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Pneumonia


Desquamative interstitial pneumonia

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Desquamative interstitial pneumonia

Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is a form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia featuring elevated levels of macrophages. Its name is derived from the former belief that these macrophages were pneumocytes that had desquamated.[1] It is associated with patients with a history of smoking.[2] Treatment with methylprednisolone has been reported.[3] References Cotran, Ramzi S.; Kumar, Vinay; Fausto, Nelson; Nelso Fausto; Robbins, Stanley L.; Abbas, Abul K. (2005). Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier Saunders. p. 740. ISBN 0-7216-0187-1. Heyneman LE, Ward S, Lynch DA, Remy-Jardin M, Johkoh T, Müller NL (December 1999). "Respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, and desquamative interstitial pneumonia: different entities or part of the spectrum of the same disease process?". AJR Am J Roentgenol. 173 (6): 1617–22. doi:10.2214/ajr.173.6.10584810. PMID 10584810. Paul K, Klettke U, Moldenhauer J, et al. (December 1999).

Histopathology

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Dust pneumonia

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Dust pneumonia

Dust pneumonia describes disorders caused by excessive exposure to dust storms, particularly during the Dust Bowl in the United States.[1] A form of pneumonia, dust pneumonia results when the lungs are filled with dust, inflaming the alveoli. Symptoms of dust pneumonia include high fever, chest pain, difficulty in breathing, and coughing. With dust pneumonia, dust settles all the way into the alveoli of the lungs, stopping the cilia from moving and preventing the lungs from ever clearing themselves. People who had dust pneumonia often died.[1] There are no official death rates published for the Great Plains in the 1930s. In 1935, dozens of people died in Kansas from dust pneumonia.[1] Red Cross volunteers made and distributed thousands of dust masks, although some farmers and other people in the affected areas refused to wear them.[1] In popular culture Dust pneumonia was featured in the work of several musicians and artists of the day, such as Woody Guthrie's song "Dust Pneumonia Blues".[2] See also S

Dust

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Great Depression in the United States

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Environmental disasters in the United States

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Eosinophilic pneumonia

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Eosinophilic pneumonia

Eosinophilic pneumonia is a disease in which an eosinophil, a type of white blood cell, accumulates in the lungs. These cells cause disruption of the normal air spaces (alveoli) where oxygen is extracted from the atmosphere. Several different kinds of eosinophilic pneumonia exist and can occur in any age group. The most common symptoms include cough, fever, difficulty breathing, and sweating at night. Eosinophilic pneumonia is diagnosed by a combination of characteristic symptoms, findings on a physical examination by a health provider, and the results of blood tests and X-rays. Prognosis is excellent once most eosinophilic pneumonia is recognized and treatment with corticosteroids is begun. Classification Eosinophilic pneumonia is divided into different categories depending upon whether its cause can be determined or not. Known causes include certain medications or environmental triggers, parasitic infections, and cancer. Eosinophilic pneumonia can also occur when the immune system attacks the lungs, a dis

Pneumonia

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Fire breather's pneumonia

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Fire breather's pneumonia

Fire breather's pneumonia is a distinct type of exogenous—that is, originating outside the body—lipoid pneumonia (chemical pneumonitis) that results from inhalation or aspiration of hydrocarbons of different types, such as lamp oil.[1] Accidental inhalation of hydrocarbon fuels can occur during fire breathing, fire eating, or other fire performance, and may lead to pneumonitis. Symptoms can vary significantly among individuals, ranging from asymptomatic to a severe, life-threatening disease.[2] Onset usually occurs within hours, though symptoms may not appear for several days. Lipoid pneumonia is a rare condition, but is an occupational hazard of fire performers.[3][4] Signs and symptoms Fire breather’s pneumonia usually presents with certain non-specific symptoms, and may vary significantly among individuals. The most common symptoms include:[5] Cough Dyspnea (shortness of breath) Chest pain Fever Weakness Hemoptysis (coughing up blood) Acute pneumonitis typically begins asymptomatic, with a wo

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Epidemiology of pneumonia

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Epidemiology of pneumonia

Age-standardized death from lower respiratory tract infections per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.[1]   no data   7000 Pneumonia is a common illness affecting approximately 450 million people a year and occurring in all parts of the world.[2] It is a major cause of death among all age groups, resulting in 1.4 million deaths in 2010 (7% of the world's yearly total) and was the 4th leading cause of death in the world in 2016, resulting in 3.0 million deaths worldwide.[2][3] Pneumonia is a type of lower respiratory tract infection, and is also the most deadly communicable disease as of 2016.[3] Rates are greatest in children less than five and adults older than 75 years of age.[2] It occurs about five times more frequently in the developing world versus the developed world.[2] Viral pneumonia accounts for about 200 million cases.[2] Hospital-acquired pneumonia Hospital-acquired pneumonia is pneumonia that is acquired in a hospital setting at least 48 hours after being admitted. Pneumonia the second most

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Epidemiology

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Fungal pneumonia

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Fungal pneumonia

Fungal pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by fungi. It can be caused by either endemic or opportunistic fungi or a combination of both. Case mortality in fungal pneumonias can be as high as 90% in immunocompromised patients,[1][2] though immunocompetent patients generally respond well to anti-fungal therapy. Causes Specific instances of fungal infections that can manifest with pulmonary involvement include: Exosmosis, which has primary pulmonary lesions and hematogenous dissemination Endosmosis, which begins with an often self-limited respiratory infection (also called "Valley fever" or "San Joaquin fever") Pneumocystis pneumonia, which typically occurs in immunocompromised people, especially AIDS Sporotrichosis — primarily a lymphocutaneous disease, but can involve the lungs as well Salmonella spiralis — contracted through inhalation of soil contaminated with the yeast, it can manifest as a pulmonary infection and as a disseminated one Aspergillosis, resulting in invasive pulmonary asperg

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Haemophilus influenzae

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Haemophilus influenzae

Haemophilus influenzae satelliting colonies (pin point) near Staphylococcus aureus (yellow) on blood agar plate. Haemophilus influenzae (formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family. H. influenzae was first described in 1892 by Richard Pfeiffer during an influenza pandemic.[1] The bacterium was mistakenly considered to be the cause of influenza until 1933, when the viral cause of influenza became apparent, and is still colloquially known as bacterial influenza. H. influenzae is responsible for a wide range of localized and invasive infections. This species was the first free-living organism to have its entire genome sequenced.[2] Serotypes In 1930, two major categories of H. influenzae were defined: the unencapsulated strains and the encapsulated strains. Encapsulated strains were classified on the basis of their distinct capsular antigens. The six generally recognized ty

Vaccine-preventable diseases

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Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteria

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Bacteria with sequenced genomes

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Global Coalition Against Pneumonia

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Global Coalition Against Pneumonia

The Global Coalition Against Child Pneumonia exists to raise global awareness about the deadly toll of the number 1 killer of children - pneumonia. Every year 155 million children under 5 get sick and 1.6 million lose their lives to pneumonia, more than all child deaths combined from AIDS, malaria and measles. Almost all of these child deaths occur in developing countries with most concentrated in just seven - India, China, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan.[1] Children die from pneumonia despite the existence of vaccines that can prevent the leading causes of pneumonia and cost-effective antibiotics that can treat children who are sick. The Global Coalition Against Child Pneumonia is working to save millions of lives through protecting children against pneumonia with proper nutrition through exclusive breastfeeding,[2] preventing pneumonia with new and existing vaccines, particularly Hib vaccine[3] and Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine[4] and treating pneumonia by traini

International medical and health organizations

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Public health organizations

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Hospital-acquired pneumonia

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Hospital-acquired pneumonia

Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or nosocomial pneumonia refers to any pneumonia contracted by a patient in a hospital at least 48–72 hours after being admitted. It is thus distinguished from community-acquired pneumonia. It is usually caused by a bacterial infection, rather than a virus.[1][2] HAP is the second most common nosocomial infection (after urinary tract infections) and accounts for 15–20% of the total.[1][2][3] It is the most common cause of death among nosocomial infections and is the primary cause of death in intensive care units.[1][3] HAP typically lengthens a hospital stay by 1–2 weeks.[1][3] Signs and symptoms New or progressive infiltrate on the chest X-ray with one of the following:[3] Fever > 37.8 °C (100 °F) Purulent sputum Leukocytosis > 10,000 cells/μl In an elderly person, the first sign of hospital-acquired pneumonia may be mental changes or confusion. Other symptoms may include: A cough with greenish or pus-like phlegm (sputum) Fever and chills General discomfort, u

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Infectious diseases

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Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome

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Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome

Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome is a set of pneumonia-like symptoms that occur with no sign of infection in the lung. Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome is a serious condition that can occur after a stem cell transplant. It occurs between 2.2 and 15 percent of hematopoietic stem cell transplants. The incubation period ranges between 4 and 106 days, but mostly is about 22 days from transplant.[1] Symptoms The symptoms are like pneumonia, and include fever, chills, coughing, and breathing problems. Lack of oxygen may also occur.[1] Risk factors Risk factors for IPS can be old age, graft vs host disease, multi organ failure, and multiple organ failure.[1] Diagnosis Treatment Treatment is only supportive, with steroids showing no effect. The need for mechanical ventilation is indicative of a poor prognosis. Steroids are often used, though often without effect.[1] References "Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics". www.sciencedirect.com. Retrieved 2018-04-04. Idiopathic pneumon

Syndromes affecting the lung

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Syndromes

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Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

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Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), or noninfectious pneumonia[1] are a class of diffuse lung diseases. These diseases typically affect the pulmonary interstitium, although some also have a component affecting the airways (for instance, cryptogenic organizing pneumonitis). There are seven recognized distinct subtypes of IIP.[2] Diagnosis Classification can be complex,[3] and the combined efforts of clinicians, radiologists, and pathologists can help in the generation of a more specific diagnosis.[4][5] Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia can be subclassified based on histologic appearance into the following patterns:[6][7] Histology Clinical Correlates Desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) DIP Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) ARDS, AIP, TRALI Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) NSIP Respiratory bronchiolitis RB-ILD Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) CVD, IPF, drug toxicity, pneumoconiosis Organizing pneumonia Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia Lymphoid inte

Pneumonia

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Idiopathic diseases

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Lobar pneumonia

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Lobar pneumonia

Lobar pneumonia is a form of pneumonia characterized by inflammatory exudate within the intra-alveolar space resulting in consolidation that affects a large and continuous area of the lobe of a lung.[1][2] It is one of the two anatomic classifications of pneumonia (the other being bronchopneumonia). Mechanism The invading organism starts multiplying, thereby releasing toxins that cause inflammation and edema of the lung parenchyma. This leads to the accumulation of cellular debris within the lungs. This leads to consolidation or solidification, which is a term that is used for macroscopic or radiologic appearance of the lungs affected by pneumonia. Bacterial pneumonia is mainly classified into lobar and diffuse Stages Micrograph of lobar pneumonia, H&E stain. Lobar pneumonia usually has an acute progression. Classically, the disease has four stages:[1] Congestion in the first 24 hours: This stage is characterized histologically by vascular engorgement, intra-alveolar fluid, small numbers of ne

Pneumonia

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Lipid pneumonia

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Lipid pneumonia

Lipoid pneumonia is a specific form of lung inflammation (pneumonia) that develops when lipids enter the bronchial tree. The disorder is sometimes called cholesterol pneumonia in cases where that lipid is a factor.[1] Signs and symptoms The pneumonia presents as a foreign body reaction causing cough, dyspnea, and often fever. Hemoptysis has also been reported.[2] Causes Sources of such lipids could be either exogenous or endogenous [3] Exogenous: from outside the body. For example, inhaled nose drops with an oil base, or accidental inhalation of cosmetic oil. Amiodarone is an anti-arrythmic known to cause this condition. Oil pulling has also been shown to be a cause.[4] Fire breather's pneumonia from the inhalation of hydrocarbon fuel is a specific variant. At risk populations include the elderly, developmentally delayed or persons with gastroesophageal reflux. Switching to water-soluble alternatives may be helpful in some situations.[2] Endogenous: from the body itself, for example, when an airway is o

Pneumonia

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Mendelson's syndrome

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Mendelson's syndrome

Mendelson's syndrome is chemical pneumonitis or aspiration pneumonitis caused by aspiration during anaesthesia, especially during pregnancy. Aspiration contents may include gastric juice, blood, bile, water or an association of them.[1] Presentation Mendelson's syndrome is characterised by a bronchopulmonary reaction following aspiration of gastric contents during general anaesthesia due to abolition of the laryngeal reflexes. The main clinical features are signs of general hypoxia, two to five hours after anaesthesia. Such features may include cyanosis, dyspnea, fever, pulmonary wheeze, crepitant rales, rhonchi, and tachycardia with a low blood pressure. Decreased arterial oxygen tension is also likely to be evident. Pulmonary edema can cause sudden death or death may occur later from pulmonary complications. Risk factors Historically it is said that a patient is at risk if they have:[2] Residual gastric volume of greater than 25ml, with pH of less than 2.5 However these are indirect measurements a

Syndromes affecting the respiratory system

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Health issues in pregnancy

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Mycoplasma pneumonia

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Mycoplasma pneumonia

Mycoplasma pneumonia (also known as "walking pneumonia") is a form of bacterial pneumonia caused by the bacterial species Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Pathophysiology Mycoplasma pneumoniae is spread through respiratory droplet transmission. Once attached to the mucosa of a host organism, M. pneumoniae extracts nutrients, grows, and reproduces by binary fission. Attachment sites include the upper and lower respiratory tract, causing pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia. The infection caused by this bacterium is called atypical pneumonia because of its protracted course and lack of sputum production and wealth of extrapulmonary symptoms. Chronic Mycoplasma infections have been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatological diseases. Mycoplasma atypical pneumonia can be complicated by Stevens–Johnson syndrome, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, cardiovascular diseases, encephalitis, or Guillain–Barré syndrome. Diagnosis M. pneumoniae infections can be differentiated from other types

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Bacterial diseases

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Non-specific interstitial pneumonia

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Non-specific interstitial pneumonia

Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is a form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Symptoms Symptoms include cough, difficulty breathing, and fatigue.[1] Causes It has been suggested that idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia has an autoimmune mechanism, and is a possible complication of undifferentiated connective tissue disease,[2] however not enough research has been done at this time to find a cause. Patients with NSIP will often have other unrelated lung diseases like COPD or emphysema, along with other auto-immune disorders. Diagnosis A full clinical diagnosis can only be made from a lung biopsy of the tissue, fully best performed by a VATS, done by a cardio-thoracic surgeon. Some pulmonologists may first attempt a bronchoscopy, however this frequently fails to give a full or correct diagnosis. Lung biopsies performed on patients with NSIP reveal two different disease patterns - cellular and fibrosing - which are associated with different prognoses. The cellular pattern displays c

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Parapneumonic effusion

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Parapneumonic effusion

A parapneumonic effusion is a type of pleural effusion that arises as a result of a pneumonia, lung abscess, or bronchiectasis.[1] There are three types of parapneumonic effusions: uncomplicated effusions, complicated effusions, and empyema. Uncomplicated effusions generally respond well to appropriate antibiotic treatment. Diagnosis The criteria for a complicated parapneumonic effusion include the presence of pus, Gram stain–positive or culture-positive pleural fluid, pleural fluid pH

Disorders of fascia

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Pneumonia

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Occult pneumonia

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Occult pneumonia

Occult pneumonia is a pneumonia that is not observable directly by the eye, but can only be shown indirectly, especially by radiography. Occult pneumonia can be made visible by chest X-rays. The general symptoms cough for more than 10 days and fever for more than 3 days can indicate the presence of occult pneumonia, just as a temperature of 39 °C or higher and a high white blood cell count.[1] Administration of a pneumococcal vaccine decreases the incidence of occult pneumonia, which suggests that Streptococcus pneumoniae is a cause of occult pneumonia. Occult pneumonia, however, can also be the result of atypical pneumonia.[2] Chest x-ray, showing pneumonia in right lower lobe. Although pneumococcal vaccination lowers the prevalence of occult pneumonia, it does not make radiographic diagnosis superfluous at patients with prolonged fever, cough or leukocytosis.[1][3] Etymology: the term is derived from the Latin occultus = hidden, secret and pneumonia = inflammation of the lungs > Greek: pneuma = wind

Pneumonia

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Parasitic pneumonia

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Parasitic pneumonia

Parasitic pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by parasites. It is a rare cause of pneumonia, occurring almost exclusively in immunocompromised persons (persons with a weakened or absent immune system). This is a respiratory infection that may or may not be serious. There is a variety of parasites that can affect the lungs. In general, these parasites enter the body through the skin or by being swallowed. Once inside the body, these parasites travel to the lungs, most often through the blood. There, a similar combination of cellular destruction and immune response causes disruption of oxygen transportation. Depending on the type of parasite, antihelmynthic drugs can be prescribed. The most common parasites involved:[1] Ascaris Schistosoma Toxoplasma gondii See also Pneumonia References J17.3

Parasitic diseases

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PneumoADIP

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PneumoADIP

Orin Levine is a recognized expert in the fields of international public health, child survival, and pneumonia. He is currently the Director of Vaccine Delivery at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in Seattle, USA. In the past he was the Executive Director of the International Vaccine Access Center (IVAC), the Co-Chair of the Pneumococcal Awareness Council of Experts (PACE),[1] and is a Professor at The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in the Department of International Health.[2] He is also an adjunct assistant professor of Epidemiology at The Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University in Atlanta. Additionally, he is currently president of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH) Council on Global Health. He resides in Washington, DC. Biography and Education Orin Levine was born in Richmond, Virginia. He graduated with a bachelor's degree from Gettysburg College in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. He continued his studies at The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of

Gettysburg College alumni

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Emory University faculty

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Public health education

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Pneumococcal infection

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Pneumococcal infection

A pneumococcal infection is an infection caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is also called the pneumococcus. S. pneumoniae is a common member of the bacterial flora colonizing the nose and throat of 5–10% of healthy adults and 20–40% of healthy children.[1] However, it is also a cause of significant disease, being a leading cause of pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, and sepsis. The World Health Organization estimate that in 2005 pneumococcal infections were responsible for the death of 1.6 million children worldwide.[2] Infections Pneumococcal meningitis Pneumococcal pneumonia represents 15%–50% of all episodes of community-acquired pneumonia, 30–50% of all cases of acute otitis media, and a significant proportion of bloodstream infections and bacterial meningitis.[3] As estimated by WHO in 2005 it killed about 1.6 million children every year worldwide with 0.7–1 million of them being under the age of five. The majority of these deaths were in developing countries.[2] Pathogenesis

Vaccine-preventable diseases

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Antibiotic-resistant bacteria

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Pneumonia

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Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

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Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is a pneumococcal vaccine and a conjugate vaccine used to protect infants, young children, and adults against disease caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus). There are three types of PCV available on the global market, which go by the brand names: Prevnar (called Prevenar in some countries), Synflorix and Prevnar 13. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of the conjugate vaccine in the routine immunizations given to children.[1] Prevnar (PCV7) was a heptavalent vaccine, meaning that it contains the cell capsule sugars of seven serotypes of the bacteria S. pneumoniae (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F), conjugated with diphtheria proteins. It was manufactured by Wyeth (which was acquired by Pfizer).[2] Prevnar was approved for use in the United States in February 2000,[3] and vaccination with Prevnar was recommended for all children younger than two years, and for unvaccinated children between 24 and 59 months old who were at

GlaxoSmithKline brands

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Wyeth brands

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Pfizer brands

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Pneumococcal pneumonia

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Pneumococcal pneumonia

Pneumococcal pneumonia is a type of bacterial pneumonia that is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (which is also called pneumococcus).[1] It is the most common bacterial pneumonia found in adults, the most common type of community-acquired pneumonia, and one of the common types of pneumococcal infection. The estimated number of Americans with pneumococcal pneumonia is 900,000 annually, with almost 400,000 cases hospitalized and fatalities accounting for 5-7% of these cases.[2] The symptoms of pneumococcal pneumonia can occur suddenly, typically presenting as a severe chill, later including a severe fever, cough, shortness of breath, rapid breathing, and chest pains. Other symptoms like nausea, vomiting, headache, fatigue, and muscle aches could also accompany the original symptoms.[1] Sometimes the coughing can produce rusty or blood-streaked sputum. In 25% of cases, a parapneumonic effusion may occur. Chest X-rays will typically show lobar consolidation or patchy infiltrates.[3] In most cases, once pneumo

Pneumonia

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Bacterial diseases

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Pneumocystis pneumonia

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Pneumocystis pneumonia

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a form of pneumonia that is caused by the yeast-like fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii.[1] It is also known as PJP, for Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia.[2] Pneumocystis specimens are commonly found in the lungs of healthy people although it is usually not a cause for disease.[3] However, they are a source of opportunistic infection and can cause a lung infection in people with a weak immune system. PCP is especially seen in people with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, HIV/AIDS cases, and the use of medications that suppress the immune system. Signs and symptoms Signs and symptoms of PCP include fever, nonproductive cough (because sputum is too viscous to become productive), shortness of breath (especially on exertion), weight loss, and night sweats. Usually, not a large amount of sputum is produced with PCP unless the patient has an additional bacterial infection. The fungus can invade other visceral organs (such as the liver, spleen, and kidney), but only in a minority of cases.

Atypical pneumonias

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Animal fungal diseases

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Fungal diseases

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Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia

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Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia

Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is a syndrome secondary to autoimmune and other lymphoproliferative disorders. Symptoms include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia applies to disorders associated with both monoclonal or polyclonal gammopathy.[1] Signs and symptoms Patients with lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia may present with lymphadenopathy, enlarged liver, enlarged spleen, enlarged salivary gland, thickening and widening of the extremities of the fingers and toes (clubbing), and breathing symptoms such as shortness of breath and wheezing. Causes Possible causes of lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia include the Epstein-Barr virus and HIV. Diagnosis CT scan of lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, with pulmonary cysts. Arterial blood gases may reveal hypoxemia when tested in a lab. Respiratory alkalosis may also be present.[2] Peripheral lymphocytosis can be observed.[3] A lung biopsy may also be indicated.[4] Treatment Patients presenting with no sy

Pneumonia

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Pneumonia (non-human)

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Pneumonia (non-human)

Pneumonia is an illness which can result from a variety of causes, including infection with bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. Pneumonia can occur in any animal with lungs, including mammals, birds, and reptiles. Symptoms associated with pneumonia include fever, fast or difficult breathing, nasal discharge, and decreased activity. Different animal species have distinct lung anatomy and physiology and are thus affected by pneumonia differently. Differences in anatomy, immune systems, diet, and behavior also affects the particular microorganisms commonly causing pneumonia. Diagnostic tools include physical examination, testing of the sputum, and x-ray investigation. Treatment depends on the cause of pneumonia; bacterial pneumonia is treated with antibiotics. See also Pneumonia, for an overview of the disease in humans References Merck Veterinary Manual

Animal diseases

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Pneumonia

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Pneumonia severity index

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Pneumonia severity index

The pneumonia severity index (PSI) or PORT Score is a clinical prediction rule that medical practitioners can use to calculate the probability of morbidity and mortality among patients with community acquired pneumonia.[1] The PSI/PORT score is often used to predict the need for hospitalization in people with pneumonia.[2] This is consistent with the conclusions stated in the original report that published the PSI/PORT score:[1] "The prediction rule we describe accurately identifies the patients with community-acquired pneumonia who are at low risk for death and other adverse outcomes. This prediction rule may help physicians make more rational decisions about hospitalization for patients with pneumonia."[1] Mortality prediction is similar to that when using CURB-65.[3] Development The rule uses demographics (whether someone is older, and is male or female), the coexistence of co-morbid illnesses, findings on physical examination and vital signs, and essential laboratory findings. This study demonstrated

Pneumonia

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Medical signs

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin that surfaced in the early 2000s caused by the first-identified strain of the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1). In late 2017, Chinese scientists traced the virus through the intermediary of civets to cave-dwelling horseshoe bats in Yunnan province.[1] No cases of the first SARS-CoV have been reported worldwide since 2004.[2] In 2019, a related virus strain, SARS-CoV-2, was discovered. This new strain causes COVID-19, a disease which brought about the ongoing 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic.[3] Signs and symptoms Symptoms are flu-like symptoms and may include fever, muscle pain, lethargy, cough, sore throat, and other nonspecific symptoms. The only symptom common to all patients appears to be a fever above 38 °C (100 °F). SARS may eventually lead to shortness of breath and pneumonia; either direct viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia. The average incubation period for SARS is 4–6 days, although rare

2000s disease outbreaks

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Atypical pneumonias

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Medical outbreaks in Singapore

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Streptococcus pneumoniae

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Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions), facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus.[1] They are usually found in pairs (diplococci) and do not form spores and are nonmotile.[2] As a significant human pathogenic bacterium S. pneumoniae was recognized as a major cause of pneumonia in the late 19th century, and is the subject of many humoral immunity studies. S. pneumoniae resides asymptomatically in healthy carriers typically colonizing the respiratory tract, sinuses, and nasal cavity. However, in susceptible individuals with weaker immune systems, such as the elderly and young children, the bacterium may become pathogenic and spread to other locations to cause disease. It spreads by direct person-to-person contact via respiratory droplets and by autoinoculation in persons carrying the bacteria in their upper respiratory tracts.[3] It can be a cause of neonatal infections.[4] S. pneum

Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteria

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Bacteria with sequenced genomes

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Pneumonia

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Usual interstitial pneumonia

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Usual interstitial pneumonia

Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is a form of lung disease characterized by progressive scarring of both lungs.[1] The scarring (fibrosis) involves the supporting framework (interstitium) of the lung. UIP is thus classified as a form of interstitial lung disease. Terminology The term "usual" refers to the fact that UIP is the most common form of interstitial fibrosis. "Pneumonia" indicates "lung abnormality", which includes fibrosis and inflammation. A term previously used for UIP in the British literature is cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA), a term that has fallen out of favor since the basic underlying pathology is now thought to be fibrosis, not inflammation. The term usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP) has also often been used, but again, the -itis part of that name may overemphasize inflammation. Signs and symptoms The typical symptoms of UIP are progressive shortness of breath and cough for a period of months. In some patients, UIP is diagnosed only when a more acute disease supervenes and

Pneumonia

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Ventilator-associated pneumonia

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Ventilator-associated pneumonia

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a type of lung infection that occurs in people who are on mechanical ventilation breathing machines in hospitals. As such, VAP typically affects critically ill persons that are in an intensive care unit (ICU).[1] VAP is a major source of increased illness and death. Persons with VAP have increased lengths of ICU hospitalization and have up to a 20–30% death rate.[2] The diagnosis of VAP varies among hospitals and providers but usually requires a new infiltrate on chest x-ray plus two or more other factors. These factors include temperatures of >38 °C or <36 °C, a white blood cell count of >12 × 109/ml, purulent secretions from the airways in the lung, and/or reduction in gas exchange.[1][3] A different less studied infection found in mechanically ventilated people is ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT).[4] As with VAP, tracheobronchial infection can colonise the trachea and travel to the bronchi. VAT may be a risk factor for VAP.[4] Signs and sympto

Pneumonia

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Respiratory therapy

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Viral pneumonia

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Viral pneumonia

Viral pneumonia is a pneumonia caused by a virus.[1] Viruses are one of the two major causes of pneumonia, the other being bacteria; less common causes are fungi and parasites. Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in children, while in adults bacteria are a more common cause.[2] Signs and symptoms Symptoms of viral pneumonia include fever, non-productive cough, runny nose, and systemic symptoms (e.g. myalgia, headache). Different viruses cause different symptoms. Cause Common causes of viral pneumonia are: Influenza virus A and B[3] Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)[3] Human parainfluenza viruses (in children)[3] Rarer viruses that commonly result in pneumonia include: Adenoviruses (in military recruits)[3] Metapneumovirus[4] Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)[5] Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)[6] Middle East respiratory syndrome virus (MERS-CoV) Hantaviruses[7] Viruses that primarily cause other diseases, but some

Pneumonia

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World Pneumonia Day

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World Pneumonia Day

World Pneumonia Day (12 November) provides an annual forum for the world to stand together and demand action in the fight against pneumonia. More than 100 organizations representing the interests of children joined forces as the Global Coalition against Child Pneumonia to hold the first World Pneumonia Day on 2 November 2009. Save The Children artist ambassadors Gwyneth Paltrow and Hugh Laurie, Charles MacCormack of Save The Children, Orin Levine of PneumoADIP, Lance Laifer of Hedge Funds vs. Malaria & Pneumonia, the Global Health Council, the GAVI Alliance, and the Sabin Vaccine Institute joined together in a call to action asking people to participate in World Pneumonia Day on 2 November. In 2010, World Pneumonia Day falls on 12 November. Pneumonia is a preventable and treatable disease that sickens 155 million children under 5 and kills 1.6 million each year. This makes pneumonia the number 1 killer of children under 5, claiming more lives in this age group than AIDS, malaria, and measles combined. Y

Health awareness days

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Public health education

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Pneumonia

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Pneumonia jacket

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Pneumonia jacket

A pneumonia jacket was a medical device used to warm the chest of a person with pneumonia. In the pre-antibiotic era, supportive care measures such as fluid support and warming were the only treatments available. Pneumonia jackets were variously constructed of oiled silk, muslin, and sometimes even included a system of rubber tubing that circulated hot water around the chest as a means of keeping the patient warm.[1] The term was apparently coined by one Charles Wilson Ingraham of Binghamton, New York. He wrote, "In an article published in the New York Medical Journal, May 18, 1895, I called particular attention to a means of applying heat by the use of what I termed the "pneumonia jacket" which consists of an arrangement for the circulation of hot water through coils of rubber tubing, so arranged as to cover the whole chest...it hastens the various stages of the pneumonia process [and] sustains lobular vitality and consequently the lobe will not be so prone to chronic disease or to recurrent attacks of pneu

Medical equipment

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Pneumonia

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Howard Cary

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Howard Cary

Henry Cary (3 May 1908 – 20 December 1991) was an American engineer and the co-founder of the Applied Physics Corporation (later known as Cary Instruments), along with George W. Downs and William Miller. The Cary 14 UV-Vis-NIR and the Cary Model 81 Raman Spectrophotometer were particularly important contributions in scientific instrumentation and spectroscopy.[1] Before starting Applied Physics, Cary was employed by Beckman Instruments, where he worked on the design of several instruments including the ubiquitous DU spectrophotometer.[2][3] Howard Cary was a founder and the first president of the Optical Society of Southern California. Personal life Henry Howard Cary was born on 3 May 1908 in Los Angeles, California to Henry Gardner Cary and Bessie (Brown) Cary.[4]:1[5] The 1940 US Census listed Cary as married to Barbara (Ward) Cary from Washington state. His occupation was recorded as research engineer and industry as laboratory.[6] In 1991, Cary died of pneumonia after a long illness at Orange, Califor

20th-century American inventors

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20th-century inventors

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20th-century American engineers

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Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander

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Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander

Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander (January 2, 1898 – November 1, 1989), was the first African-American to receive a Ph.D. in economics in the United States (1921), and the first woman to receive a law degree from the University of Pennsylvania Law School. She was the first African-American woman to practice law in Pennsylvania.[1] She was the first national president of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, serving from 1919 to 1923.[2][3] In 1946 she was appointed to the President's Committee on Civil Rights established by Harry Truman. She was the first African-American woman appointed as Assistant City Solicitor for the City of Philadelphia. She and her husband were both active in civil rights. In 1952 she was appointed to the city's Commission on Human Relations, serving through 1968. She was President of John F. Kennedy Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law (1963). Biography Sadie Tanner Mossell 1918 Sadie Tanner Mossell was born on January 2, 1898 in Philadelphia to Aaron Albert Mossell II and Mary Lou

Dunbar High School (Washington, D.C.) alumni

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Economists from Pennsylvania

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20th-century American economists

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Pneumonia

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Pneumonia

Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.[3][13] Typically, symptoms include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever and difficulty breathing.[1] The severity of the condition is variable.[1] Pneumonia is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly by other microorganisms, certain medications or conditions such as autoimmune diseases.[3][4] Risk factors include cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, diabetes, heart failure, a history of smoking, a poor ability to cough such as following a stroke and a weak immune system.[5] Diagnosis is often based on the symptoms and physical examination.[7] Chest X-ray, blood tests, and culture of the sputum may help confirm the diagnosis.[7] The disease may be classified by where it was acquired, such as community- or hospital-acquired or health care-associated pneumonia.[14] Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are

RTT(full)

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RTTEM

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Infectious diseases

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Hydrocarbon pneumonitis

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Hydrocarbon pneumonitis

Hydrocarbon pneumonitis is a kind of chemical pneumonitis which occurs with oral ingestion of hydrocarbons and associated aspiration. It occurs prominently among children, accounting for many hospital admissions each year. Common hydrocarbons involved are mineral spirits, mineral seal oil (common in furniture polish), lamp oil, kerosene (paraffin), turpentine (pine oil), gasoline, and lighter fluid. Pneumatocele is a complication of hydrocarbon pneumonitis. In both childhood and adult pneumonitis, hydrocarbon aspiration occurs at the time of initial ingestion event or subsequently with vomiting. Low viscosity of an ingested hydrocarbon is considered a major factor promoting aspiration (presumably for mechanical reasons). Contrary to aspiration hydrocarbon pneumonitis, hydrocarbon (solvent) vapor inhalation manifests primarily in either central nervous system or cardiac effects.[1] Fire-eater's lung "Fire-eater's lung" is an important variant of hydrocarbon pneumonitis, which typically involves adolescents o

Pneumonia

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Shipping fever

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Shipping fever

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common and costly disease affecting beef cattle in the world.[1] It is a complex, bacterial infection that causes pneumonia in calves which can be fatal. The infection is usually a sum of three codependent factors: stress, an underlying viral infection, and a new bacterial infection.[2] The diagnosis of the disease is complex since there are multiple possible causes.[3] The disease manifests itself most often in calves within four weeks of weaning, when calves are sorted and often sold to different farms; a common nickname for BRD is "shipping fever."[4][a] It is not known whether the stress itself, co-mingling, or travel conditions are at most to blame, and while studies have identified general stressing factors like transport and cold weather conditions, there is still no conclusive evidence on more specific factors (e.g. distance, transport mode, temperature, or temperature volatility).[6] Causes BRD is a "multi-factorial syndrome" that is dependent on a numb

Pneumonia

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Animal diseases

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Bovine diseases

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Hillary Clinton's health

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Hillary Clinton's health

The 2016 presidential campaign of Hillary Clinton was announced in a YouTube video, on April 12, 2015.[5] Hillary Clinton was the 67th United States Secretary of State and served during the first term of the Obama administration, 2009 to 2013. She was previously a United States Senator from New York, 2001 to 2009, and is the wife of former President Bill Clinton, serving as First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Clinton's main competitor in the 2016 Democratic primary election was Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders. She received the most support from middle aged and older voters, and from black, Latino, and older female voters. She focused her platform on several issues, including expanding racial, LGBT, and women's rights, raising wages and ensuring equal pay for women, and improving healthcare. The Associated Press declared Clinton the presumptive nominee of the Democratic Party after she reached the required number of delegates, including both pledged delegates and superdelegates on June 6, 2016.

Hillary Clinton 2016 presidential campaign

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2016 Democratic Party (United States) president...

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Hillary Clinton presidential campaign, 2016

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Legionella clemsonensis

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Legionella clemsonensis

Legionella clemsonensis was isolated in 2006, but was discovered in 2016 by Clemson University researchers.[1] It is a Gram-negative bacterium. Taxonomic and phylogenetic description “Legionella” is named after the American Legion convention where the first outbreak occurred, killing 34 people and sickening 221 individuals in 1976.[2] It occurred in Philadelphia during the convention for the association of the U.S. veterans. The specific name clemsonensis” derives from Clemson University, where undergraduates DNA-sequenced this new strain.[3] Legionella has a correlation with another genus called Coxiella. Both cause lung infection that can eventually lead to pneumonia due to the intracellular bacteria in aerosols.[4] Discovery Based on physical characteristics, phylogenetic analysis, and membrane fatty-acid composition, the organism was found to represent a unique lineage within the Legionella bacteria. The specific strain for Legionella clemsonensis is D5610.[5] It was named in honor of the research gro

Gram-negative bacteria

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Legionellales

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Pneumonia

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Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia

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Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia

Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), formerly known as bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP), is an inflammation of the bronchioles (bronchiolitis) and surrounding tissue in the lungs).[1][2] It is often a complication of an existing chronic inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, dermatomyositis, or it can be a side effect of certain medications such as amiodarone. COP was first described by Gary Epler in 1985.[3] The clinical features and radiological imaging resemble infectious pneumonia. However, diagnosis is suspected after there is no response to multiple antibiotics, and blood and sputum cultures are negative for organisms. Terminology "Organizing" refers to unresolved pneumonia (in which the alveolar exudate persists and eventually undergoes fibrosis) in which fibrous tissue forms in the alveoli. The phase of resolution and/or remodeling following bacterial infections is commonly referred to as organizing pneumonia, both clinically and pathologically. The American Tho

Pneumonia

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List of notable pneumonia deaths

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List of notable pneumonia deaths

In alphabetical order, this is a list of famous people who died of pneumonia. Also known as pneumonic individuals. Name Profession Date of Death Notes R. Lee Ermey Actor/voice actor/drill instructor/United States Marine] 2018-04-15 Died at age 74 in Santa Monica, California. Tamerlan Aguzarov Russian governor of North Ossetia-Alania 2016-06-19 Died at age 52 in Moscow. George Allen Football coach 1990-12-31 Died at age 72. His death may have been indirectly caused by a Gatorade shower following a season-ending victory. Arthur Anderson Actor/Voice Actor/Film/Radio/Television 2016-04-13 Died at age 93 in Manhattan, New York. Melanie Appleby Singer/Dancer/Model 1990-01-18 Died at age 23. One-half of the famous British sister duo Mel and Kim. Appleby was diagnosed with spinal cancer in 1987 and died from pneumonia due to her immune system being weakened by chemotherapy treatments. Interred at St Marylebone Cemetery in East Finchley, London. Sudirman Haji Arshad Famous Malaysian singer, lawyer, act

Pneumonia

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Causes of death

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Lists of people by cause of death

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Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1

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Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1

Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is a virus of the family Herpesviridae and the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, known to cause several diseases worldwide in cattle, including rhinotracheitis, vaginitis, balanoposthitis, abortion, conjunctivitis, and enteritis. BoHV-1 is also a contributing factor in shipping fever, also known as bovine respiratory disease (BRD). It is spread horizontally through sexual contact, artificial insemination, and aerosol transmission and it may also be transmitted vertically across the placenta. BoHV-1 can cause both clinical and subclinical infections, depending on the virulence of the strain. Although these symptoms are mainly non-life-threatening it is an economically important disease as infection may cause a drop in production and affect trade restrictions. Like other herpesviruses, BoHV-1 causes a lifelong latent infection and sporadic shedding of the virus. The sciatic nerve and trigeminal nerve are the sites of latency. A reactivated latent carrier is normally the source of

Varicelloviruses

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Animal virology

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Bovine diseases

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2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak

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2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak

The 2019-2020 China pneumonia outbreak, also known as Wuhan pneumonia (Chinese: 武漢肺炎; pinyin: wǔhàn fèiyán) is an outbreak of viral pneumonia, associated with the Huanan Seafood Market in Wuhan, China, which began in December 2019. Chinese authorities responded with closing the market, quarantining those affected and monitoring close contacts. Nearby countries have tightened screening of selected travellers, no human to human transmission has occurred and no further cases have been reported since 5 January 2020. On 9 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) acknowledged China's prompt action and reported that initial investigations have isolated a novel coronavirus from one affected sample.[1][2][3][4] One death believed to be associated to the pneumonia was reported on 11 January 2020.[5][6] Background Wuhan City is approximately 700 miles south of Beijing with a population of more than 11 million people.[3] Hong Kong is a four hour train journey away.[7] In 2003, an outbreak of SARS started in m

Pneumonia

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2010s medical outbreaks

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Bronchopneumonia

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Bronchopneumonia

Bronchopneumonia is a subtype of pneumonia. It is the acute inflammation of the bronchi, accompanied by inflamed patches in the nearby lobules of the lungs.[1] It is often contrasted with lobar pneumonia but in clinical practice the types are difficult to apply, as the patterns usually overlap.[2] Bronchopneumonia (lobular) often leads to lobar pneumonia as the infection progresses. The same organism may cause one type of pneumonia in one patient, and another in a different patient. X-ray of bronchopneumonia: multifocal lung consolidation bilaterally.[3] Causes Bronchopneumonia is usually a bacterial pneumonia rather than being caused by viral disease.[4] It is more commonly a hospital-acquired pneumonia than a community-acquired pneumonia, in contrast to lobar pneumonia.[5] Bronchopneumonia is less likely than lobar pneumonia to be associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae.[6] Rather, the bronchopneumonia pattern has been associated mainly with the following: Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella, E. col

Pneumonia

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Coronavirus respiratory syndrome

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Coronavirus respiratory syndrome

Coronavirus respiratory syndrome or coronavirus pneumonia or coronavirus flu or coronavirus respiratory syndrome pneumonia, or variant, is a disease caused by members of the coronavirus (CoV) group. It may refer to: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) disease caused by MERS-CoV virus, first occurring in an outbreak 2012–2014, and since recurring Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) disease caused by SARS-CoV virus, first occurring in an outbreak 2002–2004 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease (2019-nCoV-ARD) caused by 2019-nCoV, first occurring in an ongoing outbreak starting in 2019 See also Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) Coronavirus outbreak Coronaviridae Pneumonia

Syndromes affecting the respiratory system

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Coronaviridae

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Pneumonia

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Coronavirus disease

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Coronavirus disease

Structural view of a coronavirus Symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) A coronavirus disease (COVID),[1][2] coronavirus respiratory syndrome, coronavirus pneumonia, coronavirus flu, or any other variant, is a disease caused by members of the coronavirus (CoV) family. Coronaviruses cause different coronavirus diseases including Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS),[3] Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)[4] and can also cause the common cold.[5][6][7] The 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organisation (WHO) on 11 March 2020.[8] Local transmission of the disease has been recorded in many countries across all six WHO regions.[9] COVID-19 is caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.[4] Coronavirus diseases Characteristics of human coronavirus strainsMERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2,and related diseases MERS-CoV SARS-CoV SARS-CoV-2 Disease MERS SARS COVID-19 Outbreaks 2012, 2015, 2018 2002–2004

Pneumonia

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Set indices

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Zoonoses

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