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Atrocity propaganda

Atrocity propaganda is a term referring to the spreading of deliberate fabrications or exaggerations about the crimes committed by an enemy, constituting a form of psychological warfare.

The inherently violent nature of war means that exaggeration and invention of atrocities often becomes the main staple of propaganda. Patriotism is often not enough to make people hate, and propaganda is also necessary.[1] "So great are the psychological resistances to war in modern nations", wrote Harold Lasswell, "that every war must appear to be a war of defense against a menacing, murderous aggressor. There must be no ambiguity about who the public is to hate."[2] Human testimony is deemed unreliable even in ordinary circumstances, but in wartime, it can be further muddled by bias, sentiment, and misguided patriotism, becoming of no value whatsoever in establishing the truth.[3]

According to Paul Linebarger, atrocity propaganda leads to real atrocities, as it incites the enemy into committing more atrocities, and, by heating up passions, it increases the chances of one's own side committing atrocities, in revenge for the ones reported in propaganda.[4] Atrocity propaganda might also lead the public to mistrust reports of actual atrocities. In January 1944, Arthur Koestler wrote of his frustration at trying to communicate what he had witnessed in Nazi-occupied Europe: the legacy of anti-German stories during World War I, many of which were debunked in the postwar years, meant that these reports were received with considerable amounts of skepticism.[5]

Like propaganda, atrocity rumors detailing exaggerated or invented crimes perpetrated by enemies are also circulated to vilify the opposing side.[6]

Techniques

By establishing a baseline lie and painting the enemy as a monster, atrocity propaganda serves as an intelligence function, since it wastes the time and resources of the enemy's counterintelligence services to defend itself. Atrocity propaganda can either be white, gray, or black. Atrocity propaganda is often white, as it makes no attempt to hide its source and is overt in nature. The propagandists' goal is to influence perceptions, attitudes, opinions, and policies; often targeting officials at all levels of government. Atrocity propaganda is violent, gloomy, and portrays doom to help rile up and get the public excited. It dehumanizes the enemy, making them easier to kill. Wars have become more serious, and less gentlemanly; the enemy must now be taken into account not merely as a man, but as a fanatic.[7] So, "falsehood is a recognized and extremely useful weapon in warfare, and every country uses it quite deliberately to deceive its own people, attract neutrals, and to mislead the enemy."[8] Harold Lasswell saw it as a handy rule for arousing hate, and that "if at first they do not enrage, use an atrocity. It has been employed with unvarying success in every conflict known to man."[2]

The extent and devastation of World War I required nations to keep morale high. Propaganda was used here to mobilize hatred against the enemy, convince the population of the justness of one's own cause, enlist the active support and cooperation of neutral countries, and strengthen the support of one's allies.[9] The goal was to make the enemy appear savage, barbaric, and inhumane.

Atrocity propaganda in history
Before the 20th century
Accounts of Irish atrocities during the Rebellion of 1641 are now dismissed as propaganda, but led to real massacres.[10]

In a sermon at Clermont during the Crusades, Urban II justified the war against Islam by claiming that the enemy "had ravaged the churches of God in the Eastern provinces, circumcised Christian men, violated women, and carried out the most unspeakable torture before killing them."[11] Urban II's sermon succeeded in mobilizing popular enthusiasm in support of the People's Crusade.

Lurid tales purporting to unveil Jewish atrocities against Christians were widespread in the Middle Ages.[12] The charge against Jews of kidnapping and murdering Christian children to drink their blood during passover became known as blood libel.[13]

In the 17th century, the English press fabricated graphic descriptions of atrocities allegedly committed by Irish Catholics against English Protestants, including the torture of civilians and the raping of women. The English public reacted to these stories with calls for stern reprisals.[14] During the Irish rebellion of 1641, lurid reports of atrocities, including of pregnant women who had been ripped open and had their babies pulled out, provided Oliver Cromwell with justification for his subsequent slaughter of defeated Irish rebels.[10]

In 1782, Benjamin Franklin wrote and published an article purporting to reveal a letter between a British agent and the governor of Canada, listing atrocities supposedly perpetrated by Native American allies of Britain against colonists, including detailed accounts of the scalping of women and children. The account was a fabrication, published in the expectation that it would be reprinted by British newspapers and therefore sway British public opinion in favor of peace with the United States.[15]

After the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny, stories began to circulate in the British and colonial press of atrocities, especially rapes of European women, in places like Cawnpore; a subsequent official inquiry found no evidence for any of the claims.[16]

In the lead up to the Spanish–American War, Pulitzer and Hearst published stories of Spanish atrocities against Cubans. While occasionally true, the majority of these stories were fabrications meant to boost sales.[17]

20th century
World War I
It was reported that some thirty to thirty-five German soldiers entered the house of David Tordens, a carter, in Sempst; they bound him, and then five or six of them assaulted and ravished in his presence his thirteen-year-old daughter, and afterwards fixed her on bayonets. After this horrible deed, they bayoneted his nine-year-old boy and then shot his wife.
[18]
Stories of German soldiers impaling children on their bayonets were based on extremely flimsy evidence.[19]

Atrocity propaganda was widespread during World War I, when it was used by all belligerents, playing a major role in creating the wave of patriotism that characterised the early stages of the war.[20] British propaganda is regarded as having made the most extensive use of fictitious atrocities to promote the war effort.[20]

One such story was that German soldiers were deliberately mutilating Belgian babies by cutting off their hands, in some versions even eating them. Eyewitness accounts told of having seen a similarly mutilated baby. As Arthur Ponsonby later pointed out, in reality a baby would be very unlikely to survive similar wounds without immediate medical attention.[21]

Another atrocity story involved a Canadian soldier, who had supposedly been crucified with bayonets by the Germans (see The Crucified Soldier). Many Canadians claimed to have witnessed the event, yet they all provided different version of how it had happened. The Canadian high command investigated the matter, concluding that it was untrue.[22]

Other reports circulated of Belgian women, often nuns, who had their breasts cut off by the Germans.[23] A story about German corpse factories, where bodies of German soldiers were supposedly turned into glycerine for weapons, or food for hogs and poultry, was published in a Times article on April 17, 1917.[24] In the postwar years, investigations in Britain and France revealed that these stories were false.[20]

In 1915, the British government asked Viscount Bryce, one of the best-known contemporary historians, to head the Committee on Alleged German Outrages which was to investigate the allegations of atrocities. The report purported to prove many of the claims, and was widely published in the United States, where it contributed to convince the American public to enter the war. Few at the time criticised the accuracy of the report. After the war, historians who sought to examine the documentation for the report were told that the files had mysteriously disappeared. Surviving correspondence between the members of the committee revealed they actually had severe doubts about the credibility of the tales they investigated.[25]

World War II

During World War II, atrocity propaganda was not used on the same scale as in World War I, as by then it had long been discredited by its use during the previous conflict.[26] There were exceptions in some propaganda films, such as Hitler's Children, Women in Bondage, and Enemy of Women, which portrayed the Germans (as opposed to just Nazis) as enemies of civilization, abusing women and the innocent.[27] Hitler's Children is now spoken of as "lurid", while Women in Bondage is described as a low-budget exploitation film; the latter carries a disclaimer that "everything in the film is true", but facts are often distorted or sensationalized.[28]

Soviet-Afghan War
The PFM-1 mine was claimed to have been deliberately designed to attract children

According to a 1985 UN report backed by Western countries, the KGB had deliberately designed mines to look like toys, and deployed them against Afghan children during the Soviet war in Afghanistan.[29]

Newspapers such as the New York Times ran stories denouncing the "ghastly, deliberate crippling of children" and noting that while the stories had been met with skepticism by the public, they had been proven by the "incontrovertible testimony" of a UN official testifying the existence of booby-trap toys in the shape of harmonicas, radios, or birds.[30]

The story likely originated from the PFM-1 mine, which was made from brightly colored plastic and had been directly copied from the American BLU-43 Dragontooth design. The Mine Action Coordination Center of Afghanistan reported that the allegations "gained a life for obvious journalist reasons", but otherwise had no basis in reality.[29]

Yugoslav Wars

In November 1991, a Serbian photographer claimed to have seen the corpses of 41 children, which had allegedly been killed by Croatian soldiers. The story was published by media outlets worldwide, but the photographer later admitted to fabricating his account. The story of this atrocity was blamed for inciting a desire for vengeance in Serbian rebels, who summarily executed Croatian fighters who were captured near the alleged crime scene the day after the forged report was published.[31]

Gulf war

Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990. On October 10, 1990, a young Kuwaiti girl known only as "Nayirah" appeared in front of a congressional committee and testified that she witnessed the mass murdering of infants, when Iraqi soldiers had snatched them out of hospital incubators and threw them on the floor to die. Her testimony became a lead item in newspapers, radio and TV all over the US. The story was eventually exposed as a fabrication in December 1992, in a CBC-TV program called To Sell a War. Nayirah was revealed to be the daughter of Kuwait's ambassador to the United States, and actually hadn't seen the "atrocities" she described take place; the PR firm Hill & Knowlton, which had been hired by the Kuwaiti government to devise a PR campaign to increase American public support for a war against Iraq, had heavily promoted her testimony.[32]

21st century
Iraq War

In the runup to the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, press stories appeared in the United Kingdom and United States of a plastic shredder or wood chipper[33] [34] into which Saddam and Qusay Hussein fed opponents of their Baathist rule. These stories attracted worldwide attention and boosted support for military action, in stories with titles such as "See men shredded, then say you don't back war".[35] A year later, it was determined there was no evidence to support the existence of such a machine.[36]

In 2004, former Marine Staff Sgt. Jimmy Massey claimed that he and other Marines intentionally killed dozens of innocent Iraqi civilians, including a 4-year-old girl. His allegations were published by news organizations worldwide, but none of the five journalists who covered his battalion said they saw reckless or indiscriminate shooting of civilians. The St. Louis Post-Dispatch dismissed his claim as "either demonstrably false or exaggerated".[37]

In July 2003 an Iraqi woman, Jumana Hanna, testified that she had been subjected to inhumane treatment by Baathist policemen during two years of imprisonment, including being subjected to electric shocks and raped repeatedly. The story appeared on the front page of The Washington Post, and was presented to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee by then-Deputy Defense Secretary Paul D. Wolfowitz. In January 2005, articles in Esquire and The Washington Post concluded that none of her allegations could be verified, and that her accounts contained grave inconsistencies. Her husband, who she claimed had been executed in the same prison where she was tortured, was in fact still alive.[38]

Other cases

During the Battle of Jenin, Palestinian officials claimed there was a massacre of civilians in the refugee camp, which was proven false by subsequent international investigations.[39]

During the 2010 South Kyrgyzstan ethnic clashes, a rumor spread among ethnic Kyrgyz that Uzbek men had broken into a local women's dormitory and raped several Kyrgyz women. Local police never provided any confirmation that such an assault occurred.[40]

During the Arab Spring, Libyan media was reporting atrocities by Muammar Gaddafi loyalists, who were ordered to perform mass "Viagra-fueled rapes" (see 2011 Libyan rape allegations).[41] A later investigation by Amnesty International has failed to find evidence for these allegations, and in many cases has discredited them, as the rebels were found to have deliberately lied about the claims.[42]

In July 2014, the Russian public broadcaster Channel 1 aired a report claiming that Ukrainian soldiers in Sloviansk had crucified a three-year-old boy to a board, and later dragged his mother with a tank, causing her death.[43] The account of the only witness interviewed for the report was not corroborated by anyone else,[44] and other media have been unable to confirm the story,[45] despite claims in the testimony that many of the city's inhabitants had been forced to watch the killings.[44] A reporter for Novaya Gazeta similarly failed to find any other witnesses in the city.[46]

See also
Notes
  1. Rogerson, Sidney (1938). Propaganda in the Next War. Great Britain: MacKays Limited. p. 27.
  2. Delwiche, Aaron. "Domestic Propaganda During the First World War". Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  3. Ponsonby, p.128
  4. Budge, Kent. "Propaganda". The Pacific War Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  5. "Inventing Atrocities". National Review Online. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  6. David L. Miller (6 August 2013). Introduction to Collective Behavior and Collective Action: Third Edition. Waveland Press. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-4786-1095-3.
  7. Linebarger, Paul (1948). Psychological Warfare. Landisville, Pennsylvania: Coachwhip Publications. p. 22. ISBN 1-61646-055-5.
  8. "Falsehood in Wartime". Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  9. Cull, Culbert, Welch, p.24
  10. "How lies about Irish 'barbarism' in 1641 paved way for Cromwell's atrocities". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  11. Cull, Culbert, Welch, p. 23–4
  12. Carl R. Trueman (2010-01-01). Histories and Fallacies: Problems Faced in the Writing of History. Crossway. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-4335-2080-8.
  13. McLeod, Kembrew (2014-01-01). Pranksters: Making Mischief in the Modern World. NYU Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-8147-6436-7.
  14. James David Drake (1999). King Philip's War: Civil War in New England, 1675–1676. Univ of Massachusetts Press. p. 134. ISBN 1-55849-224-0.
  15. "The Atrocity Propaganda Ben Franklin Circulated to Sway Public Opinion in America’s Favor". Slate. 1 July 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  16. Tickell, Alex (2013-06-17). Terrorism, Insurgency and Indian-English Literature, 1830–1947. Routledge. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-136-61841-3.
  17. Golay, Michael (2009-01-01). Spanish-American War, Updated Edition. Infobase Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-4381-0013-5.
  18. Ponsonby, p.129
  19. "Alleged German atrocities: Bryce report". The National Archives. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  20. Nicholas John Cull; David Holbrook Culbert; David Welch (2003-01-01). Propaganda and Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present. ABC-CLIO. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-57607-820-4.
  21. Celia M. Kingsbury (2010-07-01). For Home and Country: World War I Propaganda on the Home Front. U of Nebraska Press. p. 67. ISBN 0-8032-2832-5.
  22. Jennifer Keene; Michael Neiberg (2011). Finding Common Ground: New Directions in First World War Studies. BRILL. p. 32. ISBN 90-04-19182-8.
  23. Hollander, Neil (2013-12-27). Elusive Dove: The Search for Peace During World War I. McFarland. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-7864-7891-0.
  24. Celia M. Kingsbury (2010-07-01). For Home and Country: World War I Propaganda on the Home Front. U of Nebraska Press. p. 49. ISBN 0-8032-2832-5.
  25. "The Historian Who Sold Out". History News Network. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  26. Philip M. Taylor (15 November 2003). Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda, Third Edition (PDF). Manchester University Press. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-7190-6767-9.
  27. Philip M. Taylor (15 November 2003). Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda, Third Edition (PDF). Manchester University Press. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-7190-6767-9.
  28. Bernard F. Dick. The Star-spangled Screen: The American World War II Film. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 189–190. ISBN 0-8131-2821-8.
  29. Braithwaite, Rodric (2011). Afgantsy: The Russians in Afghanistan, 1979–89. Profile Books. p. 223. ISBN 1-84668-054-9.
  30. "Soviet Toys of Death". The New York Times. 10 December 1985. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  31. "Media : Truth Is Again a Casualty of War : Fabricated accounts of atrocities in Yugoslavia have often led to fierce reprisals". Los Angeles Times.
  32. "When contemplating war, beware of babies in incubators". CSMonitor.com. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  33. Saddam Executed; An Era Comes to an End
  34. Prison Stands as Testament to Saddam's Evil
  35. Clwyd, Ann (March 18, 2003). "See men shredded, then say you don't back war". Times Online. Archived from the original on 5 September 2008. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  36. "Brendan O'Neill: The missing people-shredder". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  37. "Is Jimmy Massey telling the truth about Iraq?". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Archived from the original on December 5, 2005. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  38. "Iraqi Refugee's Tale of Abuse Dissolves Upon Later Scrutiny". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  39. Dickey, Christopher. "The Crying Game". Newsweek. - "histrionic claims by Palestinian leader Yasir Arafat that 1,000 civilians had been killed. (In fact, about 50 Palestinians had fought and died in a ferocious battle that also cost the lives of 23 Israeli soldiers.)"
  40. "Barriers Removed in Kyrgyzstan Despite Uzbek Protests". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  41. MacAskill, Ewen (29 April 2011). "Gaddafi 'supplies troops with Viagra to encourage mass rape', claims diplomat". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  42. "Amnesty questions claim that Gaddafi ordered rape as weapon of war". The Independent. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  43. "Malaysia Airlines crash: Russian media blame Kiev". FT.com.
  44. "Russians Hear News About Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 That's Good for Kremlin". WSJ. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  45. "Russian TV sparks outrage with Ukraine child 'crucifixion' claim". Yahoo News. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  46. "There's No Evidence the Ukrainian Army Crucified a Child in Slovyansk". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
References
  • Ponsonby, Arthur (1928). Falsehood in Wartime. Institute for Historical Review. p. 128. ISBN 0-939484-39-0.
  • Nicholas Cull; David Culbert; David Welch (2003). Propaganda and Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present. ABC-CLIO. pp. 23–25. ISBN 1-57607-820-5.
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The Nazis Strike

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The Nazis Strike was the second film of Frank Capra 's Why We Fight propaganda film series. It introduces Germany as a nation whose aggressive ambitions began in 1863 with Otto von Bismarck and with the Nazis as their latest incarnation. Heartland Theory Hitler's plan for world domination is described in terms of Halford Mackinder 's Heartland Theory , starting at about three minutes into the film: Conquer the Heartland and you dominate the World Island. Conquer the World Island.......... and you dominate the World. Fifth column activity The next focus of the film is the "softening-up" of the Western democracies using fascist organizations such as the Belgian Rexists , the French Cross of Fire , the Sudeten German National Socialist Party of Konrad Henlein , the British Union of Fascists and the German American Bund . Meanwhile, within Germany the Nazis are beginning an enormous process of rearmament . Germany then begins its territorial expansion with the first target being Austria , Hitler's "full-scale inv



Cape Town Holocaust Centre

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The Cape Town Holocaust Centre began as Africa 's first Holocaust centre. The facility is one of three centres established by the South African Holocaust and Genocide Foundation. The other two are located in Johannesburg and Durban. It is in the Albow Centre in Gardens, central Cape Town, South Africa. They aim to bring to light stories of the survivors and ensure that the atrocities of the Holocaust are not forgotten. The museum boasts a permanent exhibition that combines text, archival photographs, film footage, documents, multimedia displays and recreated environments. They also offer educational programs of many kinds, for groups such as students or educators. The Holocaust is taught within a South African context; lessons on racism and the apartheid are mixed together. History Gallery Tourist Information The Centre is open from 10 am to 5 pm from Sunday-Thursday and 10-2 on Friday. Admission is free. Visitors can contact the centre at 021-462 5553 or admin@holocaust.co.za. Exhibition The permanent exhi



Li Changchun

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Li Changchun (born February 1944) is a retired Chinese politician and a former senior leader of the Communist Party of China . He served on the Politburo Standing Committee , the Communist Party's top leadership council, and as the top official in charge of propaganda , between 2002 and 2012. He also served as Chairman of the CPC Central Guidance Commission for Building Spiritual Civilization , de facto head of propaganda and media relations. Li had a widely varying political career spanning three provinces, first as Governor of Liaoning , then Party Secretary of Henan , and then Party Secretary of Guangdong , before being promoted to the national leadership in 2002. He retired in 2012. Biography Early life and career Li Changchun was born in February 1944 in modern-day Dalian , Liaoning , then administered by the Empire of Japan as "Dairen", Kwantung Leased Territory . He joined the Communist Party of China in 1965 and graduated with a degree in electrical engineering from the Harbin Institute of Technology



Bestgore.com

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Bestgore.com is a Canadian shock site owned by Mark Marek, which provides highly violent real-life news , photos and videos , with authored opinion and user comments. The site received media attention in 2012, following the hosting of a video which showed a real-life murder being committed by Luka Magnotta . As a result, Marek was arrested and charged under Canada's obscenity law with corrupting public morals. Background The site was launched on April 30, 2008 by Slovak - Canadian Mark Marek, and hosts explicit, real-life, photographic and video material of events such as murders, suicides, torture, mutilations and accidents. With an estimated 10–15 million monthly visits, Bestgore is currently the biggest shock site in the world. As well as real-life footage and pictures, there are also articles promoting conspiracy theories and revisionist history, such as holocaust denial , with source material from, most notably, David Irving and Ursula Haverbeck . Controversies and legal issues Murder of Lin Jun In J



Bengasi (film)

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Bengasi is a 1942 Italian war film directed by Augusto Genina and starring Fosco Giachetti , Maria von Tasnady and Amedeo Nazzari . The film was shot at Cinecittà in Rome . The film was a propaganda work , designed to support the Fascist regime of Benito Mussolini . It portrays Allied atrocities such as the murder of a peasant by a group of drunken Australian soldiers. It was presented at the Venice Film Festival and won the Mussolini Cup as the best Italian film while Fosco Giachetti won the best actor award. It proved popular with audiences, and was re-released in 1955 with some new scenes added. Synopsis The film is set in 1941 during the Second World War , when the city of Benghazi in Italian-ruled Libya was occupied by British forces. Italian inhabitants of Benghazi work to resist the British and discover their military plans. One man, Captain Enrico Berti, appears to be collaborating with the British but is in fact working undercover for Italian intelligence. The film ends with the city being recaptur



American cover-up of Japanese war crimes

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The American cover-up of Japanese war crimes occurred after the end of World War II , when the occupying US government granted political immunity to military personnel who had engaged in human experimentation and other crimes against humanity , predominantly in mainland China . The pardon of Japanese war criminals, among whom were Unit 731 's commanding officers General Shiro Ishii and General Masaji Kitano , was overseen by General of the Army Douglas MacArthur in September 1945. While a series of war tribunals and trials was organized, many of the high-ranking officials and doctors who devised and respectively performed the experiments were pardoned and never brought to justice. As many as 12,000 people, most of them Chinese, died in Unit 731 alone and many more died in other facilities, such as Unit 100 and in field experiments throughout Manchuria. Historical background Negative sentiments had existed historically between Japan and China, but those rarely materialized in armed conflict prior to the earl



Cambodian genocide denial

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Cambodian genocide denial was the belief expressed by many Western academics that claims of atrocities by the Khmer Rouge government (1975-1979) in Cambodia were much exaggerated. Many scholars of Cambodia and intellectuals, opposed to the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War , denied or minimized the human rights abuses of the Khmer Rouge, characterizing contrary information as "tales told by refugees" and U.S. propaganda. They viewed the assumption of power by the communist Khmer Rouge as a positive development for the people of Cambodia who had been severely impacted by the Vietnam War and the Cambodian Civil War . On the other side of the argument, anti-Communists in the United States and elsewhere saw in the rule of the Khmer Rouge vindication of their belief that the victory of communist governments in South-East Asia would lead to a "bloodbath". Scholar Donald W. Beachler, writing of the controversy about the range and extent of Khmer Rouge atrocities, concluded that "much of the posturing by academics



Jiffs

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Jiffs was a pejorative term used by British Intelligence , and later the 14th Army , to denote soldiers of the Indian National Army after the failed First Arakan offensive of 1943. The term is derived from the acronym JIFC, short for Japanese - Indian (or -inspired) fifth column . It came to be employed in a propaganda offensive in June 1943 within the British Indian Army as a part of the efforts to preserve the loyalty of the Indian troops at Manipur after suffering desertion and losses at Burma during the First Arakan Offensive. After the end of the war, the term "HIFFs" (from Hitler -inspired-fifth-columnists) was also used for repatriated troops of the Indian Legion awaiting trial. Background The prestige of the Raj had suffered a blow with the fall of British Malaya and, later, the massive surrender at Singapore . In February 1942, the Indian prisoners of war from the British Indian Army captured there came under the influence of Indian nationalists , notably Mohan Singh Deb , and a large number volunt



Nanking Massacre denial

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Nanking Massacre denial is the denial that Imperial Japanese forces murdered hundreds of thousands of Chinese soldiers and civilians during the Second Sino-Japanese War, a highly controversial episode in Sino-Japanese relations. It is considered a revisionist viewpoint and is not accepted in mainstream academia, even within some Japanese academia. Most historians accept the findings of the Tokyo tribunal with respect to the scope and nature of the atrocities committed by the Imperial Japanese Army after the Battle of Nanking. In Japan, however, there has been a heated debate over the extent and nature of the massacre. Relations between Japan and China have been complicated as a result, as denial of the massacre is seen as part of an overall unwillingness on Japan's part to admit and apologize for its aggression, or a perceived insensitivity regarding the killings.[1] Estimates of the death toll vary widely, ranging from 40,000 to over 300,000.[2] [3] Some scholars, notably the revisionists in Japan, have co



1st Cavalry Army (Soviet Union)

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Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1st Cavalry Army (Soviet Union) . The 1st Cavalry Army ( Russian : Первая конная армия ) was a prominent Red Army military formation. It was also known as "Budyonny's Cavalry Army" or simply as Konarmia ("Horsearmy"). When the Russian Civil War broke out in 1918, a non-commissioned officer named Budyonny organized a small cavalry force in the Don region out of local Cossacks . This force rapidly grew in numbers, sided with the Bolsheviks and eventually became the 1st Cavalry Army. It was transformed from a guerrilla force into a proper military unit under the command of Semyon Budyonny , and the political guidance of Kliment Voroshilov . This army played an important role in winning the Civil War for the Bolsheviks, driving the White General Anton Denikin back from his advance towards Moscow. In 1920 Budyonny's Cavalry Army took part in the invasion of Poland during the Polish-Bolshevik War , at first with remarkable success. The 1st Cavalry Army pushed Polish forces out



Irish Bulletin

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The Irish Bulletin was the official gazette of the government of the Irish Republic . It was produced by the Department of Propaganda during the Irish War of Independence . and its offices were originally located at No. 6 Harcourt Street , Dublin . The paper's first editor was Desmond FitzGerald , until his arrest and replacement by Robert Erskine Childers . The Bulletin appeared in weekly editions from 11 November 1919 to 11 July 1921. Genesis In April 1919, Terence MacSwiney proposed the establishment of a daily paper by the Dáil for the purpose of publicity. His suggestion was not implemented until November, when 'Desmond Fitzgerald decided that some form of printed counter-propaganda was vital to republican aims and to take advantage of the success of Sinn Féin and the increasing international interest in Ireland'. Fitzgerald succeeded Laurence Ginnell in the Ministry following the latter's arrest in April 1919, though he did not take up the position until July. At a Cabinet meeting held on 7 November, t



Italian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union

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Axis POWs in Stalingrad Italian prisoners of war in the Soviet union is related to the POWs, from the Italian ARMIR and CSIR , and their fate in Joseph Stalin 's Soviet Union during and after World War II . Characteristics Over 60,000 Italian prisoners of war (POWs) were taken captive by the Red Army in the Second World War . Almost all of them were captured during the decisive Soviet " Operation Little Saturn " offensive in December 1942 which annihilated the Italian Army in Russia ( Armata Italiana in Russia (ARMIR) ). At its height, the ARMIR was about 235,000 strong, and operated between December 1942 and February 1943 in support of the German forces engaged in and around Stalingrad . In this period the total figure of missing Italian soldiers amounted to 84,830 (Italian Ministry of Defence, 1977a 1977b). According to the Soviet archives, 54,400 Italian prisoners of war reached the Soviet prisoner camps alive; 44,315 prisoners died in captivity inside the camps, most of them in the winter of 1943. A list



Censorship in the Empire of Japan

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Censorship ( 検閲 Ken'etsu) in the Empire of Japan was a continuation of a long tradition beginning in the feudal period of Japan . Government censorship of the press existed in Japan during the Edo period , as the Tokugawa bakufu was in many ways a police state , which sought to control the spread of information, including Christianity , the influx of Western ideas, pornography and any political writings critical of the Shogun and government. Meiji Period (1868–1912) With the Meiji Restoration , the focus of state censorship of information shifted to protection of the Emperor and the fledgling Meiji government . Ideals of liberal democracy were considered dangerously subversive, and were targeted with the Publication Ordinance of 1869 ( 出版条例 Shuppan Jōrei) , which banned certain subjects (including pornography), and subjected publications to pre-publication review and approvals. Initially intended to serve as a copyright law , it was quickly adopted as a method of controlling public anti-government criticism.



Charles Saroléa

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Charles Sarolea (25 October 1870 in Tongeren – 11 March 1953 in Edinburgh ) was a Belgian academic and versatile publicist. Life He was for a long period Professor of French at the University of Edinburgh . He wrote books on a wide range of topics on international affairs. He also edited from 1912 to 1917 Everyman , a literary magazine favourable to the doctrine of distributism . In 1915, he was sent by the Belgian government to the USA in order to support the veracity of atrocity stories in circulation about the German occupation of Belgium. The mission was not a success, in that Sarolea unwisely and publicly attacked the neutrality that the US was observing at the time with respect to World War I . Recent academic interest has been on his political views. Works Henrik Ibsen (1891) Essais de philosophie et de literature (1898) Les belges au Congo (1899) A Short History of the Anti-Congo Campaign (1905) The French Revolution and the Russian Revolution (1906) Newman's Theology (1908) The Anglo-German Problem



War film

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Film poster for Kajiro Yamamoto's Hawai Mare oki kaisen, (ハワイ・マレー沖海戦, The War at Sea from Hawaii to Malaya), Toho Company, 1942 War film is a film genre concerned with warfare, typically about naval, air, or land battles, with combat scenes central to the drama. It has been strongly associated with the 20th century.[1] [2] The fateful nature of battle scenes means that war films often end with them. Themes explored include combat, survival and escape, sacrifice, the futility and inhumanity of battle, the effects of war on society, and the moral and human issues raised by war. War films are often categorized by their milieu, such as the Korean War; the most popular subject is the Second World War. The stories told may be fiction, historical drama, or biographical. Critics have noted similarities between the Western and the war film. Nations such as China, Indonesia, Japan, and Russia have their own traditions of war film, centred on their own revolutionary wars but taking varied forms, from action an



Alex Carey

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Alexander Edward Carey (1 December 1922 – 30 November 1987) was an Australian writer and social psychologist . Before enrolling at London University , Carey had been a sheep farmer for ten years on his family's property near Geraldton in Western Australia . From 1958 until his death, he was a lecturer in psychology at the University of New South Wales . The main subjects of his lectures and research were industrial psychology , industrial relations , and the psychology of nationalism and propaganda . He was one of the founding members of the Australian Humanist Society in 1960. In the 1970s, Carey was prominent in the protest movement against Australian participation in the Vietnam War . He was the father of the noted Australian writer, Gabrielle Carey . In 1988, Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman published their Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media in dedication to the memory of Carey. Claiming that it was Carey who had inspired their work, Chomsky has said, "The real importance of C



Philip J. Cohen

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Philip J. Cohen (born 1953) is an American dermatologist and former United Nations advisor on Bosnia and Herzegovina who has written several works on the history of the former Yugoslavia , most notably Serbia’s Secret War: Propaganda and the Deceit of History, first published in 1996 by Texas A&M University Press to mixed reviews. He followed this in 1997 with the publishing of The World War II and contemporary Chetniks: Their historico-political continuity and implications for stability in the Balkans by Ceres. In 1998, he received an award from the President of Croatia for his "contribution in spreading the truth about the aggression against Croatia" and "exposing Great Serb and anti-Croat propaganda" through his books. Biography Cohen attended New College of Florida in Sarasota where he earned a Bachelor of Arts degree, graduating in 1975. In 1983, he completed his Doctor of Medicine at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey . In 1993, he wrote a position paper on ending the war in the



Karapatan

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Karapatan , which translates as rights, is a human rights non-governmental organization in the Philippines . The full name of the group is KARAPATAN: Alliance for the Advancement of People's Rights . History The organization's General Secretary, Marie Hilao-Enriquez , is a strong advocate for human rights in the Philippines and internationally. As the mandate of President Gloria Macapal-Arroyo has witnessed over 830 political killings, including a bishop, Alberto Ramento , and a state of emergency in February 2006. Further, the group has documented many cases of political killings and harassment and submitted them to the Joint Monitoring Committee (JMC) of the Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRP) and the National Democratic Front (NDFP) . In March 2007, in the capacity of representing KARAPATAN, she presented on the extra-judicial political killings before the United States East Asian and Pacific Affairs Subcommittee chaired by US Senator Barbara Boxer (D-Cal). On the eve of the Nov 01-02, 2007



John R. MacArthur

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John R. "Rick" MacArthur (June 4, 1956, New York City ) is an American journalist and author of books about US politics. He is the president of Harper's Magazine . Biography MacArthur is the son of J. Roderick MacArthur and Christiane L’Étendart, and the grandson of billionaire John D. MacArthur . He grew up in Winnetka , Illinois , graduating from North Shore Country Day School in 1974. He graduated from Columbia University with a B.A. in history in 1978. He lives with his wife and two daughters in New York City. Career MacArthur writes a monthly column, in French, for Le Devoir on a wide range of topics from politics to culture and is a regular contributor to the Spectator (U.K.), the Toronto Star, Le Monde Diplomatique and Le Monde. Though John D. MacArthur disinherited his son J. Roderick MacArthur , the latter served on the board of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation until his death in 1984. In 1980, John R. MacArthur persuaded the foundation to partner in creating and funding a Harper's M



Heinz Jost

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Heinz Jost (9 July 1904 – 12 November 1964) was an SS - Brigadeführer and a Generalmajor (Brigadier General) of Police. Jost was involved in espionage matters as the Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service) or (SD) section chief of office VI (foreign intelligence) of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Main Security Office) or RSHA. Jost was also responsible for genocide in eastern Europe as commander of Einsatzgruppe A from March to September 1942. Early life Heinz Jost was born in the northern Hessian Homberg (Efze) - Ortsteil Holzhausen - in Hersfeld in 1904, to a middle-class Catholic and nationalistic family. Heinrich Jost, Heinz's father, was a pharmacist and later became a fellow NSDAP member. Jost attended grammar school in Bensheim , graduating in 1923. As a student he became a member, and eventually a leader, of the Jungdeutsche Orden ( Young German Order ), a nationalistic paramilitary movement. Jost studied law and economics at the Universities of Giessen and Munich . He completed his civil servic



Nanking Massacre

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The Nanking Massacre was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China during the Second Sino-Japanese War. The massacre is also known as the Rape of Nanking or, using Pinyin romanization, the Nanjing Massacre or Rape of Nanjing. The massacre occurred over a period of six weeks starting on December 13, 1937, the day that the Japanese captured Nanjing. During this period, soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army murdered Chinese civilians and disarmed combatants who numbered an estimated 40,000 to over 300,000,[7] [8] and perpetrated widespread rape and looting.[9] [10] Since most Japanese military records on the killings were kept secret or destroyed shortly after the surrender of Japan in 1945, historians have not been able to accurately estimate the death toll of the massacre. The International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo estimated in 1946 that over 200,000 Chinese were killed in the



Hate week

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Hate Week is an event in George Orwell 's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four , designed to increase the hatred for the current enemy of the Party, as much as possible, whichever of the two opposing superstates that may be. Plot summary During one particular Hate Week, Oceania switched allies while a public speaker is in the middle of a sentence, though the disruption was minimal: the posters against the previous enemy were deemed to be "sabotage" of Hate Week conducted by Emmanuel Goldstein and his supporters, summarily torn down by the crowd, and quickly replaced with propaganda against the new enemy, thus demonstrating the ease with which the Party directs the hatred of its members. This ease of direction could also be partially attributed to the similarity in the terms "Eastasia" and "Eurasia" because they are more easily confused. All members of Oceania are expected to show appropriate enthusiasm during Hate Week, as well as the daily Two Minutes Hate . While participation in this event is not legally required, a



Hans Fritzsche

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Hans Georg Fritzsche (April 21, 1900 – September 27, 1953) was a senior German Nazi official, ending the war as Ministerialdirektor at the Propagandaministerium (Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda). He was present in the Berlin Führerbunker during the last days of Adolf Hitler . After Hitler's death, he went over to the Soviet lines in Berlin to offer the surrender of the city to the Red Army on May 1, 1945. He was taken prisoner. Fritzsche died in 1953. Career Fritzsche was born in Bochum (a city in the Ruhr Area ) and served in the German Army in 1917. Post-war he studied briefly at a number of universities before becoming a journalist for the Hugenberg Press and then involved in the new mass media of the radio , working for the German government. In September 1932 he was made head of the Drahtloser Dienst (the wireless news service). On May 1, 1933, he joined the NSDAP (Nazi Party). Under Joseph Goebbels ' Reich Ministry he continued to head the radio department before being promoted to



LGBT rights in Russia

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Lesbian , gay , bisexual , transgender ( LGBT ) people in the Russian Federation face legal and social challenges not experienced by non-LGBT persons. Although same-sex sexual activity between consenting adults in private was decriminalized in 1993, same-sex couples and households headed by same-sex couples are ineligible for the legal protections available to opposite-sex couples and there are currently no laws prohibiting discrimination regarding sexual orientation. Transgender people are allowed to change their legal gender following sex reassignment surgery , however, there are currently no laws prohibiting discrimination regarding gender identity or expression and recent laws could discriminate against transgender residents. Homosexuality has been declassified as a mental illness since 1999 and although gays and lesbians are allowed to serve openly in the military, there is an unofficial " Don’t ask, don’t tell " policy. Russia has been viewed as being socially conservative regarding homosexuality, with



Joseph Goebbels

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Paul Joseph Goebbels ( German: ; 29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. He was one of Adolf Hitler 's close associates and most devoted followers, and was known for his skills in public speaking and his deep, virulent antisemitism , which was evident in his publicly voiced views. He advocated progressively harsher discrimination, including the extermination of the Jews in the Holocaust . Goebbels, who aspired to be an author, obtained a Doctor of Philosophy degree from the University of Heidelberg in 1921. He joined the Nazi Party in 1924, and worked with Gregor Strasser in their northern branch. He was appointed as Gauleiter (district leader) for Berlin in 1926, where he began to take an interest in the use of propaganda to promote the party and its programme. After the Nazi Seizure of Power in 1933, Goebbels' Propaganda Ministry quickly gained and exerted controlling supervision over the news media, arts, and information in



The Silent Village

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The Silent Village is a 1943 British propaganda short film in the form of a drama documentary, made by the Crown Film Unit and directed by Humphrey Jennings . The film was named one of the top 5 documentaries of 1943 by the National Board of Review . It was inspired by the Lidice massacre in Czech Republic in June 1942. Plot The film opens with a title card outlining the story of Lidice . It then moves on to an image of the stream running through the village of Cwmgiedd (half a mile from Ystradgynlais in west Wales), and an eight-minute opening sequence interspersed with images and sounds of everyday life in a community in the Upper Swansea Valley ; men are shown working at the colliery , women engaged in domestic tasks in their homes and the inhabitants singing in the Methodist chapel. Most of the dialogue in this section is spoken in Welsh , with no subtitles provided. The section closes with another title card stating "such is life at Cwmgiedd...and such too was life in Lidice until the coming of Fascism"



NATO bombing of the Radio Television of Serbia headquarters

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The NATO bombing of the Radio Television of Serbia headquarters occurred on 23 April 1999, during the Kosovo War . It formed part of NATO's aerial campaign against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia , and severely damaged the Belgrade headquarters of Radio Television of Serbia (RTS). Other radio and electrical installations throughout the country were also attacked. Sixteen employees of RTS died when a single NATO missile hit the building. Many were trapped for days, only communicating over mobile phones. The station returned to the air 24 hours later from a secret location. NATO Headquarters justified the bombing with two arguments; firstly, that it was necessary "to disrupt and degrade the command, control and communications network" of the Yugoslav Armed Forces, and secondly, that the RTS headquarters was a dual-use object which "was making an important contribution to the propaganda war which orchestrated the campaign against the population of Kosovo". The British Broadcasting Corporation reported tha



Bloody Sunday (1939)

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Wehrmacht soldiers and journalists with German victims of Bloody Sunday.[1] The photo was utilized by the Nazi press and bears the editor's cropping marks, showing the portion of the image that was intended to be used for publication.[2] Bloody Sunday (German: Bromberger Blutsonntag; Polish: Krwawa niedziela) was a sequence of events that took place in Bydgoszcz (German: Bromberg), a Polish city with a sizable German minority, between 3 and 4 September 1939, immediately after the German invasion of Poland. The sequence started with an attack of German Selbstschutz snipers on retreating Polish troops and then was followed by a Polish reaction and then the final retaliatory execution of Polish hostages by the Wehrmacht and Selbstschutz, after the fall of the city. All these events resulted in the deaths of both German and Polish civilians. The Polish Institute of National Remembrance found and confirmed 254 Lutheran victims, assumed to be German victims, and 86 Catholic victims, assumed to be Polish ci



History of public relations

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Most textbooks date the establishment of the "Publicity Bureau" in 1900 as the start of the modern public relations (PR) profession. Of course, there were many early forms of public influence and communications management in history. Basil Clark is considered the founder of the public relations profession in Britain with his establishment of Editorial Services in 1924. Academic Noel Turnball points out that systematic PR was employed in Britain first by religious evangelicals and Victorian reformers, especially opponents of slavery. In each case the early promoters focused on their particular movement and were not for hire more generally. Propaganda was used by both sides to rally domestic support and demonize enemies during the First World War. PR activists entered the private sector in the 1920s. Public relations became established first in the US by Ivy Lee or Edward Bernays , then spread internationally. Many American companies with PR departments spread the practice to Europe after 1948 when they created



Nuremberg Rally

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The Totenehrung (honoring of the dead) at the 1934 Nuremberg Rally. SS leader Heinrich Himmler, Adolf Hitler and SA leader Viktor Lutze (from L to R) on the stone terrace in front of the Ehrenhalle (Hall of Honor) in the Luitpoldarena. In the background is the crescent-shaped Ehrentribüne (the Tribune of Honor). The Nuremberg Rally (officially  Reichsparteitag , meaning Imperial Party Convention) was the annual rally of the Nazi Party in Germany, held from 1923 to 1938.[1] They were large Nazi propaganda events, especially after Adolf Hitler's rise to power in 1933. These events were held at the Nazi party rally grounds in Nuremberg from 1933 to 1938 and are usually referred to in English as the "Nuremberg Rallies". Many films were made to commemorate them, the most famous of which is Leni Riefenstahl's Triumph of the Will and Der Sieg des Glaubens. History and purpose The first Nazi Party rallies took place in 1923 in Munich and in 1926 in Weimar. From 1927 on, they took place exclusively in Nurembe



Abdul Jabbar al-Oqaidi

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Abdul Jabbar al-Oqaidi (also spelled al-Aqidi ) is a commander of and spokesman for the Free Syrian Army in Aleppo . A former colonel in the Syrian Arab Army , he defected in early 2012. On 3 November 2013, he announced his resignation from the Aleppo Revolutionary Military Council due to disunity among the rebels and constant retreats from battles, including the Aleppo offensive (October–December 2013) . References "Inside Syria's civil war" . CBS News . Retrieved 24 January 2013 . "Aleppo clashes continue as opposition demands UN meet" . Al Akhbar. 29 July 2012 . Retrieved 24 January 2013 . "162 Dead in Syria as Army Claims Control of Aleppo Rebel Bastion" . Naharnet. 8 August 2012 . Retrieved 24 January 2013 . Michael Burleigh (2 August 2012). "Rebel atrocities in Syria show the rebels' true colours, and given Assad a boost in the propaganda war" . Dailymail.co.uk . Retrieved 24 January 2013 . "Syrian rebel commander says Aleppo to be liberated 'within days ' " . Haaretz. 31 July 2012 . Retrieved 24



Divide and Conquer (film)

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Divide and Conquer (1943) is the third film of Frank Capra's Why We Fight propaganda film series, dealing with the Nazi conquest of Western Europe in 1940. The film begins immediately after the fall of Poland. Of the two major Western Allies of 1940, the United Kingdom is first to be mentioned. The role of the Royal Navy in blockading Germany is highlighted, in that it means that Germany must overcome British resistance in order to clear the way for its world conquest. Hitler's treachery towards the small neutral countries of Europe is exposed - to Denmark: "We have concluded a non-aggression pact with Denmark" - to Norway: "Germany never had any quarrel with the Northern States and has none today" - to the Netherlands: "The new Reich has always endeavored to maintain the traditional friendship with Holland" - and to Belgium: "The Reich has put forth no claim which may in any way be regarded as a threat to Belgium". These quotes are repeated after the conquest of each of these countries is shown. The first ta



Anti-Japanese sentiment

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Anti-Japanese sentiment (also called Japanophobia , Nipponophobia and anti-Japanism ) involves the hatred or fear of anything Japanese. Its opposite is Japanophilia . Overview Results of 2014 BBC World Service poll Views of Japan's influence by country (sorted by pos − neg) Country polled Positive Negative Neutral Pos − Neg   China 5% 90% 5 -85   South Korea 15% 79% 6 -64   Germany 28% 46% 26 -18   India 27% 29% 44 -2   Mexico 38% 25% 37 13   Spain 46% 30% 24 16   Kenya 45% 26% 29 19   Turkey 40% 18% 42 22   France 58% 34% 8 24   Pakistan 46% 21% 33 25   Argentina 43% 16% 41 27   Canada 58% 30% 12 28   Israel 43% 12% 45 31   Australia 59% 26% 15 33   Russia 49% 12% 39 37   Ghana 59% 21% 20 38   Peru 59% 19% 22 40   United Kingdom 65% 24% 11 41   United States 66% 23% 11 43   Japan 50% 6% 44 44   Brazil 70% 19% 11 51   Indonesia 70% 14% 16 56   Nigeria 72% 13% 15 59 Results of 2013 Pew Research Center poll Asia/Pacific views of Japan by country (sorted by fav − unfav) Country polled Favorable Unfavorable Neu



Archibald Reiss

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Rudolphe Archibald Reiss (8 July 1875 – 7 August 1929) was a German-Swiss criminology-pioneer, forensic scientist, professor and writer. Early life and studies The Reiss family was in agriculture and winemaking. Archibald was the eighth of ten children, son of Ferdinand Reiss, landowner and Pauline Sabine Anna Gabriele Seutter von Loetzen. After finishing highschool in Germany, he went to Switzerland for his studies. He had received a Ph.D. in chemistry at the age of 22 and was an expert in photography and forensic science. In 1906 he was appointed a professor of forensic science at the University of Lausanne. In 1909, he was the founder of the first academic forensic science programme and of the "Institut de police scientifique" (Institute of forensic science) at the University of Lausanne. He published two major books on forensic science "Photographie judiciaire" (Forensic photography), Mendel, Paris, in 1903 and the first part of his major contribution "Manuel de police scientifique. I Vols et homicides"



Mykola Rudenko

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Mykola Danylovych Rudenko (Ukrainian: Мико́ла Дани́лович Руде́нко; 12 December 1920, Yuryivka, Donetsk Governorate, Ukrainian SSR – 1 April 2004, Kiev) was a Ukrainian poet, writer, philosopher, Soviet dissident, human rights activist and World War II veteran. He was the founder of the Ukrainian Helsinki group, and was twice arrested for his dissident activities. Biography Rudenko was seven years old when his father died in a mining accident. With his mother and two siblings, he worked on the family farm until they were forced to give their land during the process of collectivization. He was traumatized by the Holodomor, and remarked that it remained with him his entire life. He began to write as a child, and had some of his poems published by the local newspapers. His writing earned him a scholarship to Kiev State University in 1939. He only studied for two months until he was called into the Red Army. During the war Rudenko sustained serious injuries. On 4 October 1941 near Leningrad he was wounded by an e



Battle of Nanking

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The Battle of Nanking (or Nanjing) was fought in early December 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War between the National Revolutionary Army of China and the Imperial Japanese Army for control of Nanking (Nanjing), the capital of the Republic of China . Following the outbreak of war between Japan and China in July 1937 the Japanese government at first attempting to contain the fighting and sought a negotiated settlement to the war. However, after victory in the Battle of Shanghai expansionists prevailed within the Japanese military and on December 1 a campaign to capture Nanking was officially authorized. The task of occupying Nanking was given to General Iwane Matsui , the commander of Japan's Central China Area Army, who believed that the capture of Nanking would force China to surrender and thus end the war. Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek ultimately decided to defend the city and appointed Tang Shengzhi to command the Nanking Garrison Force, a hastily assembled army of local conscripts and the remnants



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