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American system of manufacturing

The American system of manufacturing was a set of manufacturing methods that evolved in the 19th century. The two notable features were the extensive use of interchangeable parts and mechanization for production, which resulted in more efficient use of labor compared to hand methods. The system was also known as armory practice because it was first fully developed in armories, namely, the United States Armories at Springfield in Massachusetts and Harpers Ferry in Virginia (later West Virginia),[1] inside contractors to supply the United States Armed Forces, and various private armories. The name "American system" came not from any aspect of the system that is unique to the American national character, but simply from the fact that for a time in the 19th century it was strongly associated with the American companies who first successfully implemented it, and how their methods contrasted (at that time) with those of British and continental European companies. In the 1850s, the "American system" was contrasted to the British factory system which had evolved over the previous century. Within a few decades, manufacturing technology had evolved further, and the ideas behind the "American" system were in use worldwide. Therefore, in manufacturing today, which is global in the scope of its methods, there is no longer any such distinction.

The American system involved semi-skilled labor using machine tools and jigs to make standardized, identical, interchangeable parts, manufactured to a tolerance, which could be assembled with a minimum of time and skill, requiring little to no fitting.

Since the parts are interchangeable, it was also possible to separate manufacture from assembly, and assembly could be carried out by semi-skilled labor on an assembly line—an example of the division of labor. The system typically involved substituting specialized machinery to replace hand tools.

Interchangeability of parts was finally achieved by combining a number of innovations and improvements in machining operations and machine tools, which were developed primarily for making textile machinery. These innovations included the invention of new machine tools and jigs (in both cases, for guiding the cutting tool), fixtures for holding the work in the proper position, and blocks and gauges to check the accuracy of the finished parts.[1]

Use of machinery

English machine tool manufacturer Joseph Whitworth was appointed as a British commissioner for the New York International Exhibition. Accompanied by another British commissioner, he traveled around several states visiting various manufacturers, and as a result published a highly influential report on American manufacturing, from which he is quoted:

The laboring classes are comparatively few in number, but this is counterbalanced by, and indeed, may be one of the causes of the eagerness by which they call in the use of machinery in almost every department of industry. Wherever it can be applied as a substitute for manual labor, it is universally and willingly resorted to…. It is this condition of the labor market, and this eager resort to machinery wherever it can be applied, to which, under the guidance of superior education and intelligence, the remarkable prosperity of the United States is due.[2]

— Joseph Whitworth, 1854
Other characteristics

The American system contributed to efficiency gains through division of labor. Division of labor helped manufacturing transition from small artisan's shops to early factories. Key pieces of evidence supporting efficiency gains include increase in firm size, evidence of returns to scale, and an increase in non-specialized labor. The need for firms to train uneducated people to perform only one thing in the productivity chain allowed for the use of non-specialized labor. Women and children were employed more frequently within larger firms, especially those producing furniture and clothing..

History

In the late 18th century, French General Jean Baptiste Vaquette de Gribeauval suggested that muskets could be manufactured faster and more economically if they were made from interchangeable parts. This system would also make field repairs easier to carry out under battle conditions. He provided patronage to Honoré Blanc, who attempted to implement the Système Gribeauval, but never succeeded.[1] Until then, under the British factory system, skilled machinists were required to produce parts from a design. But however skilled the machinist, parts were never identical, and each part had to be manufactured separately to fit its counterpart—almost always by one person who produced each completed item from start to finish.

Mass production using interchangeable parts was first achieved in 1803 by Marc Isambard Brunel in cooperation with Henry Maudslay, and Simon Goodrich, under the management of (with contributions by) Brigadier-General Sir Samuel Bentham, the Inspector General of Naval Works at Portsmouth Block Mills at Portsmouth Dockyard, for the British Royal Navy during the Napoleonic War. By 1808 annual production had reached 130,000 sailing blocks.[3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] This method of working did not catch on in general manufacturing in Britain for many decades, and when it did it was imported from America, becoming known as the American System of Manufacturing, even though it originated in England.

The Lowell system is also related to the American system during this time. It emphasized procuring, training, and providing housing and other living necessities for the workforce, as well as using semi-automated machines in a centralized factory building or complex.

Gribeauval’s idea was conveyed to the US by two routes. First, Blanc’s friend Thomas Jefferson championed it, sending copies of Blanc’s memoirs and papers describing his work to Secretary of War Henry Knox. Second, artillery officer Louis de Tousard (who had served with Lafayette) was an enthusiast of Gribeauval's ideas. Tousard wrote two influential documents after the American Revolution; one was used as the blueprint for West Point, and the other became the officer’s training manual.[1]

The War Department, which included officers trained at West Point on Tousard's manual, established the armories at Springfield and Harper's Ferry and tasked them with solving the problem of interchangeability. The task was finally accomplished in the 1820s. Historian David A. Hounshell believes that this was done by Captain John H. Hall, an inside contractor at Harper's Ferry.[1] In a letter dated 1822 Hall makes the claim he achieved interchangeability in 1822.[13] But historian Diana Muir argues that it is more probable that it was Simeon North, a Connecticut arms contractor manufacturing guns for the US Army. North, not Hall, was the inventor of the crucial milling machine in 1816, and had an advantage over Hall in that he worked closely with the first industry that mass-produced complex machines from mass-produced interchangeable parts, the Connecticut clock-making industry.[14] By 1815 the idea of interchangeability was well established in the US government system of procurement; Congressional contracts stipulated this quality in muskets, rifles and pistols ordered after that date.[15] Interchangeability of firearms parts at the U.S. armories was found to have been in use for a number of years by the time of the 1853 British Parliamentary Commissions Committee on Small Arms inquiry.[1]

A critical factor in making interchangeable metal parts was the invention of several machine tools, such as the slide rest lathe, screw cutting lathe, turret lathe, milling machine and metal planer. One of the most important and versatile of these machine tools was David Wilkinson's lathe, for which he received a $10,000 award from the government of the United States.[16]

Eli Whitney is generally credited with the idea and the practical application, but both are incorrect attributions. Based on his reputation as the inventor of the cotton gin, the US government gave him a contract in 1798 for 10,000 muskets to be produced within two years. It actually took eight years to deliver the order, as Whitney perfected and developed new techniques and machines. In a letter to Treasury Secretary Oliver Wolcott apologizing for the delays, Whitney wrote:

One of my primary objectives it to form tools so the tools themselves shall fashion the work and give to every part its just proportion – which when once accomplished, will give expedition, uniformity, and exactness to the whole… In short, the tools which I contemplate are similar to engraving on a copper plate from which may be taken a great number of impressions, perfectly alike.[13]

Whitney did use machinery; however, there is no evidence that he produced any new type of metalworking machinery.[13] After completing the initial contract, Whitney went on to produce another 15,000 muskets within the following two years. Whitney never actually expressed any interest in interchangeability until 1800, when Treasury Secretary Wolcott exposed him to the memoirs of Blanc,[1] but he spent far more time and energy promoting the idea than developing it.

In order to spread knowledge of manufacturing techniques, the War Department made contractors open their shops to other manufacturers and competitors. The armories also openly shared manufacturing techniques with private industry.[16] Additionally, the idea migrated from the armories to industry as machinists trained in the armory system were hired by other manufacturers. Skilled engineers and machinists thus influenced American clockmakers and sewing machine manufacturers Wilcox and Gibbs and Wheeler and Wilson, who used interchangeable parts before 1860.[1] [17] Late to adopt the interchangeable system were Singer Corporation sewing machine (1870s), reaper manufacturer McCormick Harvesting Machine Company (1870s–80s)[1] and several large steam engine manufacturers such as Corliss (mid-1880s)[18] as well as locomotive makers. Large scale of production of bicycles in the 1880s used the interchangeable system.[1]

The idea would also help lead to the American "Golden Age" of manufacturing when Henry Ford mass-produced the automobile. Mastering true interchangeability on the assembly line, the Ford plant produced standard model cars. These efficient production strategies allowed these automobiles to be affordable for the middle class.

Pre-Industrial Revolution

The idea of interchangeable parts and the separate assembly line was not new, though it was little used. The idea was first developed in East Asia during the Warring States period and later the Qin Dynasty over 2200 years ago – bronze crossbow triggers and locking mechanisms were mass-produced and made to be interchangeable. Venice during the late Middle Ages had ships that were produced using pre-manufactured parts, assembly lines, and mass production. The Venetian Arsenal apparently produced nearly one ship every day, in what was effectively the world’s first factory.

See also
References
  1. Hounshell, David A. (1984), From the American System to Mass Production, 1800-1932: The Development of Manufacturing Technology in the United States, Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-2975-8, LCCN 83016269
  2. Roe, Joseph Wickham (1916), English and American Tool Builders, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, LCCN 16011753. Reprinted by McGraw-Hill, New York and London, 1926 (LCCN 27-24075); and by Lindsay Publications, Inc., Bradley, Illinois, (ISBN 978-0-917914-73-7).. Report of the British Commissioners to the New York Industrial Exhibition, London, 1854.
  3. Enlightenment & measurement, UK: Making the modern world.
  4. Portsmouth dockyard, UK.
  5. "Block", Collections (exhiblet), UK: Science museum.
  6. Gilbert, KR (1965), The Portsmouth Block-making Machinery, London.
  7. Cooper, CC (1982), "The Production Line at Portsmouth Block Mill", Industrial Archaeology Review, VI: 28–44.
  8. Cooper, CC (1984), "The Portsmouth System of Manufacture", Technology and Culture, 25: 182–225.
  9. Coad, Jonathan (1989), The Royal Dockyards 1690–1850, Aldershot.
  10. Coad, Jonathan (2005), The Portsmouth Block Mills : Bentham, Brunel and the start of the Royal Navy’s Industrial Revolution, ISBN 1-873592-87-6.
  11. Wilkin, Susan (1999), The application of emerging new technologies by Portsmouth Dockyard, 1790–1815 (PhD Thesis), The Open University (copies available from the British Thesis service of the British Library).
  12. Cantrell, J; Cookson, G, eds. (2002), Henry Maudslay and the Pioneers of the Machine Age, Stroud.
  13. Cowan, Ruth Schwartz (1997). A Social History of American Technology. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 0-19-504606-4.
  14. Muir, Diana, Reflections in Bullough's Pond, University Press of New England.
  15. Burke, James (1995) [1978], Connections, Little, Brown & Co, p. 151, ISBN 0-316-11672-6.
  16. Thompson, Ross (2009). Structures of Change in the Mechanical Age: Technological Invention in the United States 1790–1865. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-9141-0.
  17. Thomson, Ross (1989). The Path to Mechanized Shoe Production in the United States. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-80781867-1.
  18. Hunter, Louis C. (1985). A History of Industrial Power in the United States, 1730–1930. 2: Steam Power. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia.
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American system of manufacturing

topic

The American system of manufacturing was a set of manufacturing methods that evolved in the 19th century. The two notable features were the extensive use of interchangeable parts and mechanization for production, which resulted in more efficient use of labor compared to hand methods. The system was also known as armory practice because it was first fully developed in armories, namely, the United States Armories at Springfield in Massachusetts and Harpers Ferry in Virginia (later West Virginia), inside contractors to supply the United States Armed Forces, and various private armories. The name "American system" came not from any aspect of the system that is unique to the American national character, but simply from the fact that for a time in the 19th century it was strongly associated with the American companies who first successfully implemented it, and how their methods contrasted (at that time) with those of British and continental European companies. In the 1850s, the "American system" was contrasted to t ...more...



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Operations management is an area of management concerned with designing and controlling the process of production and redesigning business operations in the production of goods or services. It involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient in terms of using as few resources as needed and effective in terms of meeting customer requirements. It is concerned with managing an entire production system which is the process that converts inputs (in the forms of raw materials, labor, and energy) into outputs (in the form of goods and/or services), as an asset or delivers a product or services. Operations produce products, manage quality and creates service. Operation management covers sectors like banking systems, hospitals, companies, working with suppliers, customers, and using technology. Operations is one of the major functions in an organization along with supply chains, marketing, finance and human resources. The operations function requires management of both the strategic and d ...more...



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A family in New York City making dolls' clothes by piecework in 1912 Piece work (or piecework) is any type of employment in which a worker is paid a fixed piece rate for each unit produced or action performed regardless of time. Context When paying a worker, employers can use various methods and combinations of methods. Some of the most prevalent methods are: paid a wage by the hour (known as "time work"); paid an annual salary; salary plus commission (common in sales jobs); base salary or hourly wages plus gratuities (common in service industries); salary plus a possible bonus (used for some managerial or executive positions); salary plus stock options (used for some executives and in start-ups and some high tech firms); salary pool systems; gainsharing (also known as "profit sharing"); paid by the piece – the number of things they make, or tasks they complete (known as ‘output work’); or paid in other ways (known as ‘unmeasured work’ ). Some industries where piece rate pay jobs are common are agricult ...more...



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Industrial engineering is a branch of engineering which deals with the optimization of complex processes, systems, or organizations. Industrial engineers work to eliminate waste of time, money, materials, person-hours, machine time, energy and other resources that do not generate value. According to the Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers, they create engineering processes and systems that improve quality and productivity. Industrial engineering is concerned with the development, improvement, and implementation of integrated systems of people, money, knowledge, information, equipment, energy, materials, analysis and synthesis, as well as the mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering design to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems or processes. While industrial engineering is a longstanding engineering discipline subject to (and eligible for) professional engineering licensure in most jurisdictions, its un ...more...



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Universal Forest Products, Inc. is an American company that manufactures and distributes wood and wood-alternative products, pressure-treated wood, engineered roof systems for site-built construction and manufactured housing, and a solid-sawn lumber buyer. It has brands in a range of products aimed at the construction and home improvement industries and has approximately 100 facilities in North America and Australia. The company's main markets are retail outlets of building materials (such as home centers, regional chains and independent lumber dealers), industrial (specialized packaging and material handling products), commercial construction and concrete forming (roof trusses, wall panels and floors systems for commercial structures), manufactured housing/RV (components designed specially for the industry) and residential construction (wood components and framing services for builders of single and multi-family homes). The company has been listed in the Fortune 1000 list of America’s largest corporations ...more...



Black Crow

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Black Crow may refer to: Black crow, species of birds of the genus Corvus Black crow, alternate name of the Cape crow (Corvus capensis) Black Crow (automobile), automobile manufactured from 1909-1911 by the Crow Motor Car Company in Elkhart, Indiana Black crow butterfly, alternate name of the violet-tipped crow (Euploea core godarti) Black Crow (comics), a fictional Native American superhero published by Marvel Comics Pave Mace/Black Crow, a magnetic anomaly detector used by AC-130A during the Vietnam war to locate automobile ignition systems startup "Black Crow", Joni Mitchell song from album Hejira See also The Black Crowes, an American band Black Crow may refer to: Black crow, species of birds of the genus Corvus Black crow, alternate name of the Cape crow (Corvus capensis) Black Crow (automobile), automobile manufactured from 1909-1911 by the Crow Motor Car Company in Elkhart, Indiana Black crow butterfly, alternate name of the violet-tipped crow (Euploea core godarti) Black Crow (comic ...more...



FB

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Look up fb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. FB, Fb, or fb may refer to: Arts and media F♭ (musical note) FB (band), an electronic music collaboration of Benny Benassi and Ferry Corsten Facebook, a social networking website, also known as FB.com Friendship book, a booklet swapped amongst pen pals Frostbite (game engine), a video game engine Science and technology Computing Framebuffer, in computer technology FreeBASIC, a 32-bit compiler using BASIC syntax for DOS, Windows, and Linux FictionBook, an open XML-based e-book format hailing from Russia Other uses in science and technology F B, a Japanese military vehicle used for crossing difficult swampy terrain Fast busy, or reorder tone, a type of telephone signal Feedback, in signaling systems Femtobarn, a small unit of area used in high energy physics Fine business, amateur radio slang Fluidized bed, a special technology used in energy, reactor, chemical engineering etc. Hyundai FB, a series of buses manufactured by Hyundai Motor Compa ...more...



Sampson

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Sampson may refer to: Military HMS Sampson, several Royal Navy ships USS Sampson, several US Navy ships Sampson-class destroyer, a World War I US Navy class Sampson Air Force Base, near Seneca Lake, New York, closed in 1956 SAMPSON, a multi-function radar system for warships Sampson Medal, a military decoration of the United States Navy Places Australia Sampson Flat, South Australia, a locality Sampson Inlet, a water body in north-west Western Australia United States Sampson, Missouri, an unincorporated community Sampson, Wisconsin, a town Sampson, Oconto County, Wisconsin, an unincorporated community Sampson County, North Carolina Sampson State Park, Seneca County, New York, at one time Sampson Air Force Base Sampson's Island (Massachusetts) Sampsons Pond or Sampson Pond, Carver, Massachusetts The Moon Sampson (crater) As a name Sampson (surname), a list of people and fictional characters Sampson (given name), a list of people and fictional and Biblical characters Other uses Sampso ...more...



Maynard

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Maynard is a name used across the English-speaking world, which comes from a Germanic root meaning "strength, hardy". It may refer to: People Maynard (given name) Maynard (surname) Justice Maynard (disambiguation) Places In the United States: Maynard, Arkansas Maynard, Iowa Maynard, Massachusetts Maynard, Minnesota Other Maynard (software), a shell for Weston competing with the GNOME Shell Maynard Electronics, American company that manufactured tape drives in the 1990s Maynard v. Cartwright, 1988 United States Supreme Court case Maynards, sweets manufacturer in the United Kingdom, most famous for its wine gums Maynard tape primer, a system for reloading muskets All pages with a title containing Maynard Maynard is a name used across the English-speaking world, which comes from a Germanic root meaning "strength, hardy". It may refer to: People Maynard (given name) Maynard (surname) Justice Maynard (disambiguation) Places In the United States: Maynard, Arkansas Maynard, Iowa Mayn ...more...



W49

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The W49 was an American thermonuclear warhead, used on the Thor, Atlas, Jupiter, and Titan I ballistic missile systems. W49 warheads were manufactured starting in 1958 and were in service until 1963, with a few warheads being retained until 1975. The W49 has been described as a design derivative of the B28 nuclear bomb nuclear warhead design. It was 20 inches (51 cm) in diameter and 54 to 58 inches (137 to 147 cm) long depending on model, weighing 1,640 to 1,680 pounds (744 to 762 kg), and had a design yield of 1.44 megatons. See also List of nuclear weapons Starfish Prime External links Allbombs.html list of all US nuclear weapons at nuclearweaponarchive.org The W49 was an American thermonuclear warhead, used on the Thor, Atlas, Jupiter, and Titan I ballistic missile systems. W49 warheads were manufactured starting in 1958 and were in service until 1963, with a few warheads being retained until 1975. The W49 has been described as a design derivative of the B28 nuclear bomb nuclear warhead design. ...more...



Cygnet

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Look up cygnet or cygnets in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. A cygnet is a young swan. Cygnet or Cygnets may also refer to: Places Cygnet Island, a small islet in south-eastern Australia Cygnet, Ohio, a village in the United States Cygnet River, South Australia, a locality on Kangaroo Island Cygnet, Tasmania, a town in Australia Vehicles Cygnet (ship) Aston Martin Cygnet, a City car manufactured by Aston Martin General Aircraft Cygnet, a 1930s British light aircraft Hawker Cygnet, a British ultralight biplane aircraft of the 1920s UnKnown Aerospace Cygnet, a British cargo and logistics unmanned aerial vehicle system Roberts Cygnet, glider Other Cygnet Cinema, a cinema located at 16 Preston Street, Como, Western Australia Cygnet Committee, a song written by David Bowie in 1969 Cygnet ECM, an enterprise content management Solution Cygnet Rowing Club, a rowing club founded in 1890 on the River Thames in England Cygnet Theatre Company, a theatre company in San Diego, California Cygnet Trai ...more...



Aztec (disambiguation)

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Look up Aztec in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Aztec or Aztek may mean: The Aztec civilization of Mesoamerica The Nahuatl language, also known as "Aztec" Aztec or Aztek may also refer to: Brands and products Zidovudine, trade name "Aztec" A chocolate bar manufactured by Cadbury plc Computing Aztec C, a C compiler for a variety of older computing platforms Aztec Code, a two-dimensional barcode Entertainment and media Aztec (video game), a game for the Apple II personal computer Aztec Adventure: The Golden Road to Paradise, a game for the Sega Master System console Aztek (comics), a character in the DC Universe Aztec (novel), a novel by Gary Jennings Aztec Camera, a Scottish new wave band of the 1980s and mid-1990s Aztek Escobar, a rapper Billy Thorpe & the Aztecs, an Australian rock band of the 1960s and 1970s The Aztecs (Doctor Who), a serial in the Doctor Who television series Organizations and orders Aztec Club of 1847, an hereditary order for US Army officers who served in t ...more...



Amalgamation

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Look up amalgamate or amalgamation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Amalgamation is the process of combining or uniting multiple entities into one form. Amalgamation, amalgam, and other derivatives may refer to: Mathematics and science Amalgam (chemistry), the combination of mercury with another metal Patio process, the use of mercury amalgamation to extract silver Pan amalgamation, another extraction method with additional compounds Amalgamation (geology), the creation of a stable continent or craton by the union of two continents, blocks or terranes Amalgamation paradox in probability and statistics, also known as Simpson's paradox Amalgamation property in model theory Free product with amalgamation, in mathematics, especially group theory, an important construction Other uses Amalgamation (business), the merge or consolidation of companies Amalgamation, another name for a trade union, chiefly used in the United Kingdom Merger (politics), in geopolitics, the joining of two or more adminis ...more...



American automobile industry in the 1950s

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The 1950s were pivotal for the American automobile industry. The post-World War II era brought a wide range of new technologies to the automobile consumer, and a host of problems for the independent automobile manufacturers. The industry was maturing in an era of rapid technological change; mass production and the benefits from economies of scale led to innovative designs and greater profits, but stiff competition between the automakers. By the end of the decade, the industry had reshaped itself into the Big Three, Studebaker, and AMC. The age of small independent automakers was nearly over, as most of them either consolidated or went out of business. A number of innovations were either invented or improved sufficiently to allow for mass production during the decade: air conditioning, automatic transmission, power steering, power brakes, seat belts and arguably the most influential change in automotive history, the overhead-valve V8 engine. The horsepower race had begun, laying the foundation for the muscle ...more...



V10 (disambiguation)

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A V10 is an engine with ten cylinders in two banks of five. V10 or V-10 may also refer to: ATC code V10 Therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, a subgroup of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System V.10, an ITU-T recommendation for data communication Version 10 Unix LG V10, an Android smartphone manufactured by LG Electronics See also North American Rockwell OV-10 Bronco, an American observation and light attack aircraft A V10 is an engine with ten cylinders in two banks of five. V10 or V-10 may also refer to: ATC code V10 Therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, a subgroup of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System V.10, an ITU-T recommendation for data communication Version 10 Unix LG V10, an Android smartphone manufactured by LG Electronics See also North American Rockwell OV-10 Bronco, an American observation and light attack aircraft ...more...



Interchangeable parts

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Interchangeable parts are parts (components) that are, for practical purposes, identical. They are made to specifications that ensure that they are so nearly identical that they will fit into any assembly of the same type. One such part can freely replace another, without any custom fitting (such as filing). This interchangeability allows easy assembly of new devices, and easier repair of existing devices, while minimizing both the time and skill required of the person doing the assembly or repair. The concept of interchangeability was crucial to the introduction of the assembly line at the beginning of the 20th century, and has become an important element of some modern manufacturing but is missing from other important industries. Interchangeability of parts was achieved by combining a number of innovations and improvements in machining operations and the invention of several machine tools, such as the slide rest lathe, screw-cutting lathe, turret lathe, milling machine and metal planer. Additional innovat ...more...



TLR

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TLR can refer to: Biology Toll-like receptors, proteins constituting an important part of the immune system Tonic labyrinthine reflex, a primitive reflex found in newborn humans Tubal ligation reversal, or Tubal reversal, surgery to open and reconnect the fallopian tube after a tubal ligation procedure Reviews Suffolk Transnational Law Review Texas Law Review The Literary Review, an American literary magazine published by Fairleigh Dickinson University Tulane Law Review Travel TL1000R, a motorcycle with a 998cc v-twin engine manufactured by Suzuki The IATA airport code for Mefford Field, California, USA Air Libya, Libya (ICAO airline code) Fiction BIONICLE: The Legend Reborn, a 2009 film based on the Lego Bionicle franchise To Love-Ru The Last Remnant, a turn-based RPG game made by Square Enix The Lone Ranger Other Twin-lens reflex camera, a photo camera with two lenses Tony La Russa St. Louis Cardinals manager Tasteful Licks Records, an independent record label Team Losi, competiti ...more...



Yamaha XV535

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The Yamaha Virago 535 is a motorcycle manufactured by Yamaha Motor Corporation. It is one of several in the Virago line and is positioned as mid-size metric cruiser with an engine displacement of 535 cc (32.6 cu in). It is unique in being one of the few smaller cruiser-style motorcycles available with a shaft drive instead of a chain or belt final drive system, as well as a V-twin engine of that size. Its heavily chromed body styling is also distinctive. This model was discontinued in 2004 in the US and 2003 in the UK as the "star" range of motorcycles form took over as the cruiser line from Yamaha. The V-Star 650 (known as the DragStar in Europe) could be seen as the successor to the XV535. 1987–1988 US models 1988 UK model 1988–1994 US models 1989–1994 UK models See also Yamaha Virago Yamaha Virago 750 Yamaha Virago 1100 Yamaha DragStar 650 XVS550/XVS650A Yamaha DragStar 1100 XVS1100 References Ahlstrand, Haynes (1994) Bibgliography Ahlstrand, Alan; Haynes, John Harold (1994), Yama ...more...



ATL

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Look up ATL or atl in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ATL may refer to: Places Atlanta, a city in the U.S. state of Georgia Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport (IATA airport code) Attleborough railway station, located in Norfolk, England (National Rail code) Media ATL (film), a 2006 film set in the city of Atlanta, Georgia, USA Across the Line (radio show), a BBC Northern Ireland music brand ATL (band), an R&B boy band Above the Law (group), a Los Angeles-based rap group All Time Low, a pop punk band from Lutherville-Timonium, Maryland Technology Advanced Tactical Laser, a US military program to mount a laser weapon on an aircraft for use against ground targets Americans for Technology Leadership, an organization that advocates limited government regulation of technology Active Template Library, from Microsoft ATLAS Transformation Language, a QVT model transformation language for model-driven engineering Other Adult T-cell leukemia, a rare cancer of the immune system's ...more...



PS2 (disambiguation)

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Look up PS2 or PS/2 in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. PS2 most commonly refers to the PlayStation 2, a sixth-generation video game console manufactured by Sony PS2, PS-2, or PS/2 may also refer to: Technology IBM Personal System/2, IBM's third generation of personal computers PS/2 port, a 6-pin Mini-DIN connector used for connecting some keyboards and mice to a PC compatible computer system Video games Official UK PlayStation 2 Magazine, a predecessor to the PlayStation Official Magazine - UK Phantasy Star II, a console role-playing video game developed by Sega AM7 PlanetSide 2, a multiplayer first-person-shooter video game published by Sony Online Entertainment Pokémon Stadium 2, a video game for the Nintendo 64 Power Stone 2, a multiplayer fighting game for the Sega Dreamcast Other pS2 gene, is a gene in humans that encodes the Trefoil factor 1 protein Franklin PS-2, an American, high-wing, strut-braced, single seat glider Photosystem II, the first protein complex in the Light-dependent re ...more...



SLP

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Look up SLP in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. SLP may refer to: Science and technology Sanskrit Library Phonetic encoding scheme (SLP1) Sea level pressure, an atmospheric pressure Standard Load Profile, in commodity trading the (daily, monthly or yearly) curve of energy consumption Self Loading Pistol, in service with the British Army as the Browning Self-Loading Police (FN SLP), a shotgun designed and manufactured by FN Herstal in Belgium Speech-language pathologist Substrate-level phosphorylation Super long play, in VHS Computing Service Location Protocol, a service discovery protocol Single layer perceptron, a class of artificial neural network Successive linear programming Superword Level Parallelism System Locked Pre-installation Samsung Linux Platform, now partially merged into the Tizen code base Places San Luis Potosí, a Mexican state Satish Dhawan Space Centre Second Launch Pad, at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota, India Ponciano Arriaga International Airport, by I ...more...



Industry

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GDP composition of sector and labour force by occupation in the form of any component to economy. The green, red, and blue components of the colours of the countries represent the percentages for the agriculture, industry, and services sectors, respectively. Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy. The major source of revenue of a group or company is the indicator of its relevant industry. When a large group has multiple sources of revenue generation, it is considered to be working in different industries. Manufacturing industry became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, upsetting previous mercantile and feudal economies. This came through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the production of steel and coal. Following the Industrial Revolution, possibly a third of the world's economic output are derived that is from manufacturing industries. Many developed countries and many deve ...more...



DMX

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DMX may refer to: People DMX (rapper) (born 1970), birth name Earl Simmons, American rapper DMX Krew, birth name Ed Upton, British electronic music artist Davy DMX (born 1960), birth name David Reeves, American hip hop music pioneer Science 5-Dehydro-m-xylylene, the first organic molecule known to violate Hund's rule Depressive mixed state, a psychological disorder DmX gene, an extremely large WD-protein coding gene found in eukaryotes Technology DMX512, a communications protocol that is most commonly used to control stage lighting and effects Digital motion X-ray, a video-based X-ray system Symmetrix DMX, a series of enterprise storage arrays by EMC Corporation Data Mining Extensions, a query language for data mining models Other uses DMX (music), a retail environment company Oberheim DMX, a drum machine manufactured by Oberheim See also Dextromethorphan (DXM) DMX may refer to: People DMX (rapper) (born 1970), birth name Earl Simmons, American rapper DMX Krew, birth name Ed Upton ...more...



Leroy

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Look up leroy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Leroy may refer to: People Leroy (name), a given name and surname Leroy (musician), American musician Fictional characters Leroy (Lilo & Stitch), a character introduced in Leroy & Stitch Leroy (South Park), a South Park character Places Canada Leroy, Saskatchewan United States Leroy, Alabama Leroy, California Le Roy, Illinois Le Roy, Iowa Le Roy, Kansas Le Roy, Michigan Le Roy, Minnesota Le Roy (town), New York Le Roy (village), New York Leroy, Indiana Leroy, Texas LeRoy, Wisconsin, a town LeRoy (community), Wisconsin, an unincorporated community Leroy Township, Calhoun County, Michigan Leroy Township, Ingham County, Michigan LeRoy Township, Lake County, Ohio Leroy Township, Pennsylvania LeRoy, West Virginia (also spelled Le Roy or Leroy) Other uses 93102 Leroy, an asteroid LeRoy (automobile), an early Canadian car manufactured between 1899 and 1904 in Ontario "Leroy", a technical lettering system by the Keuffel and ...more...



ASG Software Solutions

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ASG Technologies Group, Inc. (dba ASG Technologies), is a global provider of technology solutions, including Workspaces, Content Solutions and enterprise software. Founded by Arthur L. Allen in 1986 as Allen Systems Group, ASG’s headquarters is located in Naples, Florida. The company also maintains offices worldwide. In 2016, seventy percent of Fortune 500 companies ran on ASG technologies, while the company reported $240 million in annual revenue. ASG's Workspaces solution competes with large providers in Europe and Asia. The ASG Content Solution, Mobius, has been the repository or record for some of North America's largest financial institutions. ASG’s mainframe and distributed software solutions are used by enterprises in financial and brokerage services, insurance, healthcare, education, government, telecommunications, technology, manufacturing, and retail. Clients have included Coca-Cola, General Electric, and Procter & Gamble. In December, 2012, due to post-merger integration issues and softness ...more...



Bios

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Look up bios or BIOS in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Bios or BIOS may refer to: Computing BIOS (Basic Input/Output System), a de facto standard firmware interface of IBM PC compatible computers Award BIOS, manufactured by Award Software Phoenix BIOS, manufactured by Phoenix Technologies AMI BIOS, manufactured by American Megatrends BIOS (CP/M), the BIOS in the CP/M family of operating systems DOS-BIOS, the equivalent of the CP/M component in some DOS operating systems, IBMBIO.COM in PC DOS IO.SYS, in MS-DOS Organisations Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences Biological Innovation for Open Society BIOS Centre for the Study of Bioscience, Biomedicine, Biotechnology and Society, at the London School of Economics, United Kingdom British Institute of Organ Studies Media and entertainment Bios (album), the third album by Costa Rican music group Gandhi BIOS Faction, in the Allegiance video game BIOS, the society journal of the Tri Beta society Other uses Biographies or bios Bios (philosop ...more...



K9

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Look up K-9 or K9 in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. K9 or K-9 may refer to: Homophone for canine Canine (disambiguation) Dog, the domestic dog Assistance dog Guard dog Police dog Fictional dogs K9 (Doctor Who), several robotic canines in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who K-9 (Looney Tunes), Marvin the Martian's pet Martian dog in the Looney Tunes cartoon series from Warner Bros K-9 (Transformers) K9 Murphy, a mechanical dog in the Japanese television series Tokusou Sentai Dekaranger Computing AMD K9, a microprocessor K9Copy, a DVD backup and authoring program for Unix-like operating systems K-9 Mail, a mail client for the Android operating system K9 Web Protection, Web content control software Entertainment K-9 (film), starring James Belushi K-9 (TV series) a British/Australian comedy/adventure series starring the same character as featured in Doctor Who KNIN-TV, a television station for Idaho's Treasure Valley, previously known as K9 Violin Sonata No. 4 (Moz ...more...



Twin-Traction Beam

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Dana 50 TTB from a 1996 F-250 Twin-Traction Beam (TTB) is an independent suspension system for front drive axles in four-wheel drive Ford F-Series trucks and sport utility vehicles. Twin-Traction Beam was invented by John A. Richardson and Donald G. Wheatley covered by US patent 3,948,337 issued April 6, 1976. Patent name was “Independent front suspension for front wheel drive” which was assigned to Ford Motor Company. The Dana Holding Corporation manufactured the TTB axle for Ford. It uses a universal joint in the center that allows the wheels to move independently of each other. The differential is offset to the driver's side, and a slip yoke is used on the long axle side to allow the shaft to change length. The TTB axles are variations of the Dana 28, Dana 35, Dana 44, and Dana 50. See also Corvette leaf spring MacPherson strut Torsion beam suspension Weissach axle – a variant of Double wishbone suspension with a short link at the front pivot bushing of the lower A-arm Common applications[1] 19 ...more...



Vanderbilt

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Vanderbilt may refer to: People Vanderbilt (surname) Vanderbilt family Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt I, businessman who died when the RMS Lusitania sank Amy Vanderbilt Arthur T. Vanderbilt Arthur T. Vanderbilt, II Consuelo Vanderbilt Cornelius Vanderbilt George Washington Vanderbilt II George Washington Vanderbilt III Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney Gloria Vanderbilt Harold Stirling Vanderbilt William Henry Vanderbilt Places In the United States: Vanderbilt, California, a former gold-mining town Vanderbilt, Michigan, a village Vanderbilt, Nevada, a ghost town Vanderbilt, Texas, a census-designated place Vanderbilt, Pennsylvania, a borough Vanderbilt Avenue, three New York City streets Vanderbilt University, a private research university in Nashville, Tennessee Vanderbilt Commodores, the athletics program of Vanderbilt University Vanderbilt Museum, in Centerport, New York, built with a bequest from William Kissam Vanderbilt II Other uses One Vanderbilt, proposed New York City skyscraper ...more...



Distributed control system

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A distributed control system (DCS) is a computerised control system for a process or plant usually with a large number of control loops, in which autonomous controllers are distributed throughout the system, but there is central operator supervisory control. This is in contrast to non-distributed control systems that use centralised controllers; either discrete controllers located at a central control room or within a central computer. The DCS concept increases reliability and reduces installation costs by localising control functions near the process plant, with remote monitoring and supervision. Distributed control systems first emerged in large, high value, safety critical process industries, and were attractive because the DCS manufacturer would supply both the local control level and central supervisory equipment as an integrated package, thus reducing design integration risk. Today the functionality of SCADA and DCS systems are very similar, but DCS tends to be used on large continuous process plants w ...more...



Lock Laces

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Lock Laces® are elastic no tie shoelaces manufactured and distributed by Positive Distribution LLC. The Lock Laces® system consists of two elastic shoelaces which are fastened at the tongue of the shoe by two double-eyelet, adjustable locking mechanisms and secured into place by 2 cord clips. Frank Sutton is the president and CEO of Positive Distribution LLC, the owner of the Lock Laces® trademark, patent, and associated intellectual property. History Eric Jackson originally invented Lock Laces for personal use when he became frustrated that his shoelaces would become untied while playing sports. His original design utilized elastic shoestrings and barrel cord locks. After he was laid off from his job as a light bulb salesman, and a personal friend suggested that he sell his invention, Jackson formed Street Smart LLC in order to market Lock Laces®. In 1999, Jackson began marketing Lock Laces while assembling the product in his mother’s basement. Jackson later began contracting out the packaging and assembl ...more...



Sonar 2087

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Sonar 2087 is a towed array sonar designed and manufactured by Thales Underwater Systems at sites in the UK (Cheadle Heath in Stockport and Templecombe in Somerset) and in France (Brest). Sonar 2087 replaces the older Sonar 2031 in the Royal Navy and equips eight Type 23 frigates. The system is also expected to an equip the Royal Navy's future Type 26 Global Combat Ship starting around 2020. It is a Low Frequency Active Sonar (LFAS) and consists of both active and passive sonar arrays. Thales describes the system as "a towed-array that enables Type 23 frigates to hunt the latest submarines at considerable distances and locate them beyond the range at which they [submarines] can launch an attack." During Exercise Auriga in 2010, HMS Sutherland's capability equipped with Sonar 2087 was described as "world-beating" by the Sutherland's commanding officer. American, British, Canadian and French warships took part in the exercise, including the French nuclear submarine Perle (S606). See also Sonar Towed array ...more...



Cooper-Standard Automotive

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Cooper-Standard headquarters Cooper-Standard Automotive Inc., headquartered in Novi, Michigan, is an automotive supplier specializing in the manufacture and marketing of systems and components for the automotive industry. Products include body sealing systems, fluid handling systems and NVH control systems, which are represented within the company's two operating divisions: North America and International. Cooper-Standard Automotive employs approximately 22,000 people globally with more than 70 facilities in 19 countries around the world. References External links Official web site Cooper-Standard headquarters Cooper-Standard Automotive Inc., headquartered in Novi, Michigan, is an automotive supplier specializing in the manufacture and marketing of systems and components for the automotive industry. Products include body sealing systems, fluid handling systems and NVH control systems, which are represented within the company's two operating divisions: North America and International. Cooper-Stand ...more...




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