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American system of manufacturing

The American system of manufacturing was a set of manufacturing methods that evolved in the 19th century. The two notable features were the extensive use of interchangeable parts and mechanization for production, which resulted in more efficient use of labor compared to hand methods. The system was also known as armory practice because it was first fully developed in armories, namely, the United States Armories at Springfield in Massachusetts and Harpers Ferry in Virginia (later West Virginia),[1] inside contractors to supply the United States Armed Forces, and various private armories. The name "American system" came not from any aspect of the system that is unique to the American national character, but simply from the fact that for a time in the 19th century it was strongly associated with the American companies who first successfully implemented it, and how their methods contrasted (at that time) with those of British and continental European companies. In the 1850s, the "American system" was contrasted to the British factory system which had evolved over the previous century. Within a few decades, manufacturing technology had evolved further, and the ideas behind the "American" system were in use worldwide. Therefore, in manufacturing today, which is global in the scope of its methods, there is no longer any such distinction.

The American system involved semi-skilled labor using machine tools and jigs to make standardized, identical, interchangeable parts, manufactured to a tolerance, which could be assembled with a minimum of time and skill, requiring little to no fitting.

Since the parts are interchangeable, it was also possible to separate manufacture from assembly, and assembly could be carried out by semi-skilled labor on an assembly line—an example of the division of labor. The system typically involved substituting specialized machinery to replace hand tools.

Interchangeability of parts was finally achieved by combining a number of innovations and improvements in machining operations and machine tools, which were developed primarily for making textile machinery. These innovations included the invention of new machine tools and jigs (in both cases, for guiding the cutting tool), fixtures for holding the work in the proper position, and blocks and gauges to check the accuracy of the finished parts.[1]

Use of machinery

English machine tool manufacturer Joseph Whitworth was appointed as a British commissioner for the New York International Exhibition. Accompanied by another British commissioner, he traveled around several states visiting various manufacturers, and as a result published a highly influential report on American manufacturing, from which he is quoted:

The laboring classes are comparatively few in number, but this is counterbalanced by, and indeed, may be one of the causes of the eagerness by which they call in the use of machinery in almost every department of industry. Wherever it can be applied as a substitute for manual labor, it is universally and willingly resorted to…. It is this condition of the labor market, and this eager resort to machinery wherever it can be applied, to which, under the guidance of superior education and intelligence, the remarkable prosperity of the United States is due.[2]

— Joseph Whitworth, 1854
Other characteristics

The American system contributed to efficiency gains through division of labor. Division of labor helped manufacturing transition from small artisan's shops to early factories. Key pieces of evidence supporting efficiency gains include increase in firm size, evidence of returns to scale, and an increase in non-specialized labor. The need for firms to train uneducated people to perform only one thing in the productivity chain allowed for the use of non-specialized labor. Women and children were employed more frequently within larger firms, especially those producing furniture and clothing.

History

In the late 18th century, French General Jean Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval suggested that muskets could be manufactured faster and more economically if they were made from interchangeable parts. This system would also make field repairs easier to carry out under battle conditions. He provided patronage to Honoré Blanc, who attempted to implement the Système Gribeauval, but never succeeded.[1] Until then, under the British factory system, skilled machinists were required to produce parts from a design. But however skilled the machinist, parts were never identical, and each part had to be manufactured separately to fit its counterpart—almost always by one person who produced each completed item from start to finish.

Mass production using interchangeable parts was first achieved in 1803 by Marc Isambard Brunel in cooperation with Henry Maudslay, and Simon Goodrich, under the management of (with contributions by) Brigadier-General Sir Samuel Bentham, the Inspector General of Naval Works at Portsmouth Block Mills at Portsmouth Dockyard, for the British Royal Navy during the Napoleonic War. By 1808 annual production had reached 130,000 sailing blocks.[3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] This method of working did not catch on in general manufacturing in Britain for many decades, and when it did it was imported from America, becoming known as the American System of Manufacturing, even though it originated in England.

The Lowell system is also related to the American system during this time. It emphasized procuring, training, and providing housing and other living necessities for the workforce, as well as using semi-automated machines in a centralized factory building or complex.

Gribeauval’s idea was conveyed to the US by two routes. First, Blanc’s friend Thomas Jefferson championed it, sending copies of Blanc’s memoirs and papers describing his work to Secretary of War Henry Knox. Second, artillery officer Louis de Tousard (who had served with Lafayette) was an enthusiast of Gribeauval's ideas. Tousard wrote two influential documents after the American Revolution; one was used as the blueprint for West Point, and the other became the officer’s training manual.[1]

The War Department, which included officers trained at West Point on Tousard's manual, established the armories at Springfield and Harper's Ferry and tasked them with solving the problem of interchangeability. The task was finally accomplished in the 1820s. Historian David A. Hounshell believes that this was done by Captain John H. Hall, an inside contractor at Harper's Ferry.[1] In a letter dated 1822 Hall makes the claim he achieved interchangeability in 1822.[13] But historian Diana Muir argues that it is more probable that it was Simeon North, a Connecticut arms contractor manufacturing guns for the US Army. North, not Hall, was the inventor of the crucial milling machine in 1816, and had an advantage over Hall in that he worked closely with the first industry that mass-produced complex machines from mass-produced interchangeable parts, the Connecticut clock-making industry.[14] By 1815 the idea of interchangeability was well established in the US government system of procurement; Congressional contracts stipulated this quality in muskets, rifles and pistols ordered after that date.[15] Interchangeability of firearms parts at the U.S. armories was found to have been in use for a number of years by the time of the 1853 British Parliamentary Commissions Committee on Small Arms inquiry.[1]

A critical factor in making interchangeable metal parts was the invention of several machine tools, such as the slide rest lathe, screw cutting lathe, turret lathe, milling machine and metal planer. One of the most important and versatile of these machine tools was David Wilkinson's lathe, for which he received a $10,000 award from the government of the United States.[16]

Eli Whitney is generally credited with the idea and the practical application, but both are incorrect attributions. Based on his reputation as the inventor of the cotton gin, the US government gave him a contract in 1798 for 10,000 muskets to be produced within two years. It actually took eight years to deliver the order, as Whitney perfected and developed new techniques and machines. In a letter to Treasury Secretary Oliver Wolcott apologizing for the delays, Whitney wrote:

One of my primary objectives it to form tools so the tools themselves shall fashion the work and give to every part its just proportion – which when once accomplished, will give expedition, uniformity, and exactness to the whole… In short, the tools which I contemplate are similar to engraving on a copper plate from which may be taken a great number of impressions, perfectly alike.[13]

Whitney did use machinery; however, there is no evidence that he produced any new type of metalworking machinery.[13] After completing the initial contract, Whitney went on to produce another 15,000 muskets within the following two years. Whitney never actually expressed any interest in interchangeability until 1800, when Treasury Secretary Wolcott exposed him to the memoirs of Blanc,[1] but he spent far more time and energy promoting the idea than developing it.

In order to spread knowledge of manufacturing techniques, the War Department made contractors open their shops to other manufacturers and competitors. The armories also openly shared manufacturing techniques with private industry.[16] Additionally, the idea migrated from the armories to industry as machinists trained in the armory system were hired by other manufacturers. Skilled engineers and machinists thus influenced American clockmakers and sewing machine manufacturers Wilcox and Gibbs and Wheeler and Wilson, who used interchangeable parts before 1860.[1] [17] Late to adopt the interchangeable system were Singer Corporation sewing machine (1870s), reaper manufacturer McCormick Harvesting Machine Company (1870s–80s)[1] and several large steam engine manufacturers such as Corliss (mid-1880s)[18] as well as locomotive makers. Large scale of production of bicycles in the 1880s used the interchangeable system.[1]

The idea would also help lead to the American "Golden Age" of manufacturing when Henry Ford mass-produced the automobile. Mastering true interchangeability on the assembly line, the Ford plant produced standard model cars. These efficient production strategies allowed these automobiles to be affordable for the middle class.

Pre-Industrial Revolution

The idea of interchangeable parts and the separate assembly line was not new, though it was little used. The idea was first developed in East Asia during the Warring States period and later the Qin Dynasty over 2200 years ago – bronze crossbow triggers and locking mechanisms were mass-produced and made to be interchangeable. Venice during the late Middle Ages had ships that were produced using pre-manufactured parts, assembly lines, and mass production. The Venetian Arsenal apparently produced nearly one ship every day, in what was effectively the world’s first factory.

See also
References
  1. Hounshell, David A. (1984), From the American System to Mass Production, 1800-1932: The Development of Manufacturing Technology in the United States, Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-2975-8, LCCN 83016269
  2. Roe, Joseph Wickham (1916), English and American Tool Builders, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, LCCN 16011753. Reprinted by McGraw-Hill, New York and London, 1926 (LCCN 27-24075); and by Lindsay Publications, Inc., Bradley, Illinois, (ISBN 978-0-917914-73-7).. Report of the British Commissioners to the New York Industrial Exhibition, London, 1854.
  3. Enlightenment & measurement, UK: Making the modern world.
  4. Portsmouth dockyard, UK.
  5. "Block", Collections (exhiblet), UK: Science museum.
  6. Gilbert, KR (1965), The Portsmouth Block-making Machinery, London.
  7. Cooper, CC (1982), "The Production Line at Portsmouth Block Mill", Industrial Archaeology Review, VI: 28–44.
  8. Cooper, CC (1984), "The Portsmouth System of Manufacture", Technology and Culture, 25: 182–225.
  9. Coad, Jonathan (1989), The Royal Dockyards 1690–1850, Aldershot.
  10. Coad, Jonathan (2005), The Portsmouth Block Mills : Bentham, Brunel and the start of the Royal Navy’s Industrial Revolution, ISBN 1-873592-87-6.
  11. Wilkin, Susan (1999), The application of emerging new technologies by Portsmouth Dockyard, 1790–1815 (PhD Thesis), The Open University (copies available from the British Thesis service of the British Library).
  12. Cantrell, J; Cookson, G, eds. (2002), Henry Maudslay and the Pioneers of the Machine Age, Stroud.
  13. Cowan, Ruth Schwartz (1997). A Social History of American Technology. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 0-19-504606-4.
  14. Muir, Diana, Reflections in Bullough's Pond, University Press of New England.
  15. Burke, James (1995) [1978], Connections, Little, Brown & Co, p. 151, ISBN 0-316-11672-6.
  16. Thompson, Ross (2009). Structures of Change in the Mechanical Age: Technological Invention in the United States 1790–1865. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-9141-0.
  17. Thomson, Ross (1989). The Path to Mechanized Shoe Production in the United States. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-80781867-1.
  18. Hunter, Louis C. (1985). A History of Industrial Power in the United States, 1730–1930. 2: Steam Power. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.
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Singer Corporation

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A Singer treadle sewing machine Singer Corporation is an American manufacturer of sewing machines, first established as I. M. Singer & Co. in 1851 by Isaac Merritt Singer with New York lawyer Edward Clark . Best known for its sewing machines , it was renamed Singer Manufacturing Company in 1865, then The Singer Company in 1963. It is based in La Vergne, Tennessee , near Nashville . Its first large factory for mass production was built in Elizabeth, New Jersey , in 1863. The company Old Singer logo A Singer 1851 sewing machine Singer’s original design, which was the first practical sewing machine for general domestic use, incorporated the basic eye-pointed needle and lock stitch developed by Elias Howe , who won a patent-infringement suit against Singer in 1854. Patent No. 8294, of August 12, 1851, introduced one of the most useful machines, and one of the most remarkable men, that have figured in the development of the sewing machine. Isaac Merritt Singer, strolling player, theater manager, inventor, and ...more...



Carroll Shelby International

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Shelby world headquarters, Paradise, Nevada Carroll Shelby International ( OTC Pink  No Information: CSBI ) was formed in 2003 from custom performance vehicle manufacturer Shelby American , when founder and owner Carroll Shelby took the company public, and additionally forming Shelby Automobiles as a subsidiary from which to continue manufacturing vehicles and parts. In 2009, "Shelby Automobiles" was officially renamed to "Shelby American", bringing back the original company name to celebrate the 45th anniversary of the 427 Cobra and GT350 . Carroll Shelby Licensing is the second wholly owned subsidiary that forms Carroll Shelby International, which is based in Nevada. Shelby American manufactures component automobiles, including replicas of the small-block and large-block AC Cobras , the Shelby GT350 and the GT500 Super Snake. Since 2005, Shelby American has released new models each year. Carroll Shelby International was previously working with Texas-based Unique Performance to create new Mustang -based Sh ...more...



SCADA

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Supervisory control and data acquisition ( SCADA ) is a control system architecture that uses computers, networked data communications and graphical user interfaces for high-level process supervisory management, but uses other peripheral devices such as programmable logic controllers and discrete PID controllers to interface to the process plant or machinery. The operator interfaces which enable monitoring and the issuing of process commands, such as controller set point changes, are handled through the SCADA supervisory computer system. However, the real-time control logic or controller calculations are performed by networked modules which connect to the field sensors and actuators. The SCADA concept was developed as a universal means of remote access to a variety of local control modules, which could be from different manufacturers allowing access through standard automation protocols . In practice, large SCADA systems have grown to become very similar to distributed control systems in function, but using m ...more...

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Allis-Chalmers

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Allis-Chalmers was a U.S. manufacturer of machinery for various industries . Its business lines included agricultural equipment , construction equipment , power generation and power transmission equipment, and machinery for use in industrial settings such as factories , flour mills , sawmills , textile mills , steel mills , refineries , mines , and ore mills. The first Allis-Chalmers Company was formed in 1901 as an amalgamation of the Edward P. Allis Company ( steam engines and mill equipment), Fraser & Chalmers (mining and ore milling equipment), the Gates Iron Works (rock and cement milling equipment), and the industrial business line of the Dickson Manufacturing Company (engines and compressors). It was reorganized in 1912 as the Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company . During the next 70 years its industrial machinery filled countless mills, mines, and factories around the world, and its brand gained fame among consumers mostly from its farm equipment business's orange tractors and silver combine harv ...more...



Karma Automotive

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Karma Automotive is an American automaker owned by Chinese autoparts company Wanxiang Group , and based in Irvine, California . History In February 2014, Chinese auto-parts supplier Wanxiang Group purchased assets of Fisker Automotive for $149.2 million in a bankruptcy auction. These assets included design, a plug-in hybrid powertrain, and a manufacturing facility in Delaware. Karma Automotive was formed in October 2015. The purchase excluded the Fisker brand and trademarks owned by Henrik Fisker . In 2007, Fisker Automotive was founded by Henrik Fisker and his business partner Bernhard Koehler. Its Fisker Karma plug-in hybrid sports sedan debuted in 2011, and about 2,000 of the vehicles were sold. After Fisker's battery supplier A123 Systems filed for bankruptcy after two battery recalls, Fisker Automotive could not continue making vehicles, and the company declared bankruptcy in February 2014. Wanxiang also purchased A123 following its bankruptcy declaration. Production models Revero The Revero is a ...more...



Rapid prototyping

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A rapid prototyping machine using selective laser sintering (SLS) 3D model slicing Rapid prototyping is a group of techniques used to quickly fabricate a scale model of a physical part or assembly using three-dimensional computer aided design ( CAD ) data. Construction of the part or assembly is usually done using 3D printing or " additive layer manufacturing " technology. The first methods for rapid prototyping became available in the late 1980s and were used to produce models and prototype parts. Today, they are used for a wide range of applications and are used to manufacture production-quality parts in relatively small numbers if desired without the typical unfavorable short-run economics. This economy has encouraged online service bureaus. Historical surveys of RP technology start with discussions of simulacra production techniques used by 19th-century sculptors. Some modern sculptors use the progeny technology to produce exhibitions . The ability to reproduce designs from a dataset has given rise t ...more...



FORCE America, Inc.

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FORCE America, Inc. is a privately held mobile hydraulics distribution and manufacturing company specializing in mobile hydraulic systems , components and replacement parts. Servicing more than 17,000 customers and companies in North America , FORCE America provides systems and components to the on/off highway mobile and agricultural markets, as well as emerging technologies in electrical assemblies, fabrication , vehicle communications and data logging, and liquid solution application. Headquartered in Burnsville, Minnesota , FORCE America employs more than 328 people across more than a dozen locations including operations in Colorado , Georgia , Idaho , Illinois , Iowa , Minnesota , Missouri , North Carolina , North Dakota , Ohio , Pennsylvania , Texas , Utah , and Wisconsin . History FORCE America corporate building - Burnsville, Minnesota FORCE America was the result of a merger between Mid-America Power Drives Manufacturing & Distributing, Inc. and Pederson-Sells Equipment Co., Inc. in 1997. Mid-Ame ...more...



Rockwell International

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Rockwell International was a major American manufacturing conglomerate in the latter half of the 20th century, involved in aircraft, the space industry , both defense-oriented and commercial electronics, automotive and truck components, printing presses, valves and meters, and industrial automation. It was the ultimate incarnation of a series of companies founded by Colonel Willard Rockwell . At its peak in the 1990s, Rockwell International was No. 27 on the Fortune 500 list, with assets of over $8 billion, sales of $27 billion and 115,000 employees. Rockwell B-1 Predecessor companies Boston-born Willard Rockwell (1888–1978) made his fortune with the invention and successful launch of a new bearing system for truck axles in 1919. He merged his Oshkosh, Wisconsin -based operation with the Timken-Detroit Axle Company in 1928, rising to become chairman of its board in 1940. In 1956 Rockwell Manufacturing Co. bought Walker-Turner from Kearney and Trecker. One year later in 1957, Walker-Turner operations were clos ...more...



Space manufacturing

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Growth of protein crystals from liquid in outer space : the top part shows a syringe with extruded protein droplet. Crystals grown by American scientists on the Russian Space Station Mir in 1995: (a) rhombohedral canavalin , (b) creatine kinase , (c) lysozyme , (d) beef catalase , (e) porcine alpha amylase , (f) fungal catalase, (g) myglobin, (h) concanavalin B , (i) thaumatin , (j) apo ferritin , (k) satellite tobacco mosaic virus and (l) hexagonal canavalin. Comparison of insulin crystals growth in outer space (left) and on Earth (right). Space manufacturing is the production of manufactured goods in an environment outside a planetary atmosphere . Typically this includes conditions of microgravity and hard vacuum . Manufacturing in space has several potential advantages over Earth-based industry. The unique environment can allow for industrial processes that cannot be readily reproduced on Earth. Raw materials could be lifted to orbit from other bodies within the solar system and processed at a low expense ...more...



Imperial and US customary measurement systems

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The imperial and US customary systems of measurement are two closely inter-related systems of measurement both derived from earlier English system of measurement units which can be traced back to Ancient Roman units of measurement , and Carolingian and Saxon units of measure. US Customary units, developed and used in the United States after the American Revolution , are based on a subset of the English units used in the Thirteen Colonies , while the Imperial system of units was developed and used beginning in 1826 in the United Kingdom and subsequently used in the rest of the Commonwealth . US Customary units are the predominant system of units in the United States, but in all Commonwealth countries the metric system has, to varying degrees, replaced the imperial system. Most of the units of measure have been adopted in one way or another since the Norman Conquest (1066). The units of linear measure have changed the least – the yard (which replaced the ell ) and the chain were measures derived in England. The ...more...



Elio Motors

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Side view of 3rd generation Elio prototype Paul Elio sitting in the P4 prototype of an Elio. Elio Motors Prototypes with the first of the E-Series vehicles Elio Motors is an automobile design company founded by Paul Elio in 2009. The three-wheeled Elio P4 aspires to attain a highway mileage rating of up to 84 mpg with regular features such as power windows , a power door lock , cruise control , and air conditioning , all in an aerodynamic , enclosed vehicle body. The design also includes a safety system of multiple air bags, anti-lock brakes , traction control , steel unibody frame, and crumple zones . Elio is targeting their first manufacturing site to be in Shreveport, Louisiana . Specifications Elio Motors plans to manufacture a three-wheeled vehicle (two wheels in front, one in back). Advertisements in 2017 show a base price of $7,450 ($7,300 for people with reservations). It is projected to achieve up to 84 mpg-US (2.8 l/100 km) on the highway and up to 49 in the city. As of June 2017 there are five prot ...more...



Bally Manufacturing

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Bally Manufacturing , later renamed Bally Entertainment , was an American company that began as a pinball and slot machine manufacturer, and later expanded into casinos, video games, health clubs, and theme parks. It was acquired by Hilton Hotels in 1995. Its brand name is still used by several businesses previously linked to Bally Manufacturing, most notably Bally Technologies . History The Bally Manufacturing Corporation was founded by Raymond Moloney on January 10, 1932, when Bally's original parent, Lion Manufacturing, established the company to make pinball games. The company took its name from its first game, Bally hoo. The company, based in Chicago , quickly became a leading maker of the games. In the late 1930s, Moloney began making gambling equipment, and had great success developing and improving the mechanical slot machines that were the core of the nascent gaming industry. After manufacturing munitions and airplane parts during World War II , Bally Manufacturing Corporation continued to produce in ...more...



David Brown Ltd.

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David Brown Gears Park Works Huddersfield 2005 David Brown Engineering Limited is an English engineering company, principally engaged in the manufacture of gears and gearboxes . Their major gear manufacturing plant is in Swan Lane, Lockwood , Huddersfield , adjacent to Lockwood railway station . It is named after the company's founder, David Brown, though it is more closely associated with his grandson, Sir David Brown (1904–1993). History David Brown Founded in 1860 as a pattern manufacturing company by 1873 David Brown had begun to concentrate on gear systems and by 1898 was specialising in machine-cut gears. The company moved in 1902 to Park Works at Huddersfield, where the firm is based today. David Brown & Sons, Huddersfield (the Huddersfield group) When David Brown died in 1903, his sons Percy and Frank took over and began the manufacture of gears, complete gear units, gear cutting machines, tools and equipment, bearings and shafts and worm drive gears. Its foundry makes steel and non-ferrous casti ...more...



American Airlines

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American Airlines, Inc. ( AA ) is a major U.S airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas , within the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex . It is the world's largest airline when measured by fleet size, revenue, scheduled passenger-kilometers flown, and number of destinations served. American together with its regional partners operates an extensive international and domestic network with an average of nearly 6,700 flights per day to nearly 350 destinations in more than 50 countries. American Airlines is a founding member of Oneworld alliance, the third largest airline alliance in the world and coordinates fares, services, and scheduling with alliance partners British Airways , Iberia , and Finnair in the transatlantic market and with Cathay Pacific and Japan Airlines in the transpacific market. Regional service is operated by independent and subsidiary carriers under the brand name of American Eagle . American operates out of ten hubs located in Dallas/Fort Worth , Charlotte , Chicago–O'Hare , Philadelphia , Miami , ...more...



Rudolph Technologies, Inc.

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Rudolph Technologies, Inc. is an American semiconductor company. Formed in 1940 and traded as NYSE :  RTEC on the New York Stock Exchange , it is a provider of process characterization equipment and software for semiconductor, data storage, flat panel display and micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) manufacturing industries. The company’s product offering includes automated defect inspection and metrology systems, probe card test and analysis systems, and lithography step-and-repeat systems. In addition, Rudolph provides a broad range of software products designed to improve yield, control processes and reduce manufacturing costs. History Rudolph Research: 1940-1995 Rudolph Technologies, Inc. (RTI) traces its origins to 1940, when Otto Curt Rudolph formed O.C. Rudolph & Sons, Inc. Originally an importer of microscopes and scientific instruments, this RTI predecessor was renamed in October 1970 to Rudolph Research Corporation. The company designed optical equipment for laboratories and universities. The ...more...



American School (economics)

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The American School , also known as the " National System ", represents three different yet related constructs in politics, policy and philosophy. It was the American policy from the 1860s to the 1970s, waxing and waning in actual degrees and details of implementation. Historian Michael Lind describes it as a coherent applied economic philosophy with logical and conceptual relationships with other economic ideas. It is the macroeconomic philosophy that dominated United States national policies from the time of the American Civil War until the mid-twentieth century. Closely related to mercantilism , it can be seen as contrary to classical economics . It consisted of these three core policies: protecting industry through selective high tariffs (especially 1861–1932) and through subsidies (especially 1932–70) government investments in infrastructure creating targeted internal improvements (especially in transportation) a national bank with policies that promote the growth of productive enterprises rather t ...more...



Manufacturing in the United Kingdom

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The United Kingdom, where the Industrial Revolution began in the late 18th century, has a long history of manufacturing , which contributed to Britain's early economic growth . During the second half of the 20th century , there was a steady decline in the importance of manufacturing and the economy of the United Kingdom shifted toward services . Manufacturing, however, remains important for overseas trade and accounted for 44% of goods exports in 2014. In June 2010, manufacturing in the United Kingdom accounted for 8.2% of the workforce and 12% of the country's national output. The East Midlands and West Midlands (at 12.6 and 11.8% respectively) were the regions with the highest proportion of employees in manufacturing. London had the lowest at 2.8%. History Manufacturing in the United Kingdom expanded on an unprecedented scale in the 19th century. Innovation in Britain led to revolutionary changes in manufacturing, the development of factory systems , and growth of transportation by railway and steam ship t ...more...



Feed manufacturing

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Commercial fish feed production in Stokmarknes, Norway Feed manufacturing refers to the process of producing animal feed from raw agricultural products. Fodder produced by manufacturing is formulated to meet specific animal nutrition requirements for different species of animals at different life stages. Feed and types of feed The Washington State Department of Agriculture defines feed as a mix of whole or processed grains , concentrates, and commercial feeds for all species of animals to include customer formula and labeled feeds, and pet feed. These feed are now commercially produced for the livestock, poultry , swine , and fish industries. The commercial production of feed is governed by state and national laws. For example, in Texas , whole or processed grains, concentrates, and commercial feeds with the purpose of feeding wildlife and pets should be duly described in words or animation for distribution by sellers. Most State and Federal codes have clearly stated that commercial feeds should not be adul ...more...



AdamWorks

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AdamWorks, LLC (AdamWorks), is an American engineering and manufacturing organization specializing in designing, tooling and manufacturing of composite structures and mechanical systems. History The company was founded in 2007 to pursue composites engineering/manufacturing projects in government, defense, space, commercial, and alternative energy markets. Since its inception, AdamWorks has designed and built a variety of spacecraft pressure vessels, aerospace and aircraft structures, radomes, pods and pod systems, unmanned aerial vehicle structures, with a portfolio of products flying on over 17 different military and civilian aircraft. Services Engineering Tooling Design and Manufacture Build to print structures Reverse engineering Rapid prototyping Static Testing Production engineering Production manufacturing Projects UAV Sensor Pod Design and Fabrication to support Wide Area Airborne Sensor (WAAS) Integration, including full Environmental Control System (ECS) integration Tooling Design, Fabrication, Parts ...more...



Western Electric

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Western Electric Company ( WE , WECo ) was an American electrical engineering and manufacturing company that served as the primary supplier to AT&T from 1881 to 1996. The company was responsible for many technological innovations and seminal developments in industrial management. It also served as the purchasing agent for the member companies of the Bell System . History In 1856, George Shawk purchased an electrical engineering business in Cleveland, Ohio . On December 31, 1869, he became partners with Enos M. Barton and, later the same year, sold his share to inventor Elisha Gray . In 1872 Barton, and Gray moved the business to Clinton Street, Chicago, Illinois , and incorporated it as the Western Electric Manufacturing Company . They manufactured a variety of electrical products including typewriters , alarms , and lighting and had a close relationship with telegraph company Western Union , to whom they supplied relays and other equipment. In 1875, Gray sold his interests to Western Union, including th ...more...



Report on Manufactures

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A portrait of Alexander Hamilton by John Trumbull , 1792 The Report on the Subject of Manufactures , generally referred to by its shortened title Report on Manufactures , is the third major report, and magnum opus , of American founding father and first U.S. Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton . It was presented to Congress on December 5, 1791. It laid forth economic principles rooted in both the Mercantilist system of Elizabeth I 's England and the practices of Jean-Baptiste Colbert of France. The principal ideas of the Report would later be incorporated into the " American System " program by Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky and his Whig Party . Abraham Lincoln , who called himself a "Henry Clay tariff Whig" during his early years, would later make the principles cornerstones, together with opposition to the institution and expansion of slavery , of the fledgling Republican Party . Hamilton's ideas formed the basis for the American School of economics . Economic plan Hamilton reasoned that to secure America ...more...



Good automated manufacturing practice

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Good automated manufacturing practice ( GAMP ) is both a technical subcommittee of the International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering (ISPE) and a set of guidelines for manufacturers and users of automated systems in the pharmaceutical industry. More specifically, the ISPE's guide The Good Automated Manufacturing Practice (GAMP) Guide for Validation of Automated Systems in Pharmaceutical Manufacture describes a set of principles and procedures that help ensure that pharmaceutical products have the required quality. One of the core principles of GAMP is that quality cannot be tested into a batch of product but must be built into each stage of the manufacturing process. As a result, GAMP covers all aspects of production; from the raw materials, facility and equipment to the training and hygiene of staff. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) are essential for processes that can affect the quality of the finished product. A group of pharmaceutical professionals have banded together to create the GAMP Forum ...more...



Israel Military Industries

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IMI Systems , formerly Israel Military Industries , also referred to as Ta'as ( Hebrew : תע"ש מערכות ,ה תעש ייה הצבאית ‎), is an Israeli weapons manufacturer. It manufactures weapons, munitions and military technology mainly for Israeli security forces . (especially Israel's army, the Israel Defense Forces or IDF) The historical logo of IMI Systems until January 2016 Small arms Manufacturing gun barrels in an IMI factory, 1955 Israel Weapon Industries ' small arms are some of the most popular in the world. The Uzi submachine gun is arguably the most popular submachine gun in the world, because of its compact nature and reliability. Overall, the Uzi has the highest sales statistics of all modern submachine guns, worldwide. The IMI Galil is a compact assault rifle , along with integrating some other design features. The Negev is IMI's main light machine gun . The Jericho 941 is a semi-automatic pistol , while the Tavor is a bullpup assault rifle. In the 1980s an American firearms designer, Magnum Research , con ...more...



Polaris Industries

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Polaris Industries is an American manufacturer of snowmobiles , ATV , and neighborhood electric vehicles . Polaris is based in Roseau, Minnesota , USA. The company also manufactures motorcycles through its Victory Motorcycles subsidiary and through the Indian Motorcycle subsidiary which it purchased in April 2011. Polaris no longer produces watercraft . Robin (a subsidiary of Subaru Corporation ) previously developed and supplied all-terrain vehicle (ATV) and snowmobile engines for Polaris Industries Inc. Starting in 1995 with the Polaris Magnum 425 4-stroke ATV and in 1997, with the introduction of the "twin 700" snowmobile engine Polaris started the development and production of in-house produced power plants, known as the "Liberty" line of engines, now found in many models across their current production lines. Since that time Polaris has continued to develop their in-house engine production capacity, now designing and manufacturing all of their own power plants, while maintaining the partnership with Sub ...more...



Toyota Motor North America

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Toyota Motor North America, Inc. is a holding company of sales and manufacturing subsidiaries of Toyota Motor Corp. in the United States. Its services include government and regulatory affairs, energy, economic research, philanthropy, corporate advertising and corporate communications. The company is headquartered in Plano, TX with an additional offices in Torrance, CA, Erlanger, KY, Washington, District Of Columbia , Ann Arbor, MI, New York City, NY and other regional offices. Toyota Motor North America, Inc. operates as a wholly owned subsidiary of Toyota Motor Corporation . After the destruction of Hurricane Harvey in August 2017, Toyota Motor North America, announced a collaboration with Toyota Financial Services , The Friedkin Group, Gulf States Toyota and Toyota and Lexus dealers nationwide to offer a combined relief effort of more than $3 million to relief organizations, including SBP , a disaster relief organization based in New Orleans . Shareholders Toyota Motor Corporation ( Japan ) (100%) Holding ...more...



Inventory

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Electronics inventory. Inventory ( American English ) or stock ( British English ) is the goods and materials that a business holds for the ultimate goals to have a purpose of resale (or repair). Inventory management is a discipline primarily about specifying the shape and placement of stocked goods. It is required at different locations within a facility or within many locations of a supply network to precede the regular and planned course of production and stock of materials. The concept of inventory, stock or work-in-process has been extended from manufacturing systems to service businesses and projects, by generalizing the definition to be "all work within the process of production- all work that is or has occurred prior to the completion of production." In the context of a manufacturing production system, inventory refers to all work that has occurred - raw materials, partially finished products, finished products prior to sale and departure from the manufacturing system. In the context of services, ...more...



Mopar

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Mopar is the parts, service and customer care organization within Fiat Chrysler Automobiles . Mopar also designs and builds a small number of customized vehicles. The name derives from a combination of letters from the words "MOtor" and "PARts". History A Mopar oil filter from the 1950s The term was first used by Chrysler in the 1920s and was introduced as a brand starting in 1937. Mopar parts are original equipment manufactured parts for Chrysler vehicles. The term “Mopar” has passed into broader usage among car enthusiasts as an unambiguous reference to the parent company Chrysler Group LLC. The term has thus become an inclusive word for any Chrysler-built vehicle—most any Dodge , Chrysler , Plymouth , Imperial , DeSoto or Dodge Trucks/Ram , plus Jeep vehicles built after Chrysler's 1987 buyout of American Motors (including the short-lived Eagle brand) and, since 2011, Fiat and Alfa Romeo following Fiat's takeover of Chrysler. In Canada , these were sold under the Chryco and AutoPar brands until the Mopar ...more...




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