3 GB barrier

In computing, the term 3 GB barrier refers to a limitation of some 32-bit operating systems running on x86 microprocessors. It prevents the operating systems from using all of 4 GB (4 × 10243 bytes) of main memory (RAM).[1] The exact barrier varies by motherboard and I/O device configuration, particularly the size of video RAM; it may be in the range of 2.75 GB to 3.5 GB.[2] The barrier is not present with a 64-bit processor and 64-bit operating system, or with certain x86 hardware and an operating system such as Linux or certain versions of Windows Server and macOS that allow use of physical address extension (PAE) mode on x86 to access more than 4 GB of RAM.

Whatever the actual position of the "barrier", there is no code in operating system software nor any hardware architectural limit that directly imposes it. Rather, the "barrier" is the result of interactions between several aspects of both.

Physical address limits

It is sometimes claimed that 32-bit processors and operating systems are limited to 4 GB (232 bytes) of RAM,[3][4] as were the original 80386DX and other early IA-32 CPUs. However, the Pentium Pro introduced the Physical Address Extension (PAE) mechanism,[5] which allowed addressing up to 64 GB (236 bytes) of RAM; almost all subsequent 32-bit x86 processors also implement PAE. PAE is a modification of the protected mode address translation scheme. It allows virtual or linear addresses to be translated to 36-bit physical addresses, instead of the 32-bit addresses available without PAE.[6] The CPU pinouts likewise provide 36 bits of physical address lines to the motherboard. [7]

Many x86 operating systems, including any version of Linux with a PAE kernel and some versions of Windows Server and macOS, can use PAE to address up to 64 GB of RAM on an x86 system.[8][9][10]

Use of PAE to address RAM above the 4 GB point allows use of more than 3 GB. There are, however, factors that limit this ability, and lead to the "3 GB barrier" under certain circumstances, even though the processor implements PAE. These are described in the following sections.

Chipset and other motherboard issues

Although, as noted above, most x86 processors from the Pentium Pro onward are able to generate physical addresses up to 64 GB, the rest of the motherboard must participate in allowing RAM above the 4 GB point to be addressed by the CPU. Chipsets and motherboards allowing more than 4 GB of RAM with x86 processors do exist, but in the past, most of those intended for other than the high-end server market could access only 4 GB of RAM.[11]

This, however, is not sufficient to explain the "3 GB barrier" that appears even when running some x86 versions of Microsoft Windows on platforms that can access more than 4 GB of RAM.

Memory-mapped I/O and disabled RAM

Modern personal computers are built around a set of standards that depend on, among other things, the characteristics of the original PCI bus. The original PCI bus implemented 32-bit physical addresses and 32-bit-wide data transfers. PCI (and PCI Express and AGP) devices present at least some, if not all, of their host control interfaces via a set of memory-mapped I/O locations (MMIO). The address space in which these MMIO locations appear is the same address space as that used by RAM, and while RAM can exist and be addressable above the 4 GB point, these MMIO locations decoded by I/O devices cannot be. They are limited by PCI bus specifications to addresses of 0xFFFFFFFF (232 − 1) and below. With 4 GB or more of RAM installed, and with RAM occupying a contiguous range of addresses starting at 0, some of the MMIO locations will overlap with RAM addresses. On machines with large amounts of video memory, MMIO locations have been found to occupy as much as 1.8 GB of the 32-bit address space.[12]

The BIOS and chipset are responsible for detecting these address conflicts and disabling access to the RAM at those locations.[13] Due to the way bus address ranges are determined on the PCI bus, this disabling is often at a relatively large granularity, resulting in relatively large amounts of RAM being disabled.[14]

Address remapping

x86 chipsets that can address more than 4 GB of RAM typically also allow memory remapping (referred to in some BIOS setup screens as "memory hole remapping"). In this scheme, the BIOS detects the memory address conflict and in effect relocates the interfering RAM so that it may be addressed by the processor at a new physical address that does not conflict with MMIO. On the Intel side, this feature once was limited to server chipsets; however, newer desktop chipsets like the Intel 955X and 965 and later have it as well. On the AMD side, the AMD K8 and later processors' built-in memory controller had it from the beginning.

As the new physical addresses are above the 4 GB point, addressing this RAM does require that the operating system be able to use physical addresses larger than 232.[15] This capability is provided by PAE. Note that there is not necessarily a requirement for the operating system to support more than 4 GB total of RAM, as the total RAM might be only 4 GB; it is just that a portion of it appears to the CPU at addresses in the range from 4 GB and up.[15]

This form of the 3 GB barrier affects one generation of MacBooks,[16] lasting 1 year (Core2Duo (Merom) – Nov 2006 to Oct 2007): the prior generation was limited to 2 GB, while later generations (Nov 2007 – Oct 2009) allowed 4 GB through the use of PAE and memory-hole remapping, and subsequent generations (late 2009 onwards) use 64-bit processors and therefore can address over 4 GB.

Windows version dependencies

In Microsoft's "non-server", or "client", x86 editions of Microsoft Windows (Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1, and Windows 10), are able to operate x86 processors in PAE mode, and do so by default as long as the CPU present implements the NX bit.[17] Nevertheless, these operating systems do not permit addressing of physical memory above the 4 GB address boundary. This is not an architectural limit; it is a limit imposed by Microsoft via license enforcement routines as a workaround for device driver compatibility issues that were (supposedly)[18] discovered during testing.[19]

Thus, the "3 GB barrier" under x86 Windows "client" operating systems can therefore arise in two slightly different scenarios. In both, RAM near the 4 GB point conflicts with memory-mapped I/O space. Either the BIOS simply disables the conflicting RAM; or, the BIOS remaps the conflicting RAM to physical addresses above the 4 GB point, but x86 Windows client editions refuse to use physical addresses higher than that, even though they are running with PAE enabled. The conflicting RAM is therefore unavailable to the operating system whether it is remapped or not.

See also
References
  1. Microsoft Corporation. "Memory Limits for Windows Releases". Retrieved 7 August 2017. Devices have to map their memory below 4 GB for compatibility with non-PAE-aware Windows releases. Therefore, if the system has 4GB of RAM, some of it is either disabled or is remapped above 4GB by the BIOS. If the memory is remapped, X64 Windows can use this memory. X86 client versions of Windows don't support physical memory above the 4GB mark, so they can’t access these remapped regions.
  2. Russinovich, Mark. "Pushing the Limits of Windows: Physical Memory". Technet. Microsoft. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
  3. Matthew Murray (2009-10-27). "Windows 7: The 64-Bit Question". PCMag. Retrieved 7 August 2017. A 32-bit system is limited to utilizing 4GB of RAM (232 addresses)
  4. Andy Patrizio (2002-07-22). "AMD Answers the 64-Bit Question". Wired. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved 7 August 2017. 32-bit processors like Intel's Pentium III/IV and AMD's Athlon have a memory limit of 4 GB per CPU. Any more memory can't be addressed.
  5. Shanley, Tom (1998). Pentium Pro and Pentium II System Architecture. PC System Architecture Series (Second ed.). Addison-Wesley. p. 445. ISBN 0-201-30973-4.
  6. "Volume 1: Specifications" (pdf). Pentium Pro Family Developer’s Manual. Intel Corporation. 1996. pp. 3–15. Retrieved 7 August 2017. The Pentium Pro processor physical address space is 236 bytes or 64-Gigabytes (64 Gbyte).
  7. "Volume 1: Specifications" (pdf). Pentium Pro Family Developer’s Manual. Intel Corporation. 1996. p. 15-5. Retrieved 7 August 2017. Pin #: C1; Signal Name: A35#
  8. Microsoft Corporation. "Memory Limits for Windows Releases". Retrieved 7 August 2017. Windows Server 2008 Enterprise; Limit in 32-bit Windows: 64 GB
  9. "Enabling PAE". Ubuntu Documentation. 2010-05-19. Retrieved 2010-06-07. Physical Address Extension is a technology which allows 32 bit operating systems to use up to 64 GB of memory (RAM)... PAE is supported on the majority of computers today and it is an easy procedure to enable it in Ubuntu, if it is not already.
  10. "Linux Kernel". Fedora Documentation. 2010-05-18. Retrieved 2010-06-07. Fedora 8 includes the following kernel builds: ... The kernel-PAE, for use in 32-bit x86 systems with more than 4GB of RAM, or with CPUs that have an NX (No eXecute) feature.
  11. Intel Corporation (February 2005). "Intel Chipset 4 GB System Memory Support" (PDF). Pentium Pro Family Developer’s Manual. p. 7. Archived from the original (pdf) on 6 March 2007. Retrieved 7 August 2017. In uni-processor based systems for mobile, desktop, workstation, and entry level servers, chipsets may be limited to 4 GB of maximum memory. In today’s dual processor Intel server chipsets and workstations, maximum system memory size can be upwards of 16 GB.
  12. Mark Russinovich (2008-07-21). "Pushing the Limits of Windows: Physical Memory". Archived from the original on 9 June 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2017. Windows XP SP2 also enabled Physical Address Extensions (PAE) support by default on hardware that implements no-execute memory because its required for Data Execution Prevention (DEP), but that also enables support for more than 4GB of memory.
  13. Intel Corporation (February 2005). "Intel Chipset 4 GB System Memory Support" (PDF). Archived from the original (pdf) on 6 March 2007. Retrieved 7 August 2017. In platforms populated with physical memory sizes approaching 4 GB and greater, onboard system resource requirements will likely not allow the operating system to take advantage of all physical memory populated due to PCI specification requirements and other memory mapped IO resources. Portions of physical memory may overlap with the memory space dedicated to other subsystems and become unavailable to the operating system.
  14. Intel Corporation (February 2005). "Intel Chipset 4 GB System Memory Support" (PDF). Pentium Pro Family Developer’s Manual. p. 8. Archived from the original (pdf) on 6 March 2007. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
  15. Intel Corporation (February 2005). "Intel Chipset 4 GB System Memory Support" (PDF). Pentium Pro Family Developer’s Manual. p. 13,14. Archived from the original (pdf) on 6 March 2007. Retrieved 7 August 2017. In order to use remapping, the operating system must be able to address ranges higher than 4 GB of memory.
  16. "Understanding Intel Mac RAM".
  17. Mark Russinovich (2008-07-21). "Pushing the Limits of Windows: Physical Memory". Archived from the original on 9 June 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2017. Windows XP SP2 also enabled Physical Address Extensions (PAE) support by default on hardware that implements no-execute memory because its required for Data Execution Prevention (DEP), but that also enables support for more than 4GB of memory.
  18. Chappell, Geoff. "Licensed Memory in 32-Bit Windows Vista". geoffchappell.com. WP:SPS. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  19. Mark Russinovich (2008-07-21). "Pushing the Limits of Windows: Physical Memory". Archived from the original on 9 June 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2017. The problematic client driver ecosystem led to the decision for client SKUs to ignore physical memory that resides above 4GB, even though they can theoretically address it. […] 4GB is the licensed limit for 32-bit client SKUs.
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3 GB barrier

topic

3 GB barrier

In computing, the term 3 GB barrier refers to a limitation of some 32-bit operating systems running on x86 microprocessors. It prevents the operating systems from using all of 4 GB (4 × 10243 bytes) of main memory (RAM).[1] The exact barrier varies by motherboard and I/O device configuration, particularly the size of video RAM; it may be in the range of 2.75 GB to 3.5 GB.[2] The barrier is not present with a 64-bit processor and 64-bit operating system, or with certain x86 hardware and an operating system such as Linux or certain versions of Windows Server and macOS that allow use of physical address extension (PAE) mode on x86 to access more than 4 GB of RAM. Whatever the actual position of the "barrier", there is no code in operating system software nor any hardware architectural limit that directly imposes it. Rather, the "barrier" is the result of interactions between several aspects of both. Physical address limits It is sometimes claimed that 32-bit processors and operating systems are limited to 4 G ...more...

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Memory areas of the IBM PC family. In DOS memory management, conventional memory, also called base memory, is the first 640 kilobytes (640 × 1024 bytes) of the memory on IBM PC or compatible systems. It is the read-write memory directly addressable by the processor for use by the operating system and application programs. As memory prices rapidly declined, this design decision became a limitation in the use of large memory capacities until the introduction of operating systems and processors that made it irrelevant. 640 KB barrier IBM PC, PC/XT, 3270 PC and PCjr Memory Blocks[1][2] 0-block 1st 64 KB Ordinary user memory to 64 KB (low memory area) 1-block 2nd 64 KB Ordinary user memory to 128 KB 2-block 3rd 64 KB Ordinary user memory to 192 KB 3-block 4th 64 KB Ordinary user memory to 256 KB 4-block 5th 64 KB Ordinary user memory to 320 KB 5-block 6th 64 KB Ordinary user memory to 384 KB 6-block 7th 64 KB Ordinary user memory to 448 KB 7-block 8th 64 KB Ordinary user memory to 512 KB 8-b ...more...

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PSE-36

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Blu-ray

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Norbuprenorphine

Norbuprenorphine is a major active metabolite of the opioid modulator buprenorphine. It is a μ-opioid, δ-opioid, and nociceptin receptor full agonist,[1][2] and a κ-opioid receptor partial agonist.[2] In rats, unlike buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine produces marked respiratory depression but with very little antinociceptive effect.[3] In explanation of these properties, norbuprenorphine has been found to be a high affinity P-glycoprotein substrate, and in accordance, shows very limited blood-brain-barrier penetration.[3] Norbuprenorhine See also Norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide Buprenorphine-3-glucuronide Loperamide Noroxymorphone References Yassen A, Kan J, Olofsen E, Suidgeest E, Dahan A, Danhof M (May 2007). "Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of the respiratory depressant effect of norbuprenorphine in rats". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 321 (2): 598–607. doi:10.1124/jpet.106.115972. PMID 17283225. Huang P, Kehner GB, Cowan A, Liu-Chen LY (May 2001). "C ...more...

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Nikon D100

topic

Nikon D100

The Nikon D100 is a discontinued 6-megapixel digital single-lens reflex camera made by Nikon Corporation and designed for professionals and advanced enthusiasts. It was introduced on February 21, 2002 at the Photo Marketing Association Annual Convention and Trade Show as a direct competitor to the Canon EOS D60. With a price of US$1,999 for the body only in the United States, it was the second 6-megapixel DSLR to break the $2000 barrier, after the EOS D60. Although the name D100 suggested that it was a digital version of the Nikon F100, the camera design more closely resembles the Nikon F80 (also known as Nikon N80 in the United States), which is a much more consumer-oriented camera than the professional F100. The price of the camera dropped over time to $1699 in May 2003, and $1499 in December 2003. In the Spring of 2004 Nikon released the D70, which offered similar features to the D100 at a lower price of $999. However, Nikon continued to produce the D100 until 2005 when a more advanced and professional-or ...more...

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Xbox

topic

Xbox

Xbox is a video gaming brand created and owned by Microsoft. It represents a series of video game consoles developed by Microsoft, with three consoles released in the sixth, seventh and eighth generations respectively. The brand also represents applications (games), streaming services, and an online service by the name of Xbox Live. The brand was first introduced in the United States in November 2001, with the launch of the original Xbox console. That original device was the first video game console offered by an American company after the Atari Jaguar stopped sales in 1996. It reached over 24 million units sold as of May 2006.[1] Microsoft's second console, the Xbox 360, was released in 2005 and has sold over 77.2 million consoles worldwide as of April 2013.[2] The successor to the Xbox 360 and Microsoft's most recent console, the Xbox One,[3] was revealed in May 2013.[4] The Xbox One has been released in 21 markets in total, with a Chinese release in September 2014. The head of Xbox is Phil Spencer, who su ...more...

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Samsung Galaxy Note 3

topic

Samsung Galaxy Note 3

The Samsung Galaxy Note 3 is an Android phablet smartphone produced by Samsung Electronics as part of the Samsung Galaxy Note series. The Galaxy Note 3 was unveiled on September 4, 2013, with its worldwide release beginning later in the month. Serving as a successor to the Galaxy Note II, the Note 3 was designed to have a lighter, more upscale design than previous iterations of the Galaxy Note series (with a plastic leather backing and faux metallic bezel), and to expand upon the stylus and multitasking-oriented functionality in its software—which includes a new navigation wheel for pen-enabled apps, along with pop-up apps and expanded multi-window functionality.[3] Samsung has sold 5 million units of the Galaxy Note 3 within its first month of sale[4] and broke 10 million units sales in just 2 months.[5] Specifications Hardware The Galaxy Note 3's design was intended to carry a more upscale, "premium" look in comparison to previous Samsung devices. Although it carries a similarly polycarbonate-oriented des ...more...

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Nintendo 3DS

topic

Nintendo 3DS

The Nintendo 3DS[a], or simply 3DS, is a handheld game console produced by Nintendo. It is capable of displaying stereoscopic 3D effects without the use of 3D glasses or additional accessories. Nintendo announced the console in March 2010 and officially unveiled it at E3 2010 on June 15, 2010.[7][8] The console succeeds the Nintendo DS, featuring backward compatibility with older Nintendo DS video games.[9] Its primary competitor is the PlayStation Vita from Sony.[10] The handheld offers new features such as the StreetPass and SpotPass tag modes, powered by Nintendo Network; augmented reality, using its 3D cameras; and Virtual Console, which allows owners to download and play games originally released on older video game systems. It is also pre-loaded with various applications including these: an online distribution store called Nintendo eShop, a social networking service called Miiverse; an Internet Browser; the Netflix, Hulu Plus and YouTube streaming video services; Nintendo Video; a messaging application ...more...

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Ext3

topic

Ext3

ext3, or third extended filesystem, is a journaled file system that is commonly used by the Linux kernel. It used to be the default file system for many popular Linux distributions. Stephen Tweedie first revealed that he was working on extending ext2 in Journaling the Linux ext2fs Filesystem in a 1998 paper, and later in a February 1999 kernel mailing list posting. The filesystem was merged with the mainline Linux kernel in November 2001 from 2.4.15 onward.[3][4][5] Its main advantage over ext2 is journaling, which improves reliability and eliminates the need to check the file system after an unclean shutdown. Its successor is ext4.[6] Advantages The performance (speed) of ext3 is less attractive than competing Linux filesystems, such as ext4, JFS, ReiserFS, and XFS, but ext3 has a significant advantage in that it allows in-place upgrades from ext2 without having to backup and restore data. Benchmarks suggest that ext3 also uses less CPU power than ReiserFS and XFS.[7][8] It is also considered safer than th ...more...

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Birth control

topic

Birth control

Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.[1] Birth control has been used since ancient times, but effective and safe methods of birth control only became available in the 20th century.[2] Planning, making available, and using birth control is called family planning.[3][4] Some cultures limit or discourage access to birth control because they consider it to be morally, religiously, or politically undesirable.[2] The most effective methods of birth control are sterilization by means of vasectomy in males and tubal ligation in females, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and implantable birth control.[5] This is followed by a number of hormone-based methods including oral pills, patches, vaginal rings, and injections.[5] Less effective methods include physical barriers such as condoms, diaphragms and birth control sponges and fertility awareness methods.[5] The least effective methods are spermicides and withdrawal by the male before ejaculation. ...more...

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Disk buffer

topic

Disk buffer

On this hard disk drive, the controller board contains a RAM integrated circuit used for the disk buffer. A 500 GB hard disk drive with a 16 MB buffer In computer storage, disk buffer (often ambiguously called disk cache or cache buffer) is the embedded memory in a hard disk drive (HDD) acting as a buffer between the rest of the computer and the physical hard disk platter that is used for storage.[1] Modern hard disk drives come with 8 to 256 MiB of such memory, and solid-state drives come with up to 1 GB of cache memory. Since the late 1980s, nearly all disks sold have embedded microcontrollers and either an ATA, Serial ATA, SCSI, or Fibre Channel interface. The drive circuitry usually has a small amount of memory, used to store the data going to and coming from the disk platters. The disk buffer is physically distinct from and is used differently from the page cache typically kept by the operating system in the computer's main memory. The disk buffer is controlled by the microcontroller in the har ...more...

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Pippa Mann

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Pippa Mann

Pippa Mann (born 11 August 1983) is a British racing car driver, who competes in the Verizon IndyCar Series. She was born in London, United Kingdom. Career Formula Renault Mann began her career in 2003, after signing a three-race contract with Manor Motorsport to race in the winter series of the British Formula Renault Championship. In 2004, she signed with Team JVA and completed a full season. She also competed a European Formula Renault event in Zolder. In 2005, she signed a two-year contract to drive for Comtec Racing in the Formula Renault Eurocup as well as racing in that year's French Formula Renault 2.0 series. Pippa partnered Westley Barber for the UK based team and learnt a lot during the year. In 2006, she raced in the UK Formula Renault 2.0 Championship as well as the Eurocup again for race team Comtec Racing, continuing the partnership with John Barnett and Murdoch Cockburn. In January 2007, Mann signed for Cram by P1 Europe to become the first female to race in the Formula Renault 3.5 Serie ...more...

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Sarin

topic

Sarin

Sarin, or NATO designation GB (G-series, 'B'), is a highly toxic synthetic organophosphorus compound.[5] A colorless, odorless liquid, it is used as a chemical weapon due to its extreme potency as a nerve agent. Exposure is lethal even at very low concentrations, where death can occur within one to ten minutes after direct inhalation of a lethal dose,[6][7] due to suffocation from lung muscle paralysis, unless antidotes are quickly administered.[5] People who absorb a non-lethal dose, but do not receive immediate medical treatment, may suffer permanent neurological damage. It is generally considered a weapon of mass destruction. Production and stockpiling of Sarin was outlawed as of April 1997 by the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993, and it is classified as a Schedule 1 substance. In June 1994, the UN Special Commission on Iraqi Disarmament reported that it had destroyed Iraq's stockpiles of Sarin.[8] Health effects Sarin (red), acetylcholinesterase (yellow), acetylcholine (blue) Like some other n ...more...

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Man o' War

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Man o' War

Man o' War (March 29, 1917 – November 1, 1947) was an American Thoroughbred who is widely considered one of the greatest racehorses of all time. During his career just after World War I, he won 20 of 21 races and $249,465 (equivalent to $3,047,000 in 2017) in purses. He was the unofficial 1920 American horse of the year and was honored with Babe Ruth as the outstanding athlete of the year by The New York Times. He was inducted into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in 1957. On March 29, 2017, the museum opened a special exhibit in his honor, "Man o' War at 100". In 1919, Man o' War won 9 of 10 starts including the Hopeful Stakes and Belmont Futurity, then the most important races for two-year-old horses in the United States. His only loss came at Saratoga Race Course, later nicknamed the Graveyard of Champions, where he had a poor start and was beaten by a colt fittingly named Upset. Man o' War was not entered in the 1920 Kentucky Derby because his owner, Samuel Riddle, did not believe in racin ...more...

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BMW 5 Series

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BMW 5 Series

The BMW 5 Series is an executive car manufactured by BMW since 1972. It is the successor to the New Class Sedans and is currently in its seventh generation. Initially, the 5 Series was only available in a sedan body style. The wagon/estate body style (called "Touring") was added in 1991 and the 5-door fastback (called "Gran Turismo") was produced from 2009 to 2017. The first generation of 5 Series was powered by naturally aspirated inline-4 and straight-6 petrol engines. Following generations have been powered by inline-4, straight-6, V8 and V10 engines with both natural aspiration and turbocharging. Since 1982, diesel engines have been included in the 5 Series range. The 5 Series is BMW's second best-selling model after the 3 Series.[1] On January 29, 2008, the 5 millionth 5 Series was manufactured, a 530d Saloon in Carbon Black Metallic.[2] BMW's three-digit model naming convention began with the first 5 Series,[3] thus the 5 Series was BMW's first model line to use "Series" in the name. Since the E28, ...more...

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IBM Roadrunner

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IBM Roadrunner

Roadrunner was a supercomputer built by IBM for the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, USA. The US$100-million Roadrunner was designed for a peak performance of 1.7 petaflops. It achieved 1.026 petaflops on May 25, 2008, to become the world's first TOP500 LINPACK sustained 1.0 petaflops system.[2][3] In November 2008, it reached a top performance of 1.456 petaFLOPS, retaining its top spot in the TOP500 list.[4] It was also the fourth-most energy-efficient supercomputer in the world on the Supermicro Green500 list, with an operational rate of 444.94 megaflops per watt of power used. The hybrid Roadrunner design was then reused for several other energy efficient supercomputers.[5] Roadrunner was decommissioned by Los Alamos on March 31, 2013.[6] In its place, Los Alamos commissioned a supercomputer called Cielo, which was installed in 2010. Cielo was smaller and more energy efficient than Roadrunner, and cost $54 million.[6] Overview IBM built the computer for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) ...more...

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List of airline codes

topic

List of airline codes

This is a list of all airline codes. The table lists the IATA airline designators, the ICAO airline designators and the airline call signs (telephony designator). Historical assignments are also included for completeness. Codes Airline codes IATA ICAO Airline Call sign Country/Region Comments EVY 34 Squadron, Royal Australian Air Force Australia GNL 135 Airways GENERAL United States 1T Hitit Computer Services Turkey Computer reservation system WYT 2 Sqn No 1 Elementary Flying Training School WYTON United Kingdom Royal Air Force TFU 213th Flight Unit THJY Russia State Airline CHD 223rd Flight Unit CHKALOVSK-AVIA Russia State Airline TTF 224th Flight Unit CARGO UNIT Russia State Airline TWF 247 Jet Ltd CLOUD RUNNER United Kingdom SEC 3D Aviation SECUREX United States Q5 MLA 40-Mile Air MILE-AIR United States QRT 4D Air QUARTET Thailand Defunct PIU 43 Air School PRIMA South A ...more...

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A

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BMW 7 Series

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BMW 7 Series

The BMW 7 Series is a full-size luxury sedan produced by the German automaker BMW since 1977. It is the successor to the BMW E3 "New Six" sedan and is currently in its sixth generation. The 7 Series is BMW's flagship car and is only available as a sedan (including long wheelbase and limousine models). It traditionally introduces technologies and exterior design themes before they trickle down to other models in BMW's lineup.[1] The first generation 7 Series was powered by straight-6 petrol engines, and following generations have been powered by inline-4, straight-6, V8 and V12 engines with both natural aspiration and turbocharging. Since 1995, diesel engines have been included in the 7 Series range. Unlike the 3 Series and 5 Series sedans, BMW has not produced an M model for the 7 Series (ie an "M7"). However, in 2014 an "M Performance" option became available for the 7 Series. First generation (E23; 1977–1986) BMW 733i sedan (US) BMW 735i sedan (Australia) The E23 is the first generation 7 Series, ...more...

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Sinclair Cambridge

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Sinclair Cambridge

The Sinclair Cambridge was a pocket-sized calculator introduced in August 1973 by Sinclair Radionics. It was available both as kit form kit to be assembled by the purchaser, or assembled prior to purchase. The range ultimately comprised seven models, the original "four-function" Cambridge, which carried out the four basic mathematical functions of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, being followed by the Cambridge Scientific, Cambridge Memory, two versions of Cambridge Memory %, Cambridge Scientific Programmable and Cambridge Universal.[1] History The Cambridge had been preceded by the Sinclair Executive, Sinclair's first pocket calculator, in September 1972. At the time the Executive was smaller and noticeably thinner than any of its competitors, at 56 by 138 by 9 millimetres (2.20 in × 5.43 in × 0.35 in), fitting easily into a shirt pocket.[2] A major factor in the Cambridge's success was its low price; the Cambridge was launched in August 1973, selling for GB£32.95 (GB£29.95 + VAT) full ...more...

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WhatsApp

topic

WhatsApp

Messaging with WhatsApp WhatsApp Messenger is a freeware and cross-platform messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP) service owned by Facebook.[44] The application allows the sending of text messages and voice calls, as well as video calls, images and other media, documents, and user location.[45][46] The application runs from a mobile device though it is also accessible from desktop computers; the service requires[47] consumer users to provide a standard cellular mobile number. Originally users could only communicate with other users individually or in groups of individual users, but in September 2017 WhatsApp announced a forthcoming business platform which will enable companies to provide customer service to users at scale.[42] The client was created by WhatsApp Inc., based in Mountain View, California, which was acquired by Facebook in February 2014 for approximately US$19.3 billion.[48][49] By February 2018, WhatsApp had a user base of over one and a half billion,[50][38] making it the most popular messaging ...more...

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Gabapentin

topic

Gabapentin

Gabapentin (sold under the brand name Neurontin, among others) is a medication which is used to treat partial seizures, neuropathic pain, hot flashes, and restless legs syndrome.[4][5] It is recommended as one of a number of first-line medications for the treatment of neuropathic pain caused by diabetic neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, and central neuropathic pain.[6] About 15% of those given gabapentin for diabetic neuropathy or postherpetic neuralgia have a measurable benefit.[7] Gabapentin is taken by mouth.[4] Common side effects of gabapentin include sleepiness and dizziness.[4] Serious side effects include an increased risk of suicide, aggressive behavior, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms.[4] It is unclear if it is safe during pregnancy or breastfeeding.[8] Lower doses are recommended in those with kidney disease associated with a low glomerular filtration rate.[4] Gabapentin is a gabapentinoid: it has a structure similar to that of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid ( ...more...

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Hyper-V

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Hyper-V

Microsoft Hyper-V, codenamed Viridian[1] and formerly known as Windows Server Virtualization, is a native hypervisor; it can create virtual machines on x86-64 systems running Windows.[2] Starting with Windows 8, Hyper-V superseded Windows Virtual PC as the hardware virtualization component of the client editions of Windows NT. A server computer running Hyper-V can be configured to expose individual virtual machines to one or more networks. Hyper-V was first released alongside Windows Server 2008, and has been available without additional charge for all the Windows Server and Windows 8 and later. A standalone Windows Hyper-V Server is free, but with command line interface only. History A beta version of Hyper-V was shipped with certain x86-64 editions of Windows Server 2008. The finalized version was released on June 26, 2008 and was delivered through Windows Update.[3] Hyper-V has since been released with every version of Windows Server.[4][5][6] Microsoft provides Hyper-V through two channels: Part of ...more...

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2007 Melbourne Cup

topic

2007 Melbourne Cup

The 2007 Melbourne Cup, the 147th running of Australia's most prestigious thoroughbred horse race, was run on Tuesday, 6 November 2007, going at 3:00 pm local time (0400 UTC). The race was sponsored by Emirates Airline. The winner of the race was Efficient, by a half a length, followed by Purple Moon and Mahler in third.[1] Due to the 2007 Australian Equine influenza outbreak, believed to have been started by a horse brought into Australia from Japan, neither 2006 Melbourne Cup winner Delta Blues nor runner-up Pop Rock participated in the 2007 Melbourne Cup. Race starters These were the confirmed starters, with barrier positions, jockeys, and trainers, for the 2007 Melbourne Cup:[2] Saddle cloth Horse Trainer Jockey Weight (kg) Barrier Placing 1 Tawqeet (USA) David Hayes D Dunn 57 3 14 2 Blue Monday (GB) David Hayes N Rawiller 56 14 7 3 Blutigeroo Colin Little Luke Nolen 55.5 12 19 4 Gallic (NZ) Graeme Rogerson S W Arnold 55.5 24 Scratched 5 Railings Roger James G Childs 55.5 18 20 6 Efficien ...more...

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List of leading Thoroughbred racehorses

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List of leading Thoroughbred racehorses

Kincsem, Ch.m. 1874, undefeated winner in 54 starts in five countries Cobweb was an undefeated winner of the 1,000 Guineas and Epsom Oaks. Undefeated: Goldfinder, b.c. 1764 (Snap – mare, by Blank) The list of leading Thoroughbred racehorses contains the names of undefeated racehorses and other horses that had an outstanding race record in specific categories. Note though that many champions do not appear on the list as an unexpected defeat may be caused by many factors such as injury, illness, going, racing tactics and differences in weight carried, the latter being particularly significant in North America and Australia where handicaps are common even at the highest level of racing. A racehorse requires various abilities to consistently defeat its rivals, especially speed and stamina in varying degrees depending on the type of race. It is common to compare racehorses on multiple factors such as their overall race record, the quality of the horses they beat and the brilliance of their wins. Comparison ...more...

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Comparison of birth control methods

topic

Comparison of birth control methods

Effectiveness of contraceptive methods with respect to birth control. Only condoms are useful to prevent sexually transmitted infections There are many different methods of birth control, which vary in what is required of the user, side effects, and effectiveness. It is also important to note that not each type of birth control is ideal for each user. Outlined here are the different types of barrier methods, spermicides, or coitus interruptus that must be used at before every act of intercourse. Immediate contraception, like physical barriers, include diaphragms, caps, the contraceptive sponge, and female condoms may be placed several hours before intercourse begins (note that when using the female condom, the penis must be guided into place when initiating intercourse). The female condom should be removed immediately after intercourse, and before arising.[1] Some other female barrier methods must be left in place for several hours after sex. Depending on the form of spermicide used, they may be applied sev ...more...

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SATA Express

topic

SATA Express

SATA Express (abbreviated from Serial ATA Express and sometimes unofficially shortened to SATAe) is a computer bus interface that supports both Serial ATA (SATA) and PCI Express (PCIe) storage devices, initially standardized in the SATA 3.2 specification.[1] The SATA Express connector used on the host side is backward compatible with the standard 3.5-inch SATA data connector,[2] while it also provides two PCI Express lanes as a pure PCI Express connection to the storage device.[3] Instead of continuing with the SATA interface's usual approach of doubling its native speed with each major version, SATA 3.2 specification included the PCI Express bus for achieving data transfer speeds greater than the SATA 3.0 speed limit of 6 Gbit/s. Designers of the SATA interface concluded that doubling the native SATA speed would take too much time to catch up with the advancements in solid-state drive (SSD) technology,[4] would require too many changes to the SATA standard, and would result in a much greater power consumpti ...more...

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Nerve agent

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Nerve agent

Nerve agents, sometimes also called nerve gases, are a class of organic chemicals that disrupt the mechanisms by which nerves transfer messages to organs. The disruption is caused by the blocking of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter. Poisoning by a nerve agent leads to constriction of pupils, profuse salivation, convulsions, and involuntary urination and defecation, with the first symptoms appearing in seconds after exposure. Death by asphyxiation or cardiac arrest may follow in minutes due to the loss of the body's control over respiratory and other muscles. Some nerve agents are readily vaporized or aerosolized, and the primary portal of entry into the body is the respiratory system. Nerve agents can also be absorbed through the skin, requiring that those likely to be subjected to such agents wear a full body suit in addition to a respirator. Nerve agents are generally colorless to amber-colored, tasteless liquids that may evaporate to a gas. ...more...

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PlayStation 4

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PlayStation 4

The PlayStation 4 (PS4) is an eighth-generation home video game console developed by Sony Interactive Entertainment. Announced as the successor to the PlayStation 3 during a press conference on February 20, 2013, it was launched on November 15 in North America, November 29 in Europe, South America and Australia; and February 22, 2014, in Japan. It competes with Nintendo's Wii U and Switch, and Microsoft's Xbox One. Moving away from the more complex Cell microarchitecture of its predecessor, the console features an AMD Accelerated Processing Unit (APU) built upon the x86-64 architecture, which can theoretically peak at 1.84 teraflops; AMD stated that it was the "most powerful" APU it had developed to date. The PlayStation 4 places an increased emphasis on social interaction and integration with other devices and services, including the ability to play games off-console on PlayStation Vita and other supported devices ("Remote Play"), the ability to stream gameplay online or to friends, with them controlling ga ...more...

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Solid-state drive

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Solid-state drive

A PCI-attached IO Accelerator SSD An mSATA SSD with an external enclosure Samsung SSD 960 PRO 512GB A solid-state drive (SSD) is a solid-state storage device that uses integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently. It is also sometimes called solid-state disk,[1][2][3] for historical reasons. SSD technology primarily uses electronic interfaces compatible with traditional block input/output (I/O) hard disk drives (HDDs), which permit simple replacements in common applications.[4] New I/O interfaces like M.2 and U.2 have been designed to address specific requirements of the SSD technology. SSDs have no moving mechanical components. This distinguishes them from conventional electromechanical drives such as hard disk drives (HDDs) or floppy disks, which contain spinning disks and movable read/write heads.[5] Compared with electromechanical drives, SSDs are typically more resistant to physical shock, run silently, have quicker access time and lower latency.[6] However, while the price ...more...

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1937 in film

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1937 in film

The year 1937 in film involved some significant events, including the Walt Disney production of the first American full-length animated film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Events April 16 – Way Out West premieres in the US. May 7 – Shall We Dance premieres in the US. May 11 – Captains Courageous premieres in the US. Monogram Pictures, who had merged with Republic Pictures two years earlier, decide to separate and distribute their own films again. June 7 – Actress Jean Harlow passes away aged 26. July 9 – The silent film archives of Fox Film Corporation are destroyed by the 1937 Fox vault fire. December 21 – Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs premieres in the US. Top-grossing films (U.S.) Rank Title Studio 1. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs Disney/RKO Radio Pictures 2. Maytime MGM 3. The Good Earth MGM 4. One Hundred Men and a Girl Universal 5. The Firefly MGM 6. Topper MGM 7. Wee Willie Winkie 20th Century Fox 8. Stella Dallas Goldwyn/United Artists 9. In Old Chicago 20th ...more...

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Atopic dermatitis

topic

Atopic dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis (AD), also known as atopic eczema, is a type of inflammation of the skin (dermatitis).[2] It results in itchy, red, swollen, and cracked skin.[2] Clear fluid may come from the affected areas, which often thicken over time.[2] While the condition may occur at any age, it typically starts in childhood with changing severity over the years.[2][3] In children under one year of age much of the body may be affected.[3] As children get older, the back of the knees and front of the elbows are the most common areas affected.[3] In adults the hands and feet are the most commonly affected areas.[3] Scratching worsens symptoms and affected people have an increased risk of skin infections.[2] Many people with atopic dermatitis develop hay fever or asthma.[2] The cause is unknown but believed to involve genetics, immune system dysfunction, environmental exposures, and difficulties with the permeability of the skin.[2][3] If one identical twin is affected, there is an 85% chance the other also has the con ...more...

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Operation C (video game)

topic

Operation C (video game)

Operation C, released as Contra (コントラ Kontora)[1] in Japan and as Probotector in the PAL region, is a 1991 run and gun game by Konami released for the Game Boy. It is the first portable installment in the Contra series and features gameplay and graphics similar to the Nintendo Entertainment System versions of Contra and Super C. Gameplay The game has a total of five stages, many of which share design similarities to Super C (the NES version of Super Contra). The three odd-numbered stages (1, 3, and 5) are played from a side-view perspective, while the two even-numbered ones (2 and 4) are top-view. The soundtrack consists primarily of arranged background music from the original Contra, with the exception of a few tunes (namely the Area 2 theme, the Stage Select theme, the sub-boss theme in Area 3, and the ending theme). Operation C was the first Contra game to feature auto-fire as a default feature, resulting in the removal of the Machine Gun power-up from previous games. The Laser Rifle is also removed, lea ...more...

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Ghostbusters II

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Ghostbusters II

Ghostbusters II is a 1989 American supernatural comedy film directed and produced by Ivan Reitman, written by Dan Aykroyd and Harold Ramis and starring Bill Murray, Aykroyd, Sigourney Weaver, Ramis, Ernie Hudson and Rick Moranis. It is the sequel to the 1984 film Ghostbusters, and follows the further adventures of the three parapsychologists and their organization that combats paranormal activities. Despite generally mixed reviews from critics, the film grossed $112.5 million in the United States and $215.4 million worldwide, becoming the eighth-highest-grossing film of 1989. Plot After saving New York City from the demi-god Gozer, the Ghostbusters—Egon Spengler, Ray Stantz, Peter Venkman, and Winston Zeddemore—are sued for the property damage they caused, and barred from investigating the supernatural, forcing them out of business. Five years later, Ray owns an occult bookstore and works as an unpopular children's entertainer with Winston, Egon works in a laboratory conducting experiments into human emoti ...more...

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American satirical films

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List of Melbourne Cup placings

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List of Melbourne Cup placings

The Melbourne Cup[1] is Australia's major Thoroughbred horse race. Each year internationally bred or owned horses compete in the race alongside local entrants. Since 1882 New Zealand bred horses have won 40 Melbourne Cups, British bred horses have won five cups, US bred horses four, Irish horses two and one Japanese and German bred horse have each won the Cup. The Melbourne Cup is the richest handicap race in the world.[2] This is a list of the first four placings (from 2009) in the Melbourne Cup, a Thoroughbred horse race at Flemington Racecourse in Melbourne, Australia. Results Pos Year No Horse Age Breeding Jockey Barrier Trainer Weight Margin Odds 1st 2017 22 Rekindling 4h High Chaparral - Sitara Corey Brown (4) Joseph O'Brien 51.5 3:21.19 Good 15/1 2nd 2017 7 Johannes Vermeer 5h Galileo - Inca Princess Ben Melham (3) Aidan O'Brien 54.5 0.4L 12/1 3rd 2017 9 Max Dynamite 8g Great Journey - Mascara Zac Purton (2) William Mullins 54 2.9L 19/1 4th 2017 13 Big Duke 6g Raven's Pass - Hazarayna B ...more...

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Started in 1861 in Australia

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Carbidopa

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Carbidopa

Carbidopa (Lodosyn) is a drug given to people with Parkinson's disease in order to inhibit peripheral metabolism of levodopa. This property is significant in that it allows a greater proportion of peripheral levodopa to cross the blood–brain barrier for central nervous system effect. Pharmacology Carbidopa inhibits aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase (DOPA decarboxylase or DDC),[1] an enzyme important in the biosynthesis of L-tryptophan to serotonin and in the biosynthesis of L-DOPA to dopamine (DA). DDC exists both outside of (body periphery) and within the confines of the blood–brain barrier. Carbidopa is used in the treatment of, among other diseases, Parkinson's disease (PD), a condition characterized by death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Increased dopamine availability may increase the effectiveness of the remaining neurons and alleviate symptoms for a time. The pharmacologic objective is to get an exogenous dopamine-precursor known as levodopa/L-DOPA into the dopamine-deficient bra ...more...

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Catecholamines

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