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1930 in music

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Published popular songs
Biggest hit songs

The following songs achieved the highest sales in 1930 on the major record labels in the United States (i.e. Victor, Brunswick and Columbia). Record sales continued at 1929 levels up until July 1930. In the autumn 1930 the Great Depression began in earnest for the majority of the public who finally began to feel the economic downturn. This caused record sales to plummet in August and they would remain low for the remainder of the year.

Month Artist Title Record Label Country Notes
January Helen Morgan Why Was I Born? and Don't Ever Leave Me Victor United States Helen Morgan sings her songs from the hit show Sweet Adeline.
January Dick Robertson (singer) Singin' in the Bathtub and Lady Luck Brunswick United States From the film The Show of Shows.
January Leo Reisman Orchestra Why Was I Born? and Here I Am Victor United States Written by Jerome Kern for the show Sweet Adeline.
January Roger Wolfe Kahn Orchestra Why Was I Born? and Here I Am Brunswick United States Written by Jerome Kern for the show Sweet Adeline.
January Nat Shilkret Orchestra Don't Ever Leave Me and Twas Not Long Ago Victor United States Written by Jerome Kern for the show Sweet Adeline.
January Paul Whiteman Orchestra Great Day and Without a Song Columbia United States From the Broadway show Great Day.
January Victor Arden and Phil Ohman Orchestra Why? and It's You I Love Victor United States From the 1929-30 Broadway musical Sons o' Guns.
January Rudy Vallee Orchestra A Little Kiss Each Morning and I'll Be Reminded of You Victor United States From the musical film starring Rudy Vallee: The Vagabond Lover.
January Meyer Davis and Earl Burtnett Orchestras My Fate Is In Your Hands and Look What You've Done to Me Brunswick United States
January Guy Lombardo Orchestra My Fate Is In Your Hands and A Little Kiss Each Morning Columbia United States Second song from the musical film: The Vagabond Lover.
February The Revelers Chant of the Jungle and Waiting at the End of the Road Victor United States From the musical films: Untamed and Hallelujah.
February Marion Harris Nobody's Using It Now and Funny, Dear, What Love Can Do Brunswick United States First song from the musical film: Playboy of Paris.
February Marion Harris Nobody's Sweetheart and My Fate Is in Your Hands Brunswick United States
February Leo Reisman Orchestra Shepherd's Serenade and Charming Victor United States From the musical film: Devil-May-Care.
February Leo Reisman Orchestra I'll See You Again and If Love Were All Victor United States From Noël Coward's musical comedy Bitter Sweet.
February Roger Wolfe Kahn Orchestra Don't Ever Leave Me and Twas Not Long Ago Victor United States Written by Jerome Kern for the show Sweet Adeline.
February Leo Reisman Orchestra You Do Something to Me and You've Got That Thing Victor United States Written by Cole Porter for the show Fifty Million Frenchmen.
February A. & P. Gypsies Orchestra South Sea Rose and Only The Girl Brunswick United States Orchestra conducted by Harry Horlick.
February Nat Shilkret Orchestra Rogue Song and When I'm Looking At You Victor United States From the musical film: The Rogue Song.
February Ben Bernie Orchestra Crying for the Carolines and Have a Little Faith in Me Brunswick United States From the musical film: Spring Is Here.
February Waring's Pennsylvanians Crying for the Carolines and Have a Little Faith in Me Victor United States From the musical film: Spring Is Here.
February Guy Lombardo Orchestra Crying for the Carolines and Have a Little Faith in Me Columbia United States From the musical film: Spring Is Here.
February Victor Arden and Phil Ohman Orchestra Should I? and A Bundle of Old Love Letters Victor United States From the musical film: Lord Byron of Broadway.
February Jesse Stafford Orchestra The Woman in the Shoe and A Bundle of Old Love Letters Brunswick United States From the musical film: Lord Byron of Broadway.
February Paul Specht Orchestra I'm Following You and I'm Sailing on a Sunbeam Columbia United States From the musical film: It's a Great Life.
February Rudy Vallee Orchestra Gypsy Dream Rose and Mary, I Love Y-O-U Victor United States
March Lawrence Tibbett The White Dove and When I'm Looking at You Victor United States Lawrence Tibbett sings his songs from the musical film: The Rogue Song; both songs accompanied orchestra directed Nathaniel (Nat) Shillkret .
March Lawrence Tibbett The Rogue Song and The Narrative Victor United States Lawrence Tibbett sings his songs from the musical film: The Rogue Song; both songs accompanied orchestra directed Nathaniel (Nat) Shilkret .
March Ruth Etting If He Cared and Crying for the Carolines Columbia United States From the musical films: Devil-May-Care and Spring Is Here.
March Paul Whiteman Song of India and Liebestraum Columbia United States Modern "up to date" versions of oldtime classics.
March Ipana Troubadours I Want to be Happy and Tea for Two Columbia United States From the musical film: No No Nanette.
March Victor Arden and Phil Ohman Orchestra Strike Up the Band and Soon Victor United States Composed by George Gershwin for the musical: Strike Up the Band.
March Leo Reisman Orchestra What Is This Thing Called Love? and She's Such a Comfort to Me Victor United States From the musical: Wake Up and Dream.
March Ben Selvin Orchestra Why? and Cross Your Fingers Columbia United States From the Broadway musical Sons o' Guns.
March George Olsen Orchestra T'aint No Sin and Can't You Understand? Victor United States First composed by Walter Donaldson.
April John McCormack A Pair of Blue Eyes and I Feel You Near Me Victor United States From the musical film Song o' My Heart.
April John McCormack The Rose of Tralee and Ireland, Mother Ireland Victor United States From the musical film Song o' My Heart; both songs accompanied orchestra directed Nathaniel (Nat Shilkret).
April Al Jolson To My Mammy and When the Little Red Roses Get the Blues for You Brunswick United States From the musical films Mammy and Hold Everything.
April Al Jolson Across The Breakfast Table, Looking At You and Let Me Sing and I'm Happy Brunswick United States From the musical film Mammy.
April Brevities Male Quartet The Woman in the Shoe and Wrapped in a Red, Red Rose Brunswick United States From the musical films Lord Byron of Broadway and Blaze o' Glory.
April Chester Gaylord Under a Texas Moon and When I'm Looking at You Brunswick United States From the musical films Under a Texas Moon and The Rogue Song.
April Fannie Brice Cooking Breakfast for the One I Love and When a Woman Loves a Man Victor United States From the musical film Be Yourself!.
April Tom Gerun Orchestra Sing, You Sinners and In My Little Hope Chest Brunswick United States From the musical film Honey.
April Bernie Cummins Orchestra Everybody Tap and Lucky Little Devil Victor United States First song from the musical film Chasing Rainbows.
April Ben Bernie Orchestra Song of the Bayou and Black Eyes Victor United States First song won the Victor Company's $5,000 prize for best short jazz composition.
April Ben Bernie Orchestra Thank Your Father and Good for You, Bad for Me Victor United States From the Musical Comedy Flying High.
April Guy Lombardo Orchestra Lazy Lou'siana Moon and The Moon is Low Columbia United States Second song from the musical film Montana Moon.
April Ipana Troubadours Orchestra Kickin' a Hole in the Sky and Cooking Breakfast for the One I Love Columbia United States Second song from the musical film Be Yourself!.
May Ruth Etting Ten Cents a Dance and Funny, Dear, What Love Can Do Columbia United States
May The Rondoliers Lazy Lou'siana Moon and Should I? Columbia United States Second song from the musical film Lord Byron of Broadway.
May The High Hatters Send for Me and Ten Cents a Dance Victor United States Orchestra conducted by Leonard Joy. RCA Victor's best selling record for May 1930.
May George Olsen Orchestra It Happened in Monterey and Song of the Dawn Victor United States From the musical film The King of Jazz.
May Ben Bernie Orchestra To My Mammy and Across The Breakfast Table, Looking At You Brunswick United States From the musical film Mammy.
May Waring's Pennsylvanians Thank Your Father and Good for You, Bad for Me Victor United States From the musical comedy Flying High.
June Ruth Etting Let Me Sing and I'm Happy and A Cottage for Sale Columbia United States First song from the musical film Mammy.
June Grace Hayes My Lover and I Like to Do Things for You Victor United States From the musical film The King of Jazz.
June Harry Richman Thank Your Father and Without Love Brunswick United States From the musical Flying High.
June Wayne King Orchestra On a Blue and Moonless Night and Promises Victor United States RCA Victor's best selling record for June 1930.
June Paul Whiteman Orchestra You Brought a New Kind of Love to Me and Livin' in the Sunlight Columbia United States From the musical film The Big Pond.
June George Olsen Orchestra Montana Call and The Moon is Low Victor United States From the musical film Montana Moon.
June Abe Lyman Orchestra You Will Come Back to Me and Worryin' Over You Brunswick United States
June Ipana Troubadours Blue Is the Night and Whippoorwill Columbia United States First song from the musical film Their Own Desire.
June Leo Reisman Orchestra Happy Feet and I Like to Do Things for You Victor United States From the musical film The King of Jazz.
July The Revelers Sing, You Sinners and Across the Breakfast Table Looking at You Victor United States From the musical films Honey and Mammy.
July Grace Hayes On the Sunny Side of the Street and Exactly Like You Victor United States From Lew Leslie's International Revue.
July Ruth Etting On the Sunny Side of the Street and It Happened in Monterey Columbia United States From Lew Leslie's International Revue and the musical film The King Of Jazz.
July Harry Richman Ro-Ro-Rollin' Along and Dream Avenue Columbia United States The second song was composed by Harry Richman himself.
July Leo Reisman Orchestra Rollin' down the River and Mia Cara Victor United States RCA Victor's best selling record for July 1930. Second song from the musical film The Big Pond.
July Victor Arden and Phil Ohman Orchestra Ro-Ro-Rollin' Along and Kiss Me With Your Eyes Victor United States Second tune played by Nat Shilkret Orchestra.
July Fred Rich Orchestra For You and Dream Avenue Columbia United States
July Isham Jones Orchestra What's The Use? and The Song Without a Name Brunswick United States
July Lloyd Huntley and his Isle o' Blues Orchestra On a Blue and Moonless Night and Promises Brunswick United States
July Ben Selvin Orchestra Kiss Me With Your Eyes and You Darlin' Columbia United States
August Noah Beery One Little Drink and The Whip Brunswick United States From the musical films Song of the Flame and Golden Dawn.
August Ethel Waters You Brought a New Kind of Love to Me and My Kind of a Man Columbia United States From the musical films The Big Pond and The Florodora Girl.
August Colonial Club Orchestra Out of Breath and I Am Only Human After All Brunswick United States From the Garrick Gaieties. Orchestra conducted by Bob Haring.
August Rudy Vallee Orchestra Old New England Moon and How Come You Do Me Like You Do? Victor United States
August Henry Thies Orchestra June Kisses and Under Vesuvian Skies Victor United States
August Leo Reisman Orchestra Around the Corner and Bye-Bye Blues Victor United States
September Richard Crooks L'Amour, Toujours, L'Amour and Serenade Victor United States From The Student Prince
September Bob Haring Orchestra All Through the Night and Swingin' in a Hammock Brunswick United States
September Bert Lown Orchestra Under the Sun It's Anyone Under the Moon It's You and Bye Bye Blues Brunswick United States
September Waring's Pennsylvanians Little White Lies and Gee, But I'd Like to Make You Happy Victor United States Second song from the musical film Good News
October Ruth Etting Don't Tell Her What's Happened to Me and The Kiss Waltz Columbia United States Second song from the musical film Dancing Sweeties.
October Guy Lombardo Orchestra Go Home and Tell Your Mother and I'm Doin' That Thing Victor United States From the musical film Love in the Rough
October Hilo Hawaiian Orchestra On a Little Street in Honolulu and All Through the Night Victor United States Orchestra conducted by Nat Shilkret. RCA Victor's best selling record for October 1930.
October Paul Whiteman Orchestra Nola and New Tiger Rag Columbia United States
October Tom Gerun Orchestra A Big Bouquet for You and If I Could Be with You Brunswick United States
October Ozzie Nelson Orchestra I Still Get a Thrill and Don't Mind Walking in the Rain Brunswick United States
November Libby Holman Body and Soul and Something to Remember You By Brunswick United States From the musical Three's a Crowd.
November Aileen Stanley Wasn't it Nice? and I'll Be Blue Just Thinking of You Victor United States
November Jacques Renard Orchestra Sing Something Simple and Lucky Seven Brunswick United States From the musical The Little Show.
November Victor Arden and Phil Ohman Orchestra Fine and Dandy and Can This Be Love? Victor United States From Joe Cook's musical show Fine and Dandy.
November Leo Reisman Orchestra Body and Soul and Something to Remember You By Victor United States From the Libby Holman musical Three's a Crowd.
November Nat Shilkret Orchestra Moonlight on the Colorado and Don't Tell Her What's Happened to Me Victor United States RCA Victor's best selling record for November 1930.
December The Revelers Sing Something Simple and Happy Feet Victor United States Second song from the musical film King of Jazz.
December Jack Hylton Orchestra Body and Soul and With a Song in My Heart Victor United Kingdom Second song from the musical film Spring Is Here. First from the Libby Holman musical Three's a Crowd.
December Victor Arden and Phil Ohman Orchestra Embraceable You and I Got Rhythm Victor United States From the George Gershwin musical Girl Crazy.
December Ipana Troubadours Can This Be Love? and Three Little Words Columbia United States Second song from the musical film Check and Double Check. First from the musical Fine and Dandy.
December Tom Gerun Orchestra What a Fool I've Been and After All, You're All I'm After Victor United States
December Nat Shilkret Orchestra Bolero and La Seduccion Brunswick United States RCA Victor's best selling record for December 1930.
Top hits on record
1930 Ted Lewis record label
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1930 in Norwegian music

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The following is a list of notable events and releases of the year 1930 in Norwegian music . Events Deaths January 1 – Peter Brynie Lindeman , organist, cellist, and composer (born 1858). June 16 – Hannah Løvenskiold , composer (born 1860). December 1 – Michael Flagstad , violinist and conductor (born 1869). 29 – Oscar Borg , composer and conductor (born 1851). Births January 9 – Tone Groven Holmboe , composer and music teacher. April 14 – Ola Calmeyer , jazz pianist (died 2003 ). 23 – Mikkel Flagstad , jazz saxophonist (died 2005 ). May 6 – Kjell Bækkelund , classical pianist (died 2004 ). 11 – Elisabeth Granneman , singer, songwriter, children's writer and actress (died 1992 ). July 27 – Einar Iversen , jazz pianist and composer. September 27 – Gerhard Aspheim , jazz trombonist (died 2009 ). December 20 – Jan Elgarøy , organist and composer. See also 1930 in Norway Music of Norway References Karevold, Idar (2009-02-13). "Peter Lindeman" . In Helle, Knut . Norsk Biografisk Leksikon (in Norwegian). Oslo: Kunn



Cabaret

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1896 advertisement for a tour of the first French cabaret show, Le Chat Noir . Cabaret ( English: ) is a form of entertainment featuring music , song , dance , recitation , or drama . It is mainly distinguished by the performance venue, which might be a pub , a restaurant or a nightclub with a stage for performances. The audience, often dining or drinking, does not typically dance but usually sits at tables. Performances are usually introduced by a master of ceremonies or MC. The entertainment, as done by an ensemble of actors and according to its European origins, is often (but not always) oriented towards adult audiences and of a clearly underground nature. In the United States striptease , burlesque , drag shows , or a solo vocalist with a pianist, as well as the venues which house such events, are often advertised as cabarets. Etymology The word cabaret was first used in 1655. It is derived from tavern probably from Middle Dutch cambret. The word cabaret came to mean "a restaurant or night club" by 1912.



Tamil cinema

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Tamil cinema refers to Indian motion pictures produced in the language of Tamil . Based in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu , the hub of the Tamil film industry is in the Kodambakkam neighbourhood of Chennai . Kollywood is a colloquial term used to describe this industry, the word being a portmanteau of Kodambakkam and Hollywood . The first Tamil silent film, Keechaka Vadham , was made by R. Nataraja Mudaliar in 1918. The first talking motion picture, Kalidas , was a multilingual and was released on 31 October 1931, less than seven months after India's first talking motion picture Alam Ara . By the end of the 1930s, the legislature of the State of Madras passed the Entertainment Tax Act of 1939. Tamil cinema later had a profound effect on other filmmaking industries of India, establishing Madras (now Chennai) as a secondary hub for Hindi cinema, other South Indian film industries, as well as Sri Lankan cinema . Over the last quarter of the 20th century, Tamil films from India established a global presence



Rhythm and blues

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Rhythm and blues , often abbreviated as R&B or RnB , is a genre of popular African-American music that originated in the 1940s. The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans , at a time when "urbane, rocking, jazz based music with a heavy, insistent beat" was becoming more popular. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands usually consisted of piano, one or two guitars, bass, drums, saxophone, and sometimes background vocalists. R&B lyrical themes often encapsulate the African-American experience of pain and the quest for freedom and joy. The lyrics in this genre of music focus heavily on the themes of triumphs and failures in terms of relationships, freedom, economics, aspirations, and sex. The term rhythm and blues has undergone a number of shifts in meaning. In the early 1950s it was frequently applied to blues records. Starting in the mid-1950s, after this style of mus



Blues

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Blues is a music genre and musical form originated by African Americans in the Deep South of the United States around the end of the 19th century. The genre developed from roots in African musical traditions , African-American work songs , spirituals , and European folk music . Blues incorporated spirituals , work songs , field hollers , shouts , chants , and rhymed simple narrative ballads . The blues form, ubiquitous in jazz , rhythm and blues and rock and roll , is characterized by the call-and-response pattern, the blues scale and specific chord progressions , of which the twelve-bar blues is the most common. Blue notes (or "worried notes"), usually thirds or fifths flattened in pitch , are also an essential part of the sound. Blues shuffles or walking bass reinforce the trance-like rhythm and form a repetitive effect known as the groove . Blues as a genre is also characterized by its lyrics, bass lines, and instrumentation. Early traditional blues verses consisted of a single line repeated four times.



List of music venues

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Lists of notable venues worldwide including theaters, clubs, arenas, convention centers and stadiums, all which can host concert (music related) Africa Egypt Opened Venue City Capacity Egypt 2007 Borg El Arab Stadium Alexandria 86,000 1960 Cairo International Stadium Cairo 74,100 Unknown The Covered Hall 20,000 Libya Opened Venue City Capacity Libya 1970 June 11 Stadium Tripoli 67,000 Morocco Opened Venue City Capacity Morocco 1983 Prince Moulay Abdellah Stadium Rabat 52,000 Unknown OLM Souissi 55,431 March 6, 1955 Stade Mohamed V Casablanca 80,000 January 5, 2011 Stade de Marrakech Marrakech 45,240 November 25, 2007 Fez Stadium Fez 45,000 Tunisia Opened Venue City Capacity Tunisia 1967 Stade El Menzah Tunis 39,858 South Africa Venue City Capacity South Africa FNB Stadium Johannesburg End-stage: 67,000 / Center-stage: 94,000 Ticketpro Dome 16,000-20,000 Ellis Park Stadium 63,000 Johannesburg Stadium 37,000 Cape Town Stadium Cape Town End-stage: 51,000 / Center-stage: 73,000 Newlands Stadium 52,000 Bellville V



Cinema of India

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The cinema of India also known by its sobriquet Indywood consists of films produced across India. Cinema has immense popularity in the country. As many as 1,600 films in various languages of India are produced every year. Indian films have also wide following throughout the rest of South Asia and it is even available in mainstream cinemas in parts of the Greater Middle East , Southeast Asia , Eastern Africa and elsewhere. Dadasaheb Phalke is known as the "father of Indian cinema". The Dadasaheb Phalke Award , for lifetime contribution to cinema, was instituted in his honour, by the Government of India in 1969, and is the most prestigious and coveted award in Indian cinema. In the 20th century , Indian cinema, along with the Hollywood and Chinese film industries , became a global enterprise. As of 2013, in terms of annual film output, India ranks first, followed by Nollywood , Hollywood and China. In 2012, India produced 1,602 feature films. The Indian film industry reached overall revenues of $1.86



Sepia (color)

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Sepia is a reddish-brown color , named after the rich brown pigment derived from the ink sac of the common cuttlefish Sepia . The word sepia is the Latinized form of the Greek σηπία, sēpía, cuttlefish . Sepia ink consists of melanin nanoparticles of size 100 to 200 nm . Sepia in culture Sepia ink used for writing, drawing and as a colored wash by Leonardo da Vinci Ink Sepia ink was commonly used as writing ink in Greco-Roman civilization . It remained in common use as an artist's drawing material until the 19th century. Magazines There was a magazine for African-Americans called Sepia , which existed from 1947 to 1983. Music In the late 1940s and early 1950s, R & B ( rhythm and blues ) music was called race music or sepia music. Painting Grisaille is a painting technique in which a painting is rendered solely in tones of gray , sepia, or dark green . In the last quarter of the 18th century, Professor Jacob Seydelmann of Dresden developed a process to extract and produce a more concentrated form of sepia



Classical music

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Montage of male classical music composers . From left to right: Top row: Antonio Vivaldi , Johann Sebastian Bach , George Frideric Handel , Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , Ludwig van Beethoven ; second row: Gioachino Rossini , Felix Mendelssohn , Frédéric Chopin , Richard Wagner , Giuseppe Verdi ; third row: Johann Strauss II , Johannes Brahms , Georges Bizet , Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky , Antonín Dvořák ; bottom row: Edvard Grieg , Edward Elgar , Sergei Rachmaninoff , George Gershwin , Aram Khachaturian Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music , including both liturgical (religious) and secular music. While a more accurate term is also used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820 (the Classical period ), this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods. The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common-practice p



Pitch (music)

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Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency -related scale , or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies . Pitch can be determined only in sounds that have a frequency that is clear and stable enough to distinguish from noise . Pitch is a major auditory attribute of musical tones , along with duration , loudness , and timbre . Pitch may be quantified as a frequency , but pitch is not a purely objective physical property; it is a subjective psychoacoustical attribute of sound. Historically, the study of pitch and pitch perception has been a central problem in psychoacoustics, and has been instrumental in forming and testing theories of sound representation, processing, and perception in the auditory system. Perception of pitch Pitch and frequency Pitch is an auditory sensation in which a listener assigns musical tones to relative positions on a musical scale based pr



Bebop

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Bebop or bop is a style of jazz developed in the early to mid-1940s in the United States, which features songs characterized by a fast tempo, complex chord progressions with rapid chord changes and numerous changes of key , instrumental virtuosity, and improvisation based on a combination of harmonic structure , the use of scales and occasional references to the melody . Bebop developed as the younger generation of jazz musicians expanded the creative possibilities of jazz beyond the popular, dance-oriented swing style with a new "musician's music" that was not as danceable and demanded close listening. As bebop was not intended for dancing, it enabled the musicians to play at faster tempos. Bebop musicians explored advanced harmonies, complex syncopation, altered chords , extended chords , chord substitutions, asymmetrical phrasing, and intricate melodies. Bebop groups used rhythm sections in a way that expanded their role. Whereas the key ensemble of the swing era was the big band of up to fourteen pieces



The Star-Spangled Banner

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" The Star-Spangled Banner " is the national anthem of the United States of America . The lyrics come from " Defence of Fort M'Henry ", a poem written on September 14, 1814, by the 35-year-old lawyer and amateur poet Francis Scott Key after witnessing the bombardment of Fort McHenry by British ships of the Royal Navy in Baltimore Harbor during the Battle of Baltimore in the War of 1812 . Key was inspired by the large American flag , the Star-Spangled Banner , flying triumphantly above the fort during the American victory. The poem was set to the tune of a popular British song written by John Stafford Smith for the Anacreontic Society , a men's social club in London. " To Anacreon in Heaven " (or "The Anacreontic Song"), with various lyrics, was already popular in the United States. Set to Key's poem and renamed "The Star-Spangled Banner", it soon became a well-known American patriotic song. With a range of one octave and one fifth (a semitone more than an octave and a half), it is known for being difficult t



Film score

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A film score (also sometimes called background score , background music , movie soundtrack , film music or incidental music ) is original music written specifically to accompany a film. The score forms part of the film's soundtrack , which also usually includes dialogue and sound effects , and comprises a number of orchestral, instrumental, or choral pieces called cues , which are timed to begin and end at specific points during the film in order to enhance the dramatic narrative and the emotional impact of the scene in question. Scores are written by one or more composers , under the guidance of, or in collaboration with, the film's director or producer and are then usually performed by an ensemble of musicians – most often comprising an orchestra or band, instrumental soloists, and choir or vocalists – and recorded by a sound engineer . Film scores encompass an enormous variety of styles of music, depending on the nature of the films they accompany. The majority of scores are orchestral works rooted in Wes



Henry Murray

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Henry Alexander Murray (May 13, 1893 – June 23, 1988) was an American psychologist at Harvard University . He was Director of the Harvard Psychological Clinic in the School of Arts and Sciences after 1930. Murray developed a theory of personality called personology, based on " need " and "press". Murray was also a co-developer, with Christiana Morgan , of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), which he referred to as "the second best-seller that Harvard ever published, second only to the Harvard Handbook of Music." Early life, education Henry Murray was born into a wealthy family in New York in 1893. He had an older sister and a younger brother. Carver and Scheier note that "he got on well with his father but had a poor relationship with his mother", resulting in a deep-seated feeling of depression . They hypothesize that the disruption of this relationship led Murray to be especially aware of people's needs and their importance as underlying determinants of behavior. At Harvard, he majored in history with a p



1920s in Western fashion

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Actors Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford on board the SS Lapland wearing fashions of the early 1920s A drawing picturing French women's fashion in the 1920s Tennis player, Sydney 1924 The 1920s is the decade in which fashion entered the modern era. It was the decade in which women first abandoned the more restricting fashions of past years and began to wear more comfortable clothes (such as short skirts or trousers ). Men also abandoned highly formal daily attire and even began to wear athletic clothing for the first time. The suits men wear today are still based, for the most part, on those worn in the late 1920s. The 1920s are characterized by two distinct periods of fashion. In the early part of the decade, change was slow, as many were reluctant to adopt new styles. From 1925, the public passionately embraced the styles associated with the Roaring Twenties . These styles continue to characterize fashion until 1932. Overview After World War One , the United States entered a prosperous era and, as a resul



Sound recording and reproduction

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Frances Densmore recording Blackfoot chief Mountain Chief on a cylinder phonograph for the Bureau of American Ethnology (1916) Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical , mechanical , electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music , or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog recording and digital recording . Prior to the development of sound recording, there were mechanical systems for encoding and reproducing instrumental music, such as wind-up music boxes and, later, player pianos . Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that can detect and sense the changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and record them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record (in which a stylus cuts grooves on a record). In magnetic tape recording, the sound waves vibrate the microphone diaphragm and are converted into a varying



Ray Charles

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Ray Charles Robinson (September 23, 1930 – June 10, 2004), known professionally as Ray Charles , was an American singer-songwriter, musician, and composer. Among friends and fellow musicians he preferred being called "Brother Ray." He was often referred to as "The Genius." Charles was blind from the age of seven. He pioneered the genre of soul music during the 1950s by combining blues , rhythm and blues , and gospel styles into the music he recorded for Atlantic Records . He also contributed to the integration of country music , rhythm and blues and pop music during the 1960s with his crossover success on ABC Records , most notably with his two Modern Sounds albums. While he was with ABC, Charles became one of the first black musicians to be granted artistic control by a mainstream record company. Charles cited Nat King Cole as a primary influence, but his music was also influenced by country, jazz , blues, and rhythm and blues artists of the day, including Louis Jordan and Charles Brown. He became fr



Player piano

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A restored pneumatic player piano '> Steinway reproducing piano from 1920. Harold Bauer playing Saint-Saëns ' Piano Concerto No. 2 in G minor, Op. 22 , excerpt of 3rd movement. Duo-Art recording 5973-4 A player piano (also known as pianola ) is a self-playing piano , containing a pneumatic or electro-mechanical mechanism that operates the piano action via pre-programmed music recorded on perforated paper, or in rare instances, metallic rolls , with more modern implementations using MIDI . The rise of the player piano grew with the rise of the mass-produced piano for the home in the late 19th and early 20th century. Sales peaked in 1924, then declined as the improvement in phonograph recordings due to electrical recording methods developed in the mid-1920s. The advent of electrical amplification in home music reproduction via radio in the same period helped cause their eventual decline in popularity, and the stock market crash of 1929 virtually wiped out production. Predecessors The idea of automatic musical



Piano

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The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard , which is a row of keys (small levers) that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings. The word piano is a shortened form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument, which in turn derives from gravicembalo col piano e forte and fortepiano . The Italian musical terms piano and forte indicate "soft" and "loud" respectively, in this context referring to the variations in volume (i.e., loudness) produced in response to a pianist's touch or pressure on the keys: the greater the velocity of a key press, the greater the force of the hammer hitting the strings, and the louder the sound of the note produced and the stronger the attack. The first fortepianos in the 1700s had a quie



Hillbilly

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The Hatfield clan in 1897 Hillbilly is a term (often derogatory ) for people who dwell in rural , mountainous areas in the United States , primarily in Appalachia and the Ozarks . Due to its strongly stereotypical connotations, the term can be offensive to those Americans of Appalachian or Ozark heritage. The first known instances of "hillbilly" in print were in The Railroad Trainmen's Journal (vol. ix, July 1892), an 1899 photograph of men and women in West Virginia labeled "Camp Hillbilly", and a 1900 New York Journal article containing the definition: "a Hill-Billie is a free and untrammeled white citizen of Alabama, who lives in the hills, has no means to speak of, dresses as he can, talks as he pleases, drinks whiskey when he gets it, and fires off his revolver as the fancy takes him". The stereotype is twofold in that it incorporates both positive and negative traits: "Hillbillies" are often considered independent and self-reliant individuals who resist the modernization of society, but at the same t

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Rastafari

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Rastafari , sometimes termed Rastafarianism , is an Abrahamic religion . Classified as a new religious movement , it developed in Jamaica during the 1930s. It lacks any centralised authority and there is much heterogeneity among practitioners, who are known as Rastafari, Rastafarians, or Rastas. Rastafari refer to their beliefs, which are based on a specific interpretation of the Bible , as "Rastalogy". Central is a monotheistic belief in a single God—referred to as Jah —who partially resides within each individual. The former emperor of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie , is given central importance. Many Rastas regard him as an incarnation of Jah on Earth and as the Second Coming of Christ . Others regard him as a human prophet who fully recognised the inner divinity within every individual. Rastafari is Afrocentric and focuses its attention on the African diaspora , which it believes is oppressed within Western society, or "Babylon". Many Rastas call for the resettlement of the African diaspora in either Ethiopia o



Dust Bowl

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Map of states and counties affected by the Dust Bowl between 1935 and 1938 originally prepared by the Soil Conservation Service . The most severely affected counties are colored   . A farmer and his two sons during a dust storm in Cimarron County, Oklahoma , April 1936. Iconic photo taken by Arthur Rothstein . The Dust Bowl , also known as the Dirty Thirties , was a period of severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the American and Canadian prairies during the 1930s; severe drought and a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion (the Aeolian processes ) caused the phenomenon. The drought came in three waves, 1934, 1936, and 1939–1940, but some regions of the high plains experienced drought conditions for as many as eight years. With insufficient understanding of the ecology of the plains, farmers had conducted extensive deep plowing of the virgin topsoil of the Great Plains during the previous decade; this had displaced the native, deep-rooted grasses tha



Great Depression

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Dorothea Lange 's Migrant Mother depicts destitute pea pickers in California , centering on Florence Owens Thompson , age 32, a mother of seven children, in Nipomo, California , March 1936 USA annual real GDP from 1910 to 1960, with the years of the Great Depression (1929–1939) highlighted. The unemployment rate in the U.S. during 1910–60, with the years of the Great Depression (1929–39) highlighted. The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations; in most countries it started in 1929 and lasted until 1941. It was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how far the world's economy can decline. The depression originated in the United States , after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, and became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929 (known as



List of Academy Award-winning films

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This is a list of Academy Award–winning films . This list contains many films that won Academy Awards , up to and including the 89th Academy Awards held on February 26, 2017. List of films If a film won the Academy Award for Best Picture , its entry is listed in a shaded background with a boldface title. Any column in this list may be sorted by clicking the arrow symbol to the right of the desired column heading. Note: Competitive awards are separated from honorary awards; as such, any films that were awarded the latter will be shown in brackets next to the number of competitive wins. Film Year Awards Nominations Moonlight 2016 3 8 La La Land 2016 6 14 Hacksaw Ridge 2016 2 6 Manchester by the Sea 2016 2 6 Arrival 2016 1 8 Fences 2016 1 4 Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them 2016 1 2 The Jungle Book 2016 1 1 O.J.: Made in America 2016 1 1 Piper 2016 1 1 The Salesman 2016 1 1 Sing 2016 1 1 Suicide Squad 2016 1 1 The White Helmets 2016 1 1 Zootopia 2016 1 1 Spotlight 2015 2 6 Mad Max: Fury Road 2015 6 10 The



Academy Award for Best Original Song

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The Academy Award for Best Original Song is one of the awards given annually to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). It is presented to the songwriters who have composed the best original song written specifically for a film. The performers of a song are not credited with the Academy Award unless they contributed either to music, lyrics or both in their own right. The songs that are nominated for this award are performed during the ceremony and before this award is presented. The award category was introduced at the 7th Academy Awards , the ceremony honoring the best in film for 1934. Nominations are made by Academy members who are songwriters and composers , and the winners are chosen by the Academy membership as a whole. Eligibility "There must be a clearly audible, intelligible, substantive rendition (not necessarily visually presented) of both lyrics and melody, used in the body of the motion picture or as the first music cue in the end



List of highest-certified music artists in the United States

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This is the list of the top 100 highest-certified music artists in the United States based on album certifications by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). RIAA certifications are based on wholesale shipments rather than retail sales. Since 2016, the RIAA album certification has also included on-demand audio/video streams (1,500 streams = 1 album unit ) and track sale equivalent (10 track sales = 1 album unit). Additionally, awards are only presented if and when a record company applies for certification. Therefore, the total certified units for a given artist may be incomplete or out of date. The RIAA began its certifications in 1958, therefore, popular artists from earlier eras are generally not represented on this list. Table References " ' Top Artists' By Certifications" . Recording Industry Association of America . Retrieved June 3, 2014 . http://www.billboard.com/articles/business/6859551/riaa-streaming-gold-platinum-certification-methodology See also List of best-selling music artists



Rock and roll

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Rock and Roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll ) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s, from African American musical styles such as gospel , jump blues , jazz , boogie woogie , and rhythm and blues , along with country music . While elements of rock and roll can be heard in blues records from the 1920s and in country records of the 1930s, the genre did not acquire its name until 1954. According to Greg Kot , "rock and roll" refers to a style of popular music originating in the U.S. in the 1950s prior to its development by the mid-1960s into "the more encompassing international style known as rock music, though the latter also continued to be known as rock and roll." For the purpose of differentiation, this article deals with the first definition. In the earliest rock and roll styles of the late 1940s and early 1950s, either the piano or saxophone was often the lead instrument, but these were generally repla

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Big band

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A big band is a type of musical ensemble that usually consists of ten or more musicians with four sections: saxophones , trumpets , trombones , and a rhythm section . Big bands originated after 1914 and dominated jazz until about 1950, though different kinds of bands, small and large, existed before and after that period. The fluid nature of jazz prevents precise definitions. During the 1910s, jazz was moving out of its birthplace of New Orleans into northern cities such as Chicago and New York City and incorporating other styles of music. Big bands started as accompaniment for dancing. They relied on written compositions and arrangements, rather than improvisation, and gave a greater role to bandleaders, arrangers, and sections of instruments, rather than soloists. History Dance music Paul Whiteman and his orchestra in 1921. Whiteman's principal arranger, Ferde Grofé, is seated at the piano to the right. Photo is from sheet music cover in the collection of Fredrik Tersmeden (Lund, Sweden). Before 1914, socia




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