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Critics of Islamism


Abdel Fattah el-Sisi

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Abdel Fattah el-Sisi

Abdel Fattah Saeed Hussein Khalil el-Sisi (Arabic: عبد الفتاح سعيد حسين خليل السيسي‎ ʿAbdel-Fattāḥ Saʿīd Ḥusayn Khalīl as-Sīsi Egyptian Arabic: ; born 19 November 1954) is an Egyptian politician who is the sixth and current President of Egypt, former Director of Military Intelligence, former Minister of Defence, and former General. Starting 10 February 2019, Sisi also began serving a one-year term as Chairperson of the African Union. Sisi was born in Cairo and after joining the military, held a post in Saudi Arabia before enrolling in the Egyptian Army's Command and Staff College. In 1992, Sisi trained at the Joint Services Command and Staff College at Watchfield, Oxfordshire, in the United Kingdom, and then in 2006 trained at the United States Army War College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. Sisi served as a mechanized infantry commander and then as director of military intelligence. After the Egyptian revolution of 2011 and election of Mohamed Morsi to the Egyptian presidency, Sisi was appointed Minister of Def

African Union chairpersons

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Critics of Islamism

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Members of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces

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Zine El Abidine Ben Ali

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Zine El Abidine Ben Ali

Zine El Abidine Ben Ali (Arabic: زين العابدين بن علي‎, Zayn al-'Ābidīn bin 'Alī; 3 September 1936 – 19 September 2019), commonly known as Ben Ali (Arabic: بن علي‎), was a Tunisian politician who was the second President of Tunisia from 1987 until his fall in 2011. Ben Ali was appointed Prime Minister in October 1987. He assumed the Presidency on 7 November 1987 in a bloodless coup d'état that ousted President Habib Bourguiba by declaring him incompetent.[2] Ben Ali was subsequently reelected with enormous majorities, each time exceeding 90% of the vote; his final re-election coming on 25 October 2009.[3] On 14 January 2011, following a month of protests against his rule, he was forced to flee to Saudi Arabia along with his wife Leïla Ben Ali and their three children. The interim Tunisian government asked Interpol to issue an international arrest warrant, charging him with money laundering and drug trafficking. A Tunisian court sentenced Ben Ali and his wife in absentia to 35 years in prison on 20 June 2011 o

Heads of regimes who were later imprisoned

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Tunisian Sunni Muslims

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Deaths from prostate cancer

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Hasan Shahhata

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Hasan Shahhata

Hassan Bin Muhamad Bin Shehata Bin Mousa al-Anani,[1] known as Sheikh Hassan Shehata (Arabic: حسن بن محمد بن شحاتة بن موسى العناني‎) (November 10, 1946 - June 23, 2013) was an ex-Sunni, who later converted to Shia Islam, scholar who was killed in the small village of Zawyat Abu Musalam in Giza by a Salafi inspired and encouraged mob.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9] He studied at Egypt's al-Azhar University and in the 1970s, served as a prominent Sunni Imam to the Egyptian Army. According to his own account, after having a dream of Imam Ali and other sahaba, he converted to Shia Islam in the 1990s. In 2009, he spent some time in jail under the government of ousted Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak due to his speeches against radical, fundamentalist Sunni movements that harm Islam. 306 of his followers were also detained along with him.[10] In the gruesome lynching on June 23, 2013, an angry mob led by the country's Saudi-backed Salafist sheikhs torched Shia residences in the small village of Zawyat Abu Musalam in Giza

Al-Azhar University alumni

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Egyptian murder victims

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Lynching deaths

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Reza Shah

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Reza Shah

Reza Shah Pahlavi (Persian: رضا شاه پهلوی‎; pronounced ; 15 March 1878 – 26 July 1944), commonly known as Reza Shah, was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941. Two years after the 1921 Persian coup d'état, led by Zia'eddin Tabatabaee, Reza Pahlavi became Iran's prime minister. The appointment was backed by the compliant national assembly of Iran. In 1925 Reza Pahlavi was appointed as the legal monarch of Iran by decision of Iran's constituent assembly. The assembly deposed Ahmad Shah Qajar, the last Shah of the Qajar dynasty, and amended Iran’s 1906 constitution to allow selection of Reza Pahlavi. He founded the Pahlavi dynasty that lasted until overthrown in 1979 during the Iranian Revolution. Reza Shah introduced many social, economic, and political reforms during his reign, ultimately laying the foundation of the modern Iranian state. His legacy remains controversial to this day. His defenders assert that he was an

20th-century monarchs of Persia

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Critics of religions

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Deaths from heart-related cause

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Marine Le Pen

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Marine Le Pen

Marion Anne Perrine "Marine" Le Pen (French: ; born 5 August 1968) is a French politician and a lawyer serving as President of the National Rally political party (previously named National Front) since 2011, with a brief interruption in 2017. She has been the member of the National Assembly for Pas-de-Calais's 11th constituency since 18 June 2017. She is the youngest daughter of Jean-Marie Le Pen and the aunt of former FN MP Marion Maréchal. Le Pen joined the FN in 1986 and was elected as a Regional Councillor (1998–present), a Member of European Parliament (2004–2017), and a municipal councillor in Hénin-Beaumont (2008–2011). She won the leadership of the FN in 2011, with 67.65% of the vote, defeating Bruno Gollnisch and succeeding her father, who had been president of the party since he founded it in 1972.[1][2][3] In 2012, she placed third in the presidential election with 17.90% of the vote, behind François Hollande and Nicolas Sarkozy.[4][5][6] She launched a second bid to become President of France at

Le Pen family

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21st-century French women politicians

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Populist leaders

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Iyad Jamal Al-Din

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Iyad Jamal Al-Din

Ayad Jamal Aldin or Iyad Jamal al-Din (Arabic: إياد جمال الدين‎), full name Iyad Raouf Mohammed Jamal al-Din (born 1961), is a prominent Iraqi intellectual, politician and religious cleric. He was a member of the Iraqi parliament[1] from 2005 until 2010 as the representative of Nasiriyah and a leading figure in Ayad Allawi's Iraqi National List (Iraqiyya) until his departure in the fall of 2009. After Ayad Allawi sent a delegation to Iran, Ayad Jamal Aldin became disillusioned with Iraqiyya and left the list to form his own party, the Ahrar Party, based on the principles of separation of religion and the state (a principle Iraqiyya ostensibly shares), courage and integrity (principles Ayad Jamal Aldin and his followers feel strongly that Iraqiyya does not share). Speaking of his fallout with Ayad Allawi in a February 14, 2010 interview with Al-Arabiya TV's Suhair Al-Qaisi, Ayad Jamal Aldin said: "Since he (Ayad Allawi) sent a delegation to Iran, he cannot expect my support." Ayad Jamal Aldin is a Shia cleric

Critics of Ibn Taymiyya

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Critics of Ibn al-Qayyim

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Critics of Wahhabism

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Ali Abdullah Saleh

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Ali Abdullah Saleh

Ali Abdullah Saleh (Arabic: علي عبدالله صالح , ʿAlī ʿAbdullāh Ṣāliḥ; 21 March 1947[1][note 1][2] – 4 December 2017) was a Yemeni politician who served as the first President of Yemen, from Yemeni unification on 22 May 1990 to his resignation on 25 February 2012, following the Yemeni Revolution.[3] Previously, he had served as President of the Yemen Arab Republic, or North Yemen, from July 1978 to 22 May 1990, after the assassination of President Ahmad al-Ghashmi.[4] Saleh developed deeper ties with Western powers, especially the United States, in the War on Terror. Terrorism may have been used and encouraged by Ali Abdullah Saleh to win Western support and for disruptive politically motivated attacks.[5][6] In 2011, in the wake of the Arab Spring, which spread across North Africa and the Middle East (including Yemen), Saleh's time in office became more and more untenable until eventually he was ousted as President in 2012. He was succeeded by Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, who had been Vice-President since 1994. I

Survivors of assassination attempts

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Failed assassination attempt survivors

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Critics of Islamism

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Sam Harris

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Sam Harris

Samuel Benjamin Harris (born April 9, 1967) is an American author, neuroscientist, and podcast host. His work touches on a wide range of topics, including rationality, religion, ethics, free will, neuroscience, meditation, philosophy of mind, politics, terrorism, and artificial intelligence. Harris came to prominence for his criticism of religion, and Islam in particular, and is described as one of the "Four Horsemen of Atheism", along with Richard Dawkins, Christopher Hitchens, and Daniel Dennett.[3][4] His academic background is in philosophy and cognitive neuroscience.[5] Harris's first book, The End of Faith (2004), won the PEN/Martha Albrand Award for First Nonfiction[6] and remained on The New York Times Best Seller list for 33 weeks.[7] Harris has subsequently published six other books: Letter to a Christian Nation in 2006, The Moral Landscape: How Science Could Determine Human Values in 2010, the long-form essay Lying in 2011, the short book Free Will in 2012, Waking Up: A Guide to Spirituality Witho

American men podcasters

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Rationality theorists

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Rationalists

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Adam Curtis

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Adam Curtis

Kevin Adam Curtis (born 26 May 1955) is a British documentary filmmaker.[1] His favourite theme is "power and how it works in society", and his works explore areas of sociology, psychology, philosophy and political history.[2] Curtis has called himself "fundamentally a historian",[3] and has described his work as journalism that happens to be expounded via film. His films have won four BAFTAs. He has worked for the BBC throughout his career. Early life Curtis was born in Dartford, Kent,[4] and grew up in Platt.[5] His father was Martin Curtis (10 August 1917 – January 2002), a cinematographer from Sevenoaks who worked with Humphrey Jennings.[2] His family had a left wing background.[6] Curtis attended the Sevenoaks School on a county scholarship.[7] He completed a Bachelor of Arts degree in human sciences at Mansfield College, Oxford. He started a PhD, during which he taught in politics, but he became disillusioned with academia and decided to leave.[6] Career Early career Curtis applied to the BBC and wa

Social commentators

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Critics of neoconservatism

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Critics of Islamism

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Christopher Hitchens

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Christopher Hitchens

Christopher Eric Hitchens (13 April 1949 – 15 December 2011) was an English-American author, columnist, essayist, orator, journalist, and social critic. Hitchens was the author, co-author, editor, or co-editor of over 30 books, including five collections of essays on culture, politics, and literature. A staple of public discourse, his confrontational style of debate made him both a lauded public intellectual and a controversial public figure. He contributed to New Statesman, The Nation, The Weekly Standard, The Atlantic, London Review of Books, The Times Literary Supplement, Slate, Free Inquiry, and Vanity Fair. Having long described himself as a democratic socialist, Marxist, and an anti-totalitarian, he broke from the political left after what he called the "tepid reaction" of the Western left to the Satanic Verses controversy, followed by what he perceived as an ill-advised embrace of Bill Clinton by parts of the left and the anti-war movement's opposition to NATO intervention in Bosnia and Herzegovina in

Bisexual academics

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Philosophers of culture

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Critics of alternative medicine

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Laura Loomer

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Laura Loomer

Laura Elizabeth Loomer (born May 21, 1993) is an American political activist, conspiracy theorist, and internet personality noted for her far-right politics[a] and commentary. She was a reporter for Canadian far-right website The Rebel Media during the summer of 2017, resigning that September.[1][2][3][4][5] Prior to June 2017, she worked for Project Veritas with James O'Keefe.[2] Loomer is banned from Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Medium, GoFundMe, Venmo, MGM Resorts, PayPal, Lyft, Uber and Uber Eats.[6] She was also banned from the March 2019 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) after she attempted to confront reporters by chasing them through the conference.[7] Loomer registered to run in the 2020 election primary to become the Republican candidate for a seat in the U.S. Congress against Democratic Representative Lois Frankel in Florida's 21st congressional district.[8] Early life and education Loomer was raised in Arizona. She attended Mount Holyoke College, leaving after one semester; she s

American women podcasters

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Barry University alumni

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Opposition to Islam in the United States

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Richard Dawkins

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Richard Dawkins

Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS FRSL (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author. He is an emeritus fellow of New College, Oxford, and was the University of Oxford's Professor for Public Understanding of Science from 1995 until 2008. Dawkins first came to prominence with his 1976 book The Selfish Gene, which popularised the gene-centred view of evolution and introduced the term meme. With his book The Extended Phenotype (1982), he introduced into evolutionary biology the influential concept that the phenotypic effects of a gene are not necessarily limited to an organism's body, but can stretch far into the environment. In 2006, he founded the Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science. Dawkins is known as an outspoken atheist. He is well known for his criticism of creationism and intelligent design. In The Blind Watchmaker (1986), he argues against the watchmaker analogy, an argument for the existence of a supernatural creator based upon the complexity of living org

English atheist writers

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British critics of Islam

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20th-century British biologists

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Bill Warner (writer)

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Bill Warner (writer)

Bill Warner is the pen name of Bill French (born 1941, United States), a writer, critic of Islam, and the founder of the Center for the Study of Political Islam https://www.cspii.org. He is a former Tennessee State University physics professor.[1] He is listed by the Southern Poverty Law Center as part of a core group of 10 Anti-Muslim hard-liners.[1] Warner has said that his focus is on the political aspects of Islamic doctrine related to kafirs (non-Muslims) rather than on the beliefs of contemporary Muslims.[2] He differentiates Islam as a religion and what he refers to as Political Islam. Warner defines "political Islam," which he also calls Islamism, "as a belief that Islam should control society and politics, not simply personal religious life."[3] Bibliography Warner, Bill (2015). Sharia Law for Non-Muslims. Centre for the Study of Political Islam. ISBN 978-0-9795794-8-6. Warner, Bill (2016). The Hadith. Center for the Study of Political Islam. ISBN 978-1-936659-01-2. Warner, Bill (2016). A

American physicists

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Anti-Muslim sentiment

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American critics of Islam

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Daniel Pipes

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Daniel Pipes

Daniel Pipes (born September 9, 1949) is an American historian, writer, and commentator. He is the president of the Middle East Forum, and publisher of its Middle East Quarterly journal. His writing focuses on American foreign policy and the Middle East. After graduating with a PhD from Harvard in 1978 and studying abroad, Pipes taught at universities including Harvard, Chicago, Pepperdine, and the U.S. Naval War College on a short-term basis but never held a permanent academic position.[1] He then served as director of the Foreign Policy Research Institute, before founding the Middle East Forum. He served as an adviser to Rudy Giuliani's 2008 presidential campaign.[2] Pipes has written sixteen books and was the Taube Distinguished Visiting Fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution.[3] Early life and education The son of Irene (née Roth) and Richard Pipes, Daniel Pipes was born into a Jewish family in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1949.[4] His parents had each fled German-occupied Poland with their f

American critics of Islam

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Jewish critics of Islam

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Critics of Islamism

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Tarek Fatah

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Tarek Fatah

Tarek Fatah is a Pakistani-Canadian journalist and author.[1][2] Fatah is a founder of the Muslim Canadian Congress and served as its communications officer and spokesperson. Fatah advocates gay rights, a separation of religion and state, opposition to sharia law, and advocacy for a "liberal, progressive form" of Islam.[3] Some of his activism and statements have been met with criticism from right-wing Muslim groups.[4] He calls himself an Indian born in Pakistan, a Punjabi born in Islam.[5] Life Tarek Fatah was born in Karachi, Pakistan into a Punjabi family which had migrated from Mumbai to Karachi following the Partition of India in 1947.[6] Fatah graduated with a degree in biochemistry from the University of Karachi but entered into journalism as a reporter for the Karachi Sun in 1970, before becoming an investigative journalist for Pakistan Television..[7] He was a leftist student leader in the 1960s and 1970s[8] and was imprisoned twice by military regimes. In 1977, he was charged with sedition and b

Muslim supporters of Israel

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Naturalized citizens of Canada

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Critics of Islamism

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Gilles Kepel

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Gilles Kepel

Gilles Kepel, (born June 30, 1955) is a French political scientist and Arabist, specialized in the contemporary Middle East and Muslims in the West.[1][2] He is Professor at the Université Paris Sciences et Lettres (PSL) and director of the Middle East and Mediterranean Chair at PSL, based at Ecole Normale Supérieure.[3] He has been described by Alain Elkann as “the best possible guide through the frightening labyrinth of militant Islam.”[4] Biography Originally trained as a classicist, he started to study Arabic after a journey to the Levant in 1974. He first graduated in Philosophy and English,[5] then completed his Arabic language studies at the French Institute in Damascus (1977–78), and received his degree from Sciences Po in 1980.[5] He specialized in contemporary Islamist movements, and spent three years at the Centre d'études et de documentation économiques, juridiques et sociales (CEDEJ) where he did the fieldwork for his PhD[2] (defended 1983) on “Islamist movements in Egypt”,[6] which would be tr

21st-century French non-fiction writers

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20th-century French non-fiction writers

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Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Af...

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Ensaf Haidar

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Ensaf Haidar

Ensaf Haidar (Arabic: إنصاف حيدر‎; born 1975) is a Saudi Arabia-born Canadian human rights activist. Born in Jizan, Saudi Arabia, Haidar is the wife of Raif Badawi, and actively campaigns for his freedom.[2] Haidar is the President of the Raif Badawi Foundation for Freedom, that actively campaigns for freedom of speech and human rights awareness in the Arab World.[3] Personal life Haidar married Badawi in Saudi Arabia in 2002 and became active on his case this after directing harsh criticism against the religious establishment through articles and media interviews, which angered radical Saudi clerics, including Abdul-Rahman al-Barrak, Saudi religious scholar, and former member of the teaching body of Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University. After a fatwa was issued against her husband, Haidar fled with her children to Egypt, living with an acquaintance of her husband, with assistance from his colleague Souad al Shammari. Haidar then moved to Lebanon and lived in a predominantly Christian neighborhood. Fo

Canadian human rights activists

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People from Sherbrooke

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Former Muslim critics of Islam

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Ismail Khilath Rasheed

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Ismail Khilath Rasheed

Ismail Khilath Rasheed (also known as Hilath) is a Maldivian blogger known for his support of religious tolerance and his involvement in several national controversies. Reporters Without Borders has described him as a "leading journalist"[1] and "one of his country’s leading free speech advocates".[2] Background Rasheed worked for a time as an editor of the Maldivian newspaper Haveeru.[2] He came to national attention in early 2010, when he was charged by the government with atheism, drug use, and homosexuality, allegedly in retaliation for his human rights reporting. He also received several death threats, and material appeared on Maldivian websites calling for his beheading, leading the Maldives Journalist Association to offer a statement in his support.[3] Blog closing In November 2011, his website, www.hilath.com, was shut down by Communications Authority of the Maldives (CAM) on the order of the Ministry of Islamic Affairs, on the grounds that the site contained "anti-Islamic material".[4] Islam is t

Critics of Islamism

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21st-century Maldivian writers

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Maldivian activists

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Brother Rachid

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Brother Rachid

Brother Rachid (born 1971, Morocco)[2] is a Moroccan Christian convert from Islam whose father is an Imam, he hosts a weekly live call-in show on Al Hayat TV where he compares Islam and Christianity. Biography Rachid was born in Morocco to a conservative Muslim family[3] and raised in Doukkala.[4] His father was an Imam.[5][6][7] He memorized one-sixth of the Quran by age 6.[5] He studied economics and computer science at Hassan II University in Casablanca.[5] In 1990,[5] at the age of 19,[3] he converted from Islam to Christianity after studying the differences between the two faiths[5] with the original intent to defend Islam.[4] When his parents found out about his conversion, they ejected him from their home and he went to live with a missionary but was eventually forced to flee Morocco.[8] After determining that over 80 million Arabs did not truly understand the Classical Arabic dialect that the Quran was written in, he undertook the translation of the Quran into local Arabic dialects[5] believing that

Television talk show hosts

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Critics of atheism

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Opposition to Islam in Morocco

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Hamed Abdel-Samad

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Hamed Abdel-Samad

Hamed Abdel-Samad (Arabic: حامد عبد الصمد‎, Ḥāmid ʿAbd aṣ-Ṣamad, IPA: ; born in 1972) is a German-Egyptian political scientist and author. Life Abdel-Samad was born as the third of five children, the son of a Muslim Sunni Imam.[1] Abdel-Samad came to Germany in 1995 at the age of 23. He soon married an 18-years-older, "rebellious, left-wing teacher with a penchant for mysticism". Abdel-Samad studied Japanese, English and French in Cairo[2] as well as political science in Augsburg. He worked as a scholar in Erfurt and Braunschweig. In Japan, where he was involved with eastern spirituality, he met his second wife. He taught and conducted research until the end of 2009 at the Institute for Jewish History and Culture at the University of Munich; his dissertation topic was: Bild der Juden in ägyptischen Schulbüchern ("Image of the Jews in Egyptian textbooks”). Subsequently he decided to become a full-time professional writer. A member of the Muslim Brotherhood in his university days, a stay in a summer camp run

Critics of Islamism

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Former Muslim critics of Islam

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German male writers

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Hissène Habré

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Hissène Habré

Hissène Habré (Arabic: حسين حبري Ḥusaīn Ḥabrī, Chadian Arabic: pronounced ; French pronunciation: ​; born 13 September 1942), also spelled Hissen Habré, is a Chadian politician who served as the President of Chad from 1982 until he was deposed in 1990. He was brought to power with the support of France and the United States, who provided training, arms and financing.[1] In May 2016, he was found guilty by a court in Senegal of human-rights abuses, including rape, sexual slavery and ordering the killing of 40,000 people, and sentenced to life in prison.[2] He is the first former head of state to be convicted for human rights abuses in the court of another nation.[3] Early life Habré was born in 1942 in Faya-Largeau, northern Chad, then a colony of France, into a family of shepherds. He is a member of the Anakaza branch of the Daza Gourane ethnic group, which is itself a branch of the Toubou ethnic group.[4] After primary schooling, he obtained a post in the French colonial administration, where he impressed

Prisoners sentenced to life imprisonment by int...

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Critics of Islamism

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Heads of regimes who were later imprisoned

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Islam Karimov

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Islam Karimov

Islam Abduganiyevich Karimov (Uzbek: Islom Abdugʻaniyevich Karimov; Russian: Ислам Абдуганиевич Каримов; 30 January 1938 – 2 September 2016) was the leader of Uzbekistan and its predecessor state, the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, from 1989 until his death in 2016. He was the last First Secretary of the Communist Party of Uzbekistan from 1989 to 1991, when the party was reconstituted as the People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (PDP); he led the PDP until 1996. He was the President of the Uzbek SSR from 24 March 1990 until he declared the independence of Uzbekistan on 1 September 1991.[1] He declared Uzbekistan an independent nation on 31 August 1991 and subsequently won its first presidential election on 29 December 1991, with 86% of the vote. Foreign observers and opposition party cited voting irregularities,[2] alleging state-run propaganda and a falsified vote count, although the opposing candidate and leader of the Erk Liberty Party, Muhammad Salih, had a chance to participate. Karimov's first pres

Critics of Islamism

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People who died in office

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Recipients of the Presidential Order of Excellence

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Tariq Ali

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Tariq Ali

Tariq Ali Khan (born 21 October 1943) is a British political activist, writer, journalist, historian, filmmaker, and public intellectual.[1][2] He is a member of the editorial committee of the New Left Review and Sin Permiso, and contributes to The Guardian, CounterPunch, and the London Review of Books. He read PPE at Exeter College, Oxford. He is the author of many books, including Pakistan: Military Rule or People's Power (1970), Can Pakistan Survive? The Death of a State (1983), Clash of Fundamentalisms: Crusades, Jihads and Modernity (2002), Bush in Babylon (2003), Conversations with Edward Said (2005), Pirates Of The Caribbean: Axis Of Hope (2006), A Banker for All Seasons (2007), The Duel (2008), The Obama Syndrome (2010),[3] and The Extreme Centre: A Warning (2015).[4] Early life Ali was born and raised in Lahore, Punjab in British India (later part of Pakistan).[5][6] He is the son of journalist Mazhar Ali Khan[7] and activist mother Tahira Mazhar Ali Khan, who was the daughter of Sir Sikandar Hyat

British critics of Islam

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Critics of Islam

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Social critics

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Daniel Dennett

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Daniel Dennett

Daniel Clement Dennett III (born March 28, 1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science.[8] As of 2017, he is the co-director of the Center for Cognitive Studies and the Austin B. Fletcher Professor of Philosophy at Tufts University. Dennett is an atheist and secularist, a member of the Secular Coalition for America advisory board,[9] and a member of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, as well as an outspoken supporter of the Brights movement. Dennett is referred to as one of the "Four Horsemen of New Atheism", along with Richard Dawkins, Sam Harris, and the late Christopher Hitchens.[10] Dennett is a member of the editorial board for The Rutherford Journal.[11] Early life, education, and career Dennett was born on March 28, 1942, in Boston, Massachusetts,[12] the son of Ruth Marjorie (née Leck) and Danie

Social commentators

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Theorists on Western civilization

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Cultural critics

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A. C. Grayling

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A. C. Grayling

Anthony Clifford Grayling CBE FRSA FRSL (born 3 April 1949), commonly known as A. C. Grayling, is a British philosopher and author. He was born in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) and spent most of his childhood there and in Malawi.[1] In 2011 he founded and became the first Master of New College of the Humanities, an independent undergraduate college in London. Until June 2011, he was Professor of Philosophy at Birkbeck, University of London, where he taught from 1991. He is also a supernumerary fellow of St Anne's College, Oxford. Grayling is the author of about 30 books on philosophy, biography, history of ideas, human rights and ethics, including The Refutation of Scepticism (1985), The Future of Moral Values (1997), Wittgenstein (1992), What Is Good? (2000), The Meaning of Things (2001), The Good Book (2011), The God Argument (2013), The Age of Genius: The Seventeenth Century and the Birth of the Modern Mind (2016) and Democracy and its Crises (2017). He was a trustee of the London Library and a fellow o

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Zeyno Baran

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Zeyno Baran

Zeyno Baran (born January 31, 1972) is a Turkish American scholar on issues ranging from US-Turkey relations to Islamist ideology to energy security in Europe and Asia. She was the Director of the Center for Eurasian Policy and a Senior Fellow at the Hudson Institute, a think tank based in Washington, D.C. From January 2003 until joining the Hudson Institute in April 2006, she worked as the Director of International Security and Energy Programs for The Nixon Center. Baran also worked as the Director of the Caucasus Project at the Center for Strategic and International Studies from 1999 until December 2002.[1] She is married to Matthew Bryza, former U.S. Ambassador to Azerbaijan[2] and has a daughter. Opposition to political Islam One of Baran's key areas of specialization is countering the spread of radical Turkish Islamist ideology in Europe and Eurasia. She has worked to foster the tolerant integration of Muslims into Western societies, arguing that the creation of "parallel societies" within a state's b

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Robert Sarah

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Robert Sarah

Robert Sarah (French: ; born 15 June 1945) is a Guinean prelate of the Catholic Church. A Cardinal since 20 November 2010, he was appointed prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments by Pope Francis on 23 November 2014. He previously served as secretary of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples under Pope John Paul II, and president of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum under Pope Benedict XVI. A prominent voice of the College of Cardinals and in the Roman Curia, Sarah has been a forceful advocate for the defense of traditional Catholic teaching on questions of sexual morality and the right to life, and in denouncing Islamic radicalism. He has called gender ideology and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) the "two radicalizations" that threaten the family, the first through divorce, same-sex marriage and abortion, the latter with child marriage, polygamy and the subjection of women.[2][3] Though he has been described as largely sympathetic to pre

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21st-century cardinals

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Ahmed Al-Gubbanchi

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Ahmed Al-Gubbanchi

Ahmed Hasan Ali Al-Gubbanchi is an Iraqi intellectual, born in Najaf in 1958, who focuses on developing a "Civil Islam" which is consistent with human rights, justice and modern circumstances, addressing the problems of traditional Islamic thought as he thinks that the literal interpretation of Quran leads to the incapability of Islam to get use of modern development and achievements, which leads, in turn, to the end of Islam, he sees every Islamic thought as a mere opinion on Islam and that the Islamic scripture had to comply with the historic situations of the ancient society of the prophet Mohammed, therefore it can not be considered literally, he considers Sharia alterable depending on the society, time and place, one of the evidence to support that is the Quran verses themselves whose orders have been changed at the time of the prophet which is called Naskh. He also translated many books of Abdolkarim Soroush into Arabic. Thoughts Ahmed Al-Gubbanchi sees worshiping as a means not an end itself, and tha

20th-century Muslim scholars of Islam

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Iraqi writers

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Joseph E. B. Lumbard

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Joseph E. B. Lumbard

Joseph E.B. Lumbard is currently an associate professor of Quranic studies at the College of Islamic Studies at Hamad Bin Khalifa University. A translator, commentary author and general editor for the Study Quran, he is also a former advisor for interfaith affairs to King Abdullah II of Jordan[1] and the author, editor, and translator of several articles and books on topics of Islamic philosophy, Sufism, and Quranic Studies. Lumbard is a frequent lecturer and has taken part in several interfaith dialogues, among them the Common Word initiative. After serving as Advisor for Interfaith Affairs he became the director of the Islamic and Middle Eastern Studies Program at Brandeis University. Lumbard began his teaching career at the American University in Cairo (2002-2005) after receiving a PhD in Islamic studies from Yale University. Biography Born and raised in Washington D.C., Lumbard was brought up within the Episcopal Church, serving as an altar boy. In his teenage years he lost interest and he was introduce

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Columbian College of Arts and Sciences alumni

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John Bolton

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John Bolton

John Robert Bolton (born November 20, 1948) is an American attorney, political commentator, Republican consultant, former diplomat and national security advisor. Bolton was the United States Ambassador to the United Nations from August 2005 to December 2006 as a recess appointee by President George W. Bush.[6] He resigned at the end of his recess appointment in December 2006[7][8] because he was unlikely to win confirmation from the Senate, of which the Democratic Party had gained control at the time.[9][7] In later years, Bolton was the U.S. National Security Advisor under the Trump administration from April 2018 to September 2019. Bolton is a former senior fellow at the American Enterprise Institute (AEI),[10] and Fox News Channel commentator. He was a foreign policy adviser to 2012 presidential candidate Mitt Romney.[11] Bolton has been involved with numerous conservative organizations, including the anti-Muslim Gatestone Institute,[12] where he was the organization Chairman until March 2018,[13] and as

United States National Security Advisors

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George H. W. Bush administration personnel

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Mohammad Tawhidi

topic

Mohammad Tawhidi

Mohammad Tawhidi is a Muslim influencer and reformist Imam.[1][2] Tawhidi has been embraced by a number of far-right[3][1][4] and Islamophobic groups.[3][1][5][6] Early life and education Tawhidi is a Shi'ite Muslim of Iraqi origin who was born in Qom, Iran,[7] in 1982 or 1983.[8] In 2009, he enrolled for a bachelor's degree in Islamic studies at Al-Mustafa University in Qom, but dropped out in 2012.[9] He later worked for one of the Shirazi-run television stations in Karbala.[10] In 2015, he returned to Australia, and is currently based in Adelaide.[10] He is fluent in Arabic, English, and Persian.[11] Views Tawhidi had earlier held Sadiq Hussaini Shirazi as his marja taqlid -- a religious leader whose authority, one follows in life. But since 2015, Tawhidi has stated that he does not subscribe to any particular religious leader.[10] There have been marked differences between his and Shiraji's views on a host of issues.[9] Tawhidi is president of the Islamic Association of South Australia,[12] which he

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Joe Walsh (American politician)

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Joe Walsh (American politician)

William Joseph Walsh (born December 27, 1961) is an American politician, conservative talk radio host, and former social worker who served one term in the United States House of Representatives representing Illinois's 8th congressional district. A member of the Republican Party, Walsh is currently making a primary challenge to incumbent Donald Trump for the Republican nomination for President of the United States in the 2020 election. Born and raised in the Chicago metropolitan area, Walsh began his career as a social worker providing education and job skills training to students in low income areas, gradually becoming more politically active. Walsh had unsuccessfully campaigned for Congress in 1996 and the Illinois House of Representatives in 1998, but was elected to the U.S. House in 2010, defeating three-term incumbent Melissa Bean. Though he received little Republican Party support in his bid against Bean, he was popular with the Tea Party movement. In the 1990s, he identified as a moderate Republican, b

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Carl I. Hagen

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Carl I. Hagen

Carl Ivar Hagen (born 6 May 1944) is a Norwegian politician and former Vice President of the Storting, the Norwegian parliament. He was the leader of the Progress Party from 1978 to 2006, when he stepped down in favour of Siv Jensen. Under his leadership, he was the undisputed leader and, in many ways, personally controlled its ideology and policies. Hagen has since been regarded by both political scientists, and political colleagues and rivals alike as one of the greatest politicians in Norwegian history for his ability to build a hugely successful party up from scratch and his significant impact on Norwegian politics.[1][2] He has been described as the first postmodern politician in Norway.[3] While his ideology is classical liberalism with some conservatism, his political style has been described as right-wing populist.[3] Early life Hagen was born to CEO Ragnar Hagen (1908–1969) and accountant Gerd Gamborg (1914-2008).[4] He was named after his paternal grandfather, Carl, and his maternal grandfather,

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Leaders of political parties in Norway

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Masih Alinejad

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Masih Alinejad

Masoumeh "Masih" Alinejad-Ghomi (Persian: مسیح علی‌نژاد‎, born 11 September 1976) is an Iranian journalist, author, and political activist. Alinejad currently works as a presenter/producer at VOA Persian Service, a correspondent for Radio Farda, a frequent contributor to Manoto television, and a contributing editor to IranWire. Alinejad is well known for her criticism of Iranian authorities.[1] She now lives in exile in New York City, and has won several awards, including a human rights award from UN Watch's 2015 Geneva Summit for Human Rights, the Omid Journalism Award from the Mehdi Semsar Foundation, and a "Highly Commended" AIB Media Excellence Award.[2] In 2019 Alinejad-Ghomi sued the Iran government in a U.S. federal court for harassment against her and her family.[3] She released a book in 2018 called "The Wind in my Hair" that deals with her experiences growing up in Iran where she says girls "are raised to keep their heads low, to be unobtrusive as possible, and to be meek".[4] Career Alinejad

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Siv Jensen

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Siv Jensen

Siv Jensen (born 1 June 1969) is a Norwegian politician and leader of the Progress Party since 2006. She also held the position as Minister of Finance from 2013 to 2020 in the Solberg Cabinet. She has been a member of the Norwegian parliament from Oslo since 1997. Born and raised in Oslo, Jensen graduated with a degree in business studies from the Norwegian School of Economics. She was first elected to parliament in the 1997 parliamentary election, and has later been re-elected for four consecutive terms. She chaired the parliamentary Standing Committee on Finance and Economic Affairs from 2001 to 2005, and in 2006 succeeded long-time chairman Carl I. Hagen as leader of the Progress Party. Jensen was the Progress Party's candidate for Prime Minister in the 2009 parliamentary election, which saw record high results for the party. For the 2013 parliamentary election she supported prospects of a coalition government headed by the Conservative Party, and led her party into the Solberg Cabinet, the Progress Part

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Nursultan Nazarbayev

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Nursultan Nazarbayev

Nursultan Äbishuly Nazarbayev[1][note 2] (born 6 July 1940) is a Kazakh politician currently serving as the Chairman of the Security Council of Kazakhstan and previously served as the first President of Kazakhstan, in office from 24 April 1990[2] to his resignation on 19 March 2019.[3] He is one of the longest-served non-royal leaders in the world, having ruled Kazakhstan for nearly three decades. He was named First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Kazakh SSR in 1989 and was elected as the nation's first president following its independence from the Soviet Union. He holds the title "Leader of the Nation".[4] In April 2015, Nazarbayev was re-elected with almost 98% of the vote, as he ran virtually unopposed.[5] Nazarbayev has been accused of human rights abuses by several human rights organisations and suppressed dissent and presided over an authoritarian regime.[6] No election held in Kazakhstan since independence has been judged to be free or fair by the West.[6][7] In 2010, he announced reforms to e

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Sebastian Kurz

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Sebastian Kurz

Sebastian Kurz (German pronunciation: ; born 27 August 1986) is the chancellor of Austria since January 2020, previously holding this position from December 2017 to May 2019. In addition, Kurz has been the chairman of the Austrian People's Party since May 2017. Kurz was born and raised in Meidling, Vienna. He acquired his Matura in 2004 at the GRG 12 Erlgasse and subsequently completed mandatory military service in 2005. Following the same year, Kurz attended the faculty of law (Juridicum) at the University of Vienna, but voluntarily left before graduating to focus on his political career. Kurz entered politics when he joined the Young People's Party (JVP) in 2003. Five years later he assumed his first political office there as chairman of the JVP for Vienna. In 2010, Kurz successfully ran for the Viennese State Diet and thereby obtained his first governmental post. Following a reshuffle of the First Faymann cabinet in 2011, Kurz was nominated and appointed state secretary of the Interior Ministry for socia

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Emomali Rahmon

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Emomali Rahmon

Emomali Rahmon (Tajik: Эмомалӣ Раҳмон, romanized: Emomalî Rahmon/Emomalī Rahmon;[1] born 5 October 1952) is a Tajikistani politician who has served as President of Tajikistan (or its equivalent post) since 1992.[2][3] His rule is commonly regarded as a dictatorship.[4][5] Early life Rahmon was born as Emomali Sharipovich Rakhmonov (Russian: Эмомали́ Шари́пович Рахмо́нов, romanized: Emomali Šaripovič Rahmonov)[6] to Sharif Rahmonov and Mayram Sharifova, a peasant family in Danghara,[7] Kulob Oblast (present-day Khatlon province). From 1971 to 1974 he served in the Soviet Union's Pacific Fleet. After completing the military service, Rahmon returned to his native village where he worked for some time as an electrician.[8] As rising apparatchik in Tajikistan, he became a chairman of the collective state farm of his native Danghara. According to his official biography, Rahmon graduated from the Tajik State National University with a specialist's degree in Economics in 1982. After working for several years in th

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Matteo Salvini

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Matteo Salvini

Matteo Salvini (Italian pronunciation: ;[4][5] born 9 March 1973) is an Italian politician who served as Deputy Prime Minister of Italy and Minister of the Interior from 1 June 2018 to 5 September 2019. He has also been Federal Secretary of the Northern League since December 2013. He has been a Senator in the Italian Senate since March 2018. He previously served as a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) for the constituency of North-West Italy from 2004 to 2018.[6] He has been considered a hardline Eurosceptic politician, holding a starkly critical view of the European Union, especially of the euro. Salvini opposes illegal immigration into Italy and the EU as well as the EU's management of asylum seekers. He is also considered one of the main leaders of the populist wave which shook Europe during the 2010s and a member of the neo-nationalist movement, which has a rightist ideology that emphasizes de-globalization, nativist and protectionist stances.[7][8] Salvini is nicknamed "The Captain" (Il Capitano)

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Conte I Cabinet

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Senators of Legislature XVIII of Italy

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Thierry Baudet

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Thierry Baudet

Thierry Henri Philippe Baudet (born 28 January 1983) is a Dutch politician. He has been Leader of Forum for Democracy (FvD, Dutch: Forum voor Democratie) since he founded it in 2016. A member of the House of Representatives since 2017, he has also served as parliamentary leader since then. Biography Baudet was born in Heemstede to a family of partial Walloon and Indonesian ancestry.[1] Baudet is a eurosceptic and opposed to multiculturalism. Baudet is an advocate for a return to nation states. In 2014, he gave a speech at the Flemish nationalist event IJzerwake. He also spoke at several Vlaams Belang conferences. Baudet has stated that his conservative political convictions have been largely influenced by two events in his first year as a history undergraduate in Amsterdam: the September 11 attacks and the assassination of Pim Fortuyn. In 2016, following the parliamentary win of FvD, Baudet gave a controversial speech, expressing his belief that "Europe lives in a cultural and spiritiual vacuum", forgetti

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Viktor Orbán

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Viktor Orbán

Viktor Mihály Orbán[1] (Hungarian:  (listen); born 31 May 1963) is a Hungarian politician who has been Prime Minister of Hungary since 2010; he was also Prime Minister from 1998 to 2002. He has also been President of Fidesz, a national conservative political party, since 1993, with a brief break between 2000 and 2003. Born in Székesfehérvár, Orbán studied law at Eötvös Loránd University, graduating in 1987. He briefly studied political science at Pembroke College, Oxford, before returning to Hungary to enter politics in the wake of the Autumn of Nations. He became head of the reformist student movement the Alliance of Young Democrats (Fiatal Demokraták Szövetsége), which would eventually become the Fidesz party. Orbán became a nationally known politician after giving an address at the 1989 reburial of Imre Nagy and other martyrs of the 1956 revolution, in which he openly demanded that Soviet troops withdraw from the country. After the transition to democracy in 1990, he was elected to the National Assembly

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Habib Bourguiba

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Habib Bourguiba

Habib Bourguiba (Arabic: الحبيب بورقيبة‎, romanized: Al-Ḥabīb Būrqībah; 3 August 1903 – 6 April 2000)[1] was a Tunisian lawyer, nationalist leader and statesman who served as the country's leader from independence in 1956 to 1987. He first served as the second Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Tunisia before proclaiming the Republic of Tunisia in 1957 and thus becoming the first President of Tunisia. Prior to that, he played a major role in obtaining independence from France, ending the 75 year-old protectorate and earning the title of "Supreme Combatant". Habib Ben Ali Bourguiba was born in Monastir into a modest family. He then moved to Tunis in 1907 in order to pursue his studies in Sadiki College then in Lycée Carnot, before obtaining his baccalaureate in 1924. In 1927, he graduated from the University of Paris and worked as a lawyer, after his return to Tunis, in the late 1920s. Bourguiba showed interest in fighting the protectorate from a young age. However, he only joined the national movement in the e

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Sigmar Gabriel

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Sigmar Gabriel

Sigmar Hartmut Gabriel (born 12 September 1959) is a German politician who was Minister for Foreign Affairs from 2017 to 2018 and Vice-Chancellor of Germany from 2013 to 2018. He was Leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 2009 to 2017,[2] which made him the party's longest-serving leader since Willy Brandt.[2] He was the Federal Minister of the Environment from 2005 to 2009 and the Federal Minister for Economic Affairs and Energy from 2013 to 2017. From 1999 to 2003 Gabriel was Minister-President of Lower Saxony. Gabriel is a member of the Seeheimer Kreis, an official internal grouping of the party with liberal economic positions. Early life and education Gabriel was born in Goslar, West Germany, the son of Walter Gabriel (1921–2012), a municipal civil servant, and Antonie Gabriel (1922–2014), a nurse. Gabriel's parents divorced in 1962, and for the next six years he lived with his father and grandmother Lina Gabriel, while his sister lived with their mother. After a lengthy custody ba

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Foreign Ministers of Germany

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Gamal Abdel Nasser

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Gamal Abdel Nasser

Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (UK: , US: ;[1][2] Arabic: جمال عبد الناصر حسين‎, romanized: Jamāl ʻAbdu n-Nāṣir Ḥusayn, Egyptian Arabic: ; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1954 until his death in 1970. Nasser led the 1952 overthrow of the monarchy and introduced far-reaching land reforms the following year. Following a 1954 attempt on his life by a Muslim Brotherhood member, he cracked down on the organization, put President Mohamed Naguib under house arrest and assumed executive office. He was formally elected president in June 1956. Nasser's popularity in Egypt and the Arab world skyrocketed after his nationalization of the Suez Canal and his political victory in the subsequent Suez Crisis. Calls for pan-Arab unity under his leadership increased, culminating with the formation of the United Arab Republic with Syria from 1958 to 1961. In 1962, Nasser began a series of major socialist measures and modernization reforms in Egypt. Despite setbacks to his pan-Arab

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Nigel Farage

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Nigel Farage

Nigel Paul Farage ([5] born 3 April 1964)[6] is a British politician. He has been leader of the Brexit Party since 2019, and served as Member of the European Parliament (MEP) for South East England from 1999 until the United Kingdom's exit from the EU in 2020. Outside his Brexit Party and MEP activities, he is a vice-chairman of the pro-Brexit organisation Leave Means Leave, and is the host of a radio phone-in on the Global-owned talk radio station LBC. He was leader of the UK Independence Party (UKIP) from 2006 to 2009 and again from 2010 to 2016.[7] He co-chairs the Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy (formerly "Europe of Freedom and Democracy") group.[8] Known as a prominent Eurosceptic in the UK since the early 1990s, he has been noted for his European Parliament speeches,[9][10] and as a vocal critic of the euro currency. Farage was a founder member of UKIP, having left the Conservative Party in 1992 after the signing of the Maastricht Treaty,[11] which furthered European integration and founded the

Climate change denial

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Horst Seehofer

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Horst Seehofer

Horst Lorenz Seehofer (born 4 July 1949) is a German politician serving as Leader of the Christian Social Union (CSU) from 2008 to 2019 and Minister of the Interior, Building and Community since 2018 under Chancellor Angela Merkel. From 2008 to 2018, he was Minister President of Bavaria; he also served as President of the Bundesrat between 2011 and 2012. First elected to the Bundestag in 1980, he served as Federal Minister for Health and Social Security from 1992 to 1998 and as Federal Minister of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection in the cabinet of Angela Merkel from 2005 to 2008. In October 2008 he became Leader of the CSU and the 18th Minister President of Bavaria. From 1 November 2011 until 31 October 2012 he served as President of the Bundesrat and ex officio deputy to the President of Germany. Because of that he was Acting President of Germany after the resignation of President Christian Wulff on 17 February 2012 and before the election of Joachim Gauck as Wulff's successor on 18 March 2012.[1]

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Timo Soini

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Timo Soini

Timo Juhani Soini (born 30 May 1962) is a Finnish politician who is the co-founder and former leader of the Finns Party. He served as Deputy Prime Minister of Finland from 2015 to 2017 and Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2015 to 2019.[1] He was elected as a member of the Espoo city council in 2000 and the Parliament of Finland in 2003. In the 2009 European Parliament election he won a seat in the European Parliament with Finland's highest personal vote share (nearly 10% of all votes), becoming the first member of the Finns Party in the European Parliament.[2][3] He was a member of the European Parliament from 2009 until 2011, when he returned to the Finnish Parliament. In the 2011 parliamentary election, his party won 19.1% of the votes, which was described as "shocking" and "exceptional" by the Finnish media.[4] Soini himself won the most votes of all candidates,[5] leaving behind the Finnish Foreign Minister Alexander Stubb and the Minister of Finance Jyrki Katainen in their Uusimaa electoral district.[6

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Deputy Prime Ministers of Finland

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Sajid Javid

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Sajid Javid

Sajid Javid (born 5 December 1969) is a British politician who has served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Bromsgrove since 2010. A member of the Conservative Party, he was Home Secretary from 2018 to 2019 and Chancellor of the Exchequer from 2019 to 2020. Javid was the first British Asian to hold one of the Great Offices of State in the UK. Born in Rochdale, Lancashire to a British Pakistani family, Javid was raised largely in Bristol. He studied Economics and Politics at the University of Exeter, where he joined the Conservative Party. Working in banking, he rose to become a Managing Director at Deutsche Bank. Switching to politics, he was elected to Parliament in 2010. Under the government of Conservative Prime Minister David Cameron he served as a Junior Treasury Minister before being promoted to Cameron's Cabinet as Culture Secretary and Business Secretary. He went on to serve under Prime Minister Theresa May as Communities Secretary and Home Secretary. After May's resignation, Javid stood for Lead

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Mette Frederiksen

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Mette Frederiksen

Mette Frederiksen (Danish pronunciation: ; born 19 November 1977) is a Danish politician who has been Prime Minister of Denmark since June 2019 and Leader of the Social Democrats since June 2015. The second woman to hold either office, she is also the youngest Prime Minister in Danish history.[1] After a career as a trade unionist, Frederiksen was first elected to the Folketing in the 2001 general election, representing Copenhagen County. After the Social Democrats won the 2011 general election, she was appointed Minister of Employment by Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt. She was later promoted to become Minister of Justice in 2014. After the Social Democrats' narrow defeat in the 2015 general election, Thorning-Schmidt stood down and Frederiksen won the subsequent leadership election to replace her, becoming Leader of the Opposition.[2][3] Frederiksen led her party into the 2019 general election which resulted in the bloc of left-wing and centre-left parties (her Social Democrats, the Social Liberals,

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21st-century Danish women politicians

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