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Hemorrhagic fevers


Gou virus

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Gou virus

Gou virus (GOUV) is a single-stranded, negative-sense, enveloped novel RNA orthohantavirus. It is one of the known hantaviruses responsible for hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans.[1] Natural reservoir Gou virus was first isolated from black rats (R. rattus) captured in Zhejiang Province in 2000.[2] Genetically variant strains of GOUV have been found in black rats in Longquan, China. In addition, hantavirus strains isolated from R. flavipectus and R. norvegicus in Longquan are most closely related to GOUV.[3] Transmission Like all hantaviruses, transmission to humans is primarily through aerosolized rodent excreta and hand-to-mouth contamination from fomites. No human-to-human transmission has been documented. Longquan City, Zhejiang province, China, has a persistently high rate of human infection with GOUV. There is speculation that a variant strain of GOUV is transmissible from human-to-human. However, this has not yet been confirmed with epidemiological trace-back analysis.[4][5]

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Hantaan River virus

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Hantaan River virus

Hantaan virus (HTNV) is an enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus species of Old World Orthohantavirus. It is the causative agent of Korean Hemorrhagic Fever in humans.[1][2] Natural reservoir Apodemus agrarius, also known as striped field mouse, is the etiological agent of Hantaan virus.[3] Transmission Transmission is believed to be through inhalation of aersolized rodent urine and feces. Morbidity and mortality In hantavirus induced hemorrhagic fever, incubation time is between two and four weeks in humans before symptoms of infection present. Severity of symptoms depends on the viral load. Like Dobrava-Belgrade virus, Hantaan virus has a mortality rate of 10 to 12%.[4][5] History During the Korean War (1951–1953), more than 3000 American and Korean troops fell ill with renal failure, hemorrhage, and shock. The cause remained unknown until 1976 when Karl M. Johnson an American tropical virologist and his colleagues, including Korean virologist, Lee Ho Wang (Ho Wang Lee), isolated Hant

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Khabarovsk virus

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Khabarovsk virus

Khabarovsk virus (KBR) is a novel orthohantavirus in the Bunyavirales order isolated from Microtus fortis discovered in far-east Russia. It is an enveloped, negative-sense RNA virus.[1] Virology Two strains of KBR were isolated in Microtus fortis trapped in the Khabarovsk region of far-eastern Russia. The nucleotide sequences revealed that the two isolates were closely related to each other but distinct from all other hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains form a separate branch in the Hantavirus tree, positioned between the branches of Prospect Hill and Puumala viruses. Puumala virus was the closest relative, both genetically and serologically.[2][3][4] See also RNA virus Puumala virus References Hörling J, Chizhikov V, Lundkvist A, Jonsson M, Ivanov L, Dekonenko A, Niklasson B, Dzagurova T, Peters CJ, Tkachenko E, Nichol S.Khabarovsk virus: a phylogenetically and serologically distinct hantavirus isolated from Microtus fortis trapped in far-east Russia. J Gen Virol. 1996 A

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Hemorrhagic fevers

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Isla Vista virus

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Isla Vista virus

Isla Vista virus (ILV) is an enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA orthohantavirus species of the Bunyavirales order. It is a novel New World microtine rodent hantavirus discovered in the California vole (M. californicus) in Santa Barbara County, California, near Isla Vista. It is similar to Prospect Hill virus, which has been isolated from a meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus).[1] See also Arvicolinae New World rats and mice References Song W, Torrez-Martinez N, Irwin W, Harrison FJ, Davis R, Ascher M, Jay M, Hjelle B (1995). "Isla Vista virus: a genetically novel hantavirus of the California vole Microtus californicus". J. Gen. Virol. 76 (12): 3195–9. doi:10.1099/0022-1317-76-12-3195. PMID 8847529. External links CDC's Hantavirus Technical Information Index page Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Bunyaviridae

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Hemorrhagic fevers

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Lloviu cuevavirus

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Lloviu cuevavirus

The species Lloviu cuevavirus ( YOV-yoo KWEV-ə-VY-rəs) is the taxonomic home of a virus that forms filamentous virion, Lloviu virus (LLOV). The species is included in the genus Cuevavirus.[1][2] LLOV is a distant relative of the commonly known Ebola virus and Marburg virus. Use of term The species Lloviu cuevavirus is a virological taxon (i.e. a man-made concept) included in the genus Cuevavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales.[1] The species has a single virus member, Lloviu virus.[1] The name Lloviu cuevavirus is derived from Cueva del Lloviu (the name of a Spanish cave in which Lloviu cuevaviruses were first discovered) and the taxonomic suffix virus (which denotes a virus species).[1] In 2010, the species and the genus cuevavirus were proposed as independent species and genus.[1] In July 2013, the species and the genus cuevavirus were ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) to be included in its report, therefore the name is now to be italicized.[3] Species inc

Animal viral diseases

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Arthropod-borne viral fevers and viral haemorrh...

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Animal diseases

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Lassa fever

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Lassa fever

Lassa fever, also known as Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF), is a type of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus.[1] Many of those infected by the virus do not develop symptoms.[1] When symptoms occur they typically include fever, weakness, headaches, vomiting, and muscle pains.[1] Less commonly there may be bleeding from the mouth or gastrointestinal tract.[1] The risk of death once infected is about one percent and frequently occurs within two weeks of the onset of symptoms.[1] Among those who survive about a quarter have hearing loss, which improves within three months in about half of these cases.[1] The disease is usually initially spread to people via contact with the urine or feces of an infected multimammate mouse.[1] Spread can then occur via direct contact between people.[1] Diagnosis based on symptoms is difficult.[1] Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture.[1] Other conditions that may present similarly

Externally peer reviewed articles

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RTTID

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Viral diseases

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Lloviu virus

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Lloviu virus

The species Lloviu cuevavirus ( YOV-yoo KWEV-ə-VY-rəs) is the taxonomic home of a virus that forms filamentous virion, Lloviu virus (LLOV). The species is included in the genus Cuevavirus.[1][2] LLOV is a distant relative of the commonly known Ebola virus and Marburg virus. Use of term The species Lloviu cuevavirus is a virological taxon (i.e. a man-made concept) included in the genus Cuevavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales.[1] The species has a single virus member, Lloviu virus.[1] The name Lloviu cuevavirus is derived from Cueva del Lloviu (the name of a Spanish cave in which Lloviu cuevaviruses were first discovered) and the taxonomic suffix virus (which denotes a virus species).[1] In 2010, the species and the genus cuevavirus were proposed as independent species and genus.[1] In July 2013, the species and the genus cuevavirus were ratified by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) to be included in its report, therefore the name is now to be italicized.[3] Species inc

Filoviridae

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Hemorrhagic fevers

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Animal viral diseases

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Magboi virus

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Magboi virus

Magboi virus (MGBV) is a novel, bat-borne Orthohantavirus discovered in a slit-faced bat trapped near the Magboi Stream in eastern Sierra Leone in 2011. It is a single-stranded, negative sense, RNA virus in the Bunyavirales order.[1][2][3][4] Molecular virology The discovery represented the first time a hantavirus was detected in a bat, although bats as a reservoir for hantavirus had been long suspected. On the basis of a maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree, the sequence isolated from the Magboi River bat does not cluster with rodent-associated hantaviruses but groups with those found in shrews and moles. This raises the question of the real hantavirus host range. Bats are already known to harbor a broad variety of emerging pathogens, including other bunyaviruses. Their ability to fly and social life history enable efficient pathogen maintenance, evolution, and spread.[5][6] See also Sangassou virus Bat-borne virus References Weiss S, Witkowski PT, Auste B, Nowak K, Weber N, Fahr J, et al. Hantav

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Hemorrhagic fevers

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Marburg marburgvirus

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Marburg marburgvirus

The species Marburg marburgvirus is the taxonomic home of two related viruses that form filamentous virions, Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV). Both viruses cause Marburg virus disease in humans and nonhuman primates, a form of viral hemorrhagic fever,[3] and both are Select agents,[4] World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogens (requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment),[5] National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A Priority Pathogens,[6] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Category A Bioterrorism Agents,[7] and are listed as a Biological Agents for Export Control by the Australia Group.[8] Use of term Marburg marburgvirus is a virological taxon (i.e. a man-made concept) included in the genus Marburgvirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. The species has two virus members, Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV).[9] The members of the species (i.e. the actual physical entities) are called Marburg marburgviruses.

Marburgviruses

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Primate diseases

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Animal viral diseases

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Marburg virus

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Marburg virus

Marburg virus[1] is a hemorrhagic fever virus of the Filoviridae family of viruses and a member of the species Marburg marburgvirus, genus Marburgvirus. Marburg virus (MARV) causes Marburg virus disease in humans and nonhuman primates, a form of viral hemorrhagic fever.[2] The virus is considered to be extremely dangerous. The World Health Organization (WHO) rates it as a Risk Group 4 Pathogen (requiring biosafety level 4-equivalent containment).[3] In the United States, the NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases ranks it as a Category A Priority Pathogen[4] and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lists it as a Category A Bioterrorism Agent.[5] It is also listed as a biological agent for export control by the Australia Group.[6] The virus can be transmitted by exposure to one species of fruit bats or it can be transmitted between people via body fluids through unprotected sex and broken skin. The disease can cause bleeding (haemorrhage), fever and other symptoms similar to Ebola

Filoviridae

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Marburgviruses

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Primate diseases

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Marburgvirus

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Marburgvirus

The genus Marburgvirus is the taxonomic home of Marburg marburgvirus, whose members are the two known marburgviruses, Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV). Both viruses cause Marburg virus disease in humans and nonhuman primates, a form of viral hemorrhagic fever.[1] Both are Select agents,[2] World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogens (requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment),[3] National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A Priority Pathogens,[4] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Category A Bioterrorism Agents,[5] and are listed as Biological Agents for Export Control by the Australia Group.[6] Use of term The genus Marburgvirus is a virological taxon included in the family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales.[7] The genus currently includes a single virus species, Marburg marburgvirus.[7] The members of the genus (i.e. the actual physical entities) are called marburgviruses.[7] The name Marburgvirus is derived from the city o

Primate diseases

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Hemorrhagic fevers

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Marburg virus disease

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Marburg virus disease

Marburg virus disease (MVD; formerly Marburg hemorrhagic fever) is a severe illness of humans and non-human primates caused by either of the two marburgviruses, Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV).[3] MVD is a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), and the clinical symptoms are indistinguishable from Ebola virus disease (EVD).[1] Signs and symptoms The most detailed study on the frequency, onset, and duration of MVD clinical signs and symptoms was performed during the 1998–2000 mixed MARV/RAVV disease outbreak.[4] A maculopapular rash, petechiae, purpura, ecchymoses, and hematomas (especially around needle injection sites) are typical hemorrhagic manifestations. However, contrary to popular belief, hemorrhage does not lead to hypovolemia and is not the cause of death (total blood loss is minimal except during labor). Instead, death occurs due to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) due to fluid redistribution, hypotension, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and focal tissue necroses.[4][5][6][7]

Marburgviruses

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Animal viral diseases

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Arthropod-borne viral fevers and viral haemorrh...

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Muju virus

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Muju virus

Muju virus (MUV) is a zoonotic negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Orthohantavirus. It is a member virus of Puumala orthohantavirus.[1] It is one of four rodent-borne Hantaviruses found in the Republic of Korea. It is the etiologic agent for Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The other species responsible for HFRS in Korea are Seoul orthohantavirus, Hantaan orthohantavirus, and Soochong virus.[2][3] Transmission This species of hantavirus has not been shown to transfer from person to person. Transmission by aerosolized rodent excreta still remains the only known way the virus is transmitted to humans. In general, droplet and/or fomite transfer has not been shown in the hantaviruses in either the hemorrhagic or pulmonary forms.[4][5] See also Conjunctival suffusion List of cutaneous conditions Sweating sickness, which may have been caused by a hantavirus 1993 Four Corners hantavirus outbreak References Briese, Thomas; et al. (18 July 2016). "In the genus H

Infraspecific virus taxa

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Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Omsk hemorrhagic fever

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Omsk hemorrhagic fever

Omsk hemorrhagic fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever caused by a Flavivirus.[1] It is found in Siberia.[2] It is named for an outbreak in Omsk. Signs and symptoms There are a number of symptoms of the virus. In the first 1–8 days the first phase begins. The symptoms in this phase are: chills headache pain in the lower and upper extremities and severe prostration a rash on the soft palate swollen glands in the neck appearance of blood in the eyes (conjunctival suffusion) dehydration hypotension gastrointestinal symptoms (symptoms relating to the stomach and intestines) patients may also experience effects on the central nervous system In 1–2 weeks, some people may recover, although others might not. They might experience a focal hemorrhage in mucosa of gingival, uterus, and lungs, a papulovesicular rash on the soft palate, cervical lymphadenopathy (it occurs in the neck which that enlarges the lymph glandular tissue), and occasional neurological involvement. If the patient still has OHF after

Flaviviruses

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Arthropod-borne viral fevers and viral haemorrh...

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Hemorrhagic fevers

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Prevention of viral hemorrhagic fever

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Prevention of viral hemorrhagic fever

VHF isolation precautions poster Prevention of viral hemorrhagic fever is similar for the different viruses. There are a number of different viral hemorrhagic fevers including Ebola virus disease, Lassa fever, Rift valley fever, Marburg virus disease, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and yellow fever.[1] Lassa, Ebola, Marburg and CCHF can be spread by direct contact with the body fluids of those infected.[1] Thus the content here covers the prevention of Ebola. Standard precautions An example of a handwashing station in a low resource setting The use of standard precautions is recommended with all patients in a healthcare environment.[1] This includes a minimum level of standard precautions for use with all people regardless of their infection status, routine handwashing practices, safe handling and disposal of used needles and syringes, and intensifying standard precautions. It also includes VHF isolation precautions when needed.[1] Limited supplies and resources may prevent a health facility f

Hemorrhagic fevers

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Rabbit haemorrhagic disease

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Rabbit haemorrhagic disease

Rabbit Calicivirus CSIRO Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD), also known as rabbit calicivirus disease (RCD) or viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD), is a highly infectious and often fatal disease that affects wild and domestic rabbits of the species Oryctolagus cuniculus. The infectious agent responsible for the disease is rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), or rabbit calicivirus (RCV), genus Lagovirus of the family Caliciviridae. The virus infects only rabbits, and has been used in some countries to control rabbit populations. Cause Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a single strand RNA virus in the genus Lagovirus and the family Caliciviridae. In the course of its evolution RHDV split into six distinct genotypes,[3] all of which are highly pathogenic. In addition, non-pathogenic rabbit caliciviruses related to but distinct from RHDV have been identified in Europe and Australia.[4] History RHD first appeared in the Winter of 1983 in Jiangsu Province of the People's Republic of China. It was f

Caliciviridae

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Animal viral diseases

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Rabbit diseases

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Ravn virus

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Ravn virus

Ravn virus ([1] RAVV) is a close relative of the much more commonly known Marburg virus (MARV). RAVV causes Marburg virus disease in humans and nonhuman primates, a form of viral hemorrhagic fever.[2] RAVV is a Select agent,[3] World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogen (requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment),[4] National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A Priority Pathogen,[5] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Category A Bioterrorism Agent,[6] and listed as a Biological Agent for Export Control by the Australia Group.[7] Use of term Ravn virus (today abbreviated RAVV, but then considered identical to Marburg virus) was first described in 1996.[8] Today, the virus is classified as one of two members of the species Marburg marburgvirus, which is included into the genus Marburgvirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. The name Ravn virus is derived from Ravn (the name of the Danish patient from whom this virus was first isol

Infraspecific virus taxa

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Marburgviruses

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Primate diseases

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Reston virus

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Reston virus

Reston virus (RESTV) is one of six known viruses within the genus Ebolavirus. Reston virus causes Ebola virus disease in non-human primates; unlike the other five ebolaviruses, it is not known to cause disease in humans, but has caused asymptomatic infections.[1][2][3] Reston virus was first described in 1990 as a new "strain" of Ebola virus (EBOV).[4] It is the single member of the species Reston ebolavirus, which is included into the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales.[5] Reston virus is named after Reston, Virginia, US, where the virus was first discovered. RESTV was discovered in crab-eating macaques from Hazleton Laboratories (now Covance) in 1989. This attracted significant media attention due to the proximity of Reston to the Washington, DC, metro area and the lethality of a closely related Ebola virus. Despite its status as a level-4 organism, Reston virus is non-pathogenic to humans, though hazardous to monkeys;[6][7] the perception of its lethality was compounded by the mon

Primate diseases

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Ebolaviruses

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Rocio viral encephalitis

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Rocio viral encephalitis

Rocio viral encephalitis is an epidemic flaviviral disease of humans first observed in São Paulo State, Brazil, in 1975.[1] Low-level enzootic transmission is likely continuing in the epidemic zone, and with increased deforestation and population expansion, additional epidemics caused by Rocio virus are highly probable.[2] If migratory species of birds are, or become involved in, the virus transmission cycle, the competency of a wide variety of mosquito species for transmitting Rocio virus experimentally suggest that the virus may become more widely distributed.[2] The encephalitis outbreak in the western hemisphere caused by West Nile virus, a related flavivirus, highlights the potential for arboviruses to cause severe problems far from their source enzootic foci.[2] The causative Rocio virus belongs to the genus Flavivirus (the same genus as the Zika virus) in family Flaviviridae and is closely related serologically to Ilhéus, St. Louis encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis and Murray Valley encephalitis vir

Flaviviruses

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Viral encephalitis

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Biological weapons

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Saaremaa virus

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Saaremaa virus

Saaremaa virus is a single-stranded, negative-sense, RNA virus Orthohantavirus that causes a milder form of Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. It is a member virus of Dobrava-Belgrade orthohantavirus.[1] It was first isolated from a striped field mouse in Slovakia.[2] References Briese, Thomas (July 18, 2016). "In the genus Hantavirus (proposed family Hanta viridae, proposed order Bunyavirales ), c reate 24 new species, abolish 7 species, change the demarcation criteria, and change the name of the genus to Orthohantavirus; likewise, rename its constit uent species" (PDF). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 30 January 2019. Plyusnin, Alexander, Vaheri, Antti. Saaremaa Hantavirus Should Not Be Confused with Its Dangerous Relative, Dobrava Virus J. Clin. Microbiol. April 2006 vol. 44 no. 4 1608–1611 External links Sloan Science and Film / Short Films / Muerto Canyon by Jen Peel 29 minutes "Hantaviruses, with emphasis on Four Corners Hantavirus" by Bri

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Sangassou virus

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Sangassou virus

Sangassou virus (SANGV) is single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus species of the genus orthohantavirus in the Bunyavirales order. It was first isolated in an African wood mouse (Hylomyscus simus) in the forest in Guinea, West Africa in 2010. It is named for the village near where the mouse was trapped. It is the first indigenous Murinae-associated African hantavirus to be discovered.[1] Genome The virus genome consists of three segments of negative-stranded RNA; the large (L) segment encodes the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the medium (M) segment encodes the envelope glycoproteins Gn and Gc (cotranslationally cleaved from a glycoprotein precursor), and the small (S) segment encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein.[1] Renal syndrome In rodents, hantavirus produces a chronic infection with no adverse sequelae. In humans, hantavirus produces two major clinical syndromes: hemorrhagic fever or pulmonary syndrome. European, Asian, and African rodent-borne hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever. The pulmona

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Biological weapons

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Serang virus

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Serang virus

Serang virus (SERV) is a single-stranded, negative-sense, enveloped, novel RNA orthohantavirus.[1] Natural reservoir SERV was first isolated from the Asian house rat (R.Tanezumi) in Serang, Indonesia in 2008. Virology Phylogenetic analysis based on partial L, M and S segment nucleotide sequences show SERV is novel and distinct among the hantaviruses. It is most closely related to Thailand virus (THAIV) which is carried by the great bandicoot rat (Bandicota indica). Nucleotide sequence comparison suggests that SERV is the result of cross-species transmission from bandicoots to Asian rats. See also Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome Seoul virus References Plyusnina A, Ibrahim IN, Plyusnin A (2009). "A newly recognized hantavirus in the Asian house rat (Rattus tanezumi) in Indonesia". J. Gen. Virol. 90 (Pt 1): 205–9. doi:10.1099/vir.0.006155-0. PMID 19088290. External links Serang virus strain details Guo WP, Lin XD, Wang W, Tian JH, Cong ML, Zhang HL, Wang MR, Zhou RH, Wang J

Hantaviridae

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Serang

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Hantaviruses

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Sudan ebolavirus

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Sudan ebolavirus

The species Sudan ebolavirus is a virological taxon included in the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. The species has a single virus member, Sudan virus (SUDV).[1] The members of the species are called Sudan ebolaviruses.[1] Nomenclature The name Sudan ebolavirus is derived from Sudan (the country in which Sudan virus was first discovered) and the taxonomic suffix ebolavirus (which denotes an ebolavirus species).[1] The species was introduced in 1998 as Sudan Ebola virus.[2][3] In 2002, the name was changed to Sudan ebolavirus.[4][5] A virus of the genus Ebolavirus is a member of the species Sudan ebolavirus if:[1] it is endemic in Sudan and/or Uganda it has a genome with three gene overlaps (VP35/VP40, GP/VP30, VP24/L) it has a genomic sequence different from Ebola virus by ≥30% but different from that of Sudan virus by <30% Sudan virus (SUDV) is one of five known viruses within the genus Ebolavirus and causes Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and other primate

Primate diseases

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Hemorrhagic fevers

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Virus-related cutaneous conditions

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Soochong virus

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Soochong virus

Soochong virus (SOOV) is a zoonotic negative sense single-stranded RNA virus. It may be a member of the genus Orthohantavirus, but it has not be definitively classified as a species and may only be a strain.[1] It is one of four rodent-borne Hantaviruses found in the Republic of Korea. It is the etiologic agent for Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The other species responsible for HFRS in Korea are Seoul virus, Haantan virus, and Muju virus.[2] Soochong was isolated from four Korean field mice (Apodemus peninsulae) captured in August 1997 at Mt. Gyebang in Hongcheon-gun, Mt. Gachil, Inje-gun, Gangwon Province, and in September 1998 at Mt. Deogyu, Muju-gun, Jeollabuk Province. Transmission This species of Hantavirus has not been shown to transfer from person-to-person. Transmission by aerosolized rodent excreta still remains the only known way the virus is transmitted to humans. In general, drop-let and/or fomite transfer has not been shown in the hantaviruses in either the hemorrhag

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Biological weapons

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Sudan virus

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Sudan virus

Sudan virus (SUDV) is one of five known viruses within the genus Ebolavirus and causes Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and other primates; it is the sole member of the species Sudan ebolavirus. SUDV is a Select Agent, World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogen (requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment), National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A Priority Pathogen, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Category A Bioterrorism Agent, and listed as a Biological Agent for Export Control by the Australia Group. The first known outbreak of EVD occurred due to Sudan virus in South Sudan between June and November 1976, infecting 284 people and killing 151, with the first identifiable case on 27 June 1976.[1][2][3] Use of term Sudan virus (abbreviated SUDV) was first described in 1977.[4] It is the single member of the species Sudan ebolavirus, which is included into the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales.[5] The na

Infraspecific virus taxa

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Primate diseases

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Animal viral diseases

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Taï Forest ebolavirus

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Taï Forest ebolavirus

The species Taï Forest ebolavirus [1] is a virological taxon included in the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. The species has a single virus member, Taï Forest virus (TAFV).[1] The members of the species are called Taï Forest ebolaviruses.[1] Tai Forest ebolavirus has been seen in a single human infection due to contact chimpanzee from the Tai Forest in Côte d'Ivoire.[2] Nomenclature The name Taï Forest ebolavirus is derived from Parc National de Taï (the name of a national park in Côte d'Ivoire, where Taï Forest virus was first discovered) and the taxonomic suffix ebolavirus (which denotes an ebolavirus species).[1] According to the rules for taxon naming established by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), the name Taï Forest ebolavirus is always to be capitalized, italicized, never abbreviated, and to be preceded by the word "species". The names of its members (Taï Forest ebolaviruses) are to be capitalized, are not italicized, and used without articles.[

Primate diseases

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Hemorrhagic fevers

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Taï Forest virus

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Taï Forest virus

Taï Forest virus ([1] TAFV) is a close relative of the much more commonly known Ebola virus (EBOV). TAFV causes severe disease in primates, the Ebola hemorrhagic fever. TAFV is a Select Agent, World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogen (requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment), National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A Priority Pathogen, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Category A Bioterrorism Agent, and listed as a Biological Agent for Export Control by the Australia Group. Use of term Taï Forest virus (abbreviated TAFV) was first described in 1995 as a new "strain" of Ebola virus.[2] It is the single member of the species Taï Forest ebolavirus, which is included into the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales.[1] The name Taï Forest virus is derived from Parc National de Taï (the name of a national park in Côte d'Ivoire, where it was first discovered) and the taxonomic suffix virus. According to the rules f

Primate diseases

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Ebolaviruses

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Tanganya virus

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Tanganya virus

Tanganya virus (TGNV) is an enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus, possibly of the genus orthohantavirus in the Bunyavirales order.[1] It is the second indigenous Murinae-associated African hantavirus to be discovered. It has a low sequence similarity to other hantaviruses and serologically distinct from other hantaviruses.[2] Its host is Crocidura theresae.[1] References "ICTV 9th Report (2011) Bunyaviridae". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 4 March 2019. List of other related viruses which may be members of the genus Hantavirus but have not been approved as species Tanganya virus {Crocidura theresae} (TGNV) Boris Klempa, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet, Emilie Lecompte, S. et al. Novel Hantavirus Sequences in Shrew, Guinea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007 March; 13(3): 520–522. External links CDC's Hantavirus Technical Information Index page Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR): Bunyaviridae

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Thottapalayam virus

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Thottapalayam virus

Thottapalayam virus (TMPV) is single-stranded, enveloped, negative-sense RNA virus species of the genus orthohantavirus in the Bunyavirales order. It is the first hantavirus to be isolated from a shrew. It was discovered in India in 1964.[1][2] Natural reservoir TPMV was first isolated from an Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) in India in 1964. It is the only known hantavirus to be hosted by a shrew instead of a rodent. It was subsequently isolated in Asian house shrews in Wenzhou of Zhejiang province, China.[3] Virology Phylogenetic analysis has shown that Thottapalayam virus, and its closely related strains, is unique and forms a distinct lineage, unrelated to other hantaviruses. The closest hantavirus to TMPV is Imjin virus which demonstrates corresponding nucleotide sequences to TPMV as does Tanganya virus.[4] See also RNA virus Puumala virus References Carey DE, Reuben R, Panicker KN, Shope RE, Myers RM. Thottapalayam virus: a presumptive arbovirus isolated from a shrew in India. Indian J

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Topografov virus

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Topografov virus

Topografov virus is an enveloped, negative-sense RNA virus species of the genus orthohantavirus in the Bunyavirales order. It is the first hantavirus to be isolated from Siberian lemmings (Lemmus sibiricus) found near the Topografov River in the Taymyr Peninsula, Siberia.[1][2] Virology Hantaviruses have been shown to evolve with their hosts. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that Topografov virus is related to Khabarovsk virus and Puumala virus. This close relationship is believed to be due to a rodent host switch that took place at some point their respective evolutions. [3] Topografov virus and Khabarovsk virus are believed to have a common ancestor, possibly from a Microtus species that lived over 1 million years ago.[4][5] This host switch has been known to occur only once before in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in North America.[6][7] See also Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome Imjin virus References Plyusnin A, Vapalahti O, Lundkvist Å, Henttonen H, Vaheri A. Newly

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Hantaviruses

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Tula virus

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Tula virus

Tula virus (TULV) is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus species of orthohantavirus first isolated from a European common vole (Microtus arvalis) found in Central Russia. It causes Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome.[1][2] The Microtus species are also found in North America, Europe, Scandinavia, Slovenia, Asia, and Western Russia. Human cases of Tula virus have also been reported in Switzerland and Germany.[3] See also Sweating sickness References Plyusnin A, Vapalahti O, Lankinen H, Lehväslaiho H, Apekina N, Myasnikov Y, Kallio-Kokko H, Henttonen H, Lundkvist A, Brummer-Korvenkontio M (1994). "Tula virus: a newly detected hantavirus carried by European common voles". J. Virol. 68 (12): 7833–9. PMC 237245. PMID 7966573. Korva M, Duh D, Puterle A, Trilar T, Zupanc TA (2009). "First molecular evidence of Tula hantavirus in Microtus voles in Slovenia". Virus Res. 144 (1–2): 318–22. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2009.04.021. PMID 19410611. Klempa B, Meisel H, Räth S, Bartel J, Ulrich

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever

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Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever

Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever (VHF) is a zoonotic human illness first identified in 1989. The disease is most prevalent in several rural areas of central Venezuela and is caused by Guanarito mammarenavirus (GTOV) which belongs to the Arenaviridae family. The short-tailed cane mouse (Zygodontomys brevicauda) is the main host for GTOV [2] which is spread mostly by inhalation of aerosolized droplets of saliva, respiratory secretions, urine, or blood from infected rodents.[3] Person-to-person spread is possible, but uncommon. Presentation VHF has many similarities to Lassa fever and to the arenavirus hemorrhagic fevers that occur in Argentina and Bolivia.[4] It causes fever and malaise followed by hemorrhagic manifestations and convulsions.[5] Some presentations of the virus are also characterized by vascular damage, bleeding diathesis, fever, and multiple organ involvement. Clinical diagnosis of VHF has proven to be difficult based on the nonspecific symptoms.[6] The disease is fatal in 30% of cases and is ende

Arenaviridae

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Animal viral diseases

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Ebola vaccine

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Ebola vaccine

Ebola vaccines are a number of vaccines to prevent Ebola that are either approved or in development. The first vaccine to be approved in the United States was rVSV-ZEBOV in December 2019.[1][2] It had been used extensively in 2018–19 under a compassionate use protocol.[3] Several promising vaccine candidates have been shown to protect nonhuman primates (usually macaques) against lethal infection.[4][5][6] Vaccines include replication-deficient adenovirus vectors, replication-competent vesicular stomatitis (VSV) and human parainfluenza (HPIV-3) vectors, and virus-like nanoparticle preparations. Conventional trials to study efficacy by exposure of humans to the pathogen after immunization are not ethical in this case. For such situations, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established the "Animal Efficacy Rule" allowing licensure to be approved on the basis of animal model studies that replicate human disease, combined with evidence of safety and a potentially potent immune response (antibodies in the

Breakthrough therapy

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Ebola virus disease treatment research

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Ebola virus disease treatment research

Researcher working with the Ebola virus while wearing a BSL-4 positive pressure suit There is no cure or specific treatment for the Ebola virus disease that is currently approved for market, although various experimental treatments are being developed.[1] For past and current Ebola epidemics, treatment has been primarily supportive in nature.[2] As of August 2019, two experimental treatments known as REGN-EB3 and mAb-114 were found to be 90% effective.[3][4][5][6] Overview In March 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported a major Ebola outbreak in Guinea, a western African nation.[7] The disease then rapidly spread to the neighboring countries of Liberia and Sierra Leone. The 2014 West African Ebola outbreak is the largest Ebola outbreak ever documented, and the first recorded in the region.[7] The director of the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) has stated that the scientific community is still in the early stages of understanding how infection with the Ebola

West African Ebola virus epidemic

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2014 Ebola outbreaks

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Ebola

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Kyasanur Forest disease

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Kyasanur Forest disease

Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a tick-borne viral haemorrhagic fever endemic to South India.[1] The disease is caused by a virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae, which also includes yellow fever and dengue fever, which are transmitted by monkeys. Signs and symptoms The symptoms of the disease include a high fever with frontal headaches, followed by haemorrhagic symptoms, such as bleeding from the nasal cavity, throat, and gums, as well as gastrointestinal bleeding.[2] Other symptoms include vomiting, muscle stiffness, tremors, absent reflexes, and mental disturbances.[3][4] An affected person may recover in two weeks' time, but the convalescent period is typically very long, lasting for several months. Muscle aches and weakness also occur during this period and the affected person is unable to engage in physical activities. Cause Virology The genome of KFDV consists of 10,774 nucleotides of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA.[6] Its genome was discovered to only code for one polyprotein: C-prM-E-

Tick-borne diseases

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Flaviviruses

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2017 Uganda Marburg virus outbreak

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2017 Uganda Marburg virus outbreak

The 2017 Uganda Marburg virus outbreak was confirmed by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 20 October 2017 after there had been an initial fatality due to the virus.[6] The Ugandan Ministry of Health indicated that an individual had died of the virus on 19 October; the following day, 20 October, WHO released a press statement regarding the matter. The eastern part of the country is the affected area where the cases have occurred.[1][3] On 22 October, it was reported that 55 individuals were under surveillance for the virus.[7] On 25 October, the number of individuals rose to 155 in terms of contact tracing[8] Virology and epidemiology Marburg virus According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Marburg virus was first recognised in 1967.[9] In terms of diagnosis the presentation is similar to malaria or typhoid fever and therefore not easy to identify (diagnose).[10] The Marburg virus is considered a filovirus, which is the same as the Ebola virus in terms of viral classific

2010s disease outbreaks

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2010s medical outbreaks

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2017 health disasters

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Orthohantavirus

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Orthohantavirus

Orthohantavirus is a genus of single-stranded, enveloped, negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Hantaviridae of the order Bunyavirales.[3] Members of this genus may be called orthohantaviruses or simply hantaviruses. They normally cause infection in rodents, but do not cause disease in them.[3] Humans may become infected with hantaviruses through contact with rodent urine, saliva, or feces. Some strains cause potentially fatal diseases in humans, such as hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), also known as hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS),[4] while others have not been associated with known human disease.[5] HPS (HCPS) is a "rare respiratory illness associated with the inhalation of aerosolized rodent excreta (urine and feces) contaminated by hantavirus particles."[4] Human infections of hantaviruses have almost entirely been linked to human contact with rodent excrement; however, in 2005 and 2019, human-to-human transmission of the Andes

Hantaviridae

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Hantaviruses

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Bunyavirales

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Bunyavirales

Bunyavirales is an order of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. It is the only order in the class Ellioviricetes.[2] It was formerly known as Bunyaviridae family of viruses. The name Bunyavirales derives from Bunyamwera,[3] where the original type species Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus was first discovered.[4] Ellioviricetes is named in honor of late virologist Richard M. Elliott for his early work on bunyaviruses.[5] In 2017, the ICTV reclassified the family Bunyaviridae as Bunyavirales, a taxonomic shift from a family of viruses to an order of viruses.[6][7] The body made these decisions in a 2016 convening in Budapest.[7] Primary reasons for this alteration revolve around these observations: approximately half of viruses in the former Bunyaviridae were at the time unassigned to a genus; novel viruses discovered that were characteristic of and clustered around Bunyaviridae based on phylogenetic analyses had bi-segmented genomes (as opposed to Bunyaviridae's tri-segmentation); and plant viruses also lac

Virus families

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Bunyavirales

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Virus orders

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Ebola virus disease

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Ebola virus disease

Ebola virus disease (EVD), or simply Ebola, is a viral haemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses.[1] Signs and symptoms typically start between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus with a fever, sore throat, muscular pain, and headaches.[1] Vomiting, diarrhoea and rash usually follow, along with decreased function of the liver and kidneys.[1] At this time, some people begin to bleed both internally and externally.[1] The disease has a high risk of death, killing 25% to 90% of those infected, with an average of about 50%.[1] This is often due to low blood pressure from fluid loss, and typically follows 6 to 16 days after symptoms appear.[2] The virus spreads through direct contact with body fluids, such as blood from infected humans or other animals.[1] Spread may also occur from contact with items recently contaminated with bodily fluids.[1] Spread of the disease through the air between primates, including humans, has not been documented in either laboratory or na

West African Ebola virus epidemic

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Bat-borne viruses

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Arthropod-borne viral fevers and viral haemorrh...

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Hantaan orthohantavirus

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Hantaan orthohantavirus

Hantaan orthohantavirus (HTNV) is an enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus species of Old World Orthohantavirus. It is the causative agent of Korean hemorrhagic fever in humans.[1][2] It is named for the Hantan River in South Korea,[3] and in turn lends the name to its genus Orthohantavirus and family Hantaviridae. Natural reservoir Apodemus agrarius, also known as striped field mouse, is the etiological agent of Hantaan orthohantavirus.[4] Transmission Transmission is believed to be through inhalation of aersolized rodent urine and feces. Morbidity and mortality In hantavirus induced hemorrhagic fever, incubation time is between two and four weeks in humans before symptoms of infection present. Severity of symptoms depends on the viral load. Like Dobrava-Belgrade virus, Hantaan virus has a mortality rate of 10 to 12%.[5][6] History During the Korean War (1951–1953), more than 3000 American and Korean troops fell ill with renal failure, hemorrhage, and shock. The cause remained unknown

Rodent-carried diseases

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Hemorrhagic fevers

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Hantaviridae

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Dobrava-Belgrade orthohantavirus

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Dobrava-Belgrade orthohantavirus

Dobrava-Belgrade orthohantavirus (DOBV), also known as Dobrava virus, is an enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus species of Old World Orthohantavirus. It is one of several species of Hantavirus that is the causative agent of severe Hantavirus hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. It was first isolated from yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) found in Dobrava Village, Slovenia, Yugoslavia.[3] It was subsequently isolated in striped field mice in Russia and other parts of Eastern Europe. It has also been found in Germany but the reservoir host there is unknown.[4] Reservoir Dobrava virus and the variants of Dobrava-Belgrade virus have been found in the yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) virus genotype Dobrava, the Striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) virus genotype Kurkino, and Black Sea field mouse (Apodemus ponticus) virus genotype Sochi. Morbidity and mortality The fatality rate is 12%, making Dobrava virus the most life-threatening hantavirus disease in Europe. Variant

Viral diseases

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Hantaviridae

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Zaire ebolavirus

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Zaire ebolavirus

Zaire ebolavirus, more commonly known as simply Ebola virus (EBOV), is one of six known species within the genus Ebolavirus.[1] Four of the six known ebolaviruses, including EBOV, cause a severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and other mammals, known as Ebola virus disease (EVD). Ebola virus has caused the majority of human deaths from EVD and is the cause of the 2013–2016 Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa,[2] which resulted in at least 28,646 suspected cases and 11,323 confirmed deaths.[3][4] Ebola virus and its genus were both originally named for Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of Congo), the country where it was first described,[1] and was at first suspected to be a new "strain" of the closely related Marburg virus.[5][6] The virus was renamed "Ebola virus" in 2010 to avoid confusion. Ebola virus is the single member of the species Zaire ebolavirus, which is the type species for the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. The members of the species are called Zaire

Zoonoses

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Tropical diseases

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Ebolaviruses

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Chapare mammarenavirus

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Chapare mammarenavirus

Chapare mammarenavirus causes hemorrhagic fever and is a member of the virus family Arenaviridae. It causes Chapare hemorrhagic fever. The only known outbreak of Chapare mammarenavirus infection occurred in the village of Samuzabeti, Chapare Province, Bolivia, in January 2003.[2][3] A small number of people were infected. One person died. The specific transmission vector is not known, but is suspected to be a rodent, in keeping with other members of the arenavirus family, which includes Lassa mammarenavirus.[4] Background In December 2003, an outbreak of the Chapare virus occurred near Cochabamba, Bolivia. Symptoms The symptoms include: headache, fever, body aches, nose bleeds, and bleeding gums. Treatment No treatment or cure has been discovered yet. References Buchmeier, Michael J.; et al. (2 July 2014). "Rename one (1) genus and twenty-five (25) species in the family Arenaviridae" (PDF). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 14 June 2019. in the family Arenaviridae cha

Arenaviridae

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Hemorrhagic fevers

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Imjin thottimvirus

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Imjin thottimvirus

Imjin thottimvirus (MJNV) is a single-stranded, enveloped, negative-sense RNA virus of the orthohantavirus genus in the Bunyavirales order. It is a newly identified hantavirus isolated from the lung tissues of Ussuri white-toothed shrews of the species Crocidura lasiura (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae, subfamily Crocidurinae) captured near the demilitarized zone in the Republic of Korea during 2004 and 2005. Virology Phylogenetic analyses demonstrates a common ancestry with Thottopalayam thottimvirus suggesting early evolutionary divergence. It is still unknown if MJNV is pathogenic for humans.[2] MJNV has been shown to be a genetically unique hantavirus. Multiple strains have been isolated from the lung tissues of Ussuri white-toothed shrews captured between 2004 and 2010. Partial M- and L-segment sequences from lung tissues of 12 of 37 (32.4%) anti-MJNV IgG antibody-positive shrews revealed that the 12 MJNV strains differed by 0–12.2% and 0–2.3% at the nucleotide and amino acid levels. A similar de

Hantaviridae

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Viral diseases

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Hemorrhagic fevers

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Deltaarterivirus hemfev

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Deltaarterivirus hemfev

Deltaarterivirus hemfev, formerly Simian hemorrhagic fever virus or simian haemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV), is a highly pathogenic virus in monkeys. It is a positive-stranded RNA virus classified in the family Arteriviridae. It is the only member of the subgenus Hedartevirus.[2] Hosts Patas are believed to be the natural host for the virus since about 50% of wild patas monkeys have antibodies for the virus, while antibodies are much less prevalent in other simian species such as vervets and baboons. In macaques, however, infection with this virus can result in acute severe disease with high mortality. Recently, red colobus monkeys and red-tailed guenons have been identified as natural hosts for SHFV.[3][4] Symptoms Asymptomatic infection of the virus can occur in patas monkeys, vervet monkeys, and baboons, although it is observed primarily in patas monkeys. Infection has a rapid onset with animals developing a high fever, facial edema, cyanosis, anorexia, melena, and may begin to hemorrhage at the cutaneo

Arteriviridae

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Hemorrhagic fevers

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1967 Marburg virus outbreak in West Germany

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1967 Marburg virus outbreak in West Germany

Marburg virus was named after Marburg in Germany where the first such outbreak ever, occurred (Above image-This negative stained transmission electron micrograph (TEM) depicts a number of filamentous Marburg virions, which had been cultured on Vero cell cultures, and purified on sucrose, rate-zonal gradients.) The 1967 Marburg virus outbreak in West Germany was first outbreak of Marburg virus disease[1]. It started in West Germany in early August 1967 when 30 people became ill in the German towns of Marburg and Frankfurt and 2 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia (now Serbia). Out of all one case was diagnosed retrospectively. The outbreak involved 25 primary Marburg virus infections and seven deaths, and six non-lethal secondary cases. Overview In early August 1967, patients with unusual symptoms indicating an infectious disease were admitted to the university hospitals in Marburg and Frankfurt. The first patients were treated in their homes for up to 10 days, even though the illness was described as beginning suddenl

Marburgviruses

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Epidemics

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Lujo mammarenavirus

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Lujo mammarenavirus

Lujo is a bisegmented RNA virus—a member of the family Arenaviridae—and a known cause of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in humans. Its name was suggested by the Special Pathogens Unit of the National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service (NICD-NHLS) by using the first two letters of the names of the cities involved in the 2008 outbreak of the disease, Lusaka (Zambia) and Johannesburg (Republic of South Africa). It is the second pathogenic Arenavirus to be described from the African continent—the first being Lassa virus—and since 2012 has been classed as a "Select Agent" under U.S. law. History Only 5 cases of this virus have ever been reported; all 5 were identified in September and October 2008, and 4 were fatal. Those infections that proved fatal caused death within 10–13 days of showing symptoms. All four patients in which infection proved fatal first showed signs of improvement and then went into respiratory distress, displayed neurological problems, and had circul

Viral diseases

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Arenaviridae

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