American system of manufacturing

The American system of manufacturing was a set of manufacturing methods that evolved in the 19th century. The two notable features were the extensive use of interchangeable parts and mechanization for production, which resulted in more efficient use of labor compared to hand methods. The system was also known as armory practice because it was first fully developed in armories, namely, the United States Armories at Springfield in Massachusetts and Harpers Ferry in Virginia (later West Virginia),[1] inside contractors to supply the United States Armed Forces, and various private armories. The name "American system" came not from any aspect of the system that is unique to the American national character, but simply from the fact that for a time in the 19th century it was strongly associated with the American companies who first successfully implemented it, and how their methods contrasted (at that time) with those of British and continental European companies. In the 1850s, the "American system" was contrasted to the British factory system which had evolved over the previous century. Within a few decades, manufacturing technology had evolved further, and the ideas behind the "American" system were in use worldwide. Therefore, in manufacturing today, which is global in the scope of its methods, there is no longer any such distinction.

The American system involved semi-skilled labor using machine tools and jigs to make standardized, identical, interchangeable parts, manufactured to a tolerance, which could be assembled with a minimum of time and skill, requiring little to no fitting.

Since the parts are interchangeable, it was also possible to separate manufacture from assembly, and assembly could be carried out by semi-skilled labor on an assembly line—an example of the division of labor. The system typically involved substituting specialized machinery to replace hand tools.

Interchangeability of parts was finally achieved by combining a number of innovations and improvements in machining operations and machine tools, which were developed primarily for making textile machinery. These innovations included the invention of new machine tools and jigs (in both cases, for guiding the cutting tool), fixtures for holding the work in the proper position, and blocks and gauges to check the accuracy of the finished parts.[1]

Use of machinery

English machine tool manufacturer Joseph Whitworth was appointed as a British commissioner for the New York International Exhibition. Accompanied by another British commissioner, he traveled around several states visiting various manufacturers, and as a result published a highly influential report on American manufacturing, from which he is quoted:

The laboring classes are comparatively few in number, but this is counterbalanced by, and indeed, may be one of the causes of the eagerness by which they call in the use of machinery in almost every department of industry. Wherever it can be applied as a substitute for manual labor, it is universally and willingly resorted to…. It is this condition of the labor market, and this eager resort to machinery wherever it can be applied, to which, under the guidance of superior education and intelligence, the remarkable prosperity of the United States is due.[2]

— Joseph Whitworth, 1854
Other characteristics

The American system contributed to efficiency gains through division of labor. Division of labor helped manufacturing transition from small artisan's shops to early factories. Key pieces of evidence supporting efficiency gains include increase in firm size, evidence of returns to scale, and an increase in non-specialized labor. The need for firms to train uneducated people to perform only one thing in the productivity chain allowed for the use of non-specialized labor. Women and children were employed more frequently within larger firms, especially those producing furniture and clothing..

History

In the late 18th century, French General Jean Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval suggested that muskets could be manufactured faster and more economically if they were made from interchangeable parts. This system would also make field repairs easier to carry out under battle conditions. He provided patronage to Honoré Blanc, who attempted to implement the Système Gribeauval, but never succeeded.[1] Until then, under the British factory system, skilled machinists were required to produce parts from a design. But however skilled the machinist, parts were never identical, and each part had to be manufactured separately to fit its counterpart—almost always by one person who produced each completed item from start to finish.

Mass production using interchangeable parts was first achieved in 1803 by Marc Isambard Brunel in cooperation with Henry Maudslay, and Simon Goodrich, under the management of (with contributions by) Brigadier-General Sir Samuel Bentham, the Inspector General of Naval Works at Portsmouth Block Mills at Portsmouth Dockyard, for the British Royal Navy during the Napoleonic War. By 1808 annual production had reached 130,000 sailing blocks.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] This method of working did not catch on in general manufacturing in Britain for many decades, and when it did it was imported from America, becoming known as the American System of Manufacturing, even though it originated in England.

The Lowell system is also related to the American system during this time. It emphasized procuring, training, and providing housing and other living necessities for the workforce, as well as using semi-automated machines in a centralized factory building or complex.

Gribeauval’s idea was conveyed to the US by two routes. First, Blanc’s friend Thomas Jefferson championed it, sending copies of Blanc’s memoirs and papers describing his work to Secretary of War Henry Knox. Second, artillery officer Louis de Tousard (who had served with Lafayette) was an enthusiast of Gribeauval's ideas. Tousard wrote two influential documents after the American Revolution; one was used as the blueprint for West Point, and the other became the officer’s training manual.[1]

The War Department, which included officers trained at West Point on Tousard's manual, established the armories at Springfield and Harper's Ferry and tasked them with solving the problem of interchangeability. The task was finally accomplished in the 1820s. Historian David A. Hounshell believes that this was done by Captain John H. Hall, an inside contractor at Harper's Ferry.[1] In a letter dated 1822 Hall makes the claim he achieved interchangeability in 1822.[13] But historian Diana Muir argues that it is more probable that it was Simeon North, a Connecticut arms contractor manufacturing guns for the US Army. North, not Hall, was the inventor of the crucial milling machine in 1816, and had an advantage over Hall in that he worked closely with the first industry that mass-produced complex machines from mass-produced interchangeable parts, the Connecticut clock-making industry.[14] By 1815 the idea of interchangeability was well established in the US government system of procurement; Congressional contracts stipulated this quality in muskets, rifles and pistols ordered after that date.[15] Interchangeability of firearms parts at the U.S. armories was found to have been in use for a number of years by the time of the 1853 British Parliamentary Commissions Committee on Small Arms inquiry.[1]

A critical factor in making interchangeable metal parts was the invention of several machine tools, such as the slide rest lathe, screw cutting lathe, turret lathe, milling machine and metal planer. One of the most important and versatile of these machine tools was David Wilkinson's lathe, for which he received a $10,000 award from the government of the United States.[16]

Eli Whitney is generally credited with the idea and the practical application, but both are incorrect attributions. Based on his reputation as the inventor of the cotton gin, the US government gave him a contract in 1798 for 10,000 muskets to be produced within two years. It actually took eight years to deliver the order, as Whitney perfected and developed new techniques and machines. In a letter to Treasury Secretary Oliver Wolcott apologizing for the delays, Whitney wrote:

One of my primary objectives it to form tools so the tools themselves shall fashion the work and give to every part its just proportion – which when once accomplished, will give expedition, uniformity, and exactness to the whole… In short, the tools which I contemplate are similar to engraving on a copper plate from which may be taken a great number of impressions, perfectly alike.[13]

Whitney did use machinery; however, there is no evidence that he produced any new type of metalworking machinery.[13] After completing the initial contract, Whitney went on to produce another 15,000 muskets within the following two years. Whitney never actually expressed any interest in interchangeability until 1800, when Treasury Secretary Wolcott exposed him to the memoirs of Blanc,[1] but he spent far more time and energy promoting the idea than developing it.

In order to spread knowledge of manufacturing techniques, the War Department made contractors open their shops to other manufacturers and competitors. The armories also openly shared manufacturing techniques with private industry.[16] Additionally, the idea migrated from the armories to industry as machinists trained in the armory system were hired by other manufacturers. Skilled engineers and machinists thus influenced American clockmakers and sewing machine manufacturers Wilcox and Gibbs and Wheeler and Wilson, who used interchangeable parts before 1860.[1][17] Late to adopt the interchangeable system were Singer Corporation sewing machine (1870s), reaper manufacturer McCormick Harvesting Machine Company (1870s–80s)[1] and several large steam engine manufacturers such as Corliss (mid-1880s)[18] as well as locomotive makers. Large scale of production of bicycles in the 1880s used the interchangeable system.[1]

The idea would also help lead to the American "Golden Age" of manufacturing when Henry Ford mass-produced the automobile. Mastering true interchangeability on the assembly line, the Ford plant produced standard model cars. These efficient production strategies allowed these automobiles to be affordable for the middle class.

Pre-Industrial Revolution

The idea of interchangeable parts and the separate assembly line was not new, though it was little used. The idea was first developed in East Asia during the Warring States period and later the Qin Dynasty over 2200 years ago – bronze crossbow triggers and locking mechanisms were mass-produced and made to be interchangeable. Venice during the late Middle Ages had ships that were produced using pre-manufactured parts, assembly lines, and mass production. The Venetian Arsenal apparently produced nearly one ship every day, in what was effectively the world’s first factory.

See also
References
  1. Hounshell, David A. (1984), From the American System to Mass Production, 1800-1932: The Development of Manufacturing Technology in the United States, Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-2975-8, LCCN 83016269
  2. Roe, Joseph Wickham (1916), English and American Tool Builders, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, LCCN 16011753. Reprinted by McGraw-Hill, New York and London, 1926 (LCCN 27-24075); and by Lindsay Publications, Inc., Bradley, Illinois, (ISBN 978-0-917914-73-7).. Report of the British Commissioners to the New York Industrial Exhibition, London, 1854.
  3. Enlightenment & measurement, UK: Making the modern world.
  4. Portsmouth dockyard, UK.
  5. "Block", Collections (exhiblet), UK: Science museum.
  6. Gilbert, KR (1965), The Portsmouth Block-making Machinery, London.
  7. Cooper, CC (1982), "The Production Line at Portsmouth Block Mill", Industrial Archaeology Review, VI: 28–44.
  8. Cooper, CC (1984), "The Portsmouth System of Manufacture", Technology and Culture, 25: 182–225.
  9. Coad, Jonathan (1989), The Royal Dockyards 1690–1850, Aldershot.
  10. Coad, Jonathan (2005), The Portsmouth Block Mills : Bentham, Brunel and the start of the Royal Navy’s Industrial Revolution, ISBN 1-873592-87-6.
  11. Wilkin, Susan (1999), The application of emerging new technologies by Portsmouth Dockyard, 1790–1815 (PhD Thesis), The Open University (copies available from the British Thesis service of the British Library).
  12. Cantrell, J; Cookson, G, eds. (2002), Henry Maudslay and the Pioneers of the Machine Age, Stroud.
  13. Cowan, Ruth Schwartz (1997). A Social History of American Technology. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 0-19-504606-4.
  14. Muir, Diana, Reflections in Bullough's Pond, University Press of New England.
  15. Burke, James (1995) [1978], Connections, Little, Brown & Co, p. 151, ISBN 0-316-11672-6.
  16. Thompson, Ross (2009). Structures of Change in the Mechanical Age: Technological Invention in the United States 1790–1865. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-9141-0.
  17. Thomson, Ross (1989). The Path to Mechanized Shoe Production in the United States. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-80781867-1.
  18. Hunter, Louis C. (1985). A History of Industrial Power in the United States, 1730–1930. 2: Steam Power. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.
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Report on Manufactures

A portrait of Alexander Hamilton by John Trumbull, 1792 The Report on the Subject of Manufactures, generally referred to by its shortened title Report on Manufactures, is the third major report, and magnum opus, of American founding father and first U.S. Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton. It was presented to Congress on December 5, 1791. It laid forth economic principles rooted in both the Mercantilist system of Elizabeth I's England and the practices of Jean-Baptiste Colbert of France. The principal ideas of the Report would later be incorporated into the "American System" program by Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky and his Whig Party. Abraham Lincoln, who called himself a "Henry Clay tariff Whig" during his early years, would later make the principles cornerstones, together with opposition to the institution and expansion of slavery, of the fledgling Republican Party. Hamilton's ideas formed the basis for the American School of economics. Economic plan Hamilton reasoned that to secure American indepe ...more...

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Industry

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Industry

GDP composition of sector and labour force by occupation in the form of any component to economy. The green, red, and blue components of the colours of the countries represent the percentages for the agriculture, industry, and services sectors, respectively. Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.[1] The major source of revenue of a group or company is the indicator of its relevant industry.[2] When a large group has multiple sources of revenue generation, it is considered to be working in different industries. Manufacturing industry became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, upsetting previous mercantile and feudal economies. This came through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the production of steel and coal. Following the Industrial Revolution, possibly a third of the world's economic output are derived that is from manufacturing industries. Many developed countries and many ...more...

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Technological and industrial history of the United States

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Technological and industrial history of the United States

The cotton gin, invented by Eli Whitney, revolutionized Southern agriculture. The technological and industrial history of the United States describes the United States' emergence as one of the most technologically advanced nations in the world. The availability of land and literate labor, the absence of a landed aristocracy, the prestige of entrepreneurship, the diversity of climate and a large easily accessed upscale and literate free market all contributed to America's rapid industrialisation. The availability of capital, development by the free market of navigable rivers, and coastal waterways, and the abundance of natural resources facilitated the cheap extraction of energy all contributed to America's rapid industrialization. Fast transport by the very large railroad built in the mid-19th century, and the Interstate Highway System built in the late 20th century, enlarged the markets and reducing shipping and production costs. The legal system facilitated business operations and guaranteed contracts. Cu ...more...

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Victory Motorcycles

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Victory Motorcycles

Victory Motorcycles was an American motorcycle manufacturer with its final assembly facility in Spirit Lake, Dickinson County, northwestern Iowa, United States. It began production of its vehicles in 1998, and began winding down operations in January 2017. Its parent company, Polaris Industries, created Victory following the modern success of Harley-Davidson. Victory's motorcycles were designed to compete directly with Harley-Davidson and similar American-style motorcycle brands, with V-twin engines and touring, sport-touring, and cruiser configurations. The first Victory, the V92C, was announced in 1997 and began selling in 1998. Victory was profitable for a number of years (beginning in 2002) but failed to turn a profit three of its last five years.[1] Background Victory Logo Polaris, a Medina, Minnesota company with annual sales in 2015 of $4.7 billion,[2] is one of the earliest manufacturers of snowmobiles. Polaris also manufactures ATVs, side-by-side off-road vehicles, electric vehicles and, until ...more...

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Adient

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Adient

Adient plc is an automotive parts manufacturer focused on automotive seating with global operations based in Plymouth, Michigan.[4] As of 2017, Adient was the world's largest auto seat manufacturer and accounted for one-third of global revenue in this sector, providing components for 25 million vehicles.[2] Adient was founded as a spin-off from Johnson Controls in 2016,[4] at which time its legal domicile was established in Dublin, Ireland.[2] In September 2017, Adient acquired the Oak Park, Michigan-based automotive seat manufacturer Futuris from Clearlake Capital, which added 15 facilities in Asia and North America, including one facility based in Newark, California,[5] and which was anticipated to increase the company's revenue by $0.5 billion annually.[4] As of 2017, Adient employed 75,000 people across 230 manufacturing/assembly plants,[2] in 33 countries.[4][Nt 1] In 2016, Adient announced plans to move its global operating headquarters to the Marquette Building in Detroit[6], but canceled those plans ...more...

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American Airlines

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American Airlines

American Airlines, Inc. (AA) is a major United States airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, within the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex. It is the world's largest airline when measured by fleet size, revenue, scheduled passengers carried, scheduled passenger-kilometers flown, and number of destinations served. American, together with its regional partners, operates an extensive international and domestic network with an average of nearly 6,700 flights per day to nearly 350 destinations in more than 50 countries.[8] American Airlines is a founding member of Oneworld alliance, the third largest airline alliance in the world, and coordinates fares, services, and scheduling with alliance partners British Airways, Iberia, and Finnair in the transatlantic market and with Japan Airlines in the transpacific market. Regional service is operated by independent and subsidiary carriers under the brand name American Eagle.[9] American operates out of ten hubs located in Dallas/Fort Worth, Charlotte, Chicago–O'Hare, Phi ...more...

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Textron Marine & Land Systems

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Textron Marine & Land Systems

Textron Marine & Land Systems, formerly Cadillac Gage, is an American military contractor that manufactures armored vehicles, turrets, advanced marine craft, surface effects ships, and other weapon systems. It is owned by Textron, and was formed in the merger between Cadillac Gage and Textron Marine in 1994.[1] Products Today, as Textron Marine & Land Systems it produces: M1117 Armored Security Vehicle – for the U.S. Army Textron Tactical Armoured Patrol Vehicle – for the Canadian Army Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC) – for the U.S. Navy 47-foot Motor Lifeboat (MLB) – for the U.S. Coast Guard NAIAD Rigid Hull Inflatable Boat Cadillac Gage turret systems[1] Tiger Light Protected Vehicle[2] The main office for Textron Marine & Land Systems is located in Slidell, Louisiana. History Cadillac Gage, located in Warren, Michigan manufactured many Vietnam-era military vehicles and artillery pieces: Stoner 63 machine gun/Assault rifle 1963-1971 Cadillac Gage V-100 Commando ...more...

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History of technology

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History of technology

The wheel, invented sometime before the 4th millennium BC, is one of the most ubiquitous and important technologies. This detail of the "Standard of Ur", ca. 2500 BC., displays a Sumerian chariot The history of technology is the history of the invention of tools and techniques and is similar to other sides of the history of humanity. Technology can refer to methods ranging from as simple as language and stone tools to the complex genetic engineering and information technology that has emerged since the 1980s. The term technology comes from the Greek word techne, meaning art and craft, and the word logos, meaning word and speech. It was first used to describe applied arts, but it is now used to described advancements and changes which affect the environment around us.[1] New knowledge has enabled people to create new things, and conversely, many scientific endeavors are made possible by technologies which assist humans in traveling to places they could not previously reach, and by scientific instruments by ...more...

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Bell System

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Bell System

The Bell System logo and trademark as it appeared in 1969 The Bell System was the system of companies, led by the Bell Telephone Company and later by AT&T, which provided telephone services to much of the United States and Canada from 1877 to 1984, at various times as a monopoly. On December 31, 1983, the system was divided into independent companies by a U.S. Justice Department mandate. The general public in the United States often used the colloquial term Ma Bell (as in "Mother Bell") to refer to any aspect of this conglomerate, as it held a near-complete monopoly over telephone service in most areas of the country, and is still used by many to refer to any telephone company. Ma Bell is also used to refer to the various female voices in recordings for the Bell System: Mary Moore, Jane Barbe, and Pat Fleet, the current voice of AT&T. History Logo used from 1889 to 1900 In 1877, the American Bell Telephone Company, named after Alexander Graham Bell, opened the first telephone exchange in New ...more...

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United States

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.[fn 6] At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km2), the United States is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area[fn 7] and just fractionally smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 325 million people, the U.S. is the third-most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the ...more...

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Productivity improving technologies

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Productivity improving technologies

This article is about the important technologies that have historically increased productivity and is intended to serve as the History section of Productivity from which it was moved. Productivity in general is a ratio of output to input in the production of goods and services. Productivity is increased by lowering the amount of labor, capital, energy or materials that go into producing any given amount of economic goods and services. Increases in productivity are largely responsible for the increase in per capita living standards. The spinning jenny and spinning mule (shown) greatly increased the productivity of thread manufacturing compared to the spinning wheel. History Productivity improving technologies date back to antiquity, with rather slow progress until the late Middle Ages. Important examples of early to medieval European technology include the water wheel, the horse collar, the spinning wheel, the three-field system (after 1500 the four-field system—see Crop rotation) and the blast furnace.[ ...more...

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Harley-Davidson

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Harley-Davidson

Harley-Davidson, Inc. (H-D), or Harley, is an American motorcycle manufacturer, founded in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1903. One of two major American motorcycle manufacturers to survive the Great Depression (along with Indian),[2] the company has survived numerous ownership arrangements, subsidiary arrangements (e.g., Aermacchi 1974-1978 and Buell 1987-2009), periods of poor economic health and product quality, as well as intense global competition,[3] to become one of the world's largest motorcycle manufacturers and an iconic brand widely known for its loyal following. There are owner clubs and events worldwide as well as a company-sponsored brand-focused museum. Noted for a style of customization that gave rise to the chopper motorcycle style,[4] Harley-Davidson traditionally marketed heavyweight, air-cooled cruiser motorcycles with engine displacements greater than 700 cm³ and has broadened its offerings to include its more contemporary VRSC (2002) and middle-weight Street (2015) platforms. Harley-Davidson ...more...

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Android (operating system)

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Android (operating system)

Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. In addition, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, and Wear OS for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are also used on game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and other electronics. Initially developed by Android Inc., which Google bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007, with the first commercial Android device launched in September 2008. The operating system has since gone through multiple major releases, with the current version being 8.1 "Oreo", released in December 2017. The core Android source code is known as Android Open Source Project (AOSP), and is primarily licensed under the Apache License. Android is also associated with a suite of proprietary software developed by Google, including core apps ...more...

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Automotive industry in the United States

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Automotive industry in the United States

The automotive industry in the United States began in the 1890s and, as a result of the size of the domestic market and the use of mass production, rapidly evolved into the largest in the world. However, the United States was overtaken as the largest automobile producer by Japan in the 1980s, and subsequently by China in 2008. The U.S. is currently second among the largest manufacturer in the world by volume, with approximately 8-10 million manufactured annually. Notable exceptions were 5.7 million automobiles manufactured in 2009 (due to crisis), and peak production levels of 13-15 million units during the 1970s and early 2000s.[1][2][3] The motor vehicle industry began with hundreds of manufacturers, but by the end of the 1920s it was dominated by three large companies: General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler, all based in Metro Detroit. As per Warren Buffett, two thousand auto companies in the USA that had existed at the beginning of the 20th century.[4]After the Great Depression and World War II, these compan ...more...

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Boston Manufacturing Company

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Boston Manufacturing Company

The Boston Manufacturing Company was a business that operated the first factory in America. It was organized in 1813 by Francis Cabot Lowell, a wealthy Boston merchant, in partnership a group of investors known as The Boston Associates, for the manufacture of cotton textiles. It built the first integrated spinning and weaving factory in the world at Waltham, Massachusetts, using water power. They used plans for a power loom that he smuggled out of England as well as trade secrets from the earlier horse-powered Beverly Cotton Manufactory, of Beverly, Massachusetts, of 1788.[3] This was the largest factory in the U.S., with a workforce of about 300. It was a very efficient, highly profitable mill that, with the aid of the Tariff of 1816, competed effectively with British textiles at a time when many smaller operations were being forced out of business.[4] While the Rhode Island System that followed was famously employed by Samuel Slater, the Boston Associates improved upon it with the "Waltham System". The idea ...more...

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Ram Trucks

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Ram Trucks

Ram Trucks, stylized as RAM and formally known as the Ram Truck Division, is an American brand of light to mid-weight commercial vehicles established in 2010 as a division of FCA US LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Italian-American corporation Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. It was spun-off from Dodge marque, using the name of the popular Dodge Ram line of trucks. Ram Trucks' logo was originally used as Dodge's logo. Background Prior to the 1970s, Dodge had maintained a separate marque for trucks, Fargo, primarily for use outside the United States. After that point, all trucks made by Chrysler were distributed under the Dodge marque. Ram Trucks was established as a division of Chrysler in 2010, as a spin-off from the Dodge brand, and using the name of the popular Dodge Ram line of pickups that is now sold under the Ram banner.[1] According to Chrysler, the Ram Trucks brand will concentrate on "real truck customers," rather than casual truck buyers who buy trucks for image or style.[2] The Ram brand was cr ...more...

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Rudolph Technologies, Inc.

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Rudolph Technologies, Inc.

Rudolph Technologies, Inc. is an American semiconductor company. Formed in 1940 and traded as NYSE: RTEC on the New York Stock Exchange, it is a provider of process characterization equipment and software for semiconductor, data storage, flat panel display and micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) manufacturing industries. The company’s product offering includes automated defect inspection and metrology systems, probe card test and analysis systems, and lithography step-and-repeat systems. In addition, Rudolph provides a broad range of software products designed to improve yield, control processes and reduce manufacturing costs. History Rudolph Research: 1940-1995 Rudolph Technologies, Inc. (RTI) traces its origins to 1940, when Otto Curt Rudolph formed O.C. Rudolph & Sons, Inc.[1] Originally an importer of microscopes and scientific instruments, this RTI predecessor was renamed in October 1970 to Rudolph Research Corporation. The company designed optical equipment for laboratories and universities. ...more...

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List of Jewish American businesspeople

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List of Jewish American businesspeople

This is a list of notable Jewish American business executives. For other Jewish Americans, see Lists of Jewish Americans. Advertising and public relations Richard Edelman Alvin Achenbaum, former advertising executive, co-founder of Achenbaum and Associates[1] William Bernbach, co-founder of DDB Worldwide Communications Group Inc.[2] Milton H. Biow, advertising executive who founded the Biow Company[3][4] David Deutsch, founder of Deutsch, Inc. (later led by his son, Donny Deutsch; sold to IPG in 2000)[5][6] Daniel Edelman, founder of PR firm Edelman, Inc. (now led by his son, Richard Edelman)[7] Alvin Eicoff, founder of A. Eicoff & Company, inventor of direct response television advertising[8][9][10] Alfred Fleishman, co-founder of PR and marketing agency FleishmanHillard Inc.[11][12] Michael Kempner, founder of PR firm MWWPR[13] Albert Lasker, Prussian-born advertising pioneer, former owner of the Lord & Thomas advertising agency (now Foote, Cone & Belding)[14] ...more...

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American Airlines Flight 1

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American Airlines Flight 1

American Airlines Flight 1 is[1][2] a domestic, scheduled passenger flight from New York International (Idlewild) Airport (now John F. Kennedy International Airport) to Los Angeles International Airport. On March 1, 1962, a Boeing 707 assigned to the flight rolled over and crashed into a swamp two minutes after takeoff, killing all 87 passengers and eight crew members aboard. A Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) investigation determined that a manufacturing defect in the automatic pilot system led to an uncommanded rudder control system input, causing the accident. A number of notable people died in the crash. It was the fifth fatal Boeing 707 accident and, at the time, the deadliest.[3] Flight and crash The aircraft was a Boeing 707-123B, U.S. Registry N7506A. It was delivered to American Airlines on February 12, 1959. At the time of the crash, it had accumulated 8,147 flight hours. Its last periodic inspection had occurred on January 18, 1962 at 7,922 hours of air time.[4] The flight crew consisted of Captain ...more...

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Programmable logic controller

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Programmable logic controller

A programmable logic controller (PLC), or programmable controller is an industrial digital computer which has been ruggedized and adapted for the control of manufacturing processes, such as assembly lines, or robotic devices, or any activity that requires high reliability control and ease of programming and process fault diagnosis. They were first developed in the automobile industry to provide flexible, ruggedised and easily programmable controllers to replace hard-wired relays, timers and sequencers. Since then they have been widely adopted as high-reliability automation controllers suitable for harsh environments. A PLC is an example of a "hard" real-time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a limited time, otherwise unintended operation will result. Overview PLC system in a rack, left-to-right: power supply unit (PSU), CPU, interface module (IM) and communication processor (CP). PLCs can range from small "building brick" devices with tens of inputs and ...more...

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Karma Automotive

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Karma Automotive

Karma Automotive is an automaker owned by Chinese automotive supply company Wanxiang Group. It is based in Irvine, California[2] with manufacturing operations in Moreno Valley, California.[3] History In February 2014, Chinese auto-parts supplier Wanxiang Group purchased assets of Fisker Automotive for $149.2 million in a bankruptcy auction. These assets included design, a plug-in hybrid powertrain, and a manufacturing facility in Delaware.[1][4][5] Karma Automotive was formed in October 2015.[5] The purchase excluded the Fisker brand and trademarks owned by Henrik Fisker. In 2007, Fisker Automotive was founded by Henrik Fisker and his business partner Bernhard Koehler.[5] Its Fisker Karma plug-in hybrid sports sedan debuted in 2011, and about 2,000 of the vehicles were sold.[5] After Fisker's battery supplier A123 Systems filed for bankruptcy after two battery recalls, Fisker Automotive could not continue making vehicles, and the company declared bankruptcy in February 2014.[5][6] Wanxiang also purchased A ...more...

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North American F-82 Twin Mustang

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North American F-82 Twin Mustang

The North American F-82 Twin Mustang was the last American piston-engine fighter ordered into production by the United States Air Force. Based on the P-51 Mustang, the F-82 was originally designed as a long-range escort fighter in World War II. The war ended well before the first production units were operational. In the postwar era, Strategic Air Command used the planes as a long-range escort fighter. Radar-equipped F-82s were used extensively by the Air Defense Command as replacements for the Northrop P-61 Black Widow as all-weather day/night interceptors. During the Korean War, Japan-based F-82s were among the first USAF aircraft to operate over Korea. The first three North Korean aircraft destroyed by U.S. forces were shot down by F-82s, the first being a North-Korean Yak-11 downed over Gimpo Airfield by the USAF 68th Fighter Squadron. Design and development Initially intended as a very long-range (VLR) escort fighter, the F-82 was designed to escort Boeing B-29 Superfortress bombers on missions exceed ...more...

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American Clock & Watch Museum

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American Clock & Watch Museum

General display of various styles of American-made clocks by various manufacturers. Display of Connecticut-made shelf clocks by various manufacturers. General display of various styles of American-made clocks by various manufacturers. The American Clock & Watch Museum (ACWM), located in Bristol, Connecticut, is one of a very few museums in the United States dedicated solely to horology, which is the history, science and art of timekeeping and timekeepers. Located in the heart of the historic center of American clockmaking, ACWM is the world's preeminent horological museum in the area of American clocks, primarily industrial-made clocks of the 19th and early 20th century. The museum is located in a complex including the historic Miles Lewis residence, the partially relocated historic 1728 Barnes homestead, and a modern extension wing in the town of Bristol, Connecticut, the hometown of the former Ingraham Clock Company. Bristol is located north of Interstate Highway 84, about 30 minutes west ...more...

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Atlantic slave trade

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Atlantic slave trade

Reproduction of a handbill advertising a slave auction in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1769. The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas. The slave trade regularly used the triangular trade route and its Middle Passage, and existed from the 16th to the 19th centuries. The vast majority of those who were enslaved and transported in the transatlantic slave trade were Africans from central and western Africa, who had been sold by other West Africans to Western European slave traders (with a small number being captured directly by the slave traders in coastal raids), who brought them to the Americas.[1] The South Atlantic and Caribbean economies especially were dependent on the supply of secure labour for the production of commodity crops, making goods and clothing to sell in Europe. This was crucial to those western European countries which, in the late 17th and 18th centuries, were vying with each other ...more...

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Motherson Sumi Systems

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Motherson Sumi Systems

Motherson Sumi Systems, established in 1986 is the flagship company of the Samvardhana Motherson Group. Motherson Sumi Systems is a joint venture between Samvardhana Motherson Group and Sumitomo Wiring Systems of Japan. Motherson Sumi Systems is a leading automotive mirror and wiring harness manufacturer for passenger cars. It also supplies plastic components and modules to the automotive industry.[1] Motherson Sumi Systems has offices and manufacturing units in 24 international & 11 Indian locations.[3] History First group company "Motherson" was established in 1975. However, Motherson Sumi Systems did not come into existence till 1986 when Joint Venture with Sumitomo Wiring Systems (of Japan) was formulated. Following are the key timelines.[6][7][8][9] Year Events 1975 Motherson founded 1977 First Cable factory started 1983 Technical agreement with Sumitomo Wiring Systems, Japan for Wiring Harness 1986 JV with Sumitomo Wiring Systems, Japan 1989 Injection Moulding commencement ...more...

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Ms. Pac-Man

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Ms. Pac-Man

Ms. Pac-Man is an arcade video game from the Golden Age. It was produced by Illinois-based Midway Manufacturing corporation, the North American publisher of Pac-Man. Ms. Pac-Man was released in North America in February 1981,[1] and is one of the most popular arcade video games of all time. This popularity led to its adoption as an official title by Namco, the creator of Pac-Man, which was released in the United States in late 1980. Ms. Pac-Man introduced a female protagonist, new maze designs, and several other improved gameplay changes over the original Pac-Man. Ms. Pac-Man became the most successful American-produced arcade game of 1982, selling 115,000 arcade cabinets.[2] Gameplay Screenshot of the game's first round. The gameplay of Ms. Pac-Man is very similar to that of the original Pac-Man. The player earns points by eating pellets and avoiding ghosts (contact with one causes Ms. Pac-Man to lose a life). Eating an energizer (or "power pellet") causes the ghosts to turn blue, allowing them to be ea ...more...

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Standard Industrial Classification

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Standard Industrial Classification

The Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) is a system for classifying industries by a four-digit code. Established in the United States in 1937, it is used by government agencies to classify industry areas. The SIC system is also used by agencies in other countries, e.g., by the United Kingdom's Companies House.[1] In the United States the SIC code is being supplanted by the six-digit North American Industry Classification System (NAICS code), which was released in 1997; however certain government departments and agencies, such as the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), still use the SIC codes.[2] The SIC codes can be grouped into progressively broader industry classifications: industry group, major group, and division. The first 3 digits of the SIC code indicate the industry group, and the first two digits indicate the major group. Each division encompasses a range of SIC codes:[3][4] Range of SIC Codes Division 0100-0999 Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing 1000-1499 Mining 1500-1799 C ...more...

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Hisense

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Hisense

Hisense Co., Ltd. (Chinese: 海信集团; pinyin: Hǎixìn Jítuán) is a Chinese multinational major appliance and electronics manufacturer headquartered in Qingdao, Shandong province, China. It is a state-owned enterprise[Bell 1] with publicly traded subsidiaries.[1] Hisense has two publicly traded companies, Hisense Electric Co Ltd, which is listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange[1] (SSE: 600060) and Hisense Kelon Electrical Holdings Co Ltd, which is listed on the Shenzhen[2] (SZSE: 000921) and Hong Kong[3] (SEHK: 921) stock exchanges and a number of other subsidiaries. Hisense has 13 manufacturing facilities in China (located in the provinces/cities of: Guangdong, Guizhou, Huzhou, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Linyi, Shandong, Sichuan, Yangzhou, Yingkou, Xinjiang, Zibo and the municipality of Beijing) and several outside China, namely in Hungary, South Africa, Egypt, Algeria, France and Mexico.[4] Hisense retails products under several brand names. These include Combine, Kelon and Ronshen,[5] etc. Hisense is also an OEM, so s ...more...

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Trane

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Trane

Trane Inc. is a manufacturer of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and building management systems and controls. The company is a subsidiary of Ingersoll Rand and is the successor company to the American Standard Companies. It makes products under the Trane and American Standard brand names. A global company, Trane's international headquarters are in Swords, Ireland. Trane employs more than 29,000 people at 104 manufacturing locations in 28 countries, and has annual sales of more than $8 billion. In addition to its activity in HVAC systems, Trane is involved in energy conservation and renewable energy projects. History Trane chiller In 1885, James Trane, a Norwegian immigrant from Tromsø, opened his own plumbing and pipe-fitting shop in La Crosse, Wisconsin. He designed a new type of low-pressure steam heating system, Trane vapor heating. Reuben Trane, James' son, earned a mechanical engineering degree (B. S. 1910) at the University of Wisconsin–Madison and joined his father's plum ...more...

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Colt Army Model 1860

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Colt Army Model 1860

The Colt Army Model 1860 is a cap & ball .44-caliber single-action revolver used during the American Civil War made by Colt's Manufacturing Company. It was used as a side arm by cavalry, infantry, artillery troops, and naval forces. History Colt Army '60 frame with cylinder pin The Colt 1860 Army uses the same size frame as the .36 caliber 1851 Navy revolver. The frame is relieved to allow the use of a rebated cylinder that enables the Army to be chambered in .44 caliber. The barrel on the 1860 Army has a forcing cone that is visibly shorter than that of the 1851 Navy, allowing the Army revolver to have a longer cylinder. Another distinguishing feature of the Colt 1860 Army, first introduced on the Colt 1855 Sidehammer Revolver, is the "creeping" loading lever. More than 200,000 were manufactured from 1860 through 1873. Colt's biggest customer was the US Government with no less than 129,730[1] units being purchased and issued to the troops. The weapon was a single-action, six-shot weapon accurate u ...more...

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American Civil War weapons

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American LaFrance

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American LaFrance

American LaFrance (ALF) was an American vehicle manufacturer which focused primarily on the production of fire engines, fire aerials, and emergency apparatus such as ambulance and rescue vehicles. The company was located in Summerville, South Carolina. It was announced Friday, January 17, 2014 they would cease operations.[1] History Emblem of the historic 1954 American La France-Foamite 700 Series (California Historical Vehicle 622S). The American LaFrance Fire Engine Company was one of the oldest fire apparatus manufacturers in the United States. With roots that go back to approximately 1832, the companies that went on to become American LaFrance built hand-drawn, horse-drawn, and steam-powered fire engines. Founded in 1873 by Truckson LaFrance and his partners, including Alexander S. Diven[2] as the LaFrance Manufacturing Company selling hand powered equipment. The International Fire Engine Company, corporate predecessor of American LaFrance, built some steam power fire engines between 1903 and 1907. A ...more...

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Emergency services equipment makers

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