend and local firefighters with minor direction of SS during World War II . On April 13, 1945, on the Isenschnibbe estate near the northern German town of Gardelegen , the troops forced 1,016 slave laborers, many of them Poles, who were part of a transport evacuated from the Mittelbau-Dora labor camp into a large barn which was then set on fire. Most of the prisoners were burned alive; some were shot trying to escape. The crime was discovered two days later by F Company, 2nd Battalion, 405th Regiment, U.S. 102nd Infantry Division , when the U.S. Army occupied the area. Details American soldiers view bodies in barn Prisoner who attempted to escape conflagration Under the direction of an American soldier, German civilians from Gardelegen carry wooden crosses to the site where they were ordered to bury the bodies of concentration camp prisoners ki ...more...



In Hindu and Tibetan Buddhist traditions, Shambhala; (Sanskrit: शम्भलः Śambhalaḥ, also spelled Shambala Bhilai Shamballa Bilai; Tibetan: བདེ་འབྱུང, Wylie: bde 'byung; Chinese: 香巴拉; pinyin: xiāngbālā) is a mythical kingdom. It is mentioned in various ancient texts, including the Kalacakra Tantra and the ancient Zhangzhung texts of western Tibet. The Bon scriptures speak of a closely related land called Tagzig Olmo Lung Ring. Hindu texts such as the Vishnu Purana (4.24) mention the village Shambhala as the birthplace of Kalki, the final incarnation of Vishnu, who will usher in a new Golden Age (Satya Yuga). The legends, teachings and healing practices associated with Shambhala are older than any of these organized religions. Shambhala may very well have been an indigenous belief system, an Alti-Himalayan shamanic tradition, absorbed into these other faiths. This pre-existing belief system, also called Mleccha (from Vedic Sanskrit म्लेच्छ mleccha, meaning "non-Vedic"), and the amazing abilities, wisdom a ...more...

Chris Murphy


Chris or Christopher Murphy may refer to: Chris Murphy (Connecticut politician) (born 1973), United States Senator Chris Murphy (Australian singer) (born 1976), Australian Idol finalist in 2006 Chris Murphy (British musician), member of the British ska band Spunge Chris Murphy (Canadian musician) (born 1968), member of the band Sloan Chris Murphy (hurler) (born 1985), Irish sportsperson Chris Murphy (manager) (born 1954), Australian band manager & music entrepreneur Chris Murphy (South Carolina politician), member of the South Carolina House of Representatives Chris Murphy (violinist), violinist, band leader and composer Christopher Murphy (British politician) (born 1947), British politician Christopher Murphy (designer), British designer, writer and educator Chris or Christopher Murphy may refer to: Chris Murphy (Connecticut politician) (born 1973), United States Senator Chris Murphy (Australian singer) (born 1976), Australian Idol finalist in 2006 Chris Murphy (British musician), member ...more...

Holocaust denial


Holocaust denial is the act of denying the genocide of Jews in the Holocaust during World War II . Holocaust denial often includes the following claims: that Nazi Germany's Final Solution was aimed only at deporting Jews from the Reich, but that it did not include the extermination of Jews; that Nazi authorities did not use extermination camps and gas chambers to mass murder Jews; or that the actual number of Jews killed was significantly lower than the historically accepted figure of 5 to 6 million, typically around a tenth of that figure. Scholars use the term "denial" to describe the views and methodology of Holocaust deniers in order to distinguish them from legitimate historical revisionists , who challenge orthodox interpretations of history using established historical methodologies . Holocaust deniers generally do not accept the term denial as an appropriate description of their activities, and use the euphemism revisionism instead. The methodologies of Holocaust deniers are often based on a predet ...more...

USSR anti-religious campaign (1958–1964)


During a more tolerant period towards religion from 1941 until the late 1950s in the Soviet Union , the church grew in stature and membership. This provoked concern by the Soviet government under Nikita Khrushchev , which decided in the late 1950s to undertake a new campaign to quell religion in order to achieve the atheist society that communism envisioned. Khrushchev had long held radical views regarding the abolition of religion, and this campaign resulted largely from his own leadership rather than from pressure in other parts of the CPSU . In 1932 he had been the First Moscow City Party Secretary and had demolished over 200 Eastern Orthodox churches including many that were significant heritage monuments to Russia 's history. He was initiator of the July 1954 CPSU Central Committee resolution hostile to religion. He was not able to implement his ideas in practice until he achieved greater consolidation of his control in the late 1950s. The anti-religious campaign of the Khrushchev era began in 1959, coin ...more...



INGSOC Ingsoc ( Newspeak for English Socialism or the English Socialist Party ) is the fictional political party of the totalitarian government of Oceania in George Orwell 's Dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four . Occurs commonly with the term newspeak which is as referred by Syme (one of Winston's co-workers) as nothing but destroying words and synonyms and antonyms to eliminate confusion. Fictional origins Oceania appears to have emerged as a formal political union of the United States and the countries of the British Commonwealth , which later annexed the remainder of the Americas and all of Southern Africa. Big Brother and Emmanuel Goldstein led the Party to power in Oceania after a revolution of some kind. After the Party achieved control of Oceania, Ingsoc became the official governing ideology and other political beliefs were increasingly marginalized. Goldstein and Big Brother later became enemies, and differed in their interpretation of Ingsoc. As political philosophy The Theory and Practice of Oliga ...more...

Nazi eugenics


Nazi eugenics ( German : Nationalsozialistische Rassenhygiene , "National Socialist racial hygiene") were Nazi Germany 's racially based social policies that placed the biological improvement of the Aryan race or Germanic " Übermenschen " master race through eugenics at the center of Nazi ideology. In Germany , eugenics were mostly known under the synonymous term racial hygiene . Following the Second World War , both terms effectively vanished and were replaced by Humangenetik ( human genetics ). Eugenics research in Germany before and during the Nazi period was similar to that in the United States (particularly California), by which it had been partly inspired. However, its prominence rose sharply under Adolf Hitler 's leadership when wealthy Nazi supporters started heavily investing in it. The programs were subsequently shaped to complement Nazi racial policies . Those humans targeted for destruction under Nazi eugenics policies were largely living in private and state-operated institutions, identified as ...more...

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