Atrocity propaganda is a term referring to the spreading of deliberate fabrications or exaggerations about the crimes committed by an enemy, constituting a form of psychological warfare.
The inherently violent nature of war means that exaggeration and invention of atrocities often becomes the main staple of propaganda. Patriotism is often not enough to make people hate, and propaganda is also necessary. "So great are the psychological resistances to war in modern nations", wrote Harold Lasswell, "that every war must appear to be a war of defense against a menacing, murderous aggressor. There must be no ambiguity about who the public is to hate." Human testimony is deemed unreliable even in ordinary circumstances, but in wartime, it can be further muddled by bias, sentiment, and misguided patriotism, becoming of no value whatsoever in establishing the truth.
According to Paul Linebarger, atrocity propaganda leads to real atrocities, as it incites the enemy into committing more atrocities, and, by heating up passions, it increases the chances of one's own side committing atrocities, in revenge for the ones reported in propaganda. Atrocity propaganda might also lead the public to mistrust reports of actual atrocities. In January 1944, Arthur Koestler wrote of his frustration at trying to communicate what he had witnessed in Nazi-occupied Europe: the legacy of anti-German stories during World War I, many of which were debunked in the postwar years, meant that these reports were received with considerable amounts of skepticism.
Like propaganda, atrocity rumors detailing exaggerated or invented crimes perpetrated by enemies are also circulated to vilify the opposing side.
By establishing a baseline lie and painting the enemy as a monster, atrocity propaganda serves as an intelligence function, since it wastes the time and resources of the enemy's counterintelligence services to defend itself. Atrocity propaganda can either be white, gray, or black. Atrocity propaganda is often white, as it makes no attempt to hide its source and is overt in nature. The propagandists' goal is to influence perceptions, attitudes, opinions, and policies; often targeting officials at all levels of government. Atrocity propaganda is violent, gloomy, and portrays doom to help rile up and get the public excited. It dehumanizes the enemy, making them easier to kill. Wars have become more serious, and less gentlemanly; the enemy must now be taken into account not merely as a man, but as a fanatic. So, "falsehood is a recognized and extremely useful weapon in warfare, and every country uses it quite deliberately to deceive its own people, attract neutrals, and to mislead the enemy." Harold Lasswell saw it as a handy rule for arousing hate, and that "if at first they do not enrage, use an atrocity. It has been employed with unvarying success in every conflict known to man."
The extent and devastation of World War I required nations to keep morale high. Propaganda was used here to mobilize hatred against the enemy, convince the population of the justness of one's own cause, enlist the active support and cooperation of neutral countries, and strengthen the support of one's allies. The goal was to make the enemy appear savage, barbaric, and inhumane.
In a sermon at Clermont during the Crusades, Urban II justified the war against Islam by claiming that the enemy "had ravaged the churches of God in the Eastern provinces, circumcised Christian men, violated women, and carried out the most unspeakable torture before killing them." Urban II's sermon succeeded in mobilizing popular enthusiasm in support of the People's Crusade.
Lurid tales purporting to unveil Jewish atrocities against Christians were widespread in the Middle Ages. The charge against Jews of kidnapping and murdering Christian children to drink their blood during passover became known as blood libel.
In the 17th century, the English press fabricated graphic descriptions of atrocities allegedly committed by Irish Catholics against English Protestants, including the torture of civilians and the raping of women. The English public reacted to these stories with calls for stern reprisals. During the Irish rebellion of 1641, lurid reports of atrocities, including of pregnant women who had been ripped open and had their babies pulled out, provided Oliver Cromwell with justification for his subsequent slaughter of defeated Irish rebels.
In 1782, Benjamin Franklin wrote and published an article purporting to reveal a letter between a British agent and the governor of Canada, listing atrocities supposedly perpetrated by Native American allies of Britain against colonists, including detailed accounts of the scalping of women and children. The account was a fabrication, published in the expectation that it would be reprinted by British newspapers and therefore sway British public opinion in favor of peace with the United States.
After the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny, stories began to circulate in the British and colonial press of atrocities, especially rapes of European women, in places like Cawnpore; a subsequent official inquiry found no evidence for any of the claims.
In the lead up to the Spanish–American War, Pulitzer and Hearst published stories of Spanish atrocities against Cubans. While occasionally true, the majority of these stories were fabrications meant to boost sales.
Atrocity propaganda was widespread during World War I, when it was used by all belligerents, playing a major role in creating the wave of patriotism that characterised the early stages of the war. British propaganda is regarded as having made the most extensive use of fictitious atrocities to promote the war effort.
One such story was that German soldiers were deliberately mutilating Belgian babies by cutting off their hands, in some versions even eating them. Eyewitness accounts told of having seen a similarly mutilated baby. As Arthur Ponsonby later pointed out, in reality a baby would be very unlikely to survive similar wounds without immediate medical attention.
Another atrocity story involved a Canadian soldier, who had supposedly been crucified with bayonets by the Germans (see The Crucified Soldier). Many Canadians claimed to have witnessed the event, yet they all provided different version of how it had happened. The Canadian high command investigated the matter, concluding that it was untrue.
Other reports circulated of Belgian women, often nuns, who had their breasts cut off by the Germans. A story about German corpse factories, where bodies of German soldiers were supposedly turned into glycerine for weapons, or food for hogs and poultry, was published in a Times article on April 17, 1917. In the postwar years, investigations in Britain and France revealed that these stories were false.
In 1915, the British government asked Viscount Bryce, one of the best-known contemporary historians, to head the Committee on Alleged German Outrages which was to investigate the allegations of atrocities. The report purported to prove many of the claims, and was widely published in the United States, where it contributed to convince the American public to enter the war. Few at the time criticised the accuracy of the report. After the war, historians who sought to examine the documentation for the report were told that the files had mysteriously disappeared. Surviving correspondence between the members of the committee revealed they actually had severe doubts about the credibility of the tales they investigated.
During World War II, atrocity propaganda was not used on the same scale as in World War I, as by then it had long been discredited by its use during the previous conflict. There were exceptions in some propaganda films, such as Hitler's Children, Women in Bondage, and Enemy of Women, which portrayed the Germans (as opposed to just Nazis) as enemies of civilization, abusing women and the innocent. Hitler's Children is now spoken of as "lurid", while Women in Bondage is described as a low-budget exploitation film; the latter carries a disclaimer that "everything in the film is true", but facts are often distorted or sensationalized.
According to a 1985 UN report backed by Western countries, the KGB had deliberately designed mines to look like toys, and deployed them against Afghan children during the Soviet war in Afghanistan.
Newspapers such as the New York Times ran stories denouncing the "ghastly, deliberate crippling of children" and noting that while the stories had been met with skepticism by the public, they had been proven by the "incontrovertible testimony" of a UN official testifying the existence of booby-trap toys in the shape of harmonicas, radios, or birds.
The story likely originated from the PFM-1 mine, which was made from brightly colored plastic and had been directly copied from the American BLU-43 Dragontooth design. The Mine Action Coordination Center of Afghanistan reported that the allegations "gained a life for obvious journalist reasons", but otherwise had no basis in reality.
In November 1991, a Serbian photographer claimed to have seen the corpses of 41 children, which had allegedly been killed by Croatian soldiers. The story was published by media outlets worldwide, but the photographer later admitted to fabricating his account. The story of this atrocity was blamed for inciting a desire for vengeance in Serbian rebels, who summarily executed Croatian fighters who were captured near the alleged crime scene the day after the forged report was published.
Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990. On October 10, 1990, a young Kuwaiti girl known only as "Nayirah" appeared in front of a congressional committee and testified that she witnessed the mass murdering of infants, when Iraqi soldiers had snatched them out of hospital incubators and threw them on the floor to die. Her testimony became a lead item in newspapers, radio and TV all over the US. The story was eventually exposed as a fabrication in December 1992, in a CBC-TV program called To Sell a War. Nayirah was revealed to be the daughter of Kuwait's ambassador to the United States, and actually hadn't seen the "atrocities" she described take place; the PR firm Hill & Knowlton, which had been hired by the Kuwaiti government to devise a PR campaign to increase American public support for a war against Iraq, had heavily promoted her testimony.
In the runup to the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, press stories appeared in the United Kingdom and United States of a plastic shredder or wood chipper  into which Saddam and Qusay Hussein fed opponents of their Baathist rule. These stories attracted worldwide attention and boosted support for military action, in stories with titles such as "See men shredded, then say you don't back war". A year later, it was determined there was no evidence to support the existence of such a machine.
In 2004, former Marine Staff Sgt. Jimmy Massey claimed that he and other Marines intentionally killed dozens of innocent Iraqi civilians, including a 4-year-old girl. His allegations were published by news organizations worldwide, but none of the five journalists who covered his battalion said they saw reckless or indiscriminate shooting of civilians. The St. Louis Post-Dispatch dismissed his claim as "either demonstrably false or exaggerated".
In July 2003 an Iraqi woman, Jumana Hanna, testified that she had been subjected to inhumane treatment by Baathist policemen during two years of imprisonment, including being subjected to electric shocks and raped repeatedly. The story appeared on the front page of The Washington Post, and was presented to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee by then-Deputy Defense Secretary Paul D. Wolfowitz. In January 2005, articles in Esquire and The Washington Post concluded that none of her allegations could be verified, and that her accounts contained grave inconsistencies. Her husband, who she claimed had been executed in the same prison where she was tortured, was in fact still alive.
During the Battle of Jenin, Palestinian officials claimed there was a massacre of civilians in the refugee camp, which was proven false by subsequent international investigations.
During the 2010 South Kyrgyzstan ethnic clashes, a rumor spread among ethnic Kyrgyz that Uzbek men had broken into a local women's dormitory and raped several Kyrgyz women. Local police never provided any confirmation that such an assault occurred.
During the Arab Spring, Libyan media was reporting atrocities by Muammar Gaddafi loyalists, who were ordered to perform mass "Viagra-fueled rapes" (see 2011 Libyan rape allegations). A later investigation by Amnesty International has failed to find evidence for these allegations, and in many cases has discredited them, as the rebels were found to have deliberately lied about the claims.
In July 2014, the Russian public broadcaster Channel 1 aired a report claiming that Ukrainian soldiers in Sloviansk had crucified a three-year-old boy to a board, and later dragged his mother with a tank, causing her death. The account of the only witness interviewed for the report was not corroborated by anyone else, and other media have been unable to confirm the story, despite claims in the testimony that many of the city's inhabitants had been forced to watch the killings. A reporter for Novaya Gazeta similarly failed to find any other witnesses in the city.
Atrocity propaganda is a term referring to the spreading of deliberate fabrications or exaggerations about the crimes committed by an enemy, constituting a form of psychological warfare . The inherently violent nature of war means that exaggeration and invention of atrocities often becomes the main staple of propaganda. Patriotism is often not enough to make people hate, and propaganda is also necessary. "So great are the psychological resistances to war in modern nations", wrote Harold Lasswell , "that every war must appear to be a war of defense against a menacing, murderous aggressor. There must be no ambiguity about who the public is to hate." Human testimony is deemed unreliable even in ordinary circumstances, but in wartime, it can be further muddled by bias, sentiment, and misguided patriotism, becoming of no value whatsoever in establishing the truth. According to Paul Linebarger , atrocity propaganda leads to real atrocities, as it incites the enemy into committing more atrocities, and, by heating
World War I was the first war in which mass media and propaganda played a significant role in keeping the people at home informed about what was occurring on the battlefields. This was also the first war in which the government systematically produced propaganda as a way to target the public and alter their opinion. World War I propaganda stamp External propaganda to other countries was an integral part of the Diplomatic history of World War I and were designed to build support for the cause, or to undermine support for the enemy. Propaganda in the United States The United States entered World War I in 1917 as an associated power on the allied side of Britain and France. By the time that World War I came around, the United States was a leader in the recently discovered art of movie making and the new profession of commercial advertising . Such newly discovered technologies played an instrumental role in the shaping of the American mind and the altering of public opinion into a pro-war position. Perhaps the
The Spanish–American War (April–August 1898) is considered to be both a turning point in the history of propaganda and the beginning of the practice of yellow journalism . It was the first conflict in which military action was precipitated by media involvement. The war grew out of U.S. interest in a fight for revolution between the Spanish military and citizens of their Cuban colony. American newspapers fanned the flames of interest in the war by fabricating atrocities which justified intervention in a number of Spanish colonies worldwide. Several forces within the United States were pushing for a war with Spain . Their tactics were wide-ranging and their goal was to engage the opinion of the American people in any way possible. Men such as William Hearst, the owner of The New York Journal was involved in a circulation war with Joseph Pulitzer of the New York World and saw the conflict as a way to sell papers. Many newspapers ran articles of a sensationalist nature and sent correspondents to Cuba to cover the
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented. Propaganda is often associated with material prepared by governments, but activist groups, companies and the media can also produce propaganda. In the twentieth century, the term propaganda has been associated with a manipulative approach, but propaganda historically was a neutral descriptive term. A wide range of materials and media are used for conveying propaganda messages, which changed as new technologies were invented, including paintings, cartoons, posters, pamphlets, films, radio shows, TV shows, and websites . In a 1929 literary debate with Edward Bernays , Everett Dean Martin argues that, “Propaganda is making puppets of us. We are moved by hidden strings which the propagandis
In World War I, British propaganda took various forms, including pictures, literature and film. Britain also placed significant emphasis on atrocity propaganda as a way of mobilizing public opinion against Germany during World War I . History Britain had no propaganda agencies at the war's outbreak, but an organization was soon established at Wellington House under Charles Masterman in response to propaganda activities in Germany. During most of the war, responsibility for propaganda was divided between various agencies, resulting in a lack of coordination. It was not until 1918 that activities were centralized under the Ministry of Information . When the war finished, almost all of the propaganda machinery was dismantled. There were various interwar debates regarding British use of propaganda, particularly atrocity propaganda. Commentators such as Arthur Ponsonby exposed many of the alleged atrocities as either lies or exaggeration, leading to a suspicion surrounding atrocity stories which meant a reluctance
The term atrocity story (also referred to as atrocity tale) as defined by the American sociologists David G. Bromley and Anson D. Shupe refers to the symbolic presentation of action or events (real or imaginary) in such a context that they are made flagrantly to violate the (presumably) shared premises upon which a given set of social relationships should be conducted. The recounting of such tales is intended as a means of reaffirming normative boundaries. By sharing the reporter's disapproval or horror, an audience reasserts normative prescription and clearly locates the violator beyond the limits of public morality . The term was coined in 1979 by Bromley, Shupe, and Joseph Ventimiglia . Bromley and others define an atrocity as an event that is perceived as a flagrant violation of a fundamental value. It contains the following three elements: moral outrage or indignation; authorization of punitive measures; mobilization of control efforts against the apparent perpetrators. The veracity of the story is consi
The standard view of propaganda in North Korea sees it as based on the Juche ideology and on the promotion of the Workers' Party of Korea . Many pictures of the national leaders are posted throughout the country. Themes Cult of personality Kim Il-sung with Kim Jong-il on Mount Paektu In previous decades, North Korean propaganda was crucial to the formation and promotion of the cult of personality centered around the founder of the totalitarian state, Kim Il-sung . The Soviet Union began to develop him, particularly as a resistance fighter, as soon as they put him in power. This quickly surpassed its Eastern European models. Instead of depicting his actual residence in a Soviet village during the war with the Japanese, he was claimed to have fought a guerrilla war from a secret base. Once relations with the Soviet Union were broken off, their role was expurgated, as were all other nationalists, until the claim was made that he founded the Communist Party in North Korea. He is seldom shown in action during
Joseph Goebbels , the head of Nazi Germany's Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda The propaganda used by the German Nazi Party in the years leading up to and during Adolf Hitler 's leadership of Germany (1933–1945) was a crucial instrument for acquiring and maintaining power, and for the implementation of Nazi policies . The pervasive use of propaganda by the Nazis is largely responsible for the word "propaganda" itself acquiring its present negative connotations. In opposition (1919–33) Nazi leader Adolf Hitler devoted three chapters of his 1925/26 book Mein Kampf , itself a propaganda tool, to the study and practice of propaganda. He claimed to have learned the value of propaganda as a World War I infantryman exposed to very effective British and ineffectual German propaganda. The argument that Germany lost the war largely because of British propaganda efforts, expounded at length in Mein Kampf, reflected then-common German nationalist claims. Although untrue – German propaganda during World Wa
Black propaganda is false information and material that purports to be from a source on one side of a conflict, but is actually from the opposing side. It is typically used to vilify, embarrass, or misrepresent the enemy. Black propaganda contrasts with grey propaganda , the source of which is not identified, and white propaganda , in which the real source is declared and usually more accurate information is given, albeit slanted, distorted and omissive. Black propaganda is covert in nature in that its aims, identity, significance, and sources are hidden. The major characteristic of black propaganda is that the people are not aware that someone is influencing them, and do not feel that they are being pushed in a certain direction. Black propaganda purports to emanate from a source other than the true source. This type of propaganda is associated with covert psychological operations . Sometimes the source is concealed or credited to a false authority and spreads lies, fabrications, and deceptions. Black pro
Propaganda in fascist Japan , in the period just before and during World War II , was designed to assist the ruling government of Japan during that time. Many of its elements were continuous with pre-war elements of statism in Shōwa Japan , including the principles of kokutai , hakkō ichiu , and bushido . New forms of propaganda were developed to persuade occupied countries of the benefits of the Greater Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere , to undermine American troops' morale, to counteract claims of Japanese atrocities, and to present the war to the Japanese people as victorious. It started with the Second Sino-Japanese War , which merged into World War II. It used a large variety of media to send its messages. Nature of Japanese propaganda Propaganda is biased information intended to promote a particular political cause or view. In that sense Japanese propaganda was no different from other nations' propaganda, but it had some defining elements, such as nationalism. Japanese wartime propaganda was, as with Nazi Germ
history of propaganda worldwide Background Propaganda is information that is not impartial and used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively (perhaps lying by omission ) to encourage a particular synthesis, or using loaded messages to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information presented. The term propaganda has acquired a strongly negative connotation by association with its most manipulative and jingoistic examples. Pre-modern precedents English Civil War cartoon entitled "The Cruel Practices of Prince Rupert " (1643) Blatant election propaganda from the UK c.1890 Primitive forms of propaganda have been a human activity as far back as reliable recorded evidence exists. The Behistun Inscription (c. 515 BC) detailing the rise of Darius I to the Persian throne is viewed by most historians as an early example of propaganda. The Arthashastra written by Chanakya (c. 350 – 283 BC), a professor of political science at Takshashila Un
The Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda (Reichsministerium für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda, RMVP or Propagandaministerium) was a Nazi government agency to enforce Nazi ideology. Origin Founded on 14 March 1933, a few months after the Nazi seizure of power by Adolf Hitler 's government, it was headed by Reich Minister Joseph Goebbels . The role of the new ministry, which set up its offices in the 18th-century Ordenspalais across from the Reich Chancellery , was to centralise Nazi control of all aspects of German cultural and intellectual life. An unstated goal was to present to other nations the impression that the Nazi Party had the full and enthusiastic backing of the entire population. It was responsible for controlling the German news media , literature , visual arts , filmmaking , theatre , music , and broadcasting . Propaganda As the central office of Nazi propaganda , it comprehensively supervised and regulated the culture and mass media of Nazi Germany. A major focus of the pro
The definition of propaganda is always open to discussion, and it is most commonly defined as “information,” especially of a biased or misleading nature, used to promote or publicize a particular political cause or point of view. To explain the close associations between media and propaganda, Richard Alan Nelson observed propaganda as a form of persuasion with intention with the aid of controlled transmission of single-sided information through mass media. Mass media and propaganda are inseparable. Mass media as a system for spreading and disseminating information and messages to public plays a role in amusing, entertaining and informing individuals with rules and values that situate them in social structure. Thus, propaganda is a necessity for alleviating conflicts between different classes in society. In a media-saturated modern society, mass media is the main channel for the carrying out the propaganda action and fulfill the propaganda practices. Modern propaganda includes using a variety of media in or
Wehrmacht soldiers and journalists with German victims of Bloody Sunday. The photo was utilized by the Nazi press and bears the editor's cropping marks, showing the portion of the image that was intended to be used for publication. Bloody Sunday ( German : Bromberger Blutsonntag ; Polish : Krwawa niedziela ) was a sequence of events that took place in Bydgoszcz ( German : Bromberg ), a Polish city with a sizable German minority , between 3 and 4 September 1939, immediately after the German invasion of Poland . The sequence started with an attack of German Selbstschutz snipers on retreating Polish troops and then was followed by a Polish reaction and then the final retaliatory execution of Polish hostages by the Wehrmacht and Selbstschutz, after the fall of the city. All these events resulted in the deaths of both German and Polish civilians. The Polish Institute of National Remembrance found and confirmed 254 Lutheran victims, assumed to be German victims, and 86 Catholic victims, assumed to be Polish civili
Communist propaganda in the Soviet Union was extensively based on the Marxism-Leninism ideology to promote the Communist Party line. In societies with pervasive censorship , propaganda was omnipresent and vigorously enforced. It penetrated even social and natural sciences giving rise to various pseudo-scientific theories like Lysenkoism , whereas fields of real knowledge, as genetics , cybernetics , and comparative linguistics were condemned and forbidden as " bourgeois pseudoscience ". With "truths repressed, falsehoods in every field were incessantly rubbed in print, at endless meetings, in school, in mass demonstrations, on the radio". The main Soviet censorship body, Glavlit , was employed not only to eliminate any undesirable printed materials, but also "to ensure that the correct ideological spin was put on every published item". In the Stalin Era , deviation from the dictates of official propaganda was punished by execution and labor camps. In the post-Stalin era, these punitive measures were replaced
The German Corpse Factory or Kadaververwertungsanstalt (literally "Corpse-Utilization Factory"), also sometimes called the "German Corpse-Rendering Works" or "Tallow Factory" was one of the most notorious anti-German atrocity propaganda stories circulated in World War I . According to the story, the Kadaververwertungsanstalt was a special installation supposedly operated by the Germans in which, because fats were so scarce in Germany due to the British naval blockade, German battlefield corpses were rendered down for fat, which was then used to manufacture nitroglycerine, candles, lubricants, and even boot dubbin. It was supposedly operated behind the front lines by the DAVG-Deutsche Abfall-Verwertungs Gesellschaft ("German Offal Utilization Company"). Piers Brendon has called it "the most appalling atrocity story" of World War I, while Phillip Knightley has called it "the most popular atrocity story of the war." After the war John Charteris , the British former Chief of Army Intelligence, allegedly stated
Radio propaganda is propaganda aimed at influencing attitudes towards a certain cause or position, delivered through radio broadcast. The power of radio propaganda came from its revolutionary nature. The radio, like later technological advances in the media, allowed information to be transmitted quickly and unifomly to vast populations. Internationally, the radio was an early and powerful recruiting tool for propaganda campaigns. Before television , radio was by far the most effective way to prevent or promote social change. In many areas, it still is. Radio propaganda can be broadcast over great distances to a large audience at a relatively low cost. Through radio, a propagandist can bring his voice and all the persuasive power of his emotions to millions of people. A similar approach is used in every war employing radio propaganda: aside from convincing those on the home front of the necessity of war, a different kind of propaganda must be directed towards the enemy. Radio became a powerful propaganda tool
Taliban propaganda has, since the 2001 fall of their national government in Afghanistan, developed into a sophisticated public relations machine that is shaping perceptions in Afghanistan and abroad. Although polls show the movement remains unpopular, the insurgents have readily exploited a sense of growing alienation fostered by years of broken government promises, official corruption , and the rising death toll among civilians from airstrikes and other military actions. "The result is weakening public support for nation-building , even though few actively support the Taliban," says a report from the International Crisis Group , a think tank that monitors conflicts. An American official in Afghanistan agrees: "We cannot afford to be passive [communicators] any longer if we're going to turn this around." Background A primary focus in the Taliban's media message is the history of wars between Christians and Muslims. The Taliban emphasize religious and cultural differences between the West and the East, the ide
Falsehood in War-time, Containing an Assortment of Lies Circulated Throughout the Nations During the Great War , written by Arthur Ponsonby in 1928 lists and refutes pieces of propaganda used by the Allied Forces (Russia, France, Britain and the United States) against the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria). After the Second World War, a new edition of the book was given the updated title Falsehood in War-Time: Propaganda Lies of the First World War . Lord Ponsonby is standing to the far right of the photo. Click on the image for further details of people in the photograph. Arthur Ponsonby Arthur Ponsonby, 1st Baron Ponsonby of Shulbrede , was born Arthur Augustus William Henry Ponsonby in 1871. Lord Ponsonby attended Eton College and Balliol College, Oxford, where he joined the Diplomatic Service. In 1906, Ponsonby ran as a Liberal candidate, unsuccessfully, at the general election but was elected a Member of Parliament of the United Kingdom (MP) at a by-election in 1908. Lord Po
Bestgore.com is a Canadian shock site owned by Mark Marek, which provides highly violent real-life news , photos and videos , with authored opinion and user comments. The site received media attention in 2012, following the hosting of a video which showed a real-life murder being committed by Luka Magnotta . As a result, Marek was arrested and charged under Canada's obscenity law with corrupting public morals. Background The site was launched on April 30, 2008 by Slovak - Canadian Mark Marek, and hosts explicit, real-life, photographic and video material of events such as murders, suicides, torture, mutilations and accidents. With an estimated 10–15 million monthly visits, Bestgore is currently the biggest shock site in the world. As well as real-life footage and pictures, there are also articles promoting conspiracy theories and revisionist history, such as holocaust denial , with source material from, most notably, David Irving and Ursula Haverbeck . Controversies and legal issues Murder of Lin Jun In J
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to public relations: Public relations practice of managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government agency, or a nonprofit organization) and the public. Nature of public relations Public relations can be described as all of the following: Academic discipline – branch of knowledge that is taught and researched at the college or university level. Disciplines are defined (in part), and recognized by the academic journals in which research is published, and the learned societies and academic departments or faculties to which their practitioners belong. Communication – activity of conveying information Marketing – process which creates, communicates, and delivers value to the customer, and maintains the relationship with customers. Essence of public relations To create and sustain "shared meaning" or "common understanding" - NB this may be and usually is different from "shared beliefs" Pr
The Fall or (depending on the context) the Liberation of Saigon , was the capture of Saigon , the capital of South Vietnam , by the People's Army of Vietnam and the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (also known as the Việt Cộng ) on 30 April 1975. The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period to the formal reunification of Vietnam under the Socialist Republic . North Vietnamese forces, under the command of General Văn Tiến Dũng , began their final attack on Saigon on April 29, 1975, with the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) forces commanded by General Nguyễn Văn Toàn suffering a heavy artillery bombardment. This bombardment at the Tân Sơn Nhất Airport killed the last two American servicemen to die in Vietnam, Charles McMahon and Darwin Judge . By the afternoon of the next day, North Vietnamese troops had occupied the important points of the city and raised their flag over the South Vietnamese presidential palace . The South Vietnamese government capitulate
In the face of obstacles - COURAGE BE SURE YOU HAVE CORRECT TIME! This poster intended for navigation students combines instruction with caricatures of enemy leaders, L-R: Hitler , Mussolini , and Hirohito . During active American involvement in World War II (1941–45), propaganda was used to increase support for the war and commitment to an Allied victory. Using a vast array of media, propagandists instigated hatred for the enemy and support for America's allies, urged greater public effort for war production and victory gardens , persuaded people to save some of their material so that more material could be used for the war effort, and sold war bonds . Patriotism became the central theme of advertising throughout the war, as large scale campaigns were launched to sell war bonds, promote efficiency in factories, reduce ugly rumors, and maintain civilian morale. The war consolidated the advertising industry's role in American society, deflecting earlier criticism. Campaign At first, the government was reluctan
The Nanking Massacre was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China , during the Second Sino-Japanese War . The massacre is also known as the Rape of Nanking or, using Pinyin romanization , the Nanjing Massacre or Rape of Nanjing . The massacre occurred over a period of six weeks starting on December 13, 1937, the day that the Japanese captured Nanjing . During this period, soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army murdered Chinese civilians and disarmed combatants who numbered an estimated 40,000 to over 300,000, and perpetrated widespread rape and looting. Since most Japanese military records on the killings were kept secret or destroyed shortly after the surrender of Japan in 1945, historians have not been able to accurately estimate the death toll of the massacre. The International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo estimated in 1946 that over 200,000 Chinese were killed in the incident.
The Crucified Soldier refers to the widespread atrocity propaganda story of an Allied soldier serving in the Canadian Corps who may have been crucified with bayonets on a barn door or a tree, while fighting on the Western Front during World War I . Three witnesses said they saw an unidentified crucified Canadian soldier near the battlefield of Ypres , Belgium on or around 24 April 1915, but there was no conclusive proof such a crucifixion actually occurred. The eyewitness accounts were somewhat contradictory, no crucified body was found, and no knowledge was uncovered at the time about the identity of the supposedly crucified soldier. During World War II the story was used by the Nazis as an example of British propaganda. Story On 10 May 1915, The Times printed a short item titled "Torture of a Canadian Officer" as coming from its Paris correspondent. According to the piece, Canadian soldiers wounded at Ypres had told how one of their officers had been crucified to a wall "by bayonets thrust through his hands
Britain re-created the World War I Ministry of Information for the duration of World War II to generate propaganda to influence the population towards support for the war effort. A wide range of media was employed aimed at local and overseas audiences. Traditional forms such as newspapers and posters were joined by new media including cinema (film) , newsreels and radio . A wide range of themes were addressed, fostering hostility to the enemy, support for allies, and specific pro war projects such as conserving metal and growing vegetables. Media Cinema The story of the British cinema in the Second World War is inextricably linked with that of the Ministry of Information. Formed on 4 September 1939, the day after Britain's declaration of war, the Ministry of Information (MOI) was the central government department responsible for publicity and propaganda in the Second World War. It was the Ministry's function to "present the national case to the public at home and abroad". The MOI was keenly aware of the val
Demoralization is, in a context of warfare , national security , and law enforcement , a process in psychological warfare with the objective to erode morale among enemy combatants and/or noncombatants . That can encourage them to retreat , surrender , or defect rather than defeating them in combat . Demoralization methods are military tactics such as hit-and-run attacks such as snipers , disturbing the enemy with less-lethal weapons and incapacitating agents , and intimidation such as display of force concentration . Some methods on the strategic scale are commerce raiding , strategic bombing , static operations such as sieges and naval blockades , and propaganda . Front of leaflet Back of leaflet A Nazi propaganda leaflet used during World War II to demoralize American troops. Importance of morale Morale is often perceived as a necessary precursor to success in international relations because success most often goes to those who believe in their cause, as they more easily maintain a positive outlook that con
Building on the site of the Harbin bioweapon facility of Unit 731 Unit 731 ( Japanese : 731部隊 Hepburn : Nana-san-ichi Butai) was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) of World War II . It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried out by Japan . Unit 731 was based at the Pingfang district of Harbin , the largest city in the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo (now Northeast China ). It was officially known as the Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army ( 関東軍防疫給水部本部 Kantōgun Bōeki Kyūsuibu Honbu) . Originally set up under the Kempeitai military police of the Empire of Japan , Unit 731 was taken over and commanded until the end of the war by General Shiro Ishii , a combat medic officer in the Kwantung Army. The facility itself was built between 1934 and 1939 and officially adopted the name "Unit 731" in
"Monks - the bloody enemies of working people" (Banner on the Dormition Cathedral of the Kiev Cave Monastery, 1930s) The USSR anti-religious campaign of 1928–1941 was a new phase of anti-religious persecution in the Soviet Union following the anti-religious campaign of 1921–1928 . The campaign began in 1929, with the drafting of new legislation that severely prohibited religious activities and called for a heightened attack on religion in order to further disseminate atheism . This had been preceded in 1928 at the fifteenth party congress , where Joseph Stalin criticized the party for failure to produce more active and persuasive anti-religious propaganda . This new phase coincided with the beginning of the forced mass collectivization of agriculture and the nationalization of the few remaining private enterprises . Many of those who had been arrested in the 1920s would continue to remain in prison throughout the 1930s and beyond. The main target of the anti-religious campaign in the 1920s and 1930s was the R
Racism existed in many manifestations within the Soviet Union , it came in the form of social discrimination to outright ethnic cleansing. Despite the Soviet Union's policy against racial hatred it enacted racially motivated laws and actions such as the population transfers Central Europeans Germans Dead German civilians in Nemmersdorf, East Prussia . News of Soviet atrocities , spread and exaggerated by Nazi propaganda, hastened the flight of ethnic Germans from much of Eastern Europe. Young German women being released from a work camp in 1947. People of German heritage had resided in Eastern Europe for years, many years before even the outbreak of World War II . In the year 1937, two years before war, the NKVD began their mass operations as part of Stalin's Great Purge . The first of these operations called for the arrests of all German citizens and former citizens. The Germans were told to be Nazi agents. In total, the national operation against Soviet citizens of German descent resulted in the sentencing
The Nayirah testimony was a false testimony given before the Congressional Human Rights Caucus on October 10, 1990 by a 15-year-old girl who provided only her first name, Nayirah. The testimony was widely publicized, and was cited numerous times by United States senators and President George H. W. Bush in their rationale to back Kuwait in the Gulf War . In 1992, it was revealed that Nayirah's last name was al-Ṣabaḥ ( Arabic : نيره الصباح ) and that she was the daughter of Saud Al-Sabah , the Kuwaiti ambassador to the United States. Furthermore, it was revealed that her testimony was organized as part of the Citizens for a Free Kuwait public relations campaign which was run by American Hill & Knowlton for the Kuwaiti government . Following this, al-Sabah's testimony has come to be regarded as a classic example of modern atrocity propaganda . In her emotional testimony, Nayirah stated that after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait she had witnessed Iraqi soldiers take babies out of incubators in a Kuwaiti hospi
A 1598 engraving by Theodor de Bry depicting a Spaniard supposedly feeding Indian children to his dogs. De Bry's works are characteristic of the anti-Spanish propaganda that originated as a result of the Eighty Years' War . In Spanish historiography, the Black Legend ( Spanish : La Leyenda Negra ) is an alleged style of tendentious, subjective historical writing or propaganda demonizing Spain , its people and its culture in an intentional attempt to damage its reputation. While those who defend the existence of the Black Legend acknowledge that there is much documented evidence of atrocities by all European nations during the conquest of the Americas, and the Inquisition represented a period of cruel excess; they suggest foreign authors lay this legacy on the Spanish without balance and as a somehow intrinsic element of Spanish character. Its proponents claim that the Black Legend originated in the 16th century, a time of strong rivalry between European colonial powers, and served as anti-Spanish and anti-Cat
The ruins of the library of the Catholic University of Leuven after it was burned in 1914. The destroyed city of Leuven in 1915 The Rape of Belgium was the German mistreatment of civilians during the invasion and subsequent occupation of Belgium during World War I . The term initially had a propaganda use but recent historiography confirms its reality. One modern author uses it more narrowly to describe a series of German war crimes in the opening months of the war (August–September 1914). The neutrality of Belgium had been guaranteed by the Treaty of London (1839) , which had been signed by Prussia . However, the German Schlieffen Plan required that German armed forces violate Belgium’s neutrality in order to outflank the French Army, concentrated in eastern France. The German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg dismissed the treaty of 1839 as a "scrap of paper". Throughout the beginning of the war, the German army engaged in numerous atrocities against the civilian population of Belgium, including th
The Committee on Alleged German Outrages , often called the Bryce Committee after its chair, Viscount James Bryce (1838-1922), is best known for producing the "Report of the Committee on Alleged German Outrages," published on 12 May 1915. The report is seen as a major propaganda form that Britain used in order to educate the world on the behaviour of Germany, which had invaded Belgium the year before. The Report was translated by the end of 1915 into every major European language and had a profound impact on public opinion in Allied and neutral countries, particularly in the United States. Though the findings of the Report have been substantiated by several scholars in the 21st century, the eyewitness testimony published in its 320-page Appendix A included some sensationalist accounts of mutilations and rapes for which there is no other evidence. These invented atrocities stigmatized the Report and have made it a target for revisionist historians and writers on propaganda. History By the middle of September 1
The propaganda of the National Socialist German Workers' Party regime that governed Germany from 1933 to 1945 promoted Nazi ideology by demonizing the enemies of the Nazi Party , notably Jews and communists , but also capitalists and intellectuals . It promoted the values asserted by the Nazis, including heroic death, Führerprinzip (leader principle), Volksgemeinschaft (people's community), Blut und Boden (blood and soil) and pride in the Germanic Herrenvolk ( master race ). Propaganda was also used to maintain the cult of personality around Nazi leader Adolf Hitler , and to promote campaigns for eugenics and the annexation of German-speaking areas . After the outbreak of World War II , Nazi propaganda vilified Germany's enemies, notably the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States, and in 1943 exhorted the population to total war . Enemies Jews Poster for occupied Poland: "JEWS-SUCKING LOUSE-TYPHUS" German citizens, public reading of Der Stürmer "Die Juden sind unser Unglück". The diagram shows
Propaganda of Fascist Italy was the material put forth by Italian Fascism to justify its authority and programs and encourage popular support. Use The Fascist regime made heavy use of propaganda , including pageantry and rhetoric , to inspire the nation into the unity that would obey. At first, all propaganda efforts were grouped together under the press office; propaganda efforts were slowly organized until a Ministry of Popular Culture was created in 1937. A special propaganda ministry was created in 1935, with the avowed purpose of telling the truth about fascism, refuting the lies of its enemies, and clearing up ambiguities, which were only to be expected in so large and dynamic a movement. Doctrine A fascist doctrine was first set forth in The Manifesto of the Fasci of Combat , and further enumerated in The Doctrine of Fascism purportedly written entirely by Benito Mussolini , but he only wrote the second part, the first part was actually also written by Giovanni Gentile . Fascism's internal contradicti
Harold Lasswell Harold Dwight Lasswell (February 13, 1902 – December 18, 1978) was a leading American political scientist and communications theorist . He was a PhD student at the University of Chicago , and he was a professor of law at Yale University . He served as president both of the American Political Science Association (APSA) and of the World Academy of Art and Science (WAAS). According to a biographical memorial written by Gabriel Almond at the time of Lasswell's death and published by the National Academies of Sciences in 1987, Lasswell "ranked among the half dozen creative innovators in the social sciences in the twentieth century." At the time, Almond asserted that "few would question that he was the most original and productive political scientist of his time." Areas of research in which Lasswell worked included the importance of personality , social structure , and culture in the explanation of political phenomena. He was noted to be ahead of his time in employing a variety of methodological app
Randal Marlin (born 1938 in Washington, D.C. ) is a Canadian philosophy professor at Carleton University in Ottawa who specializes in the study of propaganda . He was educated at Princeton University , McGill University , the University of Oxford , Aix-Marseille University , and the University of Toronto . After receiving a Department of National Defence fellowship to study under propaganda scholar Jacques Ellul at Bordeaux in 1979–1980, he started a philosophy and mass communications class at Carleton called Truth and Propaganda, which has run annually ever since. One of the texts for this class is his 2002 book Propaganda and the Ethics of Persuasion, which examines historical, ethical, and legal issues relating to propaganda. The revised second edition, released in 2013, examines the Bush administration's use of propaganda based on fear to persuade Americans to support the 2003 invasion of Iraq . Marlin acknowledges that there are many definitions of propaganda, including favourable ones. However, his bo
The position of Nazi propaganda towards the United Kingdom and its inhabitants changed over time. Prior to 1938, while Hitler tried to court Britain into an alliance, his propaganda praised the British as proficient Aryan imperialists. Later, as the Nazis realized that they would have to fight the United Kingdom, their propaganda vilified the British as oppressive, German-hating plutocrats . During the war, it accused " perfidious Albion " of war crimes, and sought especially to drive a wedge between Britain and France. History Pre-war Initially, the aim of Nazi foreign policy was to create an Anglo-German alliance, so before 1938, Nazi propaganda tended to glorify British institutions, and above all the British Empire . Even regarding it, along with France, as "decadent democracies", Goebbels set out to court them. Typical of the Nazi admiration for the British Empire were a lengthy series of articles in various German newspapers throughout the mid-1930s praising various aspects of British imperial history,
The genocide in Bangladesh began on 26 March 1971 with the launch of Operation Searchlight , as West Pakistan began a military crackdown on the Eastern wing of the nation to suppress Bengali calls for self-determination rights. During the nine-month-long Bangladesh war for independence , members of the Pakistani military and supporting Islamist militias from Jamaat-e-Islami killed up to 3,000,000 people and raped between 200,000 and 400,000 Bangladeshi women, according to Bangladeshi and Indian sources, in a systematic campaign of genocidal rape . Independent researchers estimate the number of people killed as being between 300,000–500,000, and describe the 3 million number as excessively inflated. The actions against women were supported by Muslim religious leaders, who declared that Bengali women were gonimoter maal (Bengali for "public property"). As a result of the conflict, a further eight to ten million people, mostly Hindus, fled the country at the time to seek refuge in neighbouring India
The location of South Hwanghae Province . The location of Sinchon in South Hwanghae Province . The Sinchon Massacre ( Korean : 신천 양민학살 사건 , Hanja : 信川良民虐殺事件, Sinchon Civilian Massacre ) was an alleged mass murder of civilians claimed by North Korean sources to have been committed primarily by South Korean military forces under allowance from the U.S. military between 17 October and 7 December 1950, in or near the town of Sinchon (currently part of South Hwanghae Province , North Korea). The event allegedly took place during the second phase of the Korean War and the retreat of the DPRK government from Hwanghae Province. North Korean claim North Korean sources claim that approximately 35,000 people were killed by American military forces and other supporters during the course of 52 days, which would have been about a quarter of the population of Sinchon. The Sinchon Museum of American War Atrocities was established in 1958 and displays remains and belongings of those who were allegedly killed in the incident
Historical negationism or denialism is an illegitimate distortion of the historical record. It is often imprecisely referred to as historical revisionism , but that term also denotes a legitimate academic pursuit of re-interpretation of the historical record and questioning the accepted views. In attempting to revise the past, illegitimate historical revisionism may use techniques inadmissible in proper historical discourse, such as presenting known forged documents as genuine; inventing ingenious but implausible reasons for distrusting genuine documents; attributing conclusions to books and sources that report the opposite; manipulating statistical series to support the given point of view; and deliberately mis-translating texts (in languages other than the revisionist's). Some countries, such as Germany, have criminalised the negationist revision of certain historical events, while others take a more cautious position for various reasons, such as protection of free speech ; still others mandate negationist
The Spanish Civil War ( Spanish : Guerra Civil Española ), widely known in Spain simply as The Civil War ( Spanish : Guerra Civil ) or The War ( Spanish : La Guerra ), took place from 1936 to 1939. The Republicans , who were loyal to the democratic, left -leaning and relatively urban Second Spanish Republic , in an alliance of convenience with the Anarchists, fought against the Nationalists , a Falangist , Carlist , and largely aristocratic conservative group led by General Francisco Franco . Although the war is often portrayed as a struggle between democracy and fascism , some historians believe it should more accurately be described as a struggle between leftist revolution and rightist counter-revolution. Ultimately, the Nationalists won, and Franco then ruled Spain for the next 36 years, from April 1939 until his death in November 1975. The war began after a pronunciamiento (declaration of opposition) by a group of generals of the Spanish Republican Armed Forces , originally under the leadership of José
Edward S. Herman (born April 7, 1925) is professor emeritus of finance at the Wharton School of Business of the University of Pennsylvania and a media analyst with a specialty in corporate and regulatory issues as well as political economy. He also teaches at Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania . He is probably best known for developing the propaganda model of media criticism with Noam Chomsky . In 1967, Herman was among more than 500 writers and editors who signed the "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" pledge, vowing to refuse to pay the 10% Vietnam War tax surcharge implemented by Congress upon the initiation of President Johnson . Herman received his Bachelor of Arts from the University of Pennsylvania in 1945 and PhD in 1953 from the University of California, Berkeley . Herman and Chomsky Vietnam Herman and Noam Chomsky challenged the veracity of media accounts of war crimes and repression by the Vietnamese communists, stating that "the basic sources for the larger esti
Rainbow ( Ukrainian : Веселка ; translit. Veselka, Russian : Радуга ; translit. Raduga), is a 1944 Soviet war film directed by Mark Donskoy and written by Wanda Wasilewska based on her novel, Tecza. The film depicts life in a German-occupied village in Ukraine at the beginning of World War II from the view point of the terrorized villagers. Plot The German conquerors are above nothing, not even the slaughter of small children, to break the spirit of their Soviet captives. Suffering more than most is Olga (Nataliya Uzhviy), a Soviet partisan who returns to the village to bear her child, only to endure the cruelest of arbitrary tortures at the hands of the Nazis. Eventually, the villagers rise up against their oppressors-but unexpectedly do not wipe them out, electing instead to force the surviving Nazis to stand trial for their atrocities in a postwar "people's court." (It is also implied that those who collaborated with the Germans will be dealt with in the same evenhanded fashion). Reception "Brilliantly
King Leopold II whose personal rule of the Congo Free State was marked by severe atrocities, violence and major population decline In the period from 1885 to 1908, a number of well-documented atrocities were perpetrated in the Congo Free State (today the Democratic Republic of the Congo ) which, at the time, was a colony under the personal rule of King Leopold II of Belgium . These atrocities were sometimes collectively referred to by European contemporaries as the "Congo Horrors", and were particularly associated with the labour policies used to collect natural rubber for export. Together with epidemic disease, famine, and a falling birth rate caused by these disruptions, the atrocities contributed to a sharp decline in the Congolese population. The magnitude of the population fall over the period is disputed, but it is thought to be between one and 15 million people. At the Berlin Conference of 1884–85, the European powers allocated the Congo Basin region to a private charitable organisation run by Leopold
The November 2015 Paris attacks (sometimes referred to as Paris's 9/11 ) were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks that occurred on Friday 13 November 2015 in Paris, France and the city's northern suburb, Saint-Denis . Beginning at 21:16 CET , three suicide bombers struck outside the Stade de France in Saint-Denis, during a football match. This was followed by several mass shootings, and a suicide bombing, at cafés and restaurants. Gunmen carried out another mass shooting and took hostages at an Eagles of Death Metal concert in the Bataclan theatre , leading to a stand-off with police. The attackers were shot or blew themselves up when police raided the theatre. The attackers killed 130 people, including 89 at the Bataclan theatre. Another 413 people were injured, almost 100 seriously. Seven of the attackers also died, while the authorities continued to search for accomplices. The attacks were the deadliest on France since the Second World War , and the deadliest in the European Union since
The Patriot is a 2000 American epic historical fiction war film directed by Roland Emmerich , written by Robert Rodat , and starring Mel Gibson , Chris Cooper , Heath Ledger , and Jason Isaacs . The film mainly takes place in rural Berkeley County, South Carolina , and depicts the story of an American Colonist, nominally loyal to the British Crown; in both South Carolina and North America; who, is swept into the American Revolutionary War when his family is threatened. Benjamin Martin is a composite figure the scriptwriter claims is based on four factual figures from the American Revolutionary War: Andrew Pickens , Francis Marion , Daniel Morgan , and Thomas Sumter . The film takes place during the events of the Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War but attracted controversy over its fictional portrayal of historical British figures and atrocities. Professor Mark Glancy, teacher of film history at Queen Mary, University of London has said: "It's horrendously inaccurate and attributes crimes commi
RT America is a TV channel based in Washington, D.C. , and part of the RT network , a global multilingual television news network based in Moscow, Russia. RT is a non-profit organization in part funded by the Russian government . RT America also has studios and bureaus in New York City , Miami , and Los Angeles . The channel is the home and the production base of RT's U.S. based programs. RT America focuses on covering news in the United States from an alternative perspective. Programs are hosted by American journalists. Similarly, most guests are American (and sometimes Canadian) activists, academics, speakers and analysts with alternative perspectives on "mainstream" issues. The channel covers issues that see lesser coverage in the mainstream media, such as using non-GMO ingredients in foods, corporatism, growing wealth inequality, corruption in politics, peace and environmental issues. It maintains a separate schedule of programs each weekday from 4 p.m. to 12 midnight Eastern Time, and like its counterp
The Nuremberg Trials is a 1947 Soviet -made documentary film about the trials of the Nazi leadership . It was produced by Roman Karmen , and was an English-language version of the Russian language film Суд народов (Judgment of the Peoples). Most of the film describes the Nazis' crimes in detail, particularly those committed in the Soviet Union. It claims that if not stopped, the Nazis would have "turned the whole world into a Majdanek ". It also includes some elements of anti-capitalist propaganda, claiming that the real rulers of Germany were "armament kings" such as Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach . Of the Holocaust and the recovery of gold from its victims, the film states that the Nazis "even made death into a commercial enterprise", and this truly happened. It is noted in the film that the Soviet Union objected to the acquittal of Hans Fritzsche , Franz von Papen and Hjalmar Schacht , and to the fact that Rudolf Hess was given a sentence of life imprisonment , rather than a death sentence . The film