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Atrocity propaganda

Atrocity propaganda is a term referring to the spreading of deliberate fabrications or exaggerations about the crimes committed by an enemy, constituting a form of psychological warfare.

The inherently violent nature of war means that exaggeration and invention of atrocities often becomes the main staple of propaganda. Patriotism is often not enough to make people hate, and propaganda is also necessary.[1] "So great are the psychological resistances to war in modern nations", wrote Harold Lasswell, "that every war must appear to be a war of defense against a menacing, murderous aggressor. There must be no ambiguity about who the public is to hate."[2] Human testimony is deemed unreliable even in ordinary circumstances, but in wartime, it can be further muddled by bias, sentiment, and misguided patriotism, becoming of no value whatsoever in establishing the truth.[3]

According to Paul Linebarger, atrocity propaganda leads to real atrocities, as it incites the enemy into committing more atrocities, and, by heating up passions, it increases the chances of one's own side committing atrocities, in revenge for the ones reported in propaganda.[4] Atrocity propaganda might also lead the public to mistrust reports of actual atrocities. In January 1944, Arthur Koestler wrote of his frustration at trying to communicate what he had witnessed in Nazi-occupied Europe: the legacy of anti-German stories during World War I, many of which were debunked in the postwar years, meant that these reports were received with considerable amounts of skepticism.[5]

Like propaganda, atrocity rumors detailing exaggerated or invented crimes perpetrated by enemies are also circulated to vilify the opposing side.[6]

Techniques

By establishing a baseline lie and painting the enemy as a monster, atrocity propaganda serves as an intelligence function, since it wastes the time and resources of the enemy's counterintelligence services to defend itself. Atrocity propaganda can either be white, gray, or black. Atrocity propaganda is often white, as it makes no attempt to hide its source and is overt in nature. The propagandists' goal is to influence perceptions, attitudes, opinions, and policies; often targeting officials at all levels of government. Atrocity propaganda is violent, gloomy, and portrays doom to help rile up and get the public excited. It dehumanizes the enemy, making them easier to kill. Wars have become more serious, and less gentlemanly; the enemy must now be taken into account not merely as a man, but as a fanatic.[7] So, "falsehood is a recognized and extremely useful weapon in warfare, and every country uses it quite deliberately to deceive its own people, attract neutrals, and to mislead the enemy."[8] Harold Lasswell saw it as a handy rule for arousing hate, and that "if at first they do not enrage, use an atrocity. It has been employed with unvarying success in every conflict known to man."[2]

The extent and devastation of World War I required nations to keep morale high. Propaganda was used here to mobilize hatred against the enemy, convince the population of the justness of one's own cause, enlist the active support and cooperation of neutral countries, and strengthen the support of one's allies.[9] The goal was to make the enemy appear savage, barbaric, and inhumane.

Atrocity propaganda in history
Before the 20th century
Accounts of Irish atrocities during the Rebellion of 1641 are now dismissed as propaganda, but led to real massacres.[10]

In a sermon at Clermont during the Crusades, Urban II justified the war against Islam by claiming that the enemy "had ravaged the churches of God in the Eastern provinces, circumcised Christian men, violated women, and carried out the most unspeakable torture before killing them."[11] Urban II's sermon succeeded in mobilizing popular enthusiasm in support of the People's Crusade.

Lurid tales purporting to unveil Jewish atrocities against Christians were widespread in the Middle Ages.[12] The charge against Jews of kidnapping and murdering Christian children to drink their blood during passover became known as blood libel.[13]

In the 17th century, the English press fabricated graphic descriptions of atrocities allegedly committed by Irish Catholics against English Protestants, including the torture of civilians and the raping of women. The English public reacted to these stories with calls for stern reprisals.[14] During the Irish rebellion of 1641, lurid reports of atrocities, including of pregnant women who had been ripped open and had their babies pulled out, provided Oliver Cromwell with justification for his subsequent slaughter of defeated Irish rebels.[10]

In 1782, Benjamin Franklin wrote and published an article purporting to reveal a letter between a British agent and the governor of Canada, listing atrocities supposedly perpetrated by Native American allies of Britain against colonists, including detailed accounts of the scalping of women and children. The account was a fabrication, published in the expectation that it would be reprinted by British newspapers and therefore sway British public opinion in favor of peace with the United States.[15]

After the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny, stories began to circulate in the British and colonial press of atrocities, especially rapes of European women, in places like Cawnpore; a subsequent official inquiry found no evidence for any of the claims.[16]

In the lead up to the Spanish–American War, Pulitzer and Hearst published stories of Spanish atrocities against Cubans. While occasionally true, the majority of these stories were fabrications meant to boost sales.[17]

20th century
World War I
It was reported that some thirty to thirty-five German soldiers entered the house of David Tordens, a carter, in Sempst; they bound him, and then five or six of them assaulted and ravished in his presence his thirteen-year-old daughter, and afterwards fixed her on bayonets. After this horrible deed, they bayoneted his nine-year-old boy and then shot his wife.
[18]
Stories of German soldiers impaling children on their bayonets were based on extremely flimsy evidence.[19]

Atrocity propaganda was widespread during World War I, when it was used by all belligerents, playing a major role in creating the wave of patriotism that characterised the early stages of the war.[20] British propaganda is regarded as having made the most extensive use of fictitious atrocities to promote the war effort.[20]

One such story was that German soldiers were deliberately mutilating Belgian babies by cutting off their hands, in some versions even eating them. Eyewitness accounts told of having seen a similarly mutilated baby. As Arthur Ponsonby later pointed out, in reality a baby would be very unlikely to survive similar wounds without immediate medical attention.[21]

Another atrocity story involved a Canadian soldier, who had supposedly been crucified with bayonets by the Germans (see The Crucified Soldier). Many Canadians claimed to have witnessed the event, yet they all provided different version of how it had happened. The Canadian high command investigated the matter, concluding that it was untrue.[22]

Other reports circulated of Belgian women, often nuns, who had their breasts cut off by the Germans.[23] A story about German corpse factories, where bodies of German soldiers were supposedly turned into glycerine for weapons, or food for hogs and poultry, was published in a Times article on April 17, 1917.[24] In the postwar years, investigations in Britain and France revealed that these stories were false.[20]

In 1915, the British government asked Viscount Bryce, one of the best-known contemporary historians, to head the Committee on Alleged German Outrages which was to investigate the allegations of atrocities. The report purported to prove many of the claims, and was widely published in the United States, where it contributed to convince the American public to enter the war. Few at the time criticised the accuracy of the report. After the war, historians who sought to examine the documentation for the report were told that the files had mysteriously disappeared. Surviving correspondence between the members of the committee revealed they actually had severe doubts about the credibility of the tales they investigated.[25]

World War II

During World War II, atrocity propaganda was not used on the same scale as in World War I, as by then it had long been discredited by its use during the previous conflict.[26] There were exceptions in some propaganda films, such as Hitler's Children, Women in Bondage, and Enemy of Women, which portrayed the Germans (as opposed to just Nazis) as enemies of civilization, abusing women and the innocent.[27] Hitler's Children is now spoken of as "lurid", while Women in Bondage is described as a low-budget exploitation film; the latter carries a disclaimer that "everything in the film is true", but facts are often distorted or sensationalized.[28]

Soviet-Afghan War
The PFM-1 mine was claimed to have been deliberately designed to attract children

According to a 1985 UN report backed by Western countries, the KGB had deliberately designed mines to look like toys, and deployed them against Afghan children during the Soviet war in Afghanistan.[29]

Newspapers such as the New York Times ran stories denouncing the "ghastly, deliberate crippling of children" and noting that while the stories had been met with skepticism by the public, they had been proven by the "incontrovertible testimony" of a UN official testifying the existence of booby-trap toys in the shape of harmonicas, radios, or birds.[30]

The story likely originated from the PFM-1 mine, which was made from brightly colored plastic and had been directly copied from the American BLU-43 Dragontooth design. The Mine Action Coordination Center of Afghanistan reported that the allegations "gained a life for obvious journalist reasons", but otherwise had no basis in reality.[29]

Yugoslav Wars

In November 1991, a Serbian photographer claimed to have seen the corpses of 41 children, which had allegedly been killed by Croatian soldiers. The story was published by media outlets worldwide, but the photographer later admitted to fabricating his account. The story of this atrocity was blamed for inciting a desire for vengeance in Serbian rebels, who summarily executed Croatian fighters who were captured near the alleged crime scene the day after the forged report was published.[31]

Gulf war

Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990. On October 10, 1990, a young Kuwaiti girl known only as "Nayirah" appeared in front of a congressional committee and testified that she witnessed the mass murdering of infants, when Iraqi soldiers had snatched them out of hospital incubators and threw them on the floor to die. Her testimony became a lead item in newspapers, radio and TV all over the US. The story was eventually exposed as a fabrication in December 1992, in a CBC-TV program called To Sell a War. Nayirah was revealed to be the daughter of Kuwait's ambassador to the United States, and actually hadn't seen the "atrocities" she described take place; the PR firm Hill & Knowlton, which had been hired by the Kuwaiti government to devise a PR campaign to increase American public support for a war against Iraq, had heavily promoted her testimony.[32]

21st century
Iraq War

In the runup to the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, press stories appeared in the United Kingdom and United States of a plastic shredder or wood chipper[33] [34] into which Saddam and Qusay Hussein fed opponents of their Baathist rule. These stories attracted worldwide attention and boosted support for military action, in stories with titles such as "See men shredded, then say you don't back war".[35] A year later, it was determined there was no evidence to support the existence of such a machine.[36]

In 2004, former Marine Staff Sgt. Jimmy Massey claimed that he and other Marines intentionally killed dozens of innocent Iraqi civilians, including a 4-year-old girl. His allegations were published by news organizations worldwide, but none of the five journalists who covered his battalion said they saw reckless or indiscriminate shooting of civilians. The St. Louis Post-Dispatch dismissed his claim as "either demonstrably false or exaggerated".[37]

In July 2003 an Iraqi woman, Jumana Hanna, testified that she had been subjected to inhumane treatment by Baathist policemen during two years of imprisonment, including being subjected to electric shocks and raped repeatedly. The story appeared on the front page of The Washington Post, and was presented to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee by then-Deputy Defense Secretary Paul D. Wolfowitz. In January 2005, articles in Esquire and The Washington Post concluded that none of her allegations could be verified, and that her accounts contained grave inconsistencies. Her husband, who she claimed had been executed in the same prison where she was tortured, was in fact still alive.[38]

Other cases

During the Battle of Jenin, Palestinian officials claimed there was a massacre of civilians in the refugee camp, which was proven false by subsequent international investigations.[39]

During the 2010 South Kyrgyzstan ethnic clashes, a rumor spread among ethnic Kyrgyz that Uzbek men had broken into a local women's dormitory and raped several Kyrgyz women. Local police never provided any confirmation that such an assault occurred.[40]

During the Arab Spring, Libyan media was reporting atrocities by Muammar Gaddafi loyalists, who were ordered to perform mass "Viagra-fueled rapes" (see 2011 Libyan rape allegations).[41] A later investigation by Amnesty International has failed to find evidence for these allegations, and in many cases has discredited them, as the rebels were found to have deliberately lied about the claims.[42]

In July 2014, the Russian public broadcaster Channel 1 aired a report claiming that Ukrainian soldiers in Sloviansk had crucified a three-year-old boy to a board, and later dragged his mother with a tank, causing her death.[43] The account of the only witness interviewed for the report was not corroborated by anyone else,[44] and other media have been unable to confirm the story,[45] despite claims in the testimony that many of the city's inhabitants had been forced to watch the killings.[44] A reporter for Novaya Gazeta similarly failed to find any other witnesses in the city.[46]

See also
Notes
  1. Rogerson, Sidney (1938). Propaganda in the Next War. Great Britain: MacKays Limited. p. 27.
  2. Delwiche, Aaron. "Domestic Propaganda During the First World War". Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  3. Ponsonby, p.128
  4. Budge, Kent. "Propaganda". The Pacific War Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  5. "Inventing Atrocities". National Review Online. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  6. David L. Miller (6 August 2013). Introduction to Collective Behavior and Collective Action: Third Edition. Waveland Press. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-4786-1095-3.
  7. Linebarger, Paul (1948). Psychological Warfare. Landisville, Pennsylvania: Coachwhip Publications. p. 22. ISBN 1-61646-055-5.
  8. "Falsehood in Wartime". Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  9. Cull, Culbert, Welch, p.24
  10. "How lies about Irish 'barbarism' in 1641 paved way for Cromwell's atrocities". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  11. Cull, Culbert, Welch, p. 23–4
  12. Carl R. Trueman (2010-01-01). Histories and Fallacies: Problems Faced in the Writing of History. Crossway. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-4335-2080-8.
  13. McLeod, Kembrew (2014-01-01). Pranksters: Making Mischief in the Modern World. NYU Press. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-8147-6436-7.
  14. James David Drake (1999). King Philip's War: Civil War in New England, 1675–1676. Univ of Massachusetts Press. p. 134. ISBN 1-55849-224-0.
  15. "The Atrocity Propaganda Ben Franklin Circulated to Sway Public Opinion in America’s Favor". Slate. 1 July 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  16. Tickell, Alex (2013-06-17). Terrorism, Insurgency and Indian-English Literature, 1830–1947. Routledge. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-136-61841-3.
  17. Golay, Michael (2009-01-01). Spanish-American War, Updated Edition. Infobase Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-4381-0013-5.
  18. Ponsonby, p.129
  19. "Alleged German atrocities: Bryce report". The National Archives. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  20. Nicholas John Cull; David Holbrook Culbert; David Welch (2003-01-01). Propaganda and Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present. ABC-CLIO. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-57607-820-4.
  21. Celia M. Kingsbury (2010-07-01). For Home and Country: World War I Propaganda on the Home Front. U of Nebraska Press. p. 67. ISBN 0-8032-2832-5.
  22. Jennifer Keene; Michael Neiberg (2011). Finding Common Ground: New Directions in First World War Studies. BRILL. p. 32. ISBN 90-04-19182-8.
  23. Hollander, Neil (2013-12-27). Elusive Dove: The Search for Peace During World War I. McFarland. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-7864-7891-0.
  24. Celia M. Kingsbury (2010-07-01). For Home and Country: World War I Propaganda on the Home Front. U of Nebraska Press. p. 49. ISBN 0-8032-2832-5.
  25. "The Historian Who Sold Out". History News Network. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  26. Philip M. Taylor (15 November 2003). Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda, Third Edition (PDF). Manchester University Press. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-7190-6767-9.
  27. Philip M. Taylor (15 November 2003). Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda, Third Edition (PDF). Manchester University Press. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-7190-6767-9.
  28. Bernard F. Dick. The Star-spangled Screen: The American World War II Film. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 189–190. ISBN 0-8131-2821-8.
  29. Braithwaite, Rodric (2011). Afgantsy: The Russians in Afghanistan, 1979–89. Profile Books. p. 223. ISBN 1-84668-054-9.
  30. "Soviet Toys of Death". The New York Times. 10 December 1985. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  31. "Media : Truth Is Again a Casualty of War : Fabricated accounts of atrocities in Yugoslavia have often led to fierce reprisals". Los Angeles Times.
  32. "When contemplating war, beware of babies in incubators". CSMonitor.com. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  33. Saddam Executed; An Era Comes to an End
  34. Prison Stands as Testament to Saddam's Evil
  35. Clwyd, Ann (March 18, 2003). "See men shredded, then say you don't back war". Times Online. Archived from the original on 5 September 2008. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  36. "Brendan O'Neill: The missing people-shredder". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  37. "Is Jimmy Massey telling the truth about Iraq?". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Archived from the original on December 5, 2005. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  38. "Iraqi Refugee's Tale of Abuse Dissolves Upon Later Scrutiny". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  39. Dickey, Christopher. "The Crying Game". Newsweek. - "histrionic claims by Palestinian leader Yasir Arafat that 1,000 civilians had been killed. (In fact, about 50 Palestinians had fought and died in a ferocious battle that also cost the lives of 23 Israeli soldiers.)"
  40. "Barriers Removed in Kyrgyzstan Despite Uzbek Protests". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  41. MacAskill, Ewen (29 April 2011). "Gaddafi 'supplies troops with Viagra to encourage mass rape', claims diplomat". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
  42. "Amnesty questions claim that Gaddafi ordered rape as weapon of war". The Independent. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  43. "Malaysia Airlines crash: Russian media blame Kiev". FT.com.
  44. "Russians Hear News About Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 That's Good for Kremlin". WSJ. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  45. "Russian TV sparks outrage with Ukraine child 'crucifixion' claim". Yahoo News. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  46. "There's No Evidence the Ukrainian Army Crucified a Child in Slovyansk". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
References
  • Ponsonby, Arthur (1928). Falsehood in Wartime. Institute for Historical Review. p. 128. ISBN 0-939484-39-0.
  • Nicholas Cull; David Culbert; David Welch (2003). Propaganda and Mass Persuasion: A Historical Encyclopedia, 1500 to the Present. ABC-CLIO. pp. 23–25. ISBN 1-57607-820-5.
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Atrocity propaganda

topic

Atrocity propaganda is a term referring to the spreading of deliberate fabrications or exaggerations about the crimes committed by an enemy, constituting a form of psychological warfare . The inherently violent nature of war means that exaggeration and invention of atrocities often becomes the main staple of propaganda. Patriotism is often not enough to make people hate, and propaganda is also necessary. "So great are the psychological resistances to war in modern nations", wrote Harold Lasswell , "that every war must appear to be a war of defense against a menacing, murderous aggressor. There must be no ambiguity about who the public is to hate." Human testimony is deemed unreliable even in ordinary circumstances, but in wartime, it can be further muddled by bias, sentiment, and misguided patriotism, becoming of no value whatsoever in establishing the truth. According to Paul Linebarger , atrocity propaganda leads to real atrocities, as it incites the enemy into committing more atrocities, and, by heating



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German Corpse Factory

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The German Corpse Factory or Kadaververwertungsanstalt (literally "Corpse-Utilization Factory"), also sometimes called the "German Corpse-Rendering Works" or "Tallow Factory" was one of the most notorious anti-German atrocity propaganda stories circulated in World War I . According to the story, the Kadaververwertungsanstalt was a special installation supposedly operated by the Germans in which, because fats were so scarce in Germany due to the British naval blockade, German battlefield corpses were rendered down for fat, which was then used to manufacture nitroglycerine, candles, lubricants, and even boot dubbin. It was supposedly operated behind the front lines by the DAVG-Deutsche Abfall-Verwertungs Gesellschaft ("German Offal Utilization Company"). Piers Brendon has called it "the most appalling atrocity story" of World War I, while Phillip Knightley has called it "the most popular atrocity story of the war." After the war John Charteris , the British former Chief of Army Intelligence, allegedly stated



Radio propaganda

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Radio propaganda is propaganda aimed at influencing attitudes towards a certain cause or position, delivered through radio broadcast. The power of radio propaganda came from its revolutionary nature. The radio, like later technological advances in the media, allowed information to be transmitted quickly and unifomly to vast populations. Internationally, the radio was an early and powerful recruiting tool for propaganda campaigns. Before television , radio was by far the most effective way to prevent or promote social change. In many areas, it still is. Radio propaganda can be broadcast over great distances to a large audience at a relatively low cost. Through radio, a propagandist can bring his voice and all the persuasive power of his emotions to millions of people. A similar approach is used in every war employing radio propaganda: aside from convincing those on the home front of the necessity of war, a different kind of propaganda must be directed towards the enemy. Radio became a powerful propaganda tool



Taliban propaganda

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Taliban propaganda has, since the 2001 fall of their national government in Afghanistan, developed into a sophisticated public relations machine that is shaping perceptions in Afghanistan and abroad. Although polls show the movement remains unpopular, the insurgents have readily exploited a sense of growing alienation fostered by years of broken government promises, official corruption , and the rising death toll among civilians from airstrikes and other military actions. "The result is weakening public support for nation-building , even though few actively support the Taliban," says a report from the International Crisis Group , a think tank that monitors conflicts. An American official in Afghanistan agrees: "We cannot afford to be passive [communicators] any longer if we're going to turn this around." Background A primary focus in the Taliban's media message is the history of wars between Christians and Muslims. The Taliban emphasize religious and cultural differences between the West and the East, the ide



Falsehood in War-Time

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Falsehood in War-time, Containing an Assortment of Lies Circulated Throughout the Nations During the Great War , written by Arthur Ponsonby in 1928 lists and refutes pieces of propaganda used by the Allied Forces (Russia, France, Britain and the United States) against the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria). After the Second World War, a new edition of the book was given the updated title Falsehood in War-Time: Propaganda Lies of the First World War . Lord Ponsonby is standing to the far right of the photo. Click on the image for further details of people in the photograph. Arthur Ponsonby Arthur Ponsonby, 1st Baron Ponsonby of Shulbrede , was born Arthur Augustus William Henry Ponsonby in 1871. Lord Ponsonby attended Eton College and Balliol College, Oxford, where he joined the Diplomatic Service. In 1906, Ponsonby ran as a Liberal candidate, unsuccessfully, at the general election but was elected a Member of Parliament of the United Kingdom (MP) at a by-election in 1908. Lord Po



Bestgore.com

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Bestgore.com is a Canadian shock site owned by Mark Marek, which provides highly violent real-life news , photos and videos , with authored opinion and user comments. The site received media attention in 2012, following the hosting of a video which showed a real-life murder being committed by Luka Magnotta . As a result, Marek was arrested and charged under Canada's obscenity law with corrupting public morals. Background The site was launched on April 30, 2008 by Slovak - Canadian Mark Marek, and hosts explicit, real-life, photographic and video material of events such as murders, suicides, torture, mutilations and accidents. With an estimated 10–15 million monthly visits, Bestgore is currently the biggest shock site in the world. As well as real-life footage and pictures, there are also articles promoting conspiracy theories and revisionist history, such as holocaust denial , with source material from, most notably, David Irving and Ursula Haverbeck . Controversies and legal issues Murder of Lin Jun In J



Outline of public relations

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to public relations: Public relations practice of managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government agency, or a nonprofit organization) and the public. Nature of public relations Public relations can be described as all of the following: Academic discipline – branch of knowledge that is taught and researched at the college or university level. Disciplines are defined (in part), and recognized by the academic journals in which research is published, and the learned societies and academic departments or faculties to which their practitioners belong. Communication – activity of conveying information Marketing – process which creates, communicates, and delivers value to the customer, and maintains the relationship with customers. Essence of public relations To create and sustain "shared meaning" or "common understanding" - NB this may be and usually is different from "shared beliefs" Pr



Fall of Saigon

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The Fall or (depending on the context) the Liberation of Saigon , was the capture of Saigon , the capital of South Vietnam , by the People's Army of Vietnam and the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (also known as the Việt Cộng ) on 30 April 1975. The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period to the formal reunification of Vietnam under the Socialist Republic . North Vietnamese forces, under the command of General Văn Tiến Dũng , began their final attack on Saigon on April 29, 1975, with the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) forces commanded by General Nguyễn Văn Toàn suffering a heavy artillery bombardment. This bombardment at the Tân Sơn Nhất Airport killed the last two American servicemen to die in Vietnam, Charles McMahon and Darwin Judge . By the afternoon of the next day, North Vietnamese troops had occupied the important points of the city and raised their flag over the South Vietnamese presidential palace . The South Vietnamese government capitulate



American propaganda during World War II

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In the face of obstacles - COURAGE BE SURE YOU HAVE CORRECT TIME! This poster intended for navigation students combines instruction with caricatures of enemy leaders, L-R: Hitler , Mussolini , and Hirohito . During active American involvement in World War II (1941–45), propaganda was used to increase support for the war and commitment to an Allied victory. Using a vast array of media, propagandists instigated hatred for the enemy and support for America's allies, urged greater public effort for war production and victory gardens , persuaded people to save some of their material so that more material could be used for the war effort, and sold war bonds . Patriotism became the central theme of advertising throughout the war, as large scale campaigns were launched to sell war bonds, promote efficiency in factories, reduce ugly rumors, and maintain civilian morale. The war consolidated the advertising industry's role in American society, deflecting earlier criticism. Campaign At first, the government was reluctan



Nanking Massacre

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The Nanking Massacre was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China , during the Second Sino-Japanese War . The massacre is also known as the Rape of Nanking or, using Pinyin romanization , the Nanjing Massacre or Rape of Nanjing . The massacre occurred over a period of six weeks starting on December 13, 1937, the day that the Japanese captured Nanjing . During this period, soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army murdered Chinese civilians and disarmed combatants who numbered an estimated 40,000 to over 300,000, and perpetrated widespread rape and looting. Since most Japanese military records on the killings were kept secret or destroyed shortly after the surrender of Japan in 1945, historians have not been able to accurately estimate the death toll of the massacre. The International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo estimated in 1946 that over 200,000 Chinese were killed in the incident.



The Crucified Soldier

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The Crucified Soldier refers to the widespread atrocity propaganda story of an Allied soldier serving in the Canadian Corps who may have been crucified with bayonets on a barn door or a tree, while fighting on the Western Front during World War I . Three witnesses said they saw an unidentified crucified Canadian soldier near the battlefield of Ypres , Belgium on or around 24 April 1915, but there was no conclusive proof such a crucifixion actually occurred. The eyewitness accounts were somewhat contradictory, no crucified body was found, and no knowledge was uncovered at the time about the identity of the supposedly crucified soldier. During World War II the story was used by the Nazis as an example of British propaganda. Story On 10 May 1915, The Times printed a short item titled "Torture of a Canadian Officer" as coming from its Paris correspondent. According to the piece, Canadian soldiers wounded at Ypres had told how one of their officers had been crucified to a wall "by bayonets thrust through his hands



British propaganda during World War II

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Britain re-created the World War I Ministry of Information for the duration of World War II to generate propaganda to influence the population towards support for the war effort. A wide range of media was employed aimed at local and overseas audiences. Traditional forms such as newspapers and posters were joined by new media including cinema (film) , newsreels and radio . A wide range of themes were addressed, fostering hostility to the enemy, support for allies, and specific pro war projects such as conserving metal and growing vegetables. Media Cinema The story of the British cinema in the Second World War is inextricably linked with that of the Ministry of Information. Formed on 4 September 1939, the day after Britain's declaration of war, the Ministry of Information (MOI) was the central government department responsible for publicity and propaganda in the Second World War. It was the Ministry's function to "present the national case to the public at home and abroad". The MOI was keenly aware of the val



Demoralization (warfare)

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Demoralization is, in a context of warfare , national security , and law enforcement , a process in psychological warfare with the objective to erode morale among enemy combatants and/or noncombatants . That can encourage them to retreat , surrender , or defect rather than defeating them in combat . Demoralization methods are military tactics such as hit-and-run attacks such as snipers , disturbing the enemy with less-lethal weapons and incapacitating agents , and intimidation such as display of force concentration . Some methods on the strategic scale are commerce raiding , strategic bombing , static operations such as sieges and naval blockades , and propaganda . Front of leaflet Back of leaflet A Nazi propaganda leaflet used during World War II to demoralize American troops. Importance of morale Morale is often perceived as a necessary precursor to success in international relations because success most often goes to those who believe in their cause, as they more easily maintain a positive outlook that con



Unit 731

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Building on the site of the Harbin bioweapon facility of Unit 731 Unit 731 ( Japanese : 731部隊 Hepburn : Nana-san-ichi Butai) was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) of World War II . It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried out by Japan . Unit 731 was based at the Pingfang district of Harbin , the largest city in the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo (now Northeast China ). It was officially known as the Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army ( 関東軍防疫給水部本部 Kantōgun Bōeki Kyūsuibu Honbu) . Originally set up under the Kempeitai military police of the Empire of Japan , Unit 731 was taken over and commanded until the end of the war by General Shiro Ishii , a combat medic officer in the Kwantung Army. The facility itself was built between 1934 and 1939 and officially adopted the name "Unit 731" in



USSR anti-religious campaign (1928–1941)

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"Monks - the bloody enemies of working people" (Banner on the Dormition Cathedral of the Kiev Cave Monastery, 1930s) The USSR anti-religious campaign of 1928–1941 was a new phase of anti-religious persecution in the Soviet Union following the anti-religious campaign of 1921–1928 . The campaign began in 1929, with the drafting of new legislation that severely prohibited religious activities and called for a heightened attack on religion in order to further disseminate atheism . This had been preceded in 1928 at the fifteenth party congress , where Joseph Stalin criticized the party for failure to produce more active and persuasive anti-religious propaganda . This new phase coincided with the beginning of the forced mass collectivization of agriculture and the nationalization of the few remaining private enterprises . Many of those who had been arrested in the 1920s would continue to remain in prison throughout the 1930s and beyond. The main target of the anti-religious campaign in the 1920s and 1930s was the R



Racism in the Soviet Union

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Racism existed in many manifestations within the Soviet Union , it came in the form of social discrimination to outright ethnic cleansing. Despite the Soviet Union's policy against racial hatred it enacted racially motivated laws and actions such as the population transfers Central Europeans Germans Dead German civilians in Nemmersdorf, East Prussia . News of Soviet atrocities , spread and exaggerated by Nazi propaganda, hastened the flight of ethnic Germans from much of Eastern Europe. Young German women being released from a work camp in 1947. People of German heritage had resided in Eastern Europe for years, many years before even the outbreak of World War II . In the year 1937, two years before war, the NKVD began their mass operations as part of Stalin's Great Purge . The first of these operations called for the arrests of all German citizens and former citizens. The Germans were told to be Nazi agents. In total, the national operation against Soviet citizens of German descent resulted in the sentencing



Nayirah testimony

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The Nayirah testimony was a false testimony given before the Congressional Human Rights Caucus on October 10, 1990 by a 15-year-old girl who provided only her first name, Nayirah. The testimony was widely publicized, and was cited numerous times by United States senators and President George H. W. Bush in their rationale to back Kuwait in the Gulf War . In 1992, it was revealed that Nayirah's last name was al-Ṣabaḥ ( Arabic : نيره الصباح ‎‎) and that she was the daughter of Saud Al-Sabah , the Kuwaiti ambassador to the United States. Furthermore, it was revealed that her testimony was organized as part of the Citizens for a Free Kuwait public relations campaign which was run by American Hill & Knowlton for the Kuwaiti government . Following this, al-Sabah's testimony has come to be regarded as a classic example of modern atrocity propaganda . In her emotional testimony, Nayirah stated that after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait she had witnessed Iraqi soldiers take babies out of incubators in a Kuwaiti hospi



Black Legend

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A 1598 engraving by Theodor de Bry depicting a Spaniard supposedly feeding Indian children to his dogs. De Bry's works are characteristic of the anti-Spanish propaganda that originated as a result of the Eighty Years' War . In Spanish historiography, the Black Legend ( Spanish : La Leyenda Negra ) is an alleged style of tendentious, subjective historical writing or propaganda demonizing Spain , its people and its culture in an intentional attempt to damage its reputation. While those who defend the existence of the Black Legend acknowledge that there is much documented evidence of atrocities by all European nations during the conquest of the Americas, and the Inquisition represented a period of cruel excess; they suggest foreign authors lay this legacy on the Spanish without balance and as a somehow intrinsic element of Spanish character. Its proponents claim that the Black Legend originated in the 16th century, a time of strong rivalry between European colonial powers, and served as anti-Spanish and anti-Cat



Rape of Belgium

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The ruins of the library of the Catholic University of Leuven after it was burned in 1914. The destroyed city of Leuven in 1915 The Rape of Belgium was the German mistreatment of civilians during the invasion and subsequent occupation of Belgium during World War I . The term initially had a propaganda use but recent historiography confirms its reality. One modern author uses it more narrowly to describe a series of German war crimes in the opening months of the war (August–September 1914). The neutrality of Belgium had been guaranteed by the Treaty of London (1839) , which had been signed by Prussia . However, the German Schlieffen Plan required that German armed forces violate Belgium’s neutrality in order to outflank the French Army, concentrated in eastern France. The German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg dismissed the treaty of 1839 as a "scrap of paper". Throughout the beginning of the war, the German army engaged in numerous atrocities against the civilian population of Belgium, including th



Committee on Alleged German Outrages

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The Committee on Alleged German Outrages , often called the Bryce Committee after its chair, Viscount James Bryce (1838-1922), is best known for producing the "Report of the Committee on Alleged German Outrages," published on 12 May 1915. The report is seen as a major propaganda form that Britain used in order to educate the world on the behaviour of Germany, which had invaded Belgium the year before. The Report was translated by the end of 1915 into every major European language and had a profound impact on public opinion in Allied and neutral countries, particularly in the United States. Though the findings of the Report have been substantiated by several scholars in the 21st century, the eyewitness testimony published in its 320-page Appendix A included some sensationalist accounts of mutilations and rapes for which there is no other evidence. These invented atrocities stigmatized the Report and have made it a target for revisionist historians and writers on propaganda. History By the middle of September 1



Themes in Nazi propaganda

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The propaganda of the National Socialist German Workers' Party regime that governed Germany from 1933 to 1945 promoted Nazi ideology by demonizing the enemies of the Nazi Party , notably Jews and communists , but also capitalists and intellectuals . It promoted the values asserted by the Nazis, including heroic death, Führerprinzip (leader principle), Volksgemeinschaft (people's community), Blut und Boden (blood and soil) and pride in the Germanic Herrenvolk ( master race ). Propaganda was also used to maintain the cult of personality around Nazi leader Adolf Hitler , and to promote campaigns for eugenics and the annexation of German-speaking areas . After the outbreak of World War II , Nazi propaganda vilified Germany's enemies, notably the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States, and in 1943 exhorted the population to total war . Enemies Jews Poster for occupied Poland: "JEWS-SUCKING LOUSE-TYPHUS" German citizens, public reading of Der Stürmer "Die Juden sind unser Unglück". The diagram shows



Propaganda of Fascist Italy

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Propaganda of Fascist Italy was the material put forth by Italian Fascism to justify its authority and programs and encourage popular support. Use The Fascist regime made heavy use of propaganda , including pageantry and rhetoric , to inspire the nation into the unity that would obey. At first, all propaganda efforts were grouped together under the press office; propaganda efforts were slowly organized until a Ministry of Popular Culture was created in 1937. A special propaganda ministry was created in 1935, with the avowed purpose of telling the truth about fascism, refuting the lies of its enemies, and clearing up ambiguities, which were only to be expected in so large and dynamic a movement. Doctrine A fascist doctrine was first set forth in The Manifesto of the Fasci of Combat , and further enumerated in The Doctrine of Fascism purportedly written entirely by Benito Mussolini , but he only wrote the second part, the first part was actually also written by Giovanni Gentile . Fascism's internal contradicti



Harold Lasswell

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Harold Lasswell Harold Dwight Lasswell (February 13, 1902 – December 18, 1978) was a leading American political scientist and communications theorist . He was a PhD student at the University of Chicago , and he was a professor of law at Yale University . He served as president both of the American Political Science Association (APSA) and of the World Academy of Art and Science (WAAS). According to a biographical memorial written by Gabriel Almond at the time of Lasswell's death and published by the National Academies of Sciences in 1987, Lasswell "ranked among the half dozen creative innovators in the social sciences in the twentieth century." At the time, Almond asserted that "few would question that he was the most original and productive political scientist of his time." Areas of research in which Lasswell worked included the importance of personality , social structure , and culture in the explanation of political phenomena. He was noted to be ahead of his time in employing a variety of methodological app



Randal Marlin

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Randal Marlin (born 1938 in Washington, D.C. ) is a Canadian philosophy professor at Carleton University in Ottawa who specializes in the study of propaganda . He was educated at Princeton University , McGill University , the University of Oxford , Aix-Marseille University , and the University of Toronto . After receiving a Department of National Defence fellowship to study under propaganda scholar Jacques Ellul at Bordeaux in 1979–1980, he started a philosophy and mass communications class at Carleton called Truth and Propaganda, which has run annually ever since. One of the texts for this class is his 2002 book Propaganda and the Ethics of Persuasion, which examines historical, ethical, and legal issues relating to propaganda. The revised second edition, released in 2013, examines the Bush administration's use of propaganda based on fear to persuade Americans to support the 2003 invasion of Iraq . Marlin acknowledges that there are many definitions of propaganda, including favourable ones. However, his bo



Nazi propaganda and the United Kingdom

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The position of Nazi propaganda towards the United Kingdom and its inhabitants changed over time. Prior to 1938, while Hitler tried to court Britain into an alliance, his propaganda praised the British as proficient Aryan imperialists. Later, as the Nazis realized that they would have to fight the United Kingdom, their propaganda vilified the British as oppressive, German-hating plutocrats . During the war, it accused " perfidious Albion " of war crimes, and sought especially to drive a wedge between Britain and France. History Pre-war Initially, the aim of Nazi foreign policy was to create an Anglo-German alliance, so before 1938, Nazi propaganda tended to glorify British institutions, and above all the British Empire . Even regarding it, along with France, as "decadent democracies", Goebbels set out to court them. Typical of the Nazi admiration for the British Empire were a lengthy series of articles in various German newspapers throughout the mid-1930s praising various aspects of British imperial history,



1971 Bangladesh genocide

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The genocide in Bangladesh began on 26 March 1971 with the launch of Operation Searchlight , as West Pakistan began a military crackdown on the Eastern wing of the nation to suppress Bengali calls for self-determination rights. During the nine-month-long Bangladesh war for independence , members of the Pakistani military and supporting Islamist militias from Jamaat-e-Islami killed up to 3,000,000 people and raped between 200,000 and 400,000 Bangladeshi women, according to Bangladeshi and Indian sources, in a systematic campaign of genocidal rape . Independent researchers estimate the number of people killed as being between 300,000–500,000, and describe the 3 million number as excessively inflated. The actions against women were supported by Muslim religious leaders, who declared that Bengali women were gonimoter maal (Bengali for "public property"). As a result of the conflict, a further eight to ten million people, mostly Hindus, fled the country at the time to seek refuge in neighbouring India



Sinchon Massacre

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The location of South Hwanghae Province . The location of Sinchon in South Hwanghae Province . The Sinchon Massacre ( Korean : 신천 양민학살 사건 , Hanja : 信川良民虐殺事件, Sinchon Civilian Massacre ) was an alleged mass murder of civilians claimed by North Korean sources to have been committed primarily by South Korean military forces under allowance from the U.S. military between 17 October and 7 December 1950, in or near the town of Sinchon (currently part of South Hwanghae Province , North Korea). The event allegedly took place during the second phase of the Korean War and the retreat of the DPRK government from Hwanghae Province. North Korean claim North Korean sources claim that approximately 35,000 people were killed by American military forces and other supporters during the course of 52 days, which would have been about a quarter of the population of Sinchon. The Sinchon Museum of American War Atrocities was established in 1958 and displays remains and belongings of those who were allegedly killed in the incident



Historical negationism

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Historical negationism or denialism is an illegitimate distortion of the historical record. It is often imprecisely referred to as historical revisionism , but that term also denotes a legitimate academic pursuit of re-interpretation of the historical record and questioning the accepted views. In attempting to revise the past, illegitimate historical revisionism may use techniques inadmissible in proper historical discourse, such as presenting known forged documents as genuine; inventing ingenious but implausible reasons for distrusting genuine documents; attributing conclusions to books and sources that report the opposite; manipulating statistical series to support the given point of view; and deliberately mis-translating texts (in languages other than the revisionist's). Some countries, such as Germany, have criminalised the negationist revision of certain historical events, while others take a more cautious position for various reasons, such as protection of free speech ; still others mandate negationist



Spanish Civil War

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The Spanish Civil War ( Spanish : Guerra Civil Española ), widely known in Spain simply as The Civil War ( Spanish : Guerra Civil ) or The War ( Spanish : La Guerra ), took place from 1936 to 1939. The Republicans , who were loyal to the democratic, left -leaning and relatively urban Second Spanish Republic , in an alliance of convenience with the Anarchists, fought against the Nationalists , a Falangist , Carlist , and largely aristocratic conservative group led by General Francisco Franco . Although the war is often portrayed as a struggle between democracy and fascism , some historians believe it should more accurately be described as a struggle between leftist revolution and rightist counter-revolution. Ultimately, the Nationalists won, and Franco then ruled Spain for the next 36 years, from April 1939 until his death in November 1975. The war began after a pronunciamiento (declaration of opposition) by a group of generals of the Spanish Republican Armed Forces , originally under the leadership of José



Edward S. Herman

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Edward S. Herman (born April 7, 1925) is professor emeritus of finance at the Wharton School of Business of the University of Pennsylvania and a media analyst with a specialty in corporate and regulatory issues as well as political economy. He also teaches at Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania . He is probably best known for developing the propaganda model of media criticism with Noam Chomsky . In 1967, Herman was among more than 500 writers and editors who signed the "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" pledge, vowing to refuse to pay the 10% Vietnam War tax surcharge implemented by Congress upon the initiation of President Johnson . Herman received his Bachelor of Arts from the University of Pennsylvania in 1945 and PhD in 1953 from the University of California, Berkeley . Herman and Chomsky Vietnam Herman and Noam Chomsky challenged the veracity of media accounts of war crimes and repression by the Vietnamese communists, stating that "the basic sources for the larger esti



Rainbow (1944 film)

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Rainbow ( Ukrainian : Веселка ; translit. Veselka, Russian : Радуга ; translit. Raduga), is a 1944 Soviet war film directed by Mark Donskoy and written by Wanda Wasilewska based on her novel, Tecza. The film depicts life in a German-occupied village in Ukraine at the beginning of World War II from the view point of the terrorized villagers. Plot The German conquerors are above nothing, not even the slaughter of small children, to break the spirit of their Soviet captives. Suffering more than most is Olga (Nataliya Uzhviy), a Soviet partisan who returns to the village to bear her child, only to endure the cruelest of arbitrary tortures at the hands of the Nazis. Eventually, the villagers rise up against their oppressors-but unexpectedly do not wipe them out, electing instead to force the surviving Nazis to stand trial for their atrocities in a postwar "people's court." (It is also implied that those who collaborated with the Germans will be dealt with in the same evenhanded fashion). Reception "Brilliantly



Atrocities in the Congo Free State

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King Leopold II whose personal rule of the Congo Free State was marked by severe atrocities, violence and major population decline In the period from 1885 to 1908, a number of well-documented atrocities were perpetrated in the Congo Free State (today the Democratic Republic of the Congo ) which, at the time, was a colony under the personal rule of King Leopold II of Belgium . These atrocities were sometimes collectively referred to by European contemporaries as the "Congo Horrors", and were particularly associated with the labour policies used to collect natural rubber for export. Together with epidemic disease, famine, and a falling birth rate caused by these disruptions, the atrocities contributed to a sharp decline in the Congolese population. The magnitude of the population fall over the period is disputed, but it is thought to be between one and 15 million people. At the Berlin Conference of 1884–85, the European powers allocated the Congo Basin region to a private charitable organisation run by Leopold



November 2015 Paris attacks

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The November 2015 Paris attacks (sometimes referred to as Paris's 9/11 ) were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks that occurred on Friday 13 November 2015 in Paris, France and the city's northern suburb, Saint-Denis . Beginning at 21:16  CET , three suicide bombers struck outside the Stade de France in Saint-Denis, during a football match. This was followed by several mass shootings, and a suicide bombing, at cafés and restaurants. Gunmen carried out another mass shooting and took hostages at an Eagles of Death Metal concert in the Bataclan theatre , leading to a stand-off with police. The attackers were shot or blew themselves up when police raided the theatre. The attackers killed 130 people, including 89 at the Bataclan theatre. Another 413 people were injured, almost 100 seriously. Seven of the attackers also died, while the authorities continued to search for accomplices. The attacks were the deadliest on France since the Second World War , and the deadliest in the European Union since



The Patriot (2000 film)

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The Patriot is a 2000 American epic historical fiction war film directed by Roland Emmerich , written by Robert Rodat , and starring Mel Gibson , Chris Cooper , Heath Ledger , and Jason Isaacs . The film mainly takes place in rural Berkeley County, South Carolina , and depicts the story of an American Colonist, nominally loyal to the British Crown; in both South Carolina and North America; who, is swept into the American Revolutionary War when his family is threatened. Benjamin Martin is a composite figure the scriptwriter claims is based on four factual figures from the American Revolutionary War: Andrew Pickens , Francis Marion , Daniel Morgan , and Thomas Sumter . The film takes place during the events of the Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War but attracted controversy over its fictional portrayal of historical British figures and atrocities. Professor Mark Glancy, teacher of film history at Queen Mary, University of London has said: "It's horrendously inaccurate and attributes crimes commi



RT America

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RT America is a TV channel based in Washington, D.C. , and part of the RT network , a global multilingual television news network based in Moscow, Russia. RT is a non-profit organization in part funded by the Russian government . RT America also has studios and bureaus in New York City , Miami , and Los Angeles . The channel is the home and the production base of RT's U.S. based programs. RT America focuses on covering news in the United States from an alternative perspective. Programs are hosted by American journalists. Similarly, most guests are American (and sometimes Canadian) activists, academics, speakers and analysts with alternative perspectives on "mainstream" issues. The channel covers issues that see lesser coverage in the mainstream media, such as using non-GMO ingredients in foods, corporatism, growing wealth inequality, corruption in politics, peace and environmental issues. It maintains a separate schedule of programs each weekday from 4 p.m. to 12 midnight Eastern Time, and like its counterp



Nuremberg Trials (film)

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The Nuremberg Trials is a 1947 Soviet -made documentary film about the trials of the Nazi leadership . It was produced by Roman Karmen , and was an English-language version of the Russian language film Суд народов (Judgment of the Peoples). Most of the film describes the Nazis' crimes in detail, particularly those committed in the Soviet Union. It claims that if not stopped, the Nazis would have "turned the whole world into a Majdanek ". It also includes some elements of anti-capitalist propaganda, claiming that the real rulers of Germany were "armament kings" such as Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach . Of the Holocaust and the recovery of gold from its victims, the film states that the Nazis "even made death into a commercial enterprise", and this truly happened. It is noted in the film that the Soviet Union objected to the acquittal of Hans Fritzsche , Franz von Papen and Hjalmar Schacht , and to the fact that Rudolf Hess was given a sentence of life imprisonment , rather than a death sentence . The film




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