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Watergate scandal


Watergate scandal

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Watergate scandal

The Watergate scandal was a major federal political scandal in the United States involving the administration of United States President Richard Nixon from 1972 to 1974 that resulted in the end of Nixon's presidency. The scandal stemmed from the June 17, 1972, break-in of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the Watergate Office Building in Washington, D.C., by five men and the Nixon administration's subsequent attempts to cover up its involvement in the crime. Soon after the perpetrators were arrested, the press and the Justice Department discovered a connection between cash found on them at the time and a slush fund used by the Nixon re-election campaign committee.[1][2] Further investigations, along with revelations during subsequent trials of the burglars in January 1973, led the House of Representatives to grant its Judiciary Committee additional investigation authority to probe into "certain matters within its jurisdiction,"[3][4] and the Senate to create a special investigative comm

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Expletive deleted

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Expletive deleted

The phrase expletive deleted refers to profanity which has been censored by the author or by a subsequent censor, usually appearing in place of the profanity. The phrase has been used for this purpose since at least the 1930s,[1] but became more widely used in the United States after the Watergate scandal. History Compelled by a subpoena to provide the contents of the White House taping system to the House Judiciary Committee in April 1974, President Richard Nixon ordered transcripts of the tapes to be prepared. After a cursory inspection of the transcripts, Nixon, shocked at viewing several profanity-laced discussions amongst the White House's inner-circle, ordered that every use of profanity be replaced by "[EXPLETIVE DELETED]".[2][3] The transcripts were published in The New York Times and elicited shock in much of the country, given Nixon's generally staid public image and the fact that contemporary media coverage of politicians did not usually report candidates' profanity use. As Nixon biographer Jona

Euphemisms

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Obscenity controversies

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Profanity

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Follow the money

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Follow the money

"Follow the money" is a catchphrase popularized by the 1976 docudrama film All the President's Men, which suggests political corruption can be brought to light by examining money transfers between parties. Origin For the film, screenwriter William Goldman attributed the phrase to Deep Throat, the informant who took part in revealing the Watergate scandal. However, the phrase is mentioned neither in the non-fiction book that preceded the film, nor in any documentation of the scandal.[1] The book does contain the phrase "The key was the secret campaign cash, and it should all be traced," which Woodward says to Senator Sam Ervin.[2] History The phrase Follow the money was mentioned by Henry E. Peterson at the 1974 Senate Judiciary Committee hearings as Earl J. Silbert was nominated to U.S. Attorney.[3] A 1975 book by Clive Borrell and Brian Cashinella, Crime in Britain Today, also uses the phrase. Since the 1970s, "follow the money" has been used several times in investigative journalism and political debat

Words and phrases introduced in 1976

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Inauguration of Gerald Ford

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Inauguration of Gerald Ford

The inauguration of Gerald Ford as the 38th President of the United States was held on Friday, August 9, 1974, in the East Room of the White House in Washington, D.C.,[1] following the resignation of President Richard Nixon. The inauguration marked the commencement of Gerald Ford's only term (a partial term of 2 years, 164 days) as President. Chief Justice Warren Burger administered the oath of office. The Bible upon which Ford recited the oath was held by his wife, Betty Ford, open to Proverbs 3:5-6.[2] Ford was the ninth vice president to succeed to the presidency intra-term, and he remains the most recent to do so. Although the ninth non-scheduled, extraordinary inauguration to take place since the presidency was established in 1789, it was the first to take place because the incumbent had resigned from office. Ford had become Vice President on December 6, 1973, after the resignation of Spiro Agnew. He was the first person appointed to the vice presidency under the terms of the Twenty-fifth Amendment. Thu

August 1974 events

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1974 in American politics

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1974 in Washington, D.C.

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Huston Plan

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Huston Plan

The Huston Plan was a 43-page report and outline of proposed security operations put together by White House aide Tom Charles Huston in 1970.[1] It first came to light during the 1973 Watergate hearings headed by Senator Sam Ervin (a Democrat from North Carolina). The impetus for this report stemmed from President Richard Nixon wanting more coordination of domestic intelligence in the area of gathering information about purported 'left-wing radicals' and the counterculture-era anti-war movement in general. Huston had been assigned as White House liaison to the Interagency Committee on Intelligence (ICI), a group chaired by J. Edgar Hoover, then Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Director. Huston worked closely with William C. Sullivan, Hoover's assistant, in drawing up the options listed in what eventually became the document known as the Huston Plan. Among other things the plan called for domestic burglary, illegal electronic surveillance and opening the mail of domestic "radicals". At one time it also

Covert operations

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Surveillance scandals

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Watergate scandal

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Limited hangout

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Limited hangout

A limited hangout or partial hangout is, according to former special assistant to the Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency Victor Marchetti, "spy jargon for a favorite and frequently used gimmick of the clandestine professionals. When their veil of secrecy is shredded and they can no longer rely on a phony cover story to misinform the public, they resort to admitting—sometimes even volunteering—some of the truth while still managing to withhold the key and damaging facts in the case. The public, however, is usually so intrigued by the new information that it never thinks to pursue the matter further."[1][2] Modified limited hangout In a March 22, 1973 meeting between president Richard Nixon, John Dean, John Ehrlichman, John Mitchell, and H. R. Haldeman, Ehrlichman incorporated the term into a new and related one, "modified limited hangout".[3][4] The phrase was coined in the following exchange:[5] “ PRESIDENT: You think, you think we want to, want to go this route now? And the — let it han

Deception

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Psychological warfare techniques

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The Love of Richard Nixon

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The Love of Richard Nixon

"The Love of Richard Nixon" (sample ) is a song by Welsh alternative rock band Manic Street Preachers. It was released in 2004 by record label Epic as the first single from their seventh studio album, Lifeblood, and reached number two on the UK Singles Chart. Content The song is, according to the band, "a soundtrack to disillusion, hatred, love and never giving up".[1] More specifically, the song is a sympathetic appraisal of former US president Richard Nixon and mentions some of his positive achievements, inevitably overshadowed by the Watergate Scandal. The timing of the single's release, two weeks before George W. Bush's victory at the 2004 US presidential elections, can also be seen as a statement by the band concerning the reputation of the USA's leadership at the time.[2] In an interview with Repeat Fanzine, the band also said it represents how they feel in comparison to Radiohead. Nicky in particular commented that they feel like Richard Nixon compared to Radiohead's John F. Kennedy: "'If Radiohead a

Songs about Richard Nixon

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Works about the Watergate scandal

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Cultural depictions of Richard Nixon

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The Nixon Interviews

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The Nixon Interviews

David Frost and Richard Nixon The Nixon interviews were a series of interviews of former U.S. President Richard Nixon conducted by British journalist David Frost, and produced by John Birt. They were recorded and broadcast on television and radio in four programs in 1977.[1] The interviews became the central subject of Peter Morgan's play Frost/Nixon in 2006, and subsequently the 2008 film of the same name. Background After his resignation in 1974, Nixon spent more than two years away from public life. In 1977, he granted Frost an exclusive series of interviews. Nixon was already publishing his memoirs at the time; however, his publicist Irving "Swifty" Lazar believed that by using television Nixon could reach a mass audience. Frost's New York-based talk show had been recently cancelled. As Frost had agreed to pay Nixon for the interviews,[2] the American news networks were not interested, regarding them as checkbook journalism. They refused to distribute the program and Frost was forced to fund the proje

Richard Nixon

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1977 in American television

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Interviews

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Nixon's Enemies List

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Nixon's Enemies List

President Richard Nixon's Official Presidential Photograph, taken in 1971 "Nixon's Enemies List" is the informal name of what started as a list of President of the United States Richard Nixon's major political opponents compiled by Charles Colson, written by George T. Bell[1] (assistant to Colson, special counsel to the White House), and sent in memorandum form to John Dean on September 9, 1971. The list was part of a campaign officially known as "Opponents List" and "Political Enemies Project". The list became public knowledge on June 27, 1973,[2] when Dean mentioned during hearings with the Senate Watergate Committee that a list existed containing those whom the president did not like. Journalist Daniel Schorr, who happened to be on the list, managed to obtain a copy of it later that day.[3] A longer second list was made public by Dean on December 20, 1973, during a hearing with the Congressional Joint Committee on Internal Revenue Taxation.[4] Purpose John Dean's cover memo, dated August 16, 1971.

Political terminology of the United States

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Lists of American people

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People associated with the Watergate scandal

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Operation Gemstone

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Operation Gemstone

In the context of the Watergate scandal, Operation Gemstone was a proposed series of clandestine or illegal acts, first outlined by G. Gordon Liddy in two separate meetings with three other individuals: then-Attorney General of the United States, John N. Mitchell, then-White House Counsel John Dean, and Jeb Magruder, an ally and former aide to H.R. Haldeman, as well as the temporary head of the Committee to Re-elect the President, pending Mitchell's resignation as Attorney General. The first meeting occurred in the Attorney General's Washington, D.C., office at 11:00 a.m. on January 27, 1972. Liddy described in great detail both his plan to disrupt the upcoming Democratic National Convention in Miami Beach, Florida, and his plan to prevent any disruption of the upcoming Republican National Convention, then scheduled to take place in San Diego, California. Liddy's proposals would cost approximately $1 million to carry out. Among the various elements of Gemstone were plans to kidnap specific "radical" leaders,

Watergate scandal

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Operation Sandwedge

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Operation Sandwedge

Operation Sandwedge was a proposed clandestine intelligence-gathering operation against the political enemies of the Richard Nixon presidential administration. The proposals were put together by H. R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman and Jack Caulfield in 1971. Caulfield, a former police officer, created a plan to target the Democratic Party and the anti-Vietnam War movement, inspired by what he believed to be the Democratic Party's employment of a private investigation firm. The operation was planned to help Nixon's 1972 re-election campaign. Operation Sandwedge included proposed surveillance of Nixon's enemies to gather information on their financial status and sexual activities, to be carried out through illegal black bag operations. Control of Sandwedge was passed to G. Gordon Liddy, who abandoned it in favor of a strategy of his own devising, Operation Gemstone, which detailed a plan to break into Democratic Party offices in the Watergate complex. Liddy's plan eventually led to the downfall of Nixon's preside

Presidency of Richard Nixon

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Watergate scandal

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Responsiveness Program

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Responsiveness Program

The Responsiveness Program, established in 1972 during the first presidency of Richard M. Nixon, was a broad strategy to politicize the executive branch and use the power and resources of incumbency to ensure Nixon's re-election. The program included plans to "redirect federal funds to specific Administration supporters" and to "shape legal and regulatory action to enhance campaign goals."[1] Outlined by Fred Malek in a memorandum to H.R. Haldeman on March 17, 1972, a comprehensive plan detailed how the resources and staff of the federal bureaucracy could be used to serve partisan objectives.[2] Efforts were made to prevent the Responsiveness Program strategy from being associated with the White House staff or to President Nixon. In a memo to Haldeman dated December 23, 1971, Malek wrote: Naturally, carrying out this program, even if done discreetly, will represent a substantial risk. Trying to pressure 'non-political' civil servants to partisanly support the President's re-election would become quickly pub

Watergate scandal

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Saturday Night Massacre

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Saturday Night Massacre

The popular name Saturday Night Massacre[1] refers to a series of events that took place in the United States on the evening of Saturday, October 20, 1973, during the Watergate scandal. U.S. President Richard Nixon ordered Attorney General Elliot Richardson to fire Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox; Richardson refused and resigned effective immediately. Nixon then ordered Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus to fire Cox; Ruckelshaus refused, and also resigned. Nixon then ordered the third-most-senior official at the Justice Department, Solicitor General Robert Bork, to fire Cox. Bork considered resigning, but instead carried out the dismissal as Nixon asked. The political and public reactions to Nixon's actions were negative and highly damaging to the president. The impeachment process against Richard Nixon began 10 days later, on October 30, 1973. Leon Jaworski was appointed as the new special prosecutor on November 1, 1973,[2] and on November 14, 1973, United States District Judge Gerhard Gesell rule

1973 in Washington, D.C.

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October 1973 events

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United States Department of Justice

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Stennis Compromise

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Stennis Compromise

The Stennis Compromise was a legal maneuver attempted by U.S. President Richard Nixon on October 19, 1973, during the Watergate scandal. The Compromise was offered by Nixon to Archibald Cox, the special prosecutor who was appointed by the Justice Department to investigate the events surrounding the Watergate break-in of June 17, 1972. It was made in response to a subpoena requesting, as evidence, copies of taped conversations which Nixon had made in the Oval Office. After an initial refusal to comply on the grounds of executive privilege, Nixon offered to remit the tapes to a respected U.S. Senator, John C. Stennis, a Democrat from Mississippi. Sen. Stennis would listen to the tapes himself, then summarize the tapes for the special prosecutor's office. The explanation was that Stennis would be sensitive to matters of national security contained within. However, Stennis was famously hard-of-hearing, therefore it is believed that President Nixon did not want the tapes entered into the public record, because

Political compromises in the United States

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United Airlines Flight 553

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United Airlines Flight 553

Chicago Location in the United States Chicago Location in Illinois United Airlines Flight 553 was a scheduled flight from Washington National Airport to Omaha, Nebraska, via Chicago Midway International Airport. On December 8, 1972, the Boeing 737-222 serving the flight, City of Lincoln, registration N9031U,[2][1]:2 crashed during an aborted landing and go around while approaching Chicago Midway International Airport.[1]:1[3][4] The plane crashed into a residential neighborhood, destroying five houses; there was an intense ground fire. 43 of the 61 aboard the aircraft and two on the ground were killed.[5][6] Among the passengers killed were Illinois congressman George W. Collins and Dorothy Hunt, the wife of Watergate conspirator E. Howard Hunt.[7] This crash was the first fatal accident involving a Boeing 737, which had entered airline service nearly five years earlier in February 1968.[8] Flight United Airlines Flight 553 was a scheduled service from Washington National Airport to Omaha, Nebr

Accidents and incidents involving the Boeing 73...

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Midway International Airport

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United States Senate Watergate Committee

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United States Senate Watergate Committee

The Senate Watergate Committee, known officially as the Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities, was a special committee established by the United States Senate, S.Res. 60, in 1973, to investigate the Watergate scandal, with the power to investigate the break-in at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C., and any subsequent cover-up of criminal activity, as well as "all other illegal, improper, or unethical conduct occurring during the controversial 1972 presidential election, including political espionage and campaign finance practices". American print news media focused the nation's attention on the issue with hard-hitting investigative reports, while television news outlets brought the drama of the hearings to the living rooms of millions of American households, broadcasting the proceedings live for two weeks in May 1973. The public television network PBS broadcast the hearings from gavel to gavel on more than 150 national affil

Investigations and hearings of the United State...

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Select Committees of the United States Congress

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Select committees

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United States v. Nixon

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United States v. Nixon

United States v. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 (1974), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that resulted in a unanimous decision against President Richard Nixon, ordering him to deliver tape recordings and other subpoenaed materials to a federal district court. Issued on July 24, 1974, the decision was important to the late stages of the Watergate scandal, when there was an ongoing impeachment process against Richard Nixon. United States v. Nixon is considered a crucial precedent limiting the power of any U.S. president to claim executive privilege. Chief Justice Warren E. Burger wrote the opinion for a unanimous court, joined by Justices William O. Douglas, William J. Brennan, Potter Stewart, Byron White, Thurgood Marshall, Harry Blackmun and Lewis F. Powell. Burger, Blackmun, and Powell were appointed to the Court by Nixon during his first term. Associate Justice William Rehnquist recused himself as he had previously served in the Nixon administration as an Assistant Attorney General.[1][2] Summary The

Trials of political people

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20th century American trials

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1974 in United States case law

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White House horrors

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White House horrors

The White House Horrors is a term attributed to Richard Nixon's former United States Attorney General John N. Mitchell to describe the crimes and abuses committed by Nixon's staff during his presidency.[1][2] The revelation of their existence and scope is among the many events of the Watergate scandal. More than 70 people were convicted of crimes related to Watergate (some pleaded guilty before trial). Here is a listing of much of the criminality involved: Breaking into Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist's office. Mitchell gave approval to the break-in at the Watergate. Charles Colson proposed firebombing the Brookings Institution and seizing politically damaging documents the President wanted destroyed.[3] E. Howard Hunt fabricated documents implicating John F. Kennedy in the assassination of South Vietnamese President Diem. John Ehrlichman ordered FBI Director L. Patrick Gray to take possession of the files in Hunt's safe, keeping them secret from prosecutors. Gray destroyed the evidence from Hunt's

White House

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Martha Mitchell effect

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Martha Mitchell effect

The Martha Mitchell effect is the process by which a psychiatrist, psychologist, other mental health clinician, or a medical professional[1], labels the patient's accurate perception of real events as delusional and misdiagnoses accordingly. Description According to Bell et al., "Sometimes, improbable reports are erroneously assumed to be symptoms of mental illness", due to a "failure or inability to verify whether the events have actually taken place, no matter how improbable intuitively they might appear to the busy clinician". Examples of such situations are: Pursuit by organized criminals Surveillance by law enforcement officers Infidelity by a spouse Physical issues Quoting psychotherapist Joseph Berke, the authors report that, "even paranoids have enemies". Any patient, they explain, can be misdiagnosed by clinicians, especially patients with a history of paranoid delusions. Patients may be diagnosed as delusional when their grievances concern health care workers and/or health care institut

Delusions

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Medical error

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Watergate Seven

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Watergate Seven

The Watergate Seven has come to refer to two different groups of people, both of them in the context of the Watergate scandal. Firstly, it can refer to the five men caught on June 17, 1972, burglarizing the Democratic National Committee's headquarters in the Watergate complex, along with their two handlers, E. Howard Hunt and G. Gordon Liddy, who were Nixon campaign aides. All seven were tried before Judge John Sirica in January 1973.[1] The second use of Watergate Seven refers to seven advisors and aides of United States President Richard M. Nixon who were indicted by a grand jury on March 1, 1974, for their roles in the Watergate scandal. The grand jury also named Nixon as an unindicted co-conspirator. The indictments marked the first time in U.S. history that a president was so named.[2] The period leading up to the trial of the first Watergate Seven began on January 8, 1973.[3] The term "Watergate Seven" was coined a few months later, in April 1973, by American lawyer, politician, and political commenta

Watergate scandal

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Watergate Seven

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Quantified groups of defendants

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Committee for the Re-Election of the President

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Committee for the Re-Election of the President

The Committee for the Re-election of the President (also known as the Committee to Re-elect the President), abbreviated CRP, but often mocked by the acronym CREEP,[1] was, officially, a fundraising organization of United States President Richard Nixon's 1972 re-election campaign. History Planning began in late 1970 and an office opened in the spring of 1971. Besides its re-election activities, CRP employed money laundering and slush funds, and was involved in the Watergate scandal.[2] The CRP used $500,000 in funds raised to re-elect President Nixon to pay legal expenses for the five Watergate burglars. This act helped turn the burglary into an explosive political scandal. The burglars, as well as G. Gordon Liddy, E. Howard Hunt, John N. Mitchell, and other Nixon administration figures, were imprisoned over the break-in and their efforts to cover it up. The acronym CREEP was derisively applied to the CRP as a nickname by Nixon's opponents; the pejorative became popular due to the Watergate scandal.[3][4]

1972 United States presidential election

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Watergate scandal

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Members of the Committee for the Re-Election of...

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Watergate Babies

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Watergate Babies

Watergate Babies are Democrats first elected to the United States Congress in the 1974 elections, following President Richard Nixon's resignation over the Watergate scandal, on August 9, 1974.[1][2] Tom Downey of New York was the youngest among the "babies", aged 25 upon his election, the minimum age at which one may serve in the U.S. House of Representatives. Future Senators Chris Dodd (D-Connecticut), Tom Harkin (D-Iowa), Paul Simon (D-Illinois), Paul Tsongas (D-Massachusetts), Max Baucus (D-Montana), and Bob Krueger (D-Texas) were also elected to Congress in this election cycle. In November 1974, Democrats picked up 49 seats in the House and 5 in the Senate. This group greatly increased the strength of Northerners and liberals in the House Democratic Caucus. They teamed up with some more senior liberals to strike a blow against the seniority system and overthrew three committee chairmen whom they viewed as too conservative and/or too old to represent the Democratic Party in these prominent positions: Will

1974 United States House of Representatives ele...

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United States House of Representatives election...

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Watergate scandal

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White House Plumbers

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White House Plumbers

The White House Plumbers, sometimes simply called the Plumbers, the "Room 16 Project," or more officially, the White House "Special Investigations Unit" was a covert White House Special Investigations Unit, established within a week after the publication of the "Pentagon Papers" in June 1971, during the presidency of Richard Nixon. Its task was to stop and/or respond to the leaking of classified information, such as the Pentagon Papers, to the news media. The work of the unit "tapered-off" after the bungled "Ellsberg break-in" but some of its former operatives branched into illegal activities while still employed at the White House together with managers of the Committee to Re-elect the President, including the Watergate break-in and the ensuing Watergate scandal.[1] The group has been described as Nixon's "fixers".[2] Name On Thanksgiving evening of 1971, David Young arrived home from his planning at the Special Investigative Unit, when his grandmother asked him, "What do you do at the White House?" He rep

Watergate scandal

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White House

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People associated with the Watergate scandal

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Deep Throat (Watergate)

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Deep Throat (Watergate)

Mark Felt a.k.a. "Deep Throat" Deep Throat is the pseudonym given to the secret informant who provided information in 1972 to Bob Woodward, who shared it with Carl Bernstein. Woodward and Bernstein were reporters for The Washington Post, and Deep Throat provided key details about the involvement of U.S. President Richard Nixon's administration in what came to be known as the Watergate scandal. In 2005, 31 years after Nixon's resignation and 11 years after Nixon's death, a family attorney stated that former Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Associate Director Mark Felt was Deep Throat. By then, Felt was suffering from dementia and had previously denied being Deep Throat, but Woodward and Bernstein confirmed the attorney's claim. Background Deep Throat was first introduced to the public in the February 1974 book All the President's Men by Washington Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, which was adapted as a film two years later. According to the authors, Deep Throat was a key source of inform

Source (journalism)

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Deep Throat

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Watergate scandal

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Howard Hughes

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Howard Hughes

Howard Robard Hughes Jr. (December 24, 1905 – April 5, 1976) was an American business magnate, investor, record-setting pilot, engineer,[4] film director, and philanthropist, known during his lifetime as one of the most financially successful individuals in the world. He first became prominent as a film producer, and then as an influential figure in the aviation industry. Later in life, he became known for his eccentric behavior and reclusive lifestyle – oddities that were caused in part by a worsening obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), chronic pain from a near-fatal plane crash and increasing deafness. As a film tycoon, Hughes gained fame in Hollywood beginning in the late 1920s, when he produced big-budget and often controversial films such as The Racket (1928),[5] Hell's Angels (1930),[6] and Scarface (1932). Later he controlled the RKO film studio. Hughes formed the Hughes Aircraft Company in 1932, hiring numerous engineers and designers. He spent the rest of the 1930s and much of the 1940s setting mu

People who died in office

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Amateur radio people

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Deaths from kidney failure

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Potomac Associates

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Potomac Associates

Potomac Associates is an American consortium of four independent non-partisan consulting firms engaged in research and policy consulting on substantive economic and legal issues in international trade, foreign investment, and economic development. They also work to further trade capacity building in developing countries, especially in the areas of trade policy analysis and economic modeling. The four entities are: ADR International Ltd. James L. Kenworthy, Esq. Larson Global Consulting VORSIM. They were on the master list of Nixon political opponents because of polling and public opinion work they did.[1] References Staff report (Jun 28, 1973). Lists of White House 'Enemies' and Memorandums Relating to Those Named. New York Times

Consulting firms of the United States

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Consortia in the United States

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Charles Rebozo

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Charles Rebozo

Charles "Bebe" Rebozo (left) meeting with J. Edgar Hoover (center), and Richard Nixon. The three men relax before dinner, Key Biscayne, Florida, December 1971. Charles Gregory "Bebe" Rebozo (November 17, 1912 – May 8, 1998) was a Florida banker and businessman who was a friend and confidant of President Richard Nixon.[1][2][3][4] Early life The youngest of 12 children (hence, the nickname "Bebe" meaning "Baby" in Spanish) of Cuban immigrants to Tampa, Florida, Matias and Carmen Rebozo owned several businesses in Florida, including a gas station and a group of laundromats, before he started his own bank, the Key Biscayne Bank & Trust, in Key Biscayne, Florida, in 1964. Rebozo regularly attended Key Biscayne Community Church, sometimes accompanied during later years by Nixon. Friendship with Richard Nixon Rebozo first met then-U.S. Representative Nixon in 1950 through Florida Representative George Smathers. Smathers had recommended Key Biscayne as a vacation destination to Nixon, who eventually establ

Richard Nixon

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People from Key Biscayne, Florida

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American people of Cuban descent

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Daniel Ellsberg

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Daniel Ellsberg

Daniel Ellsberg (born April 7, 1931) is an American economist, activist and former United States military analyst who, while employed by the RAND Corporation, precipitated a national political controversy in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, a top-secret Pentagon study of the U.S. government decision-making in relation to the Vietnam War, to The New York Times and other newspapers. On January 3, 1973, Ellsberg was charged under the Espionage Act of 1917 along with other charges of theft and conspiracy, carrying a total maximum sentence of 115 years. Due to governmental misconduct and illegal evidence-gathering, and the defense by Leonard Boudin and Harvard Law School professor Charles Nesson, Judge William Matthew Byrne Jr. dismissed all charges against Ellsberg on May 11, 1973. Ellsberg was awarded the Right Livelihood Award in 2006. He is also known for having formulated an important example in decision theory, the Ellsberg paradox, his extensive studies on nuclear weapons and nuclear policy, and

Harvard College alumni

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Stanley L. Greigg

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Stanley L. Greigg

Stanley Lloyd Greigg (May 7, 1931 – June 13, 2002) served one term as a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from northwestern Iowa. He was elected to fill the vacancy left by the retirement of Republican Charles B. Hoeven in 1964 but lost to Republican Wiley Mayne two years later in 1966. He was one of the victims of the Watergate break-in. Biography Greigg was born in Ireton, Iowa, and spent his earliest years there and in nearby Hawarden, Iowa, where his parents were involved in the restaurant business. Greigg's family moved to Sioux City, Iowa and operated a restaurant there. After his father died in 1942, Greigg needed to play a larger role in assisting his mother in running the restaurant. He continued to do so before and after his graduation from Sioux City East High School.[1] Greigg received his B.A. at Morningside College in Sioux City in 1954, then spent two years at Syracuse University in graduate work in the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs. He served in the U

Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affair...

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Watergate scandal

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People from Hawarden, Iowa

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Unindicted co-conspirator

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Unindicted co-conspirator

An unindicted co-conspirator (sic), or unindicted conspirator, is a person or entity that is alleged in an indictment to have engaged in conspiracy, but who is not charged in the same indictment. Prosecutors choose to name persons as unindicted co-conspirators for a variety of reasons including grants of immunity, pragmatic considerations, and evidentiary concerns. The United States Attorneys' Manual generally recommends against naming unindicted co-conspirators, although their use is not generally prohibited by law or policy.[1] Some commentators have raised due-process concerns over the use of unindicted co-conspirators.[2] Although there have been few cases on the subject, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals addressed these concerns in 1975 United States v. Briggs.[3] President Richard Nixon The term unindicted co-conspirator was familiarized in 1974 when then U.S. President Richard Nixon was named as an unindicted co-conspirator in indictments stemming from the Watergate Investigation. Nixon was not ind

Watergate scandal

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Criminal law

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Statement on the Articles of Impeachment

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Statement on the Articles of Impeachment

Barbara Charline Jordan (February 21, 1936 – January 17, 1996) was an American lawyer, educator[1] and politician who was a leader of the Civil Rights Movement. A Democrat, she was the first African American elected to the Texas Senate after Reconstruction and the first Southern African-American woman elected to the United States House of Representatives.[2] She was best known for her eloquent opening statement[3] at the House Judiciary Committee hearings during the impeachment process against Richard Nixon, and as the first African-American as well as the first woman to deliver a keynote address at a Democratic National Convention. She received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, among numerous other honors. She was a member of the Peabody Awards Board of Jurors from 1978 to 1980.[4] She was the first African-American woman to be buried in the Texas State Cemetery.[5][6] Jordan's work as chair of the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, which recommended reducing legal immigration by about one-third, is fr

Candidates in the 1976 United States presidenti...

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1976 United States presidential candidates

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Baptists from Texas

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Mark Felt

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Mark Felt

William Mark Felt Sr. (August 17, 1913 – December 18, 2008) was an American law enforcement officer who worked for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from 1942 to 1973 and was known for his role in the Watergate scandal. Felt was an FBI special agent who eventually rose to the position of Associate Director, the Bureau's second-highest-ranking post. Felt worked in several FBI field offices prior to his promotion to the Bureau's headquarters. In 1980 he was convicted of having violated the civil rights of people thought to be associated with members of the Weather Underground, by ordering FBI agents to break into their homes and search the premises as part of an attempt to prevent bombings. He was ordered to pay a fine, but was pardoned by President Ronald Reagan during his appeal. In 2005, at age 91, Felt revealed that during his tenure as associate director of the FBI he had been the notorious anonymous source known as "Deep Throat" who provided The Washington Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Ber

Deputy Directors of the Federal Bureau of Inves...

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Deputy Directors of the FBI

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Writers from Idaho

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Canuck letter

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Canuck letter

The Canuck letter was a forged letter to the editor of the Manchester Union Leader, published February 24, 1972, two weeks before the New Hampshire primary of the 1972 United States presidential election. It implied that Senator Edmund Muskie, a candidate for the Democratic Party's presidential nomination, held prejudice against Americans of French-Canadian descent. Reportedly the successful sabotage work of Donald Segretti and Ken W. Clawson;[1][2] in a childish scrawl with poor spelling, the author of the Canuck letter claimed to have met Muskie and his staff in Florida, and to have asked Muskie how he could understand the problems of African Americans when his home state of Maine has such a small black population, to which a member of Muskie's staff was said to have responded, "Not blacks, but we have Canucks" (which the letter spells "Cannocks"); the author further claims that Muskie laughed at the remark. While an affectionate term among Canadians today,[3] "Canuck" is a term often considered derogatory

1972 United States presidential election

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Anti-Quebec sentiment

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Ratfucking

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Ratfucking

Ratfucking is an American slang term for political sabotage or dirty tricks. It was brought to public attention by Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein in their non-fiction book All the President's Men (1974). Woodward and Bernstein's exposé reports that many staffers who had attended the University of Southern California ("USC")—such as Donald Segretti, White House aide Tim Elbourne, Ronald Louis Ziegler, H. R. Haldeman, and Dwight Chapin—had participated in the highly competitive student elections there. UPI reporter Karlyn Barker sent Woodward and Bernstein a memo, "Notes On the USC Crowd", that outlined the connection. Fraternities, sororities, and underground fraternal coordinating organizations—such as Theta Nu Epsilon and their splintered rival "Trojans for Representative Government"—engaged in creative tricks and underhanded tactics to win student elections.[1][2] Officially, control over minor funding and decision-making on campus life was at stake, but the positions also gave bragging rights and prestige

English profanity

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Profanity

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Pardon of Richard Nixon

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Pardon of Richard Nixon

The pardon of Richard Nixon (formally known as Proclamation 4311) was a presidential proclamation issued by President of the United States Gerald Ford on September 8, 1974. By it, Ford granted to Richard Nixon, his predecessor, a full and unconditional pardon for any crimes that he might have committed against the United States as president.[1][2] In particular, the pardon covered Nixon's actions during the Watergate scandal. In a televised broadcast to the nation, Ford, who had succeeded to the presidency upon Nixon's resignation, explained that he felt the pardon was in the best interests of the country and that the Nixon family's situation was "a tragedy in which we all have played a part. It could go on and on and on, or someone must write the end to it. I have concluded that only I can do that, and if I can, I must."[3] After Ford left the White House in 1977, he privately justified his pardon of Nixon by carrying in his wallet a portion of the text of Burdick v. United States, a 1915 U.S. Supreme Court

September 1974 events in the United States

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September 1974 events

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Pardons

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Impeachment process against Richard Nixon

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Impeachment process against Richard Nixon

The impeachment process against Richard Nixon began in the United States House of Representatives on October 30, 1973, following the "Saturday Night Massacre" episode of the Watergate scandal. The House Committee on the Judiciary set up an impeachment inquiry staff and began investigations into possible impeachable offenses by Richard Nixon, the 37th president of the United States. The process was formally initiated on February 6, 1974, when the House granted the Judiciary Committee authority to investigate whether sufficient grounds existed to impeach President Nixon of high crimes and misdemeanors under Article II, Section 4, of the United States Constitution. This investigation was undertaken one year after the United States Senate established the Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities to investigate the 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C., and the Republican Nixon administration's attempted cover-up of its involv

Impeachment in the United States

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93rd United States Congress

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United States presidential history

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Richard Nixon's resignation speech

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Richard Nixon's resignation speech

Richard Nixon's resignation speech was an address made on August 8, 1974, by President of the United States Richard Nixon to the American public. It was delivered in the Oval Office of the White House. The purpose of the speech was for Nixon to announce that he was resigning from office. Nixon's resignation was the culmination of what he referred to in his speech as the "long and difficult period of Watergate," the federal political scandal stemming from the June 17, 1972, break-in of the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate Office Building in Washington, D.C., by five men and the Nixon administration's subsequent attempts to cover up its involvement in the crime. Nixon ultimately lost much of his popular and political support as a result of the scandal. At the time of his resignation, he faced almost certain impeachment and removal from office.[1] In his address, Nixon said he was resigning because "I have concluded that because of the Watergate matter I might not have the support of

Terminations of public office by individual

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Richard Nixon

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1974 in Washington, D.C.

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Timeline of the Watergate scandal

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Timeline of the Watergate scandal

The Watergate Scandal refers to the burglary and illegal wiretapping of the Washington, D.C. headquarters of the Democratic National Committee, in the Watergate complex, by members of President of the United States Richard Nixon's re-election committee and subsequent abuse of powers by the president and administration officials to halt or hinder the investigation into same. 1960s November 5, 1968: Richard Nixon elected President.[1] January 20, 1969: Richard Nixon is inaugurated as the 37th President of The United States. 1970s July 1, 1971: David Young and Egil "Bud" Krogh write a memo suggesting the formation of what later became called the "White House Plumbers" in response to the leak of the Pentagon Papers by Daniel Ellsberg. August 21, 1971: Nixon's Enemies List is started by White House aides (though Nixon himself may not have been aware of it); to "use the available federal machinery to screw our political enemies." September 3, 1971: "White House Plumbers" E. Howard Hunt, G. Gordon Liddy,

United States presidency timelines

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Crime-related timelines

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Elliot Richardson

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Elliot Richardson

Elliot Lee Richardson (July 20, 1920 – December 31, 1999) was an American lawyer and public servant who was a member of the cabinet of Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. As U.S. Attorney General, he was a prominent figure in the Watergate Scandal, and resigned rather than obey President Nixon's order to fire special prosecutor Archibald Cox. Richardson served as Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare from 1970 to 1973, Secretary of Defense from January to May 1973, Attorney General from May to October 1973, and Secretary of Commerce from 1976 to 1977. That makes him one of only two individuals to have held four Cabinet positions within the United States government (the other being George Shultz). Early life and military service Richardson was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Clara Lee (née Shattuck) and Edward Peirson Richardson,[1] a physician and professor at Harvard Medical School.[2][3] He was a Boston Brahmin, descended from the earliest Puritan settlers in New England. Richardso

Military personnel from Massachusetts

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Candidates in the 1976 United States presidenti...

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Harvard College alumni

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Master list of Nixon's political opponents

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Master list of Nixon's political opponents

A master list of Nixon political opponents was compiled to supplement the original Nixon's Enemies List of 20 key people considered opponents of President Richard Nixon. The master list was compiled by Charles Colson's office and sent in memorandum form to John Dean. Dean later provided to the Senate Watergate Committee this updated "master list" of political opponents.[1] The original list split out "Black Congressmen",[2] listing "all of the Black congressmen [and congresswomen]".[3][4] Response Carol Channing stated that inclusion on the list was her greatest accomplishment. Talk show host and journalist Lou Gordon, who was also on the list, considered his inclusion to be a "badge of honor".[5] Likewise, Tony Randall found it something he was extremely proud of, according to Jack Klugman in his memoir on Randall. In The Great Shark Hunt, Hunter S. Thompson expressed disappointment in not having been included on the list, writing "I would almost have preferred a vindictive tax audit to that kind of crip

Watergate scandal

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Nixon White House tapes

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Nixon White House tapes

The Nixon White House tapes are audio recordings of conversations between U.S. President Richard Nixon and Nixon administration officials, Nixon family members, and White House staff, produced between 1971 and 1973.[1] In February 1971, a sound-activated taping system was installed in the Oval Office, including in Nixon's Oval Office desk, using Sony TC-800B open-reel tape recorders[2] to capture audio transmitted by telephone taps and concealed microphones.[3] The system was expanded to include other rooms within the White House and Camp David.[3] The system was turned off on July 18, 1973, two days after it became public knowledge as a result of the Senate Watergate Committee hearings.[3] Nixon was not the first president to record his White House conversations; President Franklin D. Roosevelt recorded Oval Office press conferences for a short period in 1940.[4] The tapes' existence came to light during the Watergate scandal of 1973 and 1974, when the system was mentioned during the televised testimony of

Government documents of the United States

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United States documents

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Official documents of the United States

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Watergate complex

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Watergate complex

The Watergate complex is a group of six buildings in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D.C., in the United States. Covering a total of 10 acres (4 ha) adjacent to the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, the buildings include: Watergate West (2700 Virginia Avenue NW), cooperative apartments Watergate 600 (600 New Hampshire Ave NW), office building not involved in the Watergate scandal Watergate Hotel (2650 Virginia Avenue NW) Watergate East (2500 Virginia Avenue NW), cooperative apartments[2] Watergate South (700 New Hampshire Avenue NW), cooperative apartments Watergate Office Building (2600 Virginia Ave NW), the office building where the Watergate burglary happened[3] Built between 1963 and 1971, the Watergate was considered one of Washington's most desirable living spaces, popular with members of Congress and political appointees in the executive branch.[2][4] The complex has been sold several times since the 1980s. In the 1990s, it was split up and its component buildings

Headquarters of political parties

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Buildings associated with crimes

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Skyscraper office buildings in Washington, D.C.

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Corrupt bargain

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Corrupt bargain

The term corrupt bargain refers to three historic incidents in American history in which political agreement was determined by congressional or presidential actions that acted against the most clearly defined legal course of action at the time (though in none of the three cases were illegal actions taken). Two of these involved the resolution of indeterminate or disputed electoral votes from the United States presidential election process, and the third involved the disputed use of a presidential pardon. In all three cases, the president so elevated served a single term, or singular vacancy, and either did not run again, or was not reelected when he ran. In the 1824 election, without an absolute majority in the Electoral College, the 12th Amendment dictated that the Presidential election be sent to the House of Representatives, whose Speaker and candidate in his own right, Henry Clay, gave his support to John Quincy Adams, and was then selected to be his Secretary of State. In the 1876 election, accusations

1876 United States presidential election

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United States presidential election, 1876

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Political controversies in the United States

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Bruce Givner

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Bruce Givner

Bruce Givner (born November 16, 1950) is an American attorney best known for his role on the evening of the Watergate burglary. While working as an intern, Givner remained in the Democratic National Committee's Watergate offices until just after midnight, making free long-distance phone calls to friends and family. His presence substantially delayed the break-in and indirectly led to the eventual arrests of the burglars.[1] Early life Givner was born and raised in Lorain, Ohio. Givner's father, Eugene, was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis when Givner was eight years old. Givner's father was forced out of the family business—Givner's Luggage and Jewelry, a general store of sorts in Lorain that sold luggage, jewelry, and the engraving of it, as well as men's clothing. Due to his illness, Eugene Givner was restricted to a wheelchair and was told he would have to move his family to a less humid climate. The family chose to move to Encino, California, after finding a wheelchair-friendly home in that town. Givne

New York University School of Law alumni

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Columbia Law School alumni

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Watergate scandal

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The Abbess of Crewe

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The Abbess of Crewe

First edition (publ. Macmillan)Cover art by Linnet Gotch The Abbess of Crewe is a novella[1] published in 1974 by Muriel Spark. It is centred on a Catholic convent in Crewe and the political intrigues surrounding the election of a new abbess, after the death of the former. It exhibits Spark's typical style of crossing seamlessly between temporal points in the narrative. Michael Lindsay-Hogg adapted the novel into his film Nasty Habits, released in 1977.[2] This book is considered an allegorical treatment of the Watergate scandal.[3] Plot summary At the beginning of the novel we are introduced to Alexandra, recently elected Abbess of Crewe, circumnavigating the issue of electronic bugging in the convent, while there is a visible police presence outside the gates. Alexandra is tall and elegant, 'like a tower of ivory'. She recites modern poetry in place of the traditional vespers and has the nuns given incantations on electronics. It soon becomes clear that there has been a scandal engulfing the covent and t

British novellas

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Novels about elections

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Nuns in fiction

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Roger Stone

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Roger Stone

Roger Jason Stone Jr.[a] (born August 27, 1952) is an American political consultant,[3] author, and lobbyist. In November 2019, subsequent to the Mueller Report and Special Counsel investigation, he was convicted on seven counts, including witness tampering and lying to investigators. He awaits sentencing.[4] Since the 1970s, Stone worked on the campaigns of Republican politicians Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, Jack Kemp, Bob Dole,[5] and Donald Trump. In addition to frequently serving as a campaign adviser, Stone was previously a political lobbyist. In 1980, he co-founded a Washington, D.C.-based lobbying firm with Paul Manafort and Charles R. Black Jr.[6][7][8] The firm recruited Peter G. Kelly and was renamed Black, Manafort, Stone and Kelly in 1984.[9]:124 During the 1980s, BMSK became a top lobbying firm by leveraging its White House connections to attract high-paying clients including U.S. corporations, trade associations, as well as foreign governments. By 1990, it was one of the leading lobbyists for

Watergate scandal

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People convicted of obstruction of justice

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1972 United States presidential election

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