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Hemorrhagic fevers


Viral hemorrhagic fever

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Viral hemorrhagic fever

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a diverse group of animal and human illnesses in which fever and hemorrhage are caused by a viral infection. VHFs may be caused by five distinct families of RNA viruses: the families Arenaviridae, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Rhabdoviridae. All types of VHF are characterized by fever and bleeding disorders and all can progress to high fever, shock and death in many cases. Some of the VHF agents cause relatively mild illnesses, such as the Scandinavian nephropathia epidemica (a hantavirus), while others, such as Ebola virus, can cause severe, life-threatening disease. Signs and symptoms Signs and symptoms of VHFs include (by definition) fever and bleeding. Manifestations of VHF often also include flushing of the face and chest, small red or purple spots (petechiae), bleeding, swelling caused by edema, low blood pressure (hypotension), and shock. Malaise, muscle pain, headache, vomiting, and diarrhea occur frequently. The severity of symptoms varies with the

Tropical diseases

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Neglected diseases

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Animal viral diseases

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Amur virus

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Amur virus

Amur virus (AMRV) is a zoonotic negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus. It may be a member of the genus Orthohantavirus, but it has not be definitively classified as a species and may only be a strain.[1] It has been identified as a causative agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.[2][3] Genome The complete genome sequence Amur virus has been isolated from a sample obtained from Apodemus peninsulae in Northeastern China.[3] AMRV strains from China and Far East and Soochong virus (SOOV) (especially SOO-1/2 strains from Northeastern Korea) were found to share high identities of nucleotide sequences and were monophyletic distinct from Apodemus agrarius HTNV. Two genetic sublineages of SOOV exist, but findings suggest that AMRV and SOOV are different strains of the same hantavirus.[4] Reservoir The virus is reported to be carried by Korean field mice (Apodemus peninsulae) in the Far East of Russia, China, and Korea.[4] See also Hantaviruses Viral hemorrhagic fever Pulmonary-renal syndrome RNA

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Old World rats and mice

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Argentine hemorrhagic fever

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Argentine hemorrhagic fever

Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) or O'Higgins disease, also known in Argentina as mal de los rastrojos (stubble disease) is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Argentina. It is caused by the Junín virus (an arenavirus, closely related to the Machupo virus, causative agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever). Its vector is the drylands vesper mouse, a rodent found in Argentina and Paraguay. Epidemiology The disease was first reported in the town of O'Higgins in Buenos Aires province, Argentina in 1958, giving it one of the names by which it is known.[1] Various theories about its nature were proposed: it was Weil's disease, leptospirosis, caused by chemical pollution.[1] It was associated with fields containing stubble after the harvest, giving it another of its names. The endemic area of AHF covers approximately 150,000 km², compromising the provinces of Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Santa Fe and La Pampa, with an estimated risk population of 5 million. The vector, a small rodent known l

Animal viral diseases

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Arthropod-borne viral fevers and viral haemorrh...

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Health in Argentina

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Bas-Congo virus

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Bas-Congo virus

Bas-Congo virus (BASV) is a poorly characterized rhabdovirus discovered in the blood of a patient who survived a severe illness resembling hemorrhagic fever[1]. The virus was named after the former Democratic Republic of Congo province of Bas-Congo (now Kongo Central). BASV was discovered using next-generation sequencing and attempts to isolate the virus were not successful. BASV RNA has only been detected in one individual and its role as a human pathogen has not been established[2]. Discovery In the spring of 2009, two teenagers living in Mangala, a small village located in the western-most province of the Democratic Republic of Congo, developed a severe illness with symptoms that included: fever, headache, abdominal pain, mouth and nasal bleeding, hematemesis, and bloody diarrhea. Both of the teenagers died within days of developing symptoms[1] More than a week later, a 32-year-old nurse who cared for the two teenagers, fell ill. His symptoms were similar to the two teenagers: nasal, ocular, and oral bl

Rhabdoviridae

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Hemorrhagic fevers

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Viral diseases

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Bat-borne virus

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Bat-borne virus

A bat-borne virus is any virus whose primary reservoir is any species of bat. The viruses include coronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); hantaviruses; lyssaviruses such as rabies virus and Australian bat lyssavirus; henipaviruses such as nipah virus and Hendra virus; Lassa virus; Ebola virus; and Marburg virus. Several bat-borne viruses are considered important emerging viruses.[1][2] Bat viromes Bats are especially tolerant of viruses compared to terrestrial mammals.[3] A single bat can host several different kinds of viruses without becoming ill, though some like the rabies virus do cause illness in bats.[4] Most of the viruses harbored by bats are RNA viruses, though they are also known to have DNA viruses.[3] Some research indicates that bats' immune systems have allowed them to cope with a variety of viruses. A 2018 study found that bats have a dampened STING response compared to other mammals, whi

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Coronaviridae

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Bolivian hemorrhagic fever

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Bolivian hemorrhagic fever

Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), also known as black typhus or Ordog Fever, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease originating in Bolivia after infection by Machupo mammarenavirus.[2] BHF was first identified in 1963 as an ambisense RNA virus of the Arenaviridae family,[3][4] by a research group led by Karl Johnson. The mortality rate is estimated at 5 to 30 percent. Due to its pathogenicity, Machupo virus requires Biosafety Level Four conditions, the highest level.[5] During the period between February and March 2007, some 20 suspected BHF cases (3 fatal) were reported to the El Servicio Departamental de Salud (SEDES) in Beni Department, Bolivia. In February 2008, at least 200 suspected new cases (12 fatal) were reported to SEDES.[6] In November 2011, a second case was confirmed near the departmental capital of Trinidad, and a serosurvey was conducted to determine the extent of Machupo virus infections in the Department. A SEDES expert involved in the survey expressed his concerns about th

Arenaviridae

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Arthropod-borne viral fevers and viral haemorrh...

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Biological weapons

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Brazilian hemorrhagic fever

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Brazilian hemorrhagic fever

Brazilian hemorrhagic fever (BzHF) is an infectious disease caused by Brazilian mammarenavirus, an arenavirus.[4] Brazilian mammarenavirus is one of the arenaviruses from South America to cause hemorrhagic fever.[5] It shares a common progenitor with Argentinian mammarenavirus, Machupo mammarenavirus, Tacaribe mammarenavirus, and Guanarito mammarenavirus.[5] It is an enveloped RNA virus and is highly infectious and lethal.[6] Very little is known about this disease, but it is thought to be transmitted by the excreta of rodents.[4][6] This virus has also been implicated as a means for bioterrorism, as it can be spread through aerosols.[7] As of 2019, there had only been four documented infections of Brazilian mammarenavirus: two occurred naturally, and the other two cases occurred in the clinical setting.[8] The first naturally occurring case was in 1990, when a female agricultural engineer who was staying in the neighborhood of Jardim Sabiá near São Paulo, Brazil contracted the disease. She presented with he

Arenaviridae

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Animal viral diseases

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Hemorrhagic fevers

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Catacamas virus

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Catacamas virus

Catacamas virus is a single-stranded, enveloped novel RNA virus in the genus Orthohantavirus of the order Bunyavirales isolated in Oryzomys couesi near the town of Catacamas in eastern Honduras.[1] It is a member virus of Bayou orthohantavirus.[2] Natural reservoir Catacamas virus was isolated from Oryzomys couesi and none of 41 other rodents that were also trapped near the town of Catacamas. The finding represents the first time a hantavirus species has been found in Honduras. Virology Analysis of nucleotide and amino acid sequence data indicated that this hantaviral strain is phylogenetically most closely related to Bayou orthohantavirus which is associated with the marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris) in the southeastern United States.[3] See also Playa de Oro virus References Milazzo ML, Cajimat MN, Hanson JD, Bradley RD, Quintana M, Sherman C, Velásquez RT, Fulhorst CF (November 2006). "Catacamas virus, a hantaviral species naturally associated with Oryzomys couesi (Coues' oryzomys) in Honduras

Infraspecific virus taxa

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Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever

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Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever

Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral disease.[1] Symptoms of CCHF may include fever, muscle pains, headache, vomiting, diarrhea, and bleeding into the skin.[1] Onset of symptoms is less than two weeks following exposure.[1] Complications may include liver failure.[1] In those who survive, recovery generally occurs around two weeks after onset.[1] The CCHF virus is typically spread by tick bites or contact with livestock carrying the disease.[1] Groups that are at high risk of infection are farmers and those who work in slaughterhouses.[1] The virus can also spread between people via body fluids.[1] Diagnosis is by detecting antibodies, the virus's RNA, or the virus itself.[1] It is a type of viral hemorrhagic fever.[1] Prevention involves avoiding tick bites.[1] A vaccine is not commercially available.[1] Treatment is typically with supportive care.[1] The medication ribavirin may also help.[1] It occurs in Africa, the Balkans, the Middle East, and Asia.[1] Often it occurs in outbreaks.[1] In

RTTID

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RTT

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Nairoviridae

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Dobrava-Belgrade virus

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Dobrava-Belgrade virus

Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV), also known as Dobrava virus, is an enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus species of Old World Orthohantavirus. It is one of several species of Hantavirus that is the causative agent of severe Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. It was first isolated from yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) found in Dobrava Village, Slovenia, Yugoslavia.[1] It was subsequently isolated in striped field mice in Russia and other parts of Eastern Europe. It has also been found in Germany but the reservoir host there is unknown.[2] Reservoir Dobrava virus and the variants of Dobrava-Belgrade virus have been found in the Yellow-necked mouse [(Apodemus flavicollis) virus genotype Dobrava], the Striped field mouse [(Apodemus agrarius) virus genotype Kurkino] and Black Sea field mouse [(Apodemus ponticus) virus genotype Sochi]. Morbidity and mortality The fatality rate is 12%, making Dobrava virus the most life-threatening hantavirus disease in Europe. Variant DOBV

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Filoviridae

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Filoviridae

The family Filoviridae [1], a member of the order Mononegavirales, is the taxonomic home of several related viruses (filoviruses or filovirids) that form filamentous infectious viral particles (virions) and encode their genome in the form of single-stranded negative-sense RNA.[2] Two members of the family that are commonly known are Ebola virus and Marburg virus. Both viruses, and some of their lesser known relatives, cause severe disease in humans and nonhuman primates in the form of viral hemorrhagic fevers.[3] All filoviruses are Select Agents,[4] World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogens (requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment),[5] National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A Priority Pathogens,[6] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Category A Bioterrorism Agents,[7] and listed as Biological Agents for Export Control by the Australia Group.[8] Use of term The family Filoviridae is a virological taxon that was defined in 1982[3]

Primate diseases

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Virus families

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Animal viral diseases

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