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Ötzi the Iceman

Ötzi is located in Alps
Ötzi
Discovery site marked on a map of the Alps

Ötzi (German pronun­cia­tion: ; also called the Iceman, the Similaun Man, the Man from Hauslabjoch, the Tyrolean Iceman, and the Hauslabjoch mummy) is a nickname given to the well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived around 3,300 BCE, more precisely between 3359 and 3105 BCE, with a 66 percent chance that he died between 3239 and 3105 BCE.[2] The mummy was found in September 1991 in the Ötztal Alps, hence the nickname "Ötzi", near Similaun mountain and Hauslabjoch on the border between Austria and Italy.[3] He is Europe's oldest known natural human mummy, and has offered an unprecedented view of Chalcolithic Europeans. His body and belongings are displayed in the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano, South Tyrol, Italy.

Discovery
Ötzi the Iceman half uncovered, face down in a pool of water with iced banks
Ötzi the Iceman while still frozen in the glacier, photographed by Helmut Simon upon the discovery of the body in September 1991

Ötzi was found on September 19, 1991 by two German tourists, at an elevation of 3,210 metres (10,530 ft) on the east ridge of the Fineilspitze in the Ötztal Alps on the Austrian–Italian border. The tourists, Helmut and Erika Simon, were walking off the path between the mountain passes Hauslabjoch and Tisenjoch. They believed that the body was of a recently deceased mountaineer.[4] The next day, a mountain gendarme and the keeper of the nearby Similaunhütte first attempted to remove the body, which was frozen in ice below the torso, using a pneumatic drill and ice-axes, but had to give up due to bad weather. The next day, eight groups visited the site, among whom happened to be the famous mountaineers Hans Kammerlander and Reinhold Messner. The body was semi-officially extracted on 22 September and officially salvaged the following day. It was transported to the office of the medical examiner in Innsbruck, together with other objects found. On 24 September the find was examined there by archaeologist Konrad Spindler of the University of Innsbruck. He dated the find to be "about four thousand years old", based on the typology of an axe among the retrieved objects.[5] [6]

At the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye of 1919, the border between North and South Tyrol was defined as the watershed of the rivers Inn and Etsch. However, near Tisenjoch the (now withdrawn) glacier complicated establishing the watershed at the time and the border was established too far north. Therefore, although Ötzi's find site drains to the Austrian side, surveys in October 1991 showed that the body had been located 92.56 metres (101.22 yd) inside Italian territory as delineated in 1919.[7] The province of South Tyrol therefore claimed property rights, but agreed to let Innsbruck University finish its scientific examinations. Since 1998, it has been on display at the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano, the capital of South Tyrol.

It is possible that Ötzi's death may have been recorded on an ancient stone stela. The decorated stone, of roughly the same age as the Ice Man, had been used to build the altar of a church in Latsch, a town close to the area where the discovery of Ötzi was made. One of the carvings shows an archer being poised to fire an arrow towards the back of an unarmed man who is running away.[8]

Scientific analyses

The corpse has been extensively examined, measured, X-rayed, and dated. Tissues and intestinal contents have been examined microscopically, as have the items found with the body. In August 2004, frozen bodies of three Austro-Hungarian soldiers killed during the Battle of San Matteo (1918) were found on the mountain Punta San Matteo in Trentino. One body was sent to a museum in the hope that research on how the environment affected its preservation would help unravel Ötzi's past.[9]

Body

By current estimates, at the time of his death Ötzi was approximately 1.65 metres (5 ft 5 in) tall,[10] weighed about 61 kilograms (134 lb)[11] and was about 45 years of age.[10] When his body was found, it weighed 13.750 kilograms (30.31 lb).[12] Because the body was covered in ice shortly after his death, it had only partially deteriorated. Initial reports claimed that his penis and most of his scrotum were missing, but this was later shown to be unfounded.[13] Analysis of pollen, dust grains and the isotopic composition of his tooth enamel indicates that he spent his childhood near the present village of Feldthurns, north of Bolzano, but later went to live in valleys about 50 kilometres farther north.[14]

The Iceman from the chest up lying on stainless steel table, with his left arm across his body just between the top of his right shoulder and under his chin
Ötzi the Iceman, now housed at the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano, Italy

Analysis of Ötzi's intestinal contents showed two meals (the last one consumed about eight hours before his death), one of chamois meat, the other of red deer and herb bread. Both were eaten with grain as well as roots and fruits. The grain from both meals was a highly processed einkorn wheat bran,[15] quite possibly eaten in the form of bread. In the proximity of the body, and thus possibly originating from the Iceman's provisions, chaff and grains of einkorn and barley, and seeds of flax and poppy were discovered, as well as kernels of sloes (small plumlike fruits of the blackthorn tree) and various seeds of berries growing in the wild.[16] Hair analysis was used to examine his diet from several months before.

Pollen in the first meal showed that it had been consumed in a mid-altitude conifer forest, and other pollens indicated the presence of wheat and legumes, which may have been domesticated crops. Pollen grains of hop-hornbeam were also discovered. The pollen was very well preserved, with the cells inside remaining intact, indicating that it had been fresh (a few hours old) at the time of Ötzi's death, which places the event in the spring. Einkorn wheat is harvested in the late summer, and sloes in the autumn; these must have been stored from the previous year.

In 2009, a CAT scan revealed that the stomach had shifted upward to where his lower lung area would normally be. Analysis of the contents revealed the partly digested remains of ibex meat, confirmed by DNA analysis, suggesting he had a meal less than two hours before his death. Wheat grains were also found.[17]

High levels of both copper particles and arsenic were found in Ötzi's hair. This, along with Ötzi's copper axe blade, which is 99.7% pure copper, has led scientists to speculate that Ötzi was involved in copper smelting.[18]

By examining the proportions of Ötzi's tibia, femur and pelvis, Christopher Ruff has determined that Ötzi's lifestyle included long walks over hilly terrain. This degree of mobility is not characteristic of other Copper Age Europeans. Ruff proposes that this may indicate that Ötzi was a high-altitude shepherd.[19]

Using modern 3-D technology, a facial reconstruction has been created for the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano, Italy. It shows Ötzi looking old for his 45 years, with deep-set brown eyes, a beard, a furrowed face, and sunken cheeks. He is depicted looking tired and ungroomed.[20]

Health

Ötzi apparently had whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), an intestinal parasite. During CT scans, it was observed that three or four of his right ribs had been cracked when he had been lying face down after death, or where the ice had crushed his body. One of his fingernails (of the two found) shows three Beau's lines indicating he was sick three times in the six months before he died. The last incident, two months before he died, lasted about two weeks.[21] Also, it was found that his epidermis, the outer skin layer, was missing, a natural process from his mummification in ice.[11] Ötzi's teeth showed considerable internal deterioration from cavities. These oral pathologies may have been brought about by his grain-heavy, high carbohydrate diet.[22] DNA analysis in February 2012 revealed that Ötzi was lactose intolerant, supporting the theory that lactose intolerance was still common at that time, despite the increasing spread of agriculture and dairying.[23]

Skeletal details and tattooing

Ötzi had a total of 61 tattoos (or Soot tattoos), consisting of 19 groups of black lines ranging from 1 to 3 mm in thickness and 7 to 40 mm long.[24] These include groups of parallel lines running along the longitudinal axis of his body and to both sides of the lumbar spine, as well as a cruciform mark behind the right knee and on the right ankle, and parallel lines around the left wrist. The greatest concentration of markings is found on his legs, which together exhibit 12 groups of lines.[25] A microscopic examination of samples collected from these tattoos revealed that they were created from pigment manufactured out of fireplace ash or soot.[26]

Radiological examination of Ötzi's bones showed "age-conditioned or strain-induced degeneration" corresponding to many tattooed areas, including osteochondrosis and slight spondylosis in the lumbar spine and wear-and-tear degeneration in the knee and especially in the ankle joints.[27] It has been speculated that these tattoos may have been related to pain relief treatments similar to acupressure or acupuncture.[25] If so, this is at least 2,000 years before their previously known earliest use in China (c. 1000 BCE).[28] Recent research into archaeological evidence for ancient tattooing has confirmed that Ötzi is the oldest tattooed human mummy yet discovered.[29] [30]

Clothes and shoes
Archeoparc (Schnals valley / South Tyrol). Museum: Reconstruction of the neolithic clothes worn by Ötzi
Line drawing of a right shoe
An artist's impression of Ötzi's right shoe

Ötzi's clothes were sophisticated. He wore a cloak made of woven grass[31] and a coat, a belt, a pair of leggings, a loincloth and shoes, all made of leather of different skins. He also wore a bearskin cap with a leather chin strap. The shoes were waterproof and wide, seemingly designed for walking across the snow; they were constructed using bearskin for the soles, deer hide for the top panels, and a netting made of tree bark. Soft grass went around the foot and in the shoe and functioned like modern socks. The coat, belt, leggings and loincloth were constructed of vertical strips of leather sewn together with sinew. His belt had a pouch sewn to it that contained a cache of useful items: a scraper, drill, flint flake, bone awl and a dried fungus.[32]

The shoes have since been reproduced by a Czech academic, who said that "because the shoes are actually quite complex, I'm convinced that even 5,300 years ago, people had the equivalent of a cobbler who made shoes for other people". The reproductions were found to constitute such excellent footwear that it was reported that a Czech company offered to purchase the rights to sell them.[33] However, a more recent hypothesis by British archaeologist Jacqui Wood says that Ötzi's "shoes" were actually the upper part of snowshoes. According to this theory, the item currently interpreted as part of a "backpack" is actually the wood frame and netting of one snowshoe and animal hide to cover the face.[34]

The leather loincloth and hide coat were made from sheepskin. Genetic analysis showed that the sheep species was nearer to modern domestic European sheep than to wild sheep; the items were made from the skins of at least four animals. Part of the coat was made from domesticated goat belonging to a mitochondrial haplogroup (a common female ancestor) that inhabits central Europe today.

The coat was made from several animals from two different species and was stitched together with hides available at the time.

The leggings were made from domesticated goat leather. A similar set of 6,500-year-old leggings discovered in Switzerland were made from goat leather which may indicate the goat leather was specifically chosen.

Shoelaces were made from the European genetic population of cattle. The quiver was made from wild roe deer, the fur hat was made from a genetic lineage of brown bear which lives in the region today. Writing in the journal Scientific Reports, researchers from Ireland and Italy reported their analysis of mitochondrial DNA, that was extracted from nine fragments from six of his garments, including his loin cloth and fur cap.[35] [36] [37]

Tools and equipment
A replica of Ötzi's copper axe

Other items found with the Iceman were a copper axe with a yew handle, a flint-bladed knife with an ash handle and a quiver of 14 arrows with viburnum and dogwood shafts. Two of the arrows, which were broken, were tipped with flint and had fletching (stabilizing fins), while the other 12 were unfinished and untipped. The arrows were found in a quiver with what is presumed to be a bow string, an unidentified tool, and an antler tool which might have been used for sharpening arrow points.[38] There was also an unfinished yew longbow that was 1.82 metres (72 in) long.[39]

In addition, among Ötzi's possessions were berries, two birch bark baskets, and two species of polypore mushrooms with leather strings through them. One of these, the birch fungus, is known to have anthelmintic properties, and was probably used for medicinal purposes.[40] The other was a type of tinder fungus, included with part of what appeared to be a complex firelighting kit. The kit featured pieces of over a dozen different plants, in addition to flint and pyrite for creating sparks.

Ötzi's copper axe was of particular interest. The axe's haft is 60 centimetres (24 in) long and made from carefully worked yew with a right-angled crook at the shoulder, leading to the blade. The 9.5 centimetres (3.7 in) long axe head is made of almost pure copper, produced by a combination of casting, cold forging, polishing, and sharpening. It was let into the forked end of the crook and fixed there using birch-tar and tight leather lashing. The blade part of the head extends out of the lashing and shows clear signs of having been used to chop and cut. At the time, such an axe would have been a valuable possession, important both as a tool and as a status symbol for the bearer.[41]

Genetic analysis

Ötzi's full genome has been sequenced; the report on this was published on 28 February 2012.[42] The Y-DNA of Ötzi belongs to a subclade of G defined by the SNPs M201, P287, P15, L223 and L91 (G-L91, ISOGG G2a2b, former "G2a4"). He was not typed for any of the subclades downstreaming from G-L91. G-L91 is now mostly found in South Corsica.

Analysis of his mitochondrial DNA showed that Ötzi belongs to the K1 subclade, but cannot be categorized into any of the three modern branches of that subclade (K1a, K1b or K1c). The new subclade has provisionally been named K1ö for Ötzi.[43] Multiplex assay study was able to confirm that the Iceman's mtDNA belongs to a previously unknown European mtDNA clade with a very limited distribution among modern data sets.[44]

By autosomal DNA, Ötzi is most closely related to southern Europeans, especially to geographically isolated populations like Corsicans and Sardinians.[45] [46] [47] [48]

DNA analysis also showed him at high risk of atherosclerosis and lactose intolerance, with the presence of the DNA sequence of Borrelia burgdorferi, possibly making him the earliest known human with Lyme disease.[42] [49] A later analysis suggested the sequence may have been a different Borrelia species.[50]

A 2012 paper by paleoanthropologist John Hawks suggests that Ötzi had a higher degree of Neanderthal ancestry than modern Europeans.[51]

In October 2013, it was reported that 19 modern Tyrolean men were related to Ötzi. Scientists from the Institute of Legal Medicine at Innsbruck Medical University had analysed the DNA of over 3,700 Tyrolean male blood donors and found 19 who shared a particular genetic mutation with the 5,300-year-old man.[52]

Blood

In May 2012, scientists announced the discovery that Ötzi still had intact blood cells. These are the oldest complete human blood cells ever identified. In most bodies this old, the blood cells are either shrunken or mere remnants, but Ötzi's have the same dimensions as living red blood cells and resembled a modern-day sample.[53] [54]

H. pylori analysis

In 2016, researchers reported on a study from the extraction of twelve samples from the gastrointestinal tract of Ötzi to analyze the origins of the Helicobacter pylori in his gut.[55] The H. pylori strain found in his gastrointestinal tract was, surprisingly, the hpAsia2 strain, a strain today found primarily in South Asian and Central Asian populations, with extremely rare occurrences in modern European populations.[55] The strain found in Ötzi's gut is most similar to three modern individuals from Northern India; the strain itself is, of course, older than the modern Northern Indian strain.[55]

Last meal

It is believed that Ötzi most likely had a few slices of the dried, fatty meat, probably bacon which came from a wild goat in South Tyrol, Italy.[56]

Cause of death
The Ötzi memorial near Tisenjoch. Ötzi was found ca. 70 m NE of here, a place indicated with a red mark. The mountain in the background is the Fineilspitze
Naturalistic reconstruction of Ötzi - South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology (2011)

The cause of death remained uncertain until 10 years after the discovery of the body.[57] It was initially believed that Ötzi died from exposure during a winter storm. Later it was speculated that Ötzi may have been a victim of a ritual sacrifice, perhaps for being a chieftain.[58] [59] This explanation was inspired by theories previously advanced for the first millennium BCE bodies recovered from peat bogs such as the Tollund Man and the Lindow Man.[59]

In 2001 X-rays and a CT scan revealed that Ötzi had an arrowhead lodged in his left shoulder when he died,[60] and a matching small tear on his coat.[61] The discovery of the arrowhead prompted researchers to theorize Ötzi died of blood loss from the wound, which would probably have been fatal even if modern medical techniques had been available.[62] Further research found that the arrow's shaft had been removed before death, and close examination of the body found bruises and cuts to the hands, wrists and chest and cerebral trauma indicative of a blow to the head. One of the cuts was to the base of his thumb that reached down to the bone but had no time to heal before his death. Currently, it is believed that the cause of death was a blow to the head, but researchers are unsure of what inflicted the fatal injury.[63]

Recent DNA analyses claim they revealed traces of blood from at least four other people on his gear: one from his knife, two from the same arrowhead, and a fourth from his coat.[64] [65] Interpretations of these findings were that Ötzi killed two people with the same arrow, and was able to retrieve it on both occasions, and the blood on his coat was from a wounded comrade he may have carried over his back.[61] Ötzi's posture in death (frozen body, face down, left arm bent across the chest) could support a theory that before death occurred and rigor mortis set in, the Iceman was turned onto his stomach in the effort to remove the arrow shaft.[66]

In 2010, it was proposed that Ötzi died at a much lower altitude and was buried higher in the mountains, as posited by archaeologist Alessandro Vanzetti of the Sapienza University of Rome and his colleagues.[67] According to their study of the items found near Ötzi and their locations, it is possible that the iceman may have been placed above what has been interpreted as a stone burial mound but was subsequently moved with each thaw cycle that created a flowing watery mix driven by gravity before being re-frozen.[68] While archaeobotanist Klaus Oeggl of the University of Innsbruck agrees that the natural process described probably caused the body to move from the ridge that includes the stone formation, he pointed out that the paper provided no compelling evidence to demonstrate that the scattered stones constituted a burial platform.[68] Moreover, biological anthropologist Albert Zink argues that the iceman's bones display no dislocations that would have resulted from a downhill slide and that the intact blood clots in his arrow wound would show damage if the body had been moved up the mountain.[68] In either case, the burial theory does not contradict the possibility of a violent cause of death.

Legal dispute

Italian law entitled the Simons to a finders' fee from the South Tyrolean provincial government of 25% of the value of Ötzi. In 1994 the authorities offered a "symbolic" reward of 10 million lire (€5,200), which the Simons turned down.[69] In 2003, the Simons filed a lawsuit which asked a court in Bolzano to recognize their role in Ötzi's discovery and declare them his "official discoverers". The court decided in the Simons' favor in November 2003, and at the end of December that year the Simons announced that they were seeking US$300,000 as their fee. The provincial government decided to appeal.[70]

In addition, two people came forward to claim that they were part of the same mountaineering party that came across Ötzi and discovered the body first:

  • Magdalena Mohar Jarc, a retired Slovenian climber, who alleged that she discovered the corpse first after falling into a crevice, and shortly after returning to a mountain hut, asked Helmut Simon to take photographs of Ötzi. She cited Reinhold Messner, who was also present in the mountain hut, as the witness to this.[71]
  • Sandra Nemeth, from Switzerland, who contended that she found the corpse before Helmut and Erika Simon, and that she spat on Ötzi to make sure that her DNA would be found on the body later. She asked for a DNA test on the remains, but experts believed that there was little chance of finding any trace.[72]

In 2005 the rival claims were heard by a Bolzano court. The legal case angered Mrs. Simon, who alleged that neither woman was present on the mountain that day.[72] In 2005, Mrs. Simon's lawyer said: "Mrs. Simon is very upset by all this and by the fact that these two new claimants have decided to appear 14 years after Ötzi was found."[72] In 2008, however, Jarc stated for a Slovene newspaper that she wrote twice to the Bolzano court in regard to her claim but received no reply whatsoever.[71]

In 2004, Helmut Simon died. Two years later, in June 2006, an appeals court affirmed that the Simons had indeed discovered the Iceman and were therefore entitled to a finder's fee. It also ruled that the provincial government had to pay the Simons' legal costs. After this ruling, Mrs. Erika Simon reduced her claim to €150,000. The provincial government's response was that the expenses it had incurred to establish a museum and the costs of preserving the Iceman should be considered in determining the finder's fee. It insisted it would pay no more than €50,000. In September 2006, the authorities appealed the case to Italy's highest court, the Court of Cassation.[70]

On 29 September 2008 it was announced that the provincial government and Mrs. Simon had reached a settlement of the dispute, under which she would receive €150,000 in recognition of Ötzi's discovery by her and her late husband and the tourist income that it attracts.[69] [73]

"Ötzi's curse"

Influenced by the "Curse of the pharaohs" and the media theme of cursed mummies, claims have been made that Ötzi is cursed. The allegation revolves around the deaths of several people connected to the discovery, recovery and subsequent examination of Ötzi. It is alleged that they have died under mysterious circumstances. These persons include co-discoverer Helmut Simon[74] and Konrad Spindler, the first examiner of the mummy in Austria in 1991.[75] To date, the deaths of seven people, of which four were accidental, have been attributed to the alleged curse. In reality hundreds of people were involved in the recovery of Ötzi and are still involved in studying the body and the artifacts found with it. The fact that a small percentage of them have died over the years has not been shown to be statistically significant.[76] [77]

See also
References
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  43. Ermini, Luca; Olivieri, Cristina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Corti, Giorgio; Bonnal, Raoul; Soares, Pedro; Luciani, Stefania; Marota, Isolina; De Bellis, Gianluca; Richards, Martin B.; Rollo, Franco (2008). "Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Tyrolean Iceman". Current Biology. 18 (21): 1687–93. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.09.028. PMID 18976917.
  44. Endicott, Phillip; Sanchez, Juan J; Pichler, Irene; Brotherton, Paul; Brooks, Jerome; Egarter-Vigl, Eduard; Cooper, Alan; Pramstaller, Peter (2009). "Genotyping human ancient mtDNA control and coding region polymorphisms with a multiplexed Single-Base-Extension assay: The singular maternal history of the Tyrolean Iceman". BMC Genetics. 10: 29. doi:10.1186/1471-2156-10-29. PMC 2717998Freely accessible. PMID 19545382.
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  47. Callaway, Ewen. "Iceman's DNA reveals health risks and relations". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2012.10130. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
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  50. Ames, S. K.; Hysom, D. A.; Gardner, S. N.; Lloyd, G. S.; Gokhale, M. B.; Allen, J. E. (4 July 2013). "Scalable metagenomic taxonomy classification using a reference genome database". Bioinformatics. 29 (18): 2253–2260. doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btt389. PMC 3753567Freely accessible. PMID 23828782.
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  54. Janko, Marek; Stark, Robert W.; Zink, Albert (2012-10-07). "Preservation of 5300 year old red blood cells in the Iceman". Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society. 9 (75): 2581–2590. doi:10.1098/rsif.2012.0174. ISSN 1742-5662. PMC 3427508Freely accessible. PMID 22552923.
  55. Maixner, Frank; Krause-Kyora, Ben (Jan 8, 2016). "The 5300-year-old Helicobacter pylori genome of the Iceman". Science. 351 (6269): 162–165. doi:10.1126/science.aad2545. PMC 4775254Freely accessible. PMID 26744403.
  56. https://phys.org/news/2017-01-iceman-oetzi-meal-stone-age.html
  57. "Who Killed the Iceman? Clues Emerge in a Very Cold Case". The New York Times. 26 March 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  58. Sarah Ives (30 October 2003), Was ancient alpine "Iceman" killed in battle?, National Geographic News, retrieved 25 October 2007
  59. Franco Rollo [], et al. (2002), "Ötzi's last meals: DNA analysis of the intestinal content of the Neolithic glacier mummy from the Alps", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99 (20): 12594–12599, doi:10.1073/pnas.192184599, PMC 130505Freely accessible, PMID 12244211
  60. Stephanie Pain (26 July 2001), Arrow points to foul play in ancient iceman's death, NewScientistTech
  61. James M. Deem (3 January 2008), Ötzi: Iceman of the Alps: Scientific studies, retrieved 6 January 2008
  62. Alok Jha (7 June 2007), "Iceman bled to death, scientists say", The Guardian
  63. Rory Carroll (21 March 2002). "How Oetzi the Iceman was stabbed in the back and lost his fight for life". The Guardian.
  64. "USATODAY.com - 'Iceman' was murdered, science sleuths say". usatoday.com.
  65. Fagan, Brian M.; Durrani, Nadia (25 September 2015). In the Beginning: An Introduction to Archaeology. Routledge. ISBN 9781317346432.
  66. Rossella Lorenzi (31 August 2007), Blow to head, not arrow, killed Otzi the iceman, Australian Broadcasting Corporation; Nicole Winfield (30 August 2007), Ancient murder mystery takes new turn, MSNBC
  67. A. Vanzetti, M. Vidale, M. Gallinaro, D.W. Frayer, and L. Bondioli. "The iceman as a burial."[Antiquity (journal)|Antiquity]. Volume: 84 Number: 325 Page: 681–692. September 2010
  68. "Prehistoric 'Iceman' gets ceremonial twist", Science News, 25 September 2010. (Retrieved 19 September 2010)
  69. (29 September 2008), 'Iceman' row ends after 17 years, BBC News
  70. James M. Deem (September 2008), Ötzi: Iceman of the Alps: Finder's fee lawsuits, Mummy Tombs, retrieved 1 October 2008
  71. "Magdaleni ne bodo plačali za Ötzija" [Magdalena Won't Get Paid for Ötzi]. Slovenske novice (in Slovenian). 9 October 2008.
  72. Nick Pisa (22 October 2005), "Cold case comes to court – After 5,300 years", The Daily Telegraph
  73. Nick Squires (29 September 2008), "Oetzi The Iceman's discoverers finally compensated: A bitter dispute over the payment of a finder's fee for two hikers who discovered the world famous Oetzi The Iceman mummy has finally been settled", The Daily Telegraph
  74. Reuters in Vienna (19 October 2004), "Iceman's finder missing", The Guardian; Stephen Goodwin (25 October 2004), "Helmut Simon: Finder of a Bronze Age man in the alpine snow [obituary]", The Independent
  75. Barbara McMahon (20 April 2005), "Scientist seen as latest 'victim' of Iceman", The Guardian
  76. "Is there an Ötzi curse?", Ötsi - the Iceman, South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology, retrieved 15 August 2012, hundreds of people have worked on the Iceman project, and many years have passed since the corpse was first discovered. It is therefore not remarkable that some of those people have since died.
  77. The Curse of the Ice Mummy, a television documentary screened on UK Channel 4 on 8 March 2007. See also Kathy Marks (5 November 2005), "Curse of Oetzi the Iceman strikes again", The Independent (also reported as Kathy Marks (5 November 2005), "Curse of Oetzi the Iceman claims another victim", New Zealand Herald); Nick Squires (5 November 2005), "Seventh victim of the Ice Man's 'curse'", The Daily Telegraph
Further reading
Articles
Books
  • Deem, James (2008), Bodies from the Ice, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, p. 64, ISBN 0-618-80045-X
  • Bortenschlager, Sigmar; Oeggl, Klaus, eds. (2000), The Iceman and His Natural Environment: Palaeobotanical Results, Wien; New York, N.Y.: Springer, ISBN 3-211-82660-2.
  • Fowler, Brenda (2000), Iceman: Uncovering the Life and Times of a Prehistoric Man Found in an Alpine Glacier, New York, N.Y.: Random House, ISBN 0-679-43167-5.
  • Spindler, Konrad (2001), The Man in the Ice: The Preserved Body of a Neolithic Man Reveals the Secrets of the Stone Age, Ewald Osers (trans.), London: Phoenix, ISBN 0-7538-1260-6.
  • De Marinis, Raffaele C.; Brillante, Giuseppe (1998), La Mummia del Similaun: Ötzi, l'Uomo Venuto dal Ghiaccio [The Mummy of the Similaun: Ötzi, the Man who Came from the Ice], Venice, Italy: Marsilio, ISBN 88-317-7073-X (Italian)
  • Fleckinger, Angelika; Steiner, Hubert (2000) [1998], L'Uomo Venuto dal Ghiaccio [The Man who Came from the Ice], Bolzano, Italy: Folio, ISBN 88-86857-03-9 (Italian)
External links
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Ötzi

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Discovery site marked on a map of the Alps Ötzi ( German pronun­cia­tion: ; also called the Iceman , the Similaun Man , the Man from Hauslabjoch , the Tyrolean Iceman , and the Hauslabjoch mummy ) is a nickname given to the well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived around 3,300 BCE , more precisely between 3359 and 3105 BCE, with a 66 percent chance that he died between 3239 and 3105 BCE. The mummy was found in September 1991 in the Ötztal Alps , hence the nickname "Ötzi", near Similaun mountain and Hauslabjoch on the border between Austria and Italy. He is Europe's oldest known natural human mummy, and has offered an unprecedented view of Chalcolithic Europeans. His body and belongings are displayed in the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano , South Tyrol , Italy. Discovery Ötzi the Iceman while still frozen in the glacier, photographed by Helmut Simon upon the discovery of the body in September 1991 Ötzi was found on September 19, 1991 by two German tourists, at an elevation of 3,210 metres



Iceman

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Look up iceman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Iceman , Ice Man , Icemen or Ice Men may refer to: Iceman (occupation) , a vendor who sells ice from a wagon or cart Film and television Iceman (1984 film) , a 1984 science fiction film Iceman (2014 film) , a 2014 Hong Kong-Chinese 3D martial arts action-comedy film Ice Men (film) , a 2004 film starring David Hewlett The Iceman (film) , a 2012 crime thriller "Iceman" (NCIS) , an episode of the American television series NCIS Ice Man (Caminhos do Coração) , a fictional character from the Brazilian telenovela Caminhos do Coração and its spin-off Os Mutantes - Caminhos do Coração "Iceman", the callsign of Lt. Tom Kazanski, a character in the film Top Gun Kimball Cho Literature and comics Iceman (comics) , a superhero appearing in Marvel Comics and a member of the X-Men Ice Man (DC Comics) , a supervillain in DC Comics, appeared in Underworld Unleashed "The Ice Man", a short story by Haruki Murakami included in his collection Blind Willow, Sleeping Woman The Ice



DJ Ötzi

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Gerhard (Gerry) Friedle (born 7 January 1971) is an Austrian entertainer and singer, better known by his stage name DJ Ötzi ( pronounced ). Successful mainly in German-speaking countries, he is best known in the English-speaking world for his 2000 single " Hey Baby (Uhh, Ahh) ", a cover version of the Bruce Channel song " Hey! Baby ". His stage name comes from Ötzi the Iceman , the name given to the 5,300-year-old frozen remains of a mummified man discovered 1991 in South Tyrol's Ötztal Alps . He is one of the most successful Austrian musicians (having sold ~15 million records), together with Udo Jürgens (~100 million records), Falco (~60 million records) and Peter Alexander . Biography Early life DJ Ötzi was born as Gerhard Friedle in St. Johann , Tirol , and is the son of DJ Anton Friedle. Shortly after birth, his mother, age 17-years at the time, gave him up for adoption . He was raised by foster parents and later by his paternal grandparents in the nearby village of Erpfendorf in Tirol . At a young ag



South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology

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South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology ( German : Südtiroler Archäologiemuseum ; Italian : Museo archeologico dell'Alto Adige ) is a archaeological museum in the city of Bolzano , South Tyrol , Italy . It is the home of the preserved body of Ötzi the Iceman . History The museum was specifically established in 1998 to house "Ötzi", a well-preserved natural mummy of a man from about 3300 BC (53 centuries ago). This is the world's oldest natural human mummy, a wet mummy, as opposed to mummies preserved by dry conditions in a desert environment. It has offered an unprecedented view of Chalcolithic ( Copper Age ) European culture. The world's oldest complete copper age axe was found among his extensive equipment which also comprised a rather complex fire lighting kit and a quiver loaded with twelve arrows, only two of which were finished, clothing and a flint knife complete with its sheath . The body is held in a climate controlled chamber within the museum at a temperature of -6 Celsius and 98% humidity, replicating



Similaun

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The Similaun ( German pronun­cia­tion: ) is a mountain in the Schnalskamm group of the Ötztal Alps . It is on the Austrian - Italian border. At 3,606 m, it is Austria's sixth highest summit. It was first ascended in 1834 by Josef Raffeiner and Theodor Kaserer. It is most famous for being the mountain on whose slopes Helmut Simon and Erika Simon discovered Ötzi the Iceman in 1991. Ötzi memorial The Similaun ( German pronun­cia­tion: ) is a mountain in the Schnalskamm group of the Ötztal Alps . It is on the Austrian - Italian border. At 3,606 m, it is Austria's sixth highest summit. It was first ascended in 1834 by Josef Raffeiner and Theodor Kaserer. It is most famous for being the mountain on whose slopes Helmut Simon and Erika Simon discovered Ötzi the Iceman in 1991. Ötzi memorial



Ötztal

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The Ötztal is an alpine valley located in Tyrol , Austria . The Ötztaler Ache river flows through the valley in a northern direction. The Ötztal separates the Stubai Alps in the east from the Ötztal Alps in the west. The valley is 65 km (40 mi) long. The northern end of the valley is at the confluence of the Ötztaler Ache and Inn rivers, 8 km east of Imst and 50 km west of Innsbruck . The only railway station of the valley, Ötztal railway station , is located here and connects the Ötztal with the Arlberg railway ( Innsbruck - Bludenz ) and also a motorway interchange to the A12 (E60) . The southern end of the valley, also called the Gurglertal, terminates at the border with Italy. The valley is formed by the main chain of the Alps , with many glaciers and high peaks, including the Weißkugel and the Similaun . The village of Obergurgl at the southern end of the Ötztal is the highest parish in Austria. The Ötztal consists of five municipalities (from north to south): Sautens , Oetz , Umhausen , Längenfeld , and



Mnemonic (play)

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Mnemonic is a play created by the British theatre company Complicite . It uses several interrelated stories to explore the subject of memory. Synopsis Mnemonic begins with a lecture by the director, who encourages the audience to try to recall past memories. It then tells two parallel stories: in one, a man named Virgil tries to find his girlfriend, Alice, who has run away to Europe to hunt for her long-lost father; the other relates the discovery of Ötzi the Iceman , a 5,000-year-old mummified corpse. Through recurring images and situations the play draws parallels between these stories, focusing on the theme of the role of the imagination in recapturing the past. References "Mnemonic", in Complicite:Plays One (Methuen, 2003) Mnemonic is a play created by the British theatre company Complicite . It uses several interrelated stories to explore the subject of memory. Synopsis Mnemonic begins with a lecture by the director, who encourages the audience to try to recall past memories. It then tells two parallel s



Jacqui Wood

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Jacqui Wood (born 4 January 1950) is a British archaeologist and writer, specializing in the daily life of prehistoric Europeans . As of 2001, she is director of Saveock Water Archaeology , and also the director and founder of Cornwall Celtic Village , a reconstructed Bronze-Iron Age settlement. She was a member of the National Education Committee of the Council for British Archaeology (CBA) for three years, and secretary of the CBA for the south west region for another three years. As of 1995, she was a member of the General Committee of the Cornwall Archaeological Society and consultant to the Eden Project in Cornwall. She has published several papers in archaeology journals and conferences, and gave many lectures throughout Europe. She has also appeared on many TV programmes about prehistoric dwellings and cooking. She also gave demonstrations of Bronze Age technology for English Heritage , researched the grass cloak of Ötzi the Iceman , as well as his shoes (which she believes are actually snowshoes ), an



Feldthurns

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Feldthurns ( German pronunciation: ; Italian : Velturno ) is a comune (municipality) in South Tyrol in northern Italy about 25 kilometres (16 mi) northeast of Bolzano . Geography As of 30 November 2010, it had a population of 2,740 and an area of 24.8 square kilometres (9.6 sq mi). Feldthurns borders Brixen , Klausen , Villnöß and Vahrn . Frazioni The municipality of Feldthurns contains the frazioni (subdivisions, mainly villages and hamlets) Garn (Caerne), Schnauders (Snodres), Schrambach (San Pietro Mezzomonte), Tschiffnon (Giovimano). History Coat-of-arms The emblem is party per fess : in the first part it's represented two embattled towers of gules , the second is checky of gules . It's the canting arms used in 1607 in the castle by the Bishops of Brixen and symbolize the German name of the municipality: towers (Thurn) over the fields (Feld). The emblem was granted in 1966. Ötzi the Iceman is attested to have spent his childhood here, some 5,300 years ago. Society Linguistic distribution According to the



Mondsee group

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The Mondsee group was a neolithic Austrian Pile dwelling culture spanning the period from roughly 3800 to 2800 BC, of particular interest due to its production of the characteristic "Mondsee-Copper" ( arsenical bronze ), apparently the first in central Europe to emulate the Serbian Vinča culture . The 1854 chance discovery of a prehistoric lake village on Switzerland's Zürichsee triggered interest in neighboring countries, and pile dwellings with huge amount of artifacts were discovered by Matthäus Much from 1864 until the 1870s in two Austrian provinces, Carinthia and Upper Austria 's Salzkammergut where the lake Mondsee is situated. The graph of calibrated radiocarbon dates shows a maximum range of 3800–2800 cal BC, but dating is problematic as the dates have a very large standard deviation . Mondsee is sometimes seen as a “culture” in its own right or (usually) as a “group” within the Funnel Beaker culture /interaction sphere (TRB) of Central/Northern Europe because its pottery and stone tools show affinit



Schnidejoch

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Descending to Wildhorn (March 2007). Fibulae , the one found at Schnidejoch in the middle. The Schnidejoch is a mountain pass in the Bernese Alps , at 2,756 m (9,042 ft) above sea level, cutting across the ridge connecting the Schnidehorn and the Wildhorn . Archaeological artifacts, their dates spread over six millennia (from the Neolithic to the Late Middle Ages), have been discovered near the pass. They suggest that the pass was in regular use as a short route across the Bernese Alps, connecting the Bernese Oberland and the Valais , throughout this period. The nearest easier passes across the massif are the Sanetschpass (2,252 m (7,388 ft)) and the Rawilpass (2,429 m (7,969 ft)), situated a short distance to the west and east, respectively. In September 2003, Bronze Age or Neolithic artifacts were discovered at the icefield just below the pass, at ca. 2,500 m (8,200 ft). The discovery was made possible by the melting away of the formerly permanent ice field during the exceptionally hot summer of 2003. Furth



Amadou

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Amadou is a spongy material derived from Fomes fomentarius fungi that grow on the bark of coniferous and angiosperm trees, and have the appearance of a horse's hoof (thus the name "horse fungus"). It is also known as the "tinder fungus" and is useful for starting slow-burning fires. The fungus must be removed from the tree, the hard outer layer scraped off, and then thin strips of the inner spongy layer cut for use as tinder . Amadou was a precious resource to ancient people, allowing them to start a fire by catching sparks from flint struck against iron pyrites . Remarkable evidence for this is provided by the discovery of the 5,000-year-old remains of " Ötzi the Iceman ", who carried it on a cross-alpine excursion before his death and subsequent ice-entombment. Amadou has great water-absorbing abilities. It is used in fly fishing for drying out dry flies that have become wet. Another use is for forming a felt -like fabric used in the making of hats and other items. Before such uses, amadou needs to be pr



Coin purse

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A purse or pouch (from the Latin bursa , which in turn is from the Greek βύρσα , býrsa, oxhide ), sometimes called coin purse for clarity, is a small money bag or pouch, made for carrying coins . In most Commonwealth countries it is known simply as a purse , while "purse" in the United States usually refers to a handbag . "Purse" can also be a synonym to bursary (which has the same origin), i.e. a monetary prize in a competition. In recent times a coin purse can also be transposed as a phone wallet replacing coins for a modern alternative, the mobile phone. History The oldest known purse was found with Ötzi the Iceman who lived around 3,300 BC. Another early example is on Egyptian hieroglyphs , which show pouches worn around the waist. The purse-lid from the Sutton Hoo burial is a very elaborate, probably royal, metalwork cover for a (presumably) leather Anglo-Saxon purse of about 600AD. In Europe they often showed social status based on the embroidery and quality of the bag. Antique Indian purse, used by wo



33rd century BC

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The 33rd century BC is a century which lasted from the year 3300 BC to 3201 BC. Events The sun shines over Saharan dunes Major climate shift possibly due to shift in solar activity. Glaciers expand, covering plants. Atmospheric temperatures fall. Sahara changes from a habitable region into a barren desert Ancient Egypt begins using clay , bone and ivory tags to label boxes, possibly an example of proto-writing Indus Valley Civilization (also known as Harappan civilization or Sindu-Sarasvati civilization) begins in Harappa c. 3300 BC, Harappan script is discovered in Indus Valley (present day Pakistan ) c. 3300 BC— Pictographs in Uruk 3300 BC to 3000 BC : Face of a woman , from Uruk (modern Warka , Iraq ) is made. It is now in the Iraq Museum , Baghdad (stolen and recovered in 2003). c. 3300 BC The Red Temple, the first phase of the Monte d'Accoddi sanctuary in Northwest Sardinia , is built. 3300-3000 BC Evidence of proto-Thracians or proto-Dacians in the prehistoric period. Proto-Dacian or proto-Thracian peop



Plomo Mummy

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The Enterratorio where the mummy was found, at the secondary summit of El Plomo, 10 m left of the frozen lake. (Altitude 5400 m) The Adoratorio near the site where the mummy was found. (Altitude 5200 m) The Plomo Mummy (also known as Boy of El Plomo , El Plomo Mummy , or La Momia del Cerro El Plomo in Spanish) is the well preserved remains of an Incan child found on Cerro El Plomo near Santiago, Chile in 1954. It was the first frozen mummy discovery of high-altitude human sacrifice by the Incas, a practice called qhapaq hucha . The mummy is curated by the National Museum of Natural History in Santiago, Chile and it has a replica of the mummy on public display. See also Mummy Juanita Ötzi the Iceman Children of Llullaillaco References Tierney, Patrick (1990). The highest altar : unveiling the mystery of human sacrifice. New York, N.Y., U.S.A.: Penguin Books. ISBN   978-0140139747 . Clark, Liesl (November 24, 1998). "Ice Mummies of the Inca" . pbs.org . Retrieved 24 July 2012 . The first frozen high mountain



Areni-1 shoe

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The Areni-1 shoe is a 5,500-year-old leather shoe that was found in 2008 in excellent condition in the Areni-1 cave complex located in the Vayots Dzor province of Armenia . It is a one-piece leather-hide shoe that has been dated as a few hundred years older than the one found on Ötzi the Iceman , making it the oldest piece of leather footwear in the world known to contemporary researchers. Much older footwear, 10,000-year-old sandals made of sagebrush fiber, has been discovered in the United States at Fort Rock Cave in Oregon . By evidence found to date, the use of shoes arose between 40,000 and 26,000 years ago. The discovery was made by an international team led by Boris Gasparyan , an archaeologist from the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia (co-directors of the project are Ron Pinhasi from University College Cork in Ireland, and Gregory Areshian from UCLA). Discovery An Armenian post-graduate student, Diana Zardaryan , discovered the leather shoe in



Klaus Oeggl

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Klaus Oeggl (born 1955 in Innsbruck ) is an Austrian botanist , and deals with palaeoecology and archaeobotany . He is well known for his studies on the life-circumstances and on the environment of the Neolithic glacier mummy „ Ötzi “. Life Klaus Oeggl studied biology and Earth sciences at the University of Innsbruck , where he graduated in 1981. In 1987 he obtained his doctorate in botany. Between 1982 and 1983 Klaus Oeggl taught at secondary schools. In 1983 he changed to Innsbruck University, where he started as lector at the Institute of Botany first. Then followed employments as university assistant of Sigmar Bortenschlager at this institute. In 1997 he became associate professor. Since 2011 he holds a professorship of palynology and archaeobotany and leads the research group of the same name at the Institute of Botany. In the context of his teaching activities he was guest lecturer at the University of Bergen , guest professor at the Suranaree University of Technology in Thailand and at the Free Univers



1991 in archaeology

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The year 1991 in archaeology involved some significant events. Explorations Excavations Dmanisi , Georgia . November–December - Scar boat burial , Orkney . Finds July - Rock art at Cosquer cave in Cap Morgiou , France . September - Ötzi the Iceman . September - Fourteen Ancient Egyptian Boats (First Dynasty) identified at Abydos . Cuetlajuchitlán discovered in Mexico . Remains of monks at Mor Gabriel Monastery in Turkey killed by Timur 's troops in 1401 are found in caves underneath the monastery. Cores and samples from a roof in Pueblo Bonito are dated to ca. A.D. 1082. Publications Joan M. Gero and Margaret W. Conkey (ed.) - Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-16505-3 Richard Hodges - Wall-to-Wall History: the Story of Roystone Grange. London: Duckworth ISBN 0-7156-2342-7 Charles D. Trombold and David W. Wagner - "Analysis of Prehistoric Roadways in Chaco Canyon Using Remotely Sensed Digital Data." Ancient Road Networks and Settlement Hierarchies in the New World. Ca



Big Mama stela

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Example statue menhir , as the probable equivalents to the Big Mama stela. The Big Mama stela is one of a group of steles from the Arco area of northwestern Italy. The stele may be associated with the culture to which Otzi the Iceman is archaeologically linked. The stele is one of a group of six from the region. The Big Mama stele is 7 feet (2 m) tall and made from sandstone . List of Big Mama stela iconography The iconography of the Big Mama stela is as follows: a partial glyph (lower half of a star?) adorns the worn top edge of the stele Central vertical archaic dagger at upper center chest Necklace arced above dagger six horizontal daggers, three-by-three pointed towards chest midline archaic pin -( fibula (brooch) -like), (flanked as 4th item above left three daggers) two opposed-facing halberds flanking vertical central dagger four facing vertical halberds (all six halberds, are either three triangle-bladed, or three rectangle-bladed) four-segmented "corded belt", horizontally flanks the lower 4th of the



Schnals

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Schnals ( German pronun­cia­tion: ; Italian : Senales ) is a comune (municipality) in the autonomous province of South Tyrol in northern Italy , located about 40 kilometres (25 mi) northwest of the city of Bolzano , on the border with Austria . The municipality includes large parts of the Schnalstal . Geography As of 30 November 2010, it had a population of 1,345 and an area of 211.2 square kilometres (81.5 sq mi). Schnals borders the following municipalities: Kastelbell-Tschars , Latsch , Mals , Moos in Passeier , Naturns , Partschins , Schlanders , and Sölden (Austria). Frazioni The municipality of Schnals contains the frazioni (subdivisions, mainly villages and hamlets) Karthaus (Certosa), and Katharinaberg (Monte Santa Caterina), Unser Frau (Madonna). History Coat-of-arms The shield is azure and argent party per pale . The first part represents Gabriel of or with a sword in his right hand over the head, and a scales in the left, standing on a sable dragon with a gules tongue. Three azure gyrons, with the



Mummies Alive

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Mummies Alive is a 2015 historical documentary series about mummies on Smithsonian Channel (US), History (Canada) , Yesterday (TV channel) (UK), ZDF (Germany), and SBS One (Australia). It was produced by Saloon Media and Impossible Factual, in association with Shaw Media . Directed by Mick Grogan and narrated by Jason Priestly , the six one-hour episodes center around mummies that have been found all around the world and the stories and legends surrounding their deaths. Episodes The Gunslinger Mummy Buried in a Bog Otzi the Iceman The Inca Maiden The Pharaoh's Secret The Hero of Herculaneum References http://www.history.ca/mummies-alive/episode-guide/the-gunslinger-mummy/ http://www.smithsonianchannel.com/shows/mummies-alive/the-gunslinger-mummy/1003749/3418244/ "Mummies Alive" . History . Retrieved 17 June 2015 . http://www.smithsonianchannel.com/shows/mummies-alive/buried-in-a-bog/1003749/3418242/ "Mummies Alive" . History . Retrieved 17 June 2015 . http://www.smithsonianchannel.com/shows/mummies-alive/otzi



Beau's lines

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Beau's lines are deep grooved lines that run from side to side on the fingernail or the toenail. They may look like indentations or ridges in the nail plate . This condition of the nail was named by a French physician, Joseph Honoré Simon Beau (1806–1865), who first described it in 1846. Beau's lines are horizontal, going across the nail, and should not be confused with vertical ridges going from the bottom ( cuticle ) of the nail out to the fingertip. These vertical lines are usually a natural consequence of aging and are harmless. Beau's lines should also be distinguished from Muehrcke's lines of the fingernails. While Beau's lines are actual ridges and indentations in the nail plate, Muehrcke lines are areas of hypopigmentation without palpable ridges; they affect the underlying nail bed, and not the nail itself. Beau's lines should also be distinguished from Mees' lines of the fingernails, which are areas of discoloration in the nail plate. There are several causes of Beau's lines. It is believed that



The Far Arena

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The Far Arena is a 1979 novel by Richard Sapir , writing under the slightly modified pen name of Richard Ben Sapir. It chronicles the adventures of Eugeni, a Roman gladiator from the age of Domitian , who, due to a highly unlikely series of events, is frozen in ice for nineteen centuries before being found by the Houghton Oil Company on a prospecting mission in the north Atlantic . Summary Lew McCardle is a geologist working for Houghton Oil, which has reason to believe that there is oil in the far north. While running a test drill, the machine accidentally uncovers the frozen body of a man. Lew is given charge of the body, and he immediately calls Semyon Petrovitch, who is a Soviet scientist. Petrovitch, who specializes in cryonics (but not cryogenics , as he explains) immediately takes the body to be revived, explaining that it is easier to treat such a case as alive until it is proven that life cannot be restored. The blood is pumped from the body, and various treatments are administered until, amazingly,



Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries

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Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology (1990) is a book by Kenneth L. Feder on the topic of pseudoarcheology . Feder is a professor of archaeology at Central Connecticut State University . Frauds, Myths, and Mysteries takes a skeptical look at outrageous claims in the field of archaeology . It is in the tradition of Martin Gardner 's Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science and Charles Mackay 's Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds . It is required reading in some archaeology courses. Bettina Arnold, a professor of anthropology at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee , writes that this book "has influenced thousands of undergraduates in introductory courses across the country (and presumably overseas as well), a significant contribution to the everlasting struggle to maintain some control over how professional archaeology is perceived by the general public." Editions in print The book was originally published in 1990 ( ISBN 0874849713 , Mayfield Pub., 199



1990s in anthropology

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Timeline of anthropology , 1990–1999 Events 1990 NAGPRA, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act , is passed into US law. 1991 " Ötzi the Iceman " discovered in the Alps. Publications 1991 Donald Brown 's Human Universals was published. 1992 Inalienable Possessions: The Paradox of Keeping-While-Giving by Annette B. Weiner. 1994 Nightwork: Sexuality, Pleasure, and Corporate Masculinity in a Tokyo Hostess Club , by Anne Allison 1995 In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio, by Philippe Bourgois 1996 Permitted and Prohibited Desires: Mothers, Comics, and Censorship in Japan, by Anne Allison 1998 The Future of Us All: Race and Neighborhood Politics in New York City, by Roger Sandek Envisioning Power: Ideologies of Dominance and Crisis, by Eric Wolf Births Deaths 1990 Kathleen Aberle Michael Leiriss 1991 Cora Du Bois Stanley Diamond 1993 Albert A. Dahlberg Roger Keesing Ronald Gofrey Lienhardt Michael G. Smith 1994 Timothy Asch Raymond Birdwhistell Luther Cressman Colin Turnbull 1995 Ern



Kwäday Dän Ts'ìnchi

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Kwäday Dän Ts'ìnchi (meaning Long Ago Person Found in Southern Tutchone ), or Canadian Ice Man , is a naturally mummified body found in Tatshenshini-Alsek Park in British Columbia , Canada, by a group of hunters in 1999. Radiocarbon dating of artifacts found with the body placed the age of the body at between 300 and 550 years. The find was comparable in condition and scientific value to Ötzi the Iceman , remains dating to 3300 BC that were found in the Ötztal Alps in 1991. DNA testing of more than 240 volunteers from the local Champagne and Aishihik First Nations revealed 17 persons who are related to the ice man through their direct maternal line. They were excited to have their deep connections to the area affirmed. Discovery Three sheep hunters, Bill Hanlon, Warren Ward and Mike Roche, discovered a number of artifacts and a human body in a melting glacier while hunting near the Yukon border on July 22, 1999 ( 60°N 138°W  /  60°N 138°W ). The hunters were walking along a glacier, above the tree line, and



Paleogenetics

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Paleogenetics is the study of the past through the examination of preserved genetic material from the remains of ancient organisms. Emile Zuckerkandl and the physical chemist Linus Carl Pauling introduced the term "paleogenetics" in 1963, in reference to the examination of possible applications in the reconstruction of past polypeptide sequences. The first sequence of an ancient DNA , isolated from a museum specimen of the extinct quagga , was published in 1984 by a team led by Allan Wilson . Paleogeneticists do not recreate actual organisms, but piece together ancient DNA sequences using various analytical methods. In many ways, an organism's genetics are "the only direct witnesses of extinct species and of evolutionary events". Applications Evolution Similar sequences are often found along protein polypeptide chains in different species. This similarity is directly linked to the sequence of the DNA (the genetic material of the organism). Due to the improbability of this being random chance, and its consis



Soot tattoo

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Soot tattoos are a cutaneous condition that may be a sign of drug abuse , a condition produced by injections of residual carbon on the needle after flaming of the tip. Soot tattoo in history Soot tattoos are considered the oldest form of tattoos. The 5300 year old body of Tyrolean iceman Ötzi is decorated with simple tattoos, and researchers think they may have served a medicinal purpose, not a decorative one. Soot tattoos are still used in some countries. See also Carbon stain List of cutaneous conditions Tattoo References Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN   1-4160-2999-0 . World’s oldest tattoos were made of soot Soot tattoos are a cutaneous condition that may be a sign of drug abuse , a condition produced by injections of residual carbon on the needle after flaming of the tip. Soot tattoo in history Soot tattoos are considered the oldest form of tattoos. The 5300 year old body of Tyrolean iceman Ötzi is decorated with simple t



Petr Hlaváček

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Petr Hlavacek (February 23, 1950 – January 10, 2014) was a Czech shoe expert, university lecturer and researcher. His professional focus was to study the preparation and production of shoe materials, footwear, footwear ergonomics (especially for diabetics ) and historical footwear. Replica of about 5000 years old Ötzi - The Iceman footwear found in Alpes Replica of about 10,000 years old footwear from Oregon Replica of about 2000 years old footwear of Terracotta Army warriors in China Biography He grew up in South Moravia in Boršice, near Buchlov Castle. From 1965 to 1969 he studied at the Secondary Technical School in Zlin leather. Upon graduation he worked at a shoe factory, Svit, as a production foreman. From 1970 to 1979 he studied at the Faculty of Technology VUT Brno. In 1979, he began working as a lecturer at the Faculty of Technology. He was Dean of the Faculty of Technology at Tomas Bata University in Zlin from 2007 to 2011. On June 15, 2007, he was elected to the position by the Academic Senate of



Piptoporus betulinus

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Piptoporus betulinus , commonly known as the birch polypore , birch bracket , or razor strop , is one of the most common polyporous bracket fungi and, as the name suggests, grows almost exclusively on birch trees. The brackets burst out from the bark of the tree, and these fruiting bodies can last for more than a year. Technically, it is an edible mushroom , with a strong, pleasant "mushroomy" odor but a bitter taste. The velvety cut surface of the fruiting body was traditionally used as a strop for finishing the finest of edges on razors. It is also said to have medicinal properties. Description The fruiting bodies ( basidiocarps ) are pale, with a smooth greyish-brown top surface, with the underside a creamy white and with hundreds of pores that contain the spores . The fruiting body has a rubbery texture, becoming corky with age. Wood decayed by the fungus, and cultures of its mycelium, often smell distinctly of green apples. The spores are cylindrical to ellipsoid in shape, and measure 3–6 by 1.5–2  μm



4th millennium BC

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The 4th millennium BC spans the years 4000 through 3000 BC. Some of the major changes in human culture during this time included the beginning of the Bronze Age and the invention of writing , which played a major role in starting recorded history . Monte d'Accoddi is an archaeological site in northern Sardinia , Italy , located in the territory of Sassari near Porto Torres . 4th millennium BC. The city states of Sumer and the kingdom of Egypt were established and grew to prominence. Agriculture spread widely across Eurasia . World population in the course of the millennium doubled, approximately from 7 to 14 million people. Events Mesopotamia is in the Uruk period , with emerging Sumerian hegemony and development of "proto- cuneiform " writing ; base-60 mathematics , astronomy and astrology , civil law , complex hydrology , the sailboat , potter's wheel and wheel ; the Chalcolithic proceeds into the Early Bronze Age . c. 4000 BC —First neolithic settlers in the island of Thera ( Santorini ), Greece, migrating



Ötztal Alps

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The Ötztal Alps ( Italian : Alpi Venoste , German : Ötztaler Alpen ) are a mountain range in the Central Eastern Alps , in the State of Tyrol in southern Austria and the Province of South Tyrol in northern Italy . Geography The Ötztal Alps are arrayed at the head of the Ötztal valley, a side valley of the Inn river southwest of Innsbruck , Austria. One line of summits forms part of the border between Austria and Italy. The Ötztal Alps are bordered by the Reschen Pass (1504 m) in the west and the Inn river in the northwest and north. In the east the range is separated from the Stubai Alps by the Ötztaler Ache in the Ötztal, the Timmelsjoch (2474 m) and the Passer river in the Passeier Valley . On the south and southwest, the range is limited by the deep valley of the Etsch river, here known as the Vinschgau . In September 1991, Ötzi the so-called "Iceman" was found on the Hauslabjoch between the peaks Fineilspitze and Similaun . Peaks Brandenburger house and Weißkugel The highest point of the Ötztal Alps is Wi



Fomes fomentarius

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Fomes fomentarius (commonly known as the tinder fungus , false tinder fungus , hoof fungus , tinder conk , tinder polypore or ice man fungus ) is a species of fungal plant pathogen found in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America. The species produces very large polypore fruit bodies which are shaped like a horse's hoof and vary in colour from a silvery grey to almost black, though they are normally brown. It grows on the side of various species of tree, which it infects through broken bark, causing rot . The species typically continues to live on trees long after they have died, changing from a parasite to a decomposer . Though inedible, F. fomentarius has traditionally seen use as the main ingredient of amadou , a material used primarily as tinder , but also used to make clothing and other items. The 5,000-year-old Ötzi the Iceman carried four pieces of F. fomentarius, concluded to be for use as tinder. It also has medicinal and other uses. The species is both a pest and useful in timber production. Taxonomy



One-sided overhand bend

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The offset water knot is a knot used to join two ropes together. The offset water knot is formed by holding two rope ends next to each other and tying an overhand knot in them as if they were a single line. Due to its common use in several fields, this bend has become known by many names. Uses Easily formed in most line, the offset water knot can be difficult or impossible to untie once tightened, if the knot's dressing has parts falling out of a neat, parallel ("twin") orientation. Long used by weavers to join the ends of yarn , the offset water knot is very old. It was one of the knots likely identified among the possessions of Ötzi the Iceman , who dates from 3300 BC . The knot is also tied in a slipped form by mechanical balers to bind straw and hay , but this bend is not practical to use as a binding knot when tied by hand. In climbing and mountaineering In rock climbing , the offset water knot is a favored knot for joining two ropes for a rappel longer than half the length of the ropes . (Although it



Cornus sanguinea

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Cornus sanguinea , the common dogwood , is a species of dogwood native to most of Europe and western Asia , occurring north to southern England and southern Scandinavia , and east to the Caspian Sea . It is widely grown as an ornamental plant . Description Cornus sanguinea stems in winter. It is a medium to large deciduous shrub , growing 2–6 metres (7–20 ft) tall, with dark greenish-brown branches and twigs. The leaves are opposite, 4–8 centimetres (2–3 in) long and 2–4 centimetres (0.8–1.6 in) broad, with an ovate to oblong shape and an entire margin; they are green above, slightly paler below, and rough with short stiff pubescence. The hermaphrodite flowers are small, 5–10 millimetres (0.2–0.4 in) diameter, with four creamy white petals, produced in clusters 3–5 centimetres (1–2 in) diameter, and are insect pollinated. The fruit is a globose black berry 5–8 millimetres (0.2–0.3 in) diameter, containing a single seed . The berries are sometimes called "dogberries". Ecology It prefers moderate warmth in s



Tyrsenian languages

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Tyrsenian (also Tyrrhenian ), named after the Tyrrhenians ( Ancient Greek , Ionic : Τυρσηνοί, Tursēnoi), is a hypothetical extinct family of closely related ancient languages proposed by Helmut Rix (1998), that consists of the Etruscan language of central Italy , the Raetic of the Alps , and the Lemnian language of the Aegean Sea . Camunic in northern Lombardy , in between Etruscan and Raetic, may belong here too, but the material is very scanty. Evidence Rix assumes a date for Proto-Tyrsenian of roughly 1000 BC. Cognates common to Raetic and Etruscan are: Etr. zal, Raet. zal, "two"; Etr. -(a)cvil, Raet. akvil, "gift"; Etr. zinace, Raet. t'inaχe, "he made". a genitive suffix -s in all three languages; a second genitive suffix -a in Raetic, -(i)a in Etruscan; the past active participle -ce in Etruscan, -ku in Raetic. Cognates common to Lemnian and Etruscan are: dative-case suffixes *-si, and *-ale, attested on the Lemnos Stele (Hulaie-ši "for Hulaie", Φukiasi-ale "for the Phocaean") and in Etruscan inscription



Saltmen

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Left shoe with lower leg of Salt Man 1 The Saltmen were discovered in the Chehrabad salt mines, located on the southern part of the Hamzehlu village, on the west side of the city of Zanjan , in the Zanjan Province in Iran . By 2010 the remains of six men had been discovered, most of them accidentally killed by the collapse of galleries in which they were working. The head and left foot of Salt Man 1 are on display at the National Museum of Iran in Tehran . Discovery In the winter of 1993, miners came across a body with long hair , a beard and some artifacts . These included the remains of a body, a lower leg inside a leather boot , three iron knives , a woollen half trouser, a silver needle , a sling , parts of a leather rope , a grindstone , a walnut , some pottery shards, some patterned textile fragments, and a few broken bones . The body had been buried in the middle of a tunnel approximately 45 metres in length. In 2004 another salt miner found the remains of a second man. During archaeological excavatio



Fire striker

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Assorted reproduction firesteels typical of Roman to medieval period Late 18th century firesteels from Brittany A fire striker (or fire steel ) is a piece of carbon steel from which sparks are struck by the sharp edge of flint , chert or similar rock. A Fire Striker is a specific tool used in firemaking . History In early times, percussion firemaking was often used to start fires. Before the advent of steel, a variety of iron pyrite or marcasite was used with flint and other stones to produce a high-temperature spark that could be used to create fire. There are indications that the "Iceman" called Ötzi may have used iron pyrite to make fire. From the Iron Age forward, until the invention of the friction match , the use of flint and steel was a common method of firelighting . Percussion fire-starting was prevalent in Europe during ancient times, the Middle Ages and the Viking Age . When flint and steel were used, the fire steel was often kept in a metal tinderbox together with flint and tinder. In Tibet and M



Sölden

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Sölden is a municipality in the Ötztal valley of Tyrol , Austria . Geography At c. 467 km (180 sq mi), it is the largest municipality in the country. The population of 3,449 (as of 2003) is outnumbered by tourists, of which 15,000 can be accommodated. With tourist bed nights running at over two million per year, the municipality is third only to Vienna and Salzburg as an Austrian tourist destination. Sölden has lost some of its former small village charm, but other attractions have been enhanced in recent years. The main village of Sölden is at an elevation of 1,368 metres (4,488 ft) above sea level , and the upper village of Hochsölden at 2,090 m (6,857 ft) has 5 four-star hotels. The highest peak is the Wildspitze , at 3,768 m (12,362 ft), the second highest mountain in Austria, after the Großglockner . The Ötztal Glacier Road is the second highest paved road in Europe . It is the access road from Sölden to the Rettenbach glacier and Tiefenbachferner glaciers in the Ötztal Alps . The English spelling of th



History of tattooing

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Tattooing has been practiced across the globe since at least Neolithic times, as evidenced by mummified preserved skin, ancient art, and the archaeological record. Both ancient art and archaeological finds of possible tattoo tools suggest tattooing was practiced by the Upper Paleolithic period in Europe. However, direct evidence for tattooing on mummified human skin extends only to the 4th millennium BC . The oldest discovery of tattooed human skin to date is found on the body of Ötzi the Iceman , dating to between 3370 and 3100 BC. Other tattooed mummies have been recovered from at least 49 archaeological sites including locations in Greenland, Alaska, Siberia, Mongolia, western China, Egypt, Sudan, the Philippines, and the Andes. These include Amunet, Priestess of the Goddess Hathor from ancient Egypt (c. 2134–1991 BC), multiple mummies from Siberia including the Pazyryk culture of Russia, and from several cultures throughout pre-Columbian South America . Tattooing in the ancient world In Southern India,



European Academy of Bozen/Bolzano

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The European Academy of Bozen/Bolzano ( German Europäische Akademie Bozen, Italian Accademia Europea di Bolzano, ladin Academia Europeica de Bulsan), EURAC for short, is a private research center headquartered in Bozen , South Tyrol . The center has eleven institutes organized into four research areas: autonomies, mountains, technology and health. EURAC has around 200 partners spread across 50 countries. EURAC collaborates with international organizations such as the Alpine and Carpathian Conventions, UNEP and UNIDO in the context of sustainable development and energy technology, and also hosts the headquarters of the Permanent Secretariat of the Alpine Convention at its headquarters in Bolzano/Bozen. Core funding is provided by the Autonomous Province of Bolzano/Bozen, with additional financing coming from membership fees and European project funds. Institutes and research areas Autonomies Researchers in this area contribute to studies on autonomous systems of government and cultural-linguistic diversity,



Haplogroup K (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup K is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. It is defined by the HVR1 mutations 16224C and 16311C. Origin Haplogroup K is believed to have originated around 12,000 years ago in Western Asia , quite likely in the Caucasus . It is the most common subclade of haplogroup U8b , with an estimated age of c. 12,000 years BP . Distribution Projected spatial frequency distribution for haplogroup K. Haplogroup K appears in West Eurasia , North Africa , the Horn of Africa and South Asia , and in populations with such an ancestry. Haplogroup K is found in approximately 10% of native Europeans. Overall mtDNA Haplogroup K is found in about 6% of the population of Europe and the Near East , but it is more common in certain of these populations. Approximately 16% of the Druze of Syria , Lebanon , Israel , and Jordan , belong to haplogroup K. It is also found among 8% of Palestinians . Additionally, K reaches a level of 17% in Kurdistan. Approximately 32% of people with Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry are in h



St Bees Man

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St Bees Man was the name given to the extremely well preserved body of a mediaeval man discovered on the grounds of St Bees Priory in 1981. His identity was subsequently established as Anthony de Lucy , 3rd Baron Lucy, who died in 1368, probably killed on crusade at New Kaunas , in what is now Lithuania. Discovery St Bees Priory from the south west The late 12th century monastic chancel showing the ruined east end of the chancel aisle on the left. Top effigy is thought to be Anthony de Lucy, and in the middle, Maud de Lucy. St Bees Man was discovered during an archaeological dig by the University of Leicester on the site of St Bees Priory . The 1981 dig examined two areas of the ruined chancel aisle at the west end of the priory. The aisle was built in about 1300 in the Decorated style, and is thought to have fallen into ruin before the dissolution of the priory in 1539 due to structural failure caused by poor foundations. The body was found buried in a wooden coffin, wrapped in a lead sheet. Despite the lead



Viburnum

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Viburnum is a genus of about 150–175 species of shrubs or (in a few species) small trees in the moschatel family, Adoxaceae . Its current classification is based on molecular phylogeny . It was previously included in the family Caprifoliaceae . The member species are native throughout the temperate Northern Hemisphere , with a few species extending into tropical montane regions in South America , Ukraine , Russia , and southeast Asia . In Africa , the genus is confined to the Atlas Mountains . In Ukraine , Viburnum opulus (kalyna) is seen as a national symbol, an emblem for both the Koliada festivities and the concept of young girl’s love and tenderness. It is the key element of the Ukrainian traditional wreath . The generic name originated in Latin , where it referred to V. lantana . The leaves are opposite , simple, and entire, toothed or lobed; cool temperate species are deciduous , while most of the warm temperate species are evergreen . Some species are densely hairy on the shoots and leaves, with star-



List of DNA-tested mummies

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This is a purported list of ancient humans remains, including mummies , that may have been DNA tested . Provided as evidence of the testing are links to the mitochondrial DNA sequences, and/or to the human haplogroups to which each case has been assigned. Also provided is a brief description of when and where they lived. Entries lacking a citation should be viewed with skepticism; in particular, cases with no sequence or haplogroup links, with citation, have no evidentiary basis for appearing. mtDNA tests The following mummies have undergone an mtDNA ( mitochondrial DNA ) test, of remains with the indicated name, from the indicated locations: Name Original Location of Remains Date Lived (years ago) Mitochondrial DNA sequence mtDNA Haplogroup Y-DNA Haplogroup Paglicci 23 Italy 28,000 CRS H Paglicci 25 Italy 23,000 7,025 AluI, 00073A, 11719G, 12308A HV | Cheddar Man England >9,000 16192T, 16270T U5a Ötzi the Iceman Austria/Italy 5,300 K . G2a2b Ahmose I Egypt 3,550 Seknet-re Egypt 3,550 Thutmose I Egypt 3,500 A



Prunus spinosa

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Prunus spinosa ( blackthorn , or sloe ) is a species of Prunus native to Europe , western Asia , and locally in northwest Africa . It is also locally naturalised in New Zealand and eastern North America . Names and their origins Sloe flower, fruit, seed and leaves as illustrated by Otto Wilhelm Thomé (1885). Species' scientific name The specific name spinosa is a Latin term indicating the pointed and thornlike spur shoots characteristic of this species. Common names The common name "blackthorn" is due to the thorny nature of the shrub, and its very dark bark. The word commonly used for the fruit, "sloe" comes from Old English slāh . The same word is noted in Middle Low German , historically spoken in Lower Saxony, Middle Dutch sleuuwe or, contracted form, slē, from which come Modern Low German words: slē , slī , and Modern Dutch slee , Old High German slēha", "slēwa, from which come Modern German Schlehe and Danish slåen . The names related to 'sloe' come from the Common Germanic root * slaiχwōn . Cf. West



Mummy Juanita

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Momia Juanita ( Spanish for "Mummy Juanita"), also known as the "Inca" Ice Maiden and Lady of Ampato , is the well-preserved frozen body of an Inca girl who was killed as an offering to the Inca gods sometime between 1450 and 1480 when she was approximately 12–15 years old. She was discovered on Mount Ampato (part of the Andes cordillera ) in southern Peru in 1995 by anthropologist Johan Reinhard and his Peruvian climbing partner, Miguel Zárate. "Juanita" has been on display in Catholic University of Santa María's Museum of Andean Sanctuaries (Museo Santuarios Andinos) in Arequipa, Peru , almost continuously since 1996, and was displayed on a tour of Japan in 1999. The body caused a sensation in the scientific world due to its well-preserved condition. In 1995, Time magazine chose it as one of the world's top ten discoveries. Between May and June 1996, it was exhibited in the headquarters of the National Geographic Society in Washington, D.C. , in a specially acclimatized conservation display unit. In its Jun



Simon (surname)

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Simon is a surname , and may refer to many people. A Abbey Simon (born 1922), Jewish-American pianist André Simon (wine) (1877–1970), French wine expert André Simon (racing driver) (born 1920), former French racing car driver Anne Simon , American science advisor on the TV series The X-Files B Barry Simon (born 1946), American mathematical physicist Barry Simon (1936–2004), Australian politician Ben Simon (born 1978), American ice hockey player Bill Simon (politician) (born 1951), American businessman and politician Bill Simon (musician) (born 1920), American jazz musician Bob Simon (1941–2015), American correspondent on CBS News C Calvin Simon (born 1942), American musician Carlos Eugênio Simon (born 1965), Brazilian FIFA football referee Carly Simon (born 1945), American singer-songwriter/musician Chase Simon (born 1989), American basketball player for Maccabi Ashdod of the Israeli Basketball Premier League Chris Simon (born 1972), Canadian ice hockey player Claude Simon (1913–2005), French novelist Cliff S



Italic peoples

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The Italic peoples were an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group identified by speaking Italic languages . Classification Indo-European language tree (diagram) according to Gray and Atkinson (2003); Italisch =Italic The Italics were all the peoples who spoke an idiom belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages and had settled in the Italian peninsula . The first Italic tribes, the Latino-Falisci (or "Latino-Veneti", if the membership of the ancient Veneti is also accepted), entered Italy across the eastern Alpine passes into the plain of the Po River about 1200 BC. Later, they crossed the Apennine Mountains and eventually occupied the region of Latium , which included the area of Rome. Before 1000 BC, the Osco-Umbrians followed, which later divided into various groups and gradually moved to central and southern Italy. The Italics were, therefore, the set of all Indo-Europeans present exclusively in Italy in antiquity, not Indo-European peoples who were present also in other areas of Europe, su



List of haplogroups of historic people

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This is a list of haplogroups of historic people . Haplogroups can be determined from the remains of historical figures, or derived from genealogical DNA tests of people who trace their direct maternal or paternal ancestry to a noted historical figure. Some contemporary notable figures have made their test results public in the course of news programs about this topic, and they may be included in this list too. mtDNA MtDNA results come from historical persons whose mitochondrial DNA has been tested; it identifies direct maternal ancestry, which is just one line out of many. Ancient samples These are results from 'ancient' samples, those collected from the remains or reputed remains of the person. Because mtDNA breaks down more slowly than nuclear DNA, it is often possible to obtain mtDNA results where other testing fails. Cheddar Man The skeleton excavated from the Cheddar Gorge is in haplogroup U5a . The Cheddar Man is the nickname for the ancient human remains found in Cheddar Gorge; his approximate date of



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