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Epidemics


Epidemic

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Epidemic

Example of an epidemic showing the number of new infections over time. An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. For example, in meningococcal infections, an attack rate in excess of 15 cases per 100,000 people for two consecutive weeks is considered an epidemic.[1][2] Epidemics of infectious disease are generally caused by several factors including a change in the ecology of the host population (e.g. increased stress or increase in the density of a vector species), a genetic change in the pathogen reservoir or the introduction of an emerging pathogen to a host population (by movement of pathogen or host). Generally, an epidemic occurs when host immunity to either an established pathogen or newly emerging novel pathogen is suddenly reduced below that found in the endemic equilibrium and the transmission threshold is exceeded.[3] An epidemic may be restricted to one

Biological hazards

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Epidemics

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Epidemiology

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2013 Swansea measles epidemic

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2013 Swansea measles epidemic

The 2012–13 Swansea measles epidemic began in November 2012 and was declared over on 3 July 2013. There were a total of 1,219 measles notifications (suspected cases) in Swansea, Neath Port Talbot, Bridgend, Carmarthenshire, Ceredigion, Pembrokeshire and Powys, with 1,455 measles notifications for the whole of Wales, 664 of which were in Swansea alone.[1] A total of 88 people were hospitalised for measles infection during the epidemic.[2] One death was reported: a 25-year-old man suffering from giant cell pneumonia brought on by measles infection died on 18 April 2013.[3] The cost associated with treating the sick and controlling the outbreak exceeded £470,000 ($701,898).[2] Some sources linked the outbreak with the MMR vaccine controversy and a campaign in the South Wales Evening Post in the 1990s against the MMR vaccine,[4][5] as the majority of those who became infected were not immunised as infants during the MMR scare.[6] Uptake of the MMR vaccine fell from 94% of two-year-olds in Wales in 1995 to 78% by

2010s disease outbreaks

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21st-century epidemics

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21st century in Swansea

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Basic reproduction number

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Basic reproduction number

Values of R of well-known infectious diseases[1] Disease Transmission R Measles Airborne 12–18[2] Smallpox Airborne droplet 3.5–6[3] Polio Fecal–oral route 5–7 Rubella Airborne droplet 5–7 Mumps Airborne droplet 4–7 Pertussis Airborne droplet 5.5[4] HIV/AIDS Body fluids 2–5 SARS Airborne droplet 2–5[5] Diphtheria Saliva 1.7–4.3[6] COVID-19 Airborne droplet 1.4–3.9[7][8][9][10] Influenza(1918 pandemic strain) Airborne droplet 1.4–2.8[11] Influenza(2009 pandemic strain) Airborne droplet 1.4–1.6[12] Influenza(seasonal strains) Airborne droplet 0.9–2.1[12] Ebola(2014 Ebola outbreak) Body fluids 1.5–2.5[13] MERS Airborne droplet 0.3–0.8[14] A video discussing the basic reproduction number (at about 4 min) and case fatality rate in the context of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic. In epidemiology, the basic reproduction number (sometimes called basic reproductive ratio, or incorrectly basic reproductive rate, and denoted R, pronounced R nought or R zero

Epidemics

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Epidemiology

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Pandemics

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Chicago 1885 cholera epidemic myth

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Chicago 1885 cholera epidemic myth

The Chicago 1885 cholera epidemic myth is a persistent urban legend, stating that 90,000 people in Chicago died of typhoid fever and cholera in 1885. Although the story is widely reported, these deaths did not occur. Lake Michigan was the source of Chicago's drinking water. During a tremendous storm in 1885, the rainfall washed refuse from the Chicago River far out into the lake and locals feared the sewage would reach the city's water intake cribs, two miles offshore. According to the legend, typhoid, cholera and other waterborne diseases from the contaminated drinking water killed up to 90,000 people. The Chicago Sanitary District (now The Metropolitan Water Reclamation District) was said to have been created by the Illinois legislature in 1889 in response to a terrible epidemic which killed thousands of residents of this fledgling city. However, analysis of the deaths in Chicago shows no deaths from cholera and only a slight rise in typhoid deaths. In fact, no cholera outbreaks had occurred in Chicago s

19th-century epidemics

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Quincy Hawks football coaches

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Urban legends

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Cricket paralysis virus

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Cricket paralysis virus

Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) was initially discovered in Australian field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus and Teleogryllus oceanicus) by Carl Reinganum and his colleagues at the Victorian Plant Research Institute (Burnley, Melbourne, Australia). The paralytic disease spread rapidly through a breeding colony as well as through a laboratory population causing about 95% mortality. This was the first recorded isolate of the virus [1] and is generally referred to as CrPVvic to distinguish it from subsequent isolates. Description The spheroidal, non-enveloped virus particles of CrPV are about 27 nm diameter in negatively-stained electron micrographs and contain a single piece of positive-sense ssRNA. The virion is composed of four capsid proteins with molecular masses generally reported to be 33, 31 and 30 kilodaltons with a minor VP4 protein of about 8 kDa. The particles resemble those of the mammalian picornaviruses but CrPV virions sediment at a faster rate (167 S) than poliovirus particles (158 S) in sucros

Insect viral diseases

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Animal viral diseases

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Dicistroviridae

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Dengue fever outbreaks

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Dengue fever outbreaks

Worldwide dengue distribution, 2006. Red: Epidemic dengue. Blue: Aedes aegypti. Disability-adjusted life year for dengue fever per million inhabitants in 2012.   no data   0-0   1-1   1–45   47–87   92–141   143–330   346–356   367–440   496-37,325 Average annual number of DF cases and DHF cases reported to WHO As of 2010 dengue fever is believed to infect 50 to 100 million people worldwide a year with 1/2 million life-threatening infections.[1] It dramatically increased in frequency between 1960 and 2010, by 30 fold.[2] This increase is believed to be due to a combination of urbanization, population growth, increased international travel, and global warming.[1] The geographical distribution is around the equator with 70% of the total 2.5 billion people living in endemic areas from Asia and the Pacific.[2] Many of the infected people during outbreaks are not virally tested, therefore their infections may also be due to chikungunya, a coinfection of both, or even other similar viruses. Re

Dengue fever outbreaks

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Dengue outbreaks

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21st-century epidemics

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Great Northern War plague outbreak

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Great Northern War plague outbreak

During the Great Northern War (1700–1721), many towns and areas of the Circum-Baltic and East-Central Europe had a severe outbreak of the plague with a peak from 1708 to 1712. This epidemic was probably part of a pandemic affecting an area from Central Asia to the Mediterranean. Most probably via Constantinople, it spread to Pińczów in southern Poland, where it was first recorded in a Swedish military hospital in 1702. The plague then followed trade, travel and army routes, reached the Baltic coast at Prussia in 1709, affected areas all around the Baltic Sea by 1711 and reached Hamburg by 1712. Therefore, the course of the war and the course of the plague mutually affected each other: while soldiers and refugees were often agents of the plague, the death toll in the military as well as the depopulation of towns and rural areas sometimes severely impacted the ability to resist enemy forces or to supply troops. This plague was the last to affect the Circum-Baltic, which had experienced several waves of the pla

18th century in Latvia

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Health disasters in Europe

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18th-century deaths from plague (disease)

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Great Plague of London

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Great Plague of London

Collecting the dead for burial during the Great Plague The Great Plague, lasting from 1665 to 1666, was the last major epidemic of the bubonic plague to occur in England. It happened within the centuries-long time period of the Second Pandemic, an extended period of intermittent bubonic plague epidemics which originated in China in 1331, the first year of the Black Death, an outbreak which included other forms such as pneumonic plague, and lasted until 1750.[1] The Great Plague killed an estimated 100,000 people—almost a quarter of London's population—in 18 months.[2][3] The plague was caused by the Yersinia pestis bacterium,[4] which is usually transmitted through the bite of an infected rat flea.[5] The 1665–66 epidemic was on a far smaller scale than the earlier Black Death pandemic; it was remembered afterwards as the "great" plague mainly because it was the last widespread outbreak of bubonic plague in England during the 400-year timespan of the Second Pandemic.[6][7] London in 1665 Map of London

17th-century epidemics

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17th-century deaths from plague (disease)

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Health in London

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Great Plague of Seville

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Great Plague of Seville

The Great Plague of Seville (1647–1652) was a massive outbreak of disease in Spain that killed up to a quarter of Seville's population. Unlike the plague of 1596–1602, which claimed 600,000 to 700,000 lives, or a little under 8% of the population and initially struck northern and central Spain and Andalusia in the south, the Great Plague, which may have arisen in Algeria, struck the Mediterranean side of Spain first. The coastal city of Valencia was the first city to be hit, losing an estimated 30,000 people. The disease raged through Andalucía, in addition to sweeping the north into Catalonia and Aragon. The coast of Málaga lost upwards of 50,000 people. In Seville, quarantine measures were evaded, ignored, unproposed and/or unenforced. The results were devastating. The city of Seville and its rural districts were thought to have lost 150,000 people— starting with a total population of 600,000. Altogether Spain was thought to have lost 500,000 people, out of a population of slightly fewer than 10,000,000, o

17th-century epidemics

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1640s in Spain

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Health disasters in Spain

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Great Plague of Vienna

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Great Plague of Vienna

A plague hospital in Vienna 1679. Contemporary engraving. The Great Plague of Vienna occurred in 1679 in Vienna, Austria, the imperial residence of the Austrian Habsburg rulers. From contemporary descriptions, the disease is believed to have been bubonic plague, which is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, carried by fleas associated with the black rat and other rodents. The city was crippled by the epidemic, which recurred fitfully into the early 1680s, claiming an estimated 76,000 residents. Vienna, located on the River Danube , was a major trading crossroads between east and west. As a result of this traffic, the city had suffered from episodic plague outbreaks since the first wave of "Black Death" in the fourteenth century. The city was crowded and densely built. Descriptions indicate that there were no public sewers or drainage systems, with stinking mounds of domestic garbage littering the streets. In addition, warehouses for trade goods, which held items such as clothing, carpets, and grain for

17th-century epidemics

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17th century in Austria

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17th century in Vienna

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Groningen epidemic

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Groningen epidemic

The Groninger ziekte (also called ‘intermittent fevers’) that broke out in 1826 was a malaria epidemic that killed 2,844 people—nearly 10% of the population of the city of Groningen. In February 1825 the dikes broke in several places causing widespread flooding in the region. The decay of plants and cattle under swamplike conditions and the flooding of the city of Groningen in 1826 in the subsequent hot spring and summer of 1826 led to the epidemic. The epidemic also hit Friesland and the German Wadden Sea region. The Frisian town of Sneek reported a tripling of the number of deaths in 1826 as compared to previous years. References Wilhelmina Baron (2006). Het belang en de welvaart van alle ingezetenen: gezondheidszorg in de stad Groningen 1800-1870. Dissertation (in Dutch). RuG. E. Martini (1937). "Über die Malaria-Epidemie an der Nordseeküste 1826". Medical Microbiology and Immunology (in German). 120: 36. "The Story of Groningen". E. Teubner (1937). "Aus Hamburger Akten: Über die Epidemie im

19th-century epidemics

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History of Groningen (city)

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19th-century health disasters

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Picardy sweat

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Picardy sweat

The Picardy sweat was an infectious disease of unknown cause. It appeared in the northern French province of Picardy in 1718. Between 1718 and 1874, 194 epidemics of the Picardy sweat were recorded.[1] The last extensive outbreak was in 1906, which a French commission attributed to fleas from field mice.[2] A subsequent case was diagnosed in 1918 in a soldier in Picardy.[3] It was named suette des Picards in France,[4] and picard'scher Schweiß or picard'sches Schweissfieber in Germany.[5] There were several longer descriptions of the disease.[6] The disease was similar to the English sweat but differed in some symptoms and in its course and mortality rate. Some of the symptoms were high fever, rash, and bleeding from the nose. Many victims died within two days.[7] See also Sweating sickness References Roberts, Llywelyn: "Sweating Sickness and Picardy Sweat" In: British Medical Journal, 11 August 1945; 2(4414): 196 Tidy, Henry, "Sweating Sickness and Picardy Sweat", British Medical Journal, Vol.2(4

19th-century epidemics

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Ailments of unknown cause

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Health in France

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National Hotel disease

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National Hotel disease

The National Hotel in Washington, D.C., the site of the mysterious disease. The National Hotel epidemic was a mysterious sickness which afflicted persons who stayed at the National Hotel in Washington, D.C. beginning in early January 1857.[1] At the time, the hotel was the largest in the city.[2] By some accounts, as many as 400 people became sick and nearly three dozen died.[3] The illness was considered by some medical expertsto have originated from an attempt to poison hotel boarders. It affected mostly patrons of the hotel's dining room and not those who frequented the bar.[4] It began to spread more noticeably by the middle of January 1857.[1] New cases of the illness began to decrease in number by the end of January 1857 and continued to abate until the middle of February. When the numbers of guests increased for the presidential inauguration of March 4, 1857, the sickness returned again forcefully.[1] Symptoms The National Hotel epidemic manifested itself as a persistent diarrhea, which was often a

Hotels in the United States

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19th-century epidemics

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Hotels

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Plague (disease)

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Plague (disease)

Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.[2] Symptoms include fever, weakness and headache.[1] Usually this begins one to seven days after exposure.[2] In the bubonic form there is also swelling of lymph nodes, while in the septicemic form tissues may turn black and die, and in the pneumonic form shortness of breath, cough and chest pain may occur.[1] Bubonic and septicemic plague are generally spread by flea bites or handling an infected animal.[1] The pneumonitic form is generally spread between people through the air via infectious droplets.[1] Diagnosis is typically by finding the bacterium in fluid from a lymph node, blood or sputum.[2] Those at high risk may be vaccinated.[2] Those exposed to a case of pneumonic plague may be treated with preventive medication.[2] If infected, treatment is with antibiotics and supportive care.[2] Typically antibiotics include a combination of gentamicin and a fluoroquinolone.[3] The risk of death with treatment is about 10% while without

CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list

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Cat diseases

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Deaths from plague (disease)

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Plague of Athens

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Plague of Athens

The Plague of Athens, Michiel Sweerts, c. 1652–1654 The Plague of Athens (Ancient Greek: Λοιμός τῶν Ἀθηνῶν Loimos tôn Athênôn) was an epidemic that devastated the city-state of Athens in ancient Greece during the second year of the Peloponnesian War (430 BC) when an Athenian victory still seemed within reach. The plague killed an estimated 75,000 to 100,000 people and is believed to have entered Athens main city through Piraeus, the city's port and sole source of food and supplies.[1] Much of the eastern Mediterranean also saw an outbreak of the disease, albeit with less impact.[2] The plague had serious effects on Athens' society, resulting in a lack of adherence to laws and religious belief; in response laws became stricter, resulting in the punishment of non-citizens claiming to be Athenian. The plague returned twice more, in 429 BC and in the winter of 427/426 BC. Some 30 pathogens have been suggested as having caused the plague.[3] Background Sparta and its allies, with the exception of Corinth, were

Unexplained phenomena

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5th century BC in Greece

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History of Classical Athens

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Plague of Emmaus

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Plague of Emmaus

The Plague of Emmaus (Arabic: طاعون عمواس‎, ṭāʿūn ʿimwās transliterated), also known as the Plague of 'Amwas, was an outbreak of plague, possibly bubonic plague, that occurred in 639 in the town of Emmaus (Amwas) in Palestine (at the time under the Bilad al-Sham within the Rashidun Caliphate). The town had been re-founded as Nicopolis in 221 by the Roman Emperor Elagabalus, and was given the title of "city". The plague struck shortly after its conquest by the forces of the Rashidun Caliphate, which had set up a military camp there. The epidemic is famous in Muslim sources because of the death of many prominent companions of Muhammad. It is estimated that 25,000 people died in this outbreak, which is considered part of the outbreaks of plague in the 6th, 7th, and 8th centuries that followed the major pandemic of the 6th century, the Plague of Justinian.[1] References Dols (1974). Sources Dols, Michael W. "Plague in Early Islamic History". Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 94, No. 3 (Jul

630s in the Rashidun Caliphate

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Health disasters in Asia

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Medieval health disasters

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Pontiac fever

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Pontiac fever

Pontiac fever is an acute, nonfatal respiratory disease caused by various species of Gram-negative bacteria in the genus Legionella. It causes a mild upper respiratory infection that resembles acute influenza. Pontiac fever resolves spontaneously and often goes undiagnosed. Both Pontiac fever and the more severe Legionnaire's disease are caused by the same bacteria, but Pontiac fever does not include pneumonia.[1][2][3][4] Pontiac fever was named for Pontiac, Michigan, where the first case was recognized. In 1968, several workers at the county's department of health came down with a fever and mild flu symptoms, but not pneumonia. After the 1976 Legionnaires' outbreak in Philadelphia, the Michigan health department re-examined blood samples and discovered the workers had been infected with the newly identified Legionella pneumophila.[5][6] An outbreak caused by Legionella micdadei in early 1988 in the UK became known as Lochgoilhead fever.[7] Since that time, other species of Legionella that cause Pontiac fev

20th-century epidemics

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Legionellales

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Medical lists

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Pulse vaccination strategy

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Pulse vaccination strategy

On Pulse Polio Day, a child swallows vaccine drops and is marked as vaccinated (felt-nib pen on finger). The Pulse Polio immunisation campaign eliminated polio from India. The pulse vaccination strategy is a method used to eradicate an epidemic by repeatedly vaccinating a group at risk, over a defined age range, until the spread of the pathogen has been stopped. It is most commonly used during measles and polio epidemics to quickly stop the spread and contain the outbreak.[1][2] Mathematical model Where T= time units is a constant fraction p of susceptible subjects vaccinated in a relatively short time. This yields the differential equations for the susceptible and vaccinated subjects as d S d t = μ N − μ S − β I N S , S ( n T + ) = ( 1 − p ) S ( n T − ) n = 0 , 1 , 2 , … {\displaystyle {\frac {dS}{dt}}=\mu N-\mu S-\beta {\frac {I}{N}}S,S(nT^{+})=(1-p)S(nT^{-})n=0,1,2,\dots } d V d t = − μ V , V ( n T + ) = V ( n T − ) + p S ( n T − ) n = 0 , 1 , 2 , …

Preventive medicine

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Biological hazards

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Vaccination

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Real-time outbreak and disease surveillance

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Real-time outbreak and disease surveillance

Real-time outbreak and disease surveillance system (RODS) is a syndromic surveillance system developed by the University of Pittsburgh, Department of Biomedical Informatics.[1] It is "prototype developed at the University of Pittsburgh where real-time clinical data from emergency departments within a geographic region can be integrated to provide an instantaneous picture of symptom patterns and early detection of epidemic events."[2] RODS uses a combination of various monitoring tools.[3] The first tool is a moving average with a 120-day sliding phase-I-window. The second tool is a nonstandard combination of CUSUM and EWMA, where an EWMA is used to predict next-day counts, and a CuSum monitors the residuals from these predictions. The third monitoring tool in RODS is a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm, which fits an autoregressive model to the counts and updates estimates continuously by minimizing prediction error. A Shewhart I-chart is then applied to the residuals, using a threshold of 4 standa

Cleanup tagged articles with a reason field fro...

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Epidemiological study projects

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Medical statistics

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Sweating sickness

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Sweating sickness

Sweating sickness, also known as English sweating sickness or English sweat or (Latin) sudor anglicus, was a mysterious and contagious disease that struck England and later continental Europe in a series of epidemics beginning in 1485. The last outbreak occurred in 1551, after which the disease apparently vanished. The onset of symptoms was sudden, with death often occurring within hours. Its cause remains unknown, although it has been suggested that an unknown species of hantavirus was responsible. Signs and symptoms John Caius was a practising physician in Shrewsbury in 1551, when an outbreak occurred, and he described the symptoms and signs of the disease in A Boke or Counseill Against the Disease Commonly Called the Sweate, or Sweatyng Sicknesse (1552), which is the main historical source of knowledge of the disease. It began very suddenly with a sense of apprehension, followed by cold shivers (sometimes very violent), giddiness, headache, and severe pains in the neck, shoulders, and limbs, with great e

16th-century epidemics

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History of medicine

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Ailments of unknown cause

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Super-spreader

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Super-spreader

9th floor layout of the Hotel Metropole in Hong Kong, showing where a super-spreading event of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred A super-spreader is an unusually contagious organism infected with a disease. In context of a human-borne illness, a super-spreader is an individual who is more likely to infect others, compared with a typical infected person. Such super-spreaders are of particular concern in epidemiology. Some cases of super-spreading conform to the 80/20 rule,[1] where approximately 20% of infected individuals are responsible for 80% of transmissions, although super-spreading can still be said to occur when super-spreaders account for a higher or lower percentage of transmissions.[2] In epidemics with super-spreading, the majority of individuals infect relatively few secondary contacts. Super-spreading events are shaped by multiple factors including a decline in herd immunity, nosocomial infections, virulence, viral load, misdiagnosis, airflow dynamics, immune suppression, and c

Biological hazards

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Epidemics

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Epidemiology

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Targeted immunization strategies

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Targeted immunization strategies

Targeted immunization strategies are approaches designed to increase the immunization level of populations and decrease the chances of epidemic outbreaks.[1][2] Though often in regards to use in healthcare practices and the administration of vaccines to prevent biological epidemic outbreaks,[3] these strategies refer in general to immunization schemes in complex networks, biological, social or artificial in nature.[1] Identification of at-risk groups and individuals with higher odds of spreading the disease often plays an important role in these strategies.[1][2][4] Background The success of vaccines and anti-virus software in preventing major outbreaks relies on the mechanism of herd immunity, also known as community immunity, where the immunization of individuals provides protection for not only the individuals, but also the community at large.[5] In cases of biological contagions such as influenza, measles, and chicken pox, immunizing a critical community size can provide protection against the disease f

Vaccination

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Preventive medicine

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Social networks

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Virgin soil epidemic

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Virgin soil epidemic

Virgin soil epidemic is a term coined by Alfred Crosby,[1] defining it as epidemics "in which the populations at risk have had no previous contact with the diseases that strike them and are therefore immunologically almost defenseless". The concept is related to that developed by William McNeill in which he connected the development of agriculture and more sedentary life with the emergence of new diseases as microbes moved from domestic animals to humans.[2] Virgin soil epidemics have occurred with European colonization, particularly when European explorers and colonists brought diseases to lands they seized in the Americas, Australia and Pacific Islands.[3] This concept would later be adopted wholesale by Jared Diamond as a central theme in his popular book Guns, Germs and Steel as an explanation for successful European expansion. When a population has not had contact with a particular pathogen, individuals in that population have not built up any immunity to that organism, and have not received immunity pa

Epidemics

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History of colonialism

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Yellow fever

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Yellow fever

Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.[3] In most cases, symptoms include fever, chills, loss of appetite, nausea, muscle pains particularly in the back, and headaches.[3] Symptoms typically improve within five days.[3] In about 15% of people, within a day of improving the fever comes back, abdominal pain occurs, and liver damage begins causing yellow skin.[3][6] If this occurs, the risk of bleeding and kidney problems is increased.[3] The disease is caused by yellow fever virus and is spread by the bite of an infected female mosquito.[3] It infects only humans, other primates, and several types of mosquitoes.[3] In cities, it is spread primarily by Aedes aegypti, a type of mosquito found throughout the tropics and subtropics.[3] The virus is an RNA virus of the genus Flavivirus.[7] The disease may be difficult to tell apart from other illnesses, especially in the early stages.[3] To confirm a suspected case, blood-sample testing with polymerase chain reaction is required.[4] A safe an

Vaccine-preventable diseases

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RTTID

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Flaviviruses

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Indian Heart Association

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Indian Heart Association

The Indian Heart Association (IHA), along with the Indian Stroke Association (ISA), is an NGO and non-profit dedicated to raising cardiovascular and stroke health awareness among the South Asian population.[1] The organisation was founded by Harvard Medical School and Berkeley-UCSF affiliates Dr. Sevith Rao and Dr. Sishir Rao. The NGO has sponsored and conducted cardiac health camps in India to raise awareness about cardiovascular disease and is headquartered in Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad, India. The organisation was appointed to the Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Instruments Sectional Committee for the Bureau of Indian Standards, Ministry of Health in 2013. The NGO was featured in articles in prominent newspapers such as The Hindu and Eenadu as well as the front page of the Rice University webpage.[2] In 2019, the organization was appointed to the Board of Directors for the Asia Pacific Heart Association, the leading interdisciplinary cardiovascular association in the Asia Pacific Region. The IHA was fe

International medical and health organizations

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Stroke organizations

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Healthcare in Hyderabad, India

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1847 North American typhus epidemic

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1847 North American typhus epidemic

The typhus epidemic of 1847 was an outbreak of epidemic typhus caused by a massive Irish emigration in 1847, during the Great Famine, aboard crowded and disease-ridden "coffin ships". Canada In Canada, more than 20,000 people died from 1847 to 1848, with many quarantined in fever sheds in Grosse Isle, Montreal, Kingston, Toronto and Saint John.[1] Grosse Isle Grosse Isle, Quebec is an island in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, home to a quarantine station set up in 1832 to contain a cholera epidemic, and home to thousands of Irish emigrants from 1832 to 1848. On 17 May 1847, the first vessel, the Syria, arrived with 430 fever cases. This was followed by eight more ships a few days later. Dr Douglas wrote that he had 'not a bed to lay [the invalids] on… I never contemplated the possibility of every vessel arriving with fever as they do now'. One week later seventeen more vessels had appeared at Grosse Isle. By this time, 695 people were already in hospital. Only two days afterwards the number of vessels reache

19th-century epidemics

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1847 in Canada

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Irish diaspora in Canada

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1629–31 Italian plague

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1629–31 Italian plague

Melchiorre Gherardini, Piazza S. Babila, Milan, during the plague of 1630: plague carts carry the dead for burial. The Italian Plague of 1629–1631 was a series of outbreaks of bubonic plague which ravaged northern and central Italy. This epidemic, often referred to as the Great Plague of Milan, claimed possibly one million lives, or about 25% of the population.[1] This episode is considered one of the later outbreaks of the centuries-long pandemic of bubonic plague which began with the Black Death. The plague may have contributed to the economic decline of Italy relative to other Western European countries.[2] Outbreaks German and French troops carried the plague to the city of Mantua in 1629, as a result of troop movements associated with the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). [3] Venetian troops, infected with the disease, retreated into northern and central Italy, spreading the infection. In October 1629, the plague reached Milan, Lombardy's major commercial center. Although the city initiated effective pu

17th-century epidemics

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17th century in the Republic of Venice

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Duchy of Milan

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1793 Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic

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1793 Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic

The Arch Street wharf, where the first cluster of cases was identified[1] During the 1793 yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia, 5,000 or more people were listed in the official register of deaths between August 1 and November 9. The vast majority of them died of yellow fever, making the epidemic in the city of 50,000 people one of the most severe in United States history. By the end of September, 20,000 people had fled the city. The mortality rate peaked in October, before frost finally killed the mosquitoes and brought an end to the epidemic in November. Doctors tried a variety of treatments, but knew neither the origin of the fever nor that it was transmitted by mosquitoes (which was not verified until the late nineteenth century). The mayor and a committee of two dozen organized a fever hospital at Bush Hill and other crisis measures. The assistance of the Free African Society was requested by the city and readily agreed to by the members, based on the mistaken assumption that native Africans would hav

History of Philadelphia

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Medical outbreaks in the United States

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18th-century health disasters

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West African Ebola virus epidemic

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West African Ebola virus epidemic

The Western African Ebola virus epidemic (2013–2016) was the most widespread outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in history—causing major loss of life and socioeconomic disruption in the region, mainly in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. The first cases were recorded in Guinea in December 2013; later, the disease spread to neighbouring Liberia and Sierra Leone,[12] with minor outbreaks occurring elsewhere. It caused significant mortality, with the case fatality rate reported which was initially considerable,[12][13][14][note 1] while the rate among hospitalised patients was 57–59%,[15] the final numbers 28,616 people, including 11,310 deaths, for a case-fatality rate of 40%.[16] Small outbreaks occurred in Nigeria and Mali,[17][18] and isolated cases were recorded in Senegal,[19] the United Kingdom and Italy.[14][20] In addition, imported cases led to secondary infection of medical workers in the United States and Spain but did not spread further.[21][22] The number of cases peaked in October 2014 and then

2010s disease outbreaks

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2013 in Africa

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Health in Guinea

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Suicide epidemic

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Suicide epidemic

A suicide epidemic is an epidemic of suicides. Such epidemics have occurred in the former Soviet Union in the 1990s,[1] among police officers,[2] on Indian reservations,[3] and in Micronesia.[4] The Werther effect occurs when suicides that are made publicly known encourage others to imitate them.[5] It has been suggested that the teaching of stories such as Romeo and Juliet may encourage suicide among young people.[6] See also Mass suicide Epidemiology of suicide Copycat suicide References E Brainerd (2001), Economic reform and mortality in the former Soviet Union: a study of the suicide epidemic in the 1990s, European Economic Review JM Violanti (2007). Police suicide: Epidemic in blue. ISBN 978-0-398-07762-4. JA Ward, J Fox (1977), A suicide epidemic on an Indian reserve, Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal FX Hezel (1987), Truk suicide epidemic and social change (PDF), Human Organization J Thorson, PA Öberg (2003), Was There a Suicide Epidemic After Goetheʼs Werther? (PDF), Arch

Epidemics

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Suicide

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Suicidology

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2016 Angola and DR Congo yellow fever outbreak

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2016 Angola and DR Congo yellow fever outbreak

2016 Angola and DR Congo yellow fever outbreak As of 28 October 2016[1] Angola 884 confirmed cases 121 deaths among confirmed cases (case fatality rate, 13.7%) 4347 suspected cases 377 deaths among suspected cases (case fatality rate, 8.7%) DR Congo 78 confirmed cases (57 imported from Angola, 8 sylvatic, 13 autochthonous) 16 deaths among confirmed cases (case fatality rate, 21.1%) 2987 suspected cases 121 deaths among suspected cases (case fatality rate, 4.0%) (Sylvatic cases are not considered part of the outbreak.) Kenya 2 confirmed cases China (not on map) 11 confirmed cases Epidemic curve from the WHO Situation Report yellow fever in Angola, 23 September 2016.[2] Yellow fever cases by age group in Angola, from 5 December 2015 to 4 August 2016.[3] Confirmed cases and deaths (cumulative) in the 2016 epidemic of yellow fever in Angola as of 21 July 2016[4] On 20 January 2016, the health minister of Angola reported 23 cases of yellow fever with 7 deaths among Eritrean

21st-century epidemics

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Medical outbreaks

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Yellow fever

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Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations

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Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations

The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI or Cepi) is a foundation that takes donations from public, private, philanthropic, and civil society organisations, which it invests in independent research projects develop vaccines against emerging infectious disease (EID).[2][3] CEPI is focused on the World Health Organisation's "blueprint priority pathogens", which includes: MERS-CoV (and latterly COVID-19), Nipah virus, Lassa fever virus, and Rift Valley fever virus, as well as Chikungunya virus.[4][3] CEPI investment also requires "equitable access" to the vaccines during outbreaks.[5] CEPI was conceived in 2015 and formally launched in 2017 at the World Economic Forum in Davos. It was co-founded and co-funded with USD 460 million from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the The Wellcome Trust, and a consortium of sovereign nations being mainly Norway, Japan, and Germany, and more latterly the European Union (in 2019).[1][3] CEPI is headquartered in Oslo, Norway.[1][2][3] At the 2017 launch,

Non-profit organisations based in Norway

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Vaccine producers

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Started in 2017 in Norway

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San Francisco plague of 1900–1904

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San Francisco plague of 1900–1904

The San Francisco plague of 1900–1904 was an epidemic of bubonic plague centered on San Francisco's Chinatown. It was the first plague epidemic in the continental United States.[1] The epidemic was recognized by medical authorities in March 1900, but its existence was denied for more than two years by California's Governor Henry Gage. His denial was based on business reasons, to protect the reputations of San Francisco and California and to prevent the loss of revenue due to quarantine. The failure to act quickly may have allowed the disease to establish itself among local animal populations.[2] Federal authorities worked to prove that there was a major health problem, and they isolated the affected area; this undermined the credibility of Gage, and he lost the governorship in the 1902 elections. The new Governor George Pardee implemented a medical solution and the epidemic was stopped in 1904. There were 121 cases identified, including 119 deaths.[3][4] Much of urban San Francisco was destroyed by fire in t

History of San Francisco, California

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20th-century epidemics

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1900 disasters in the United States

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Blasio Vincent Ndale Esau Oriedo

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Blasio Vincent Ndale Esau Oriedo

Dr. Blasio Vincent Oriedo, in full Dr. Blasio Vincent Ndale Esau Oriedo (born 15 September 1931, Ebwali Village in Bunyore, Kenya Colony—died 26 January 1966, Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya) was a distinguished pioneering African epidemiologist and a parasitological scientist known for his contributions to tropical medicine and stemming a myriad of disease epidemics in the colonial era and embryonic postcolonial Kenya, and in the countries of the East and Central African region, and the Sudan.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] He is especially credited for singlehandedly saving tens of thousands of native African lives from decimation due to an array of infectious diseases. Dr. Oriedo was a tripartite laureate; and a recipient of the coveted Extramural Medical Research Grant presented by the National Institute of Health (NIH), United States of America (U.S.A.). What is more, he was an academician, author, a linguist, and an East African statesman of his day. Albeit a caritas assent for politics per se and th

Disease outbreaks

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Diseases and disorders

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Social distancing

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Social distancing

People maintaining social distance while waiting to enter a store. To allow shoppers to maintain distance within the store, only a limited number are allowed inside at one time. Social distancing reduces the rate of disease transmission and can stop an outbreak. Social distancing, or physical distancing,[1][2][3] is a set of non-pharmaceutical interventions or measures taken to prevent the spread of a contagious disease by maintaining a physical distance between people and reducing the number of times people come into close contact with each other.[1][4] It involves keeping a distance of six feet or two meters from others and avoiding gathering together in large groups.[5][6] By reducing the probability that a given uninfected person will come into physical contact with an infected person, the disease transmission can be suppressed, resulting in fewer deaths.[1][4] The measures are combined with good respiratory hygiene and hand washing.[7][8] During the 2019–2020 coronavirus pandemic, the World Health O

Quarantine

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Epidemiology

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Epidemics

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Cordon sanitaire

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Cordon sanitaire

A loosely enforced cordon sanitaire during a cholera epidemic in Romania, 1911 A cordon sanitaire (French pronunciation: ​, French for "sanitary cordon") is the restriction of movement of people into or out of a defined geographic area, such as a community, region, or country.[1] The term originally denoted a barrier used to stop the spread of infectious diseases. The term is also often used metaphorically, in English, to refer to attempts to prevent the spread of an ideology deemed unwanted or dangerous,[2] such as the containment policy adopted by George F. Kennan against the Soviet Union. The term cordon sanitaire dates to 1821, when the Duke de Richelieu deployed French troops to the border between France and Spain, allegedly to prevent yellow fever from spreading into France.[3][4] For disease A cordon sanitaire is generally created around an area experiencing an epidemic or an outbreak of infectious disease, or along the border between two nations. Once the cordon is established, people from the aff

Quarantine

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Infectious diseases

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Public health

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Opioid epidemic

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Opioid epidemic

An opioid epidemic is the overuse or misuse of addictive opioid drugs with significant medical, social and economic consequences, including overdose deaths. Opioids are a diverse class of moderately strong painkillers, including oxycodone (commonly sold under the trade names OxyContin and Percocet), hydrocodone (Vicodin, Norco) and a very strong painkiller, fentanyl, which is synthesized to resemble other opiates such as opium-derived morphine and heroin.[1] The potency and availability of these substances, despite their high risk of addiction and overdose, have made them popular both as medical treatments and as recreational drugs. Due to their sedative effects on the part of the brain which regulates breathing, the respiratory center of the medulla oblongata, opioids in high doses present the potential for respiratory depression and may cause respiratory failure and death.[2] Opioids are effective for treating acute pain,[3] but are less useful for treating chronic (long term) pain,[4] as the risks often

Opioids in the United States

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Opioid epidemic

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Opioid crisis

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Cocoliztli epidemics

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Cocoliztli epidemics

Indigenous victims, Florentine Codex (compiled 1540–1585) The cocoliztli epidemic or the great pestilence[1] is a term given to millions of deaths in the territory of New Spain in present-day Mexico in the 16th century attributed to one or more illnesses collectively called cocoliztli, a mysterious illness characterized by high fevers and bleeding. It ravaged the Mexican highlands in epidemic proportions. The disease became known as Cocoliztli by the native Aztecs, and had devastating effects on the area’s demography, particularly for the indigenous people. Based on the death toll, this outbreak is often referred to as the worst disease epidemic in the history of Mexico.[2] Subsequent outbreaks continued to baffle both Spanish and native doctors, with little consensus among modern researchers on the pathogenesis. However, recent bacterial genomic studies have suggested that Salmonella, specifically a serotype of Salmonella enterica known as Paratyphi C, was at least partially responsible for this initial out

1576

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Colonial Mexico

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16th-century epidemics

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List of epidemics

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List of epidemics

This article is a list of deaths caused by an infectious disease. Widespread non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer are not included. 15th century and earlier Death toll (estimate) Location Date Event Disease Ref. 75,000–100,000 Greece 429–426 BC Plague of Athens Unknown, possibly typhus, typhoid fever or viral hemorrhagic fever [1][2][3] Unknown Greece (Northern Greece, Roman Republic) 412 BC 412 BC epidemic Unknown, possibly influenza [4] 5–10 million Roman Empire 165–180 (possibly up to 190) Antonine Plague Unknown, possibly smallpox [5] 1 million + (Unknown, but at least) Europe 250–266 Plague of Cyprian Unknown, possibly smallpox [6][7] 25–100 million; 40–50% of population of Europe Europe and West Asia 541–542 Plague of Justinian Plague [8][9][10] British Isles 664–689 Plague of 664 Plague [11] 2 million (Approx. ​1⁄ of entire Japanese population) Japan 735–737 735–737 Japanese smallpox epidemic

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Globalization-related lists

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Disease outbreaks

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List of Legionnaires' disease outbreaks

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List of Legionnaires' disease outbreaks

This is a list of Legionnaires' disease outbreaks; Legionnaire's is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by gram negative, aerobic bacteria belonging to the genus Legionella.[1][2] The first reported outbreak was in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1976 during a Legionnaires Convention at the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel.[3] Worldwide listings by year 1970s Year City Venue Source Cases Deaths Fatality rate Notes 1973,1977 Benidorm, Spain Hotel Rio Park Shower pipes at least 4 4 unknown The first outbreak in Hotel Rio Park occurred in 1973, four tourists died, but at the time it was not recognized as Legionnaires' disease until a subsequent outbreak in the same hotel in 1977.[4] 1976 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1976 Philadelphia Legionnaires' disease outbreak Air conditioning 221 34 15.4% This was the first recognized outbreak of legionellosis, although earlier cases of legionellosis were later discovered to have occurred as far back as 1947. The Philadelphia outbreak, however, had the highest dea

20th-century epidemics

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21st-century epidemics

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Legionellosis

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Plague of Sheroe

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Plague of Sheroe

The Plague of Sheroe[1] (627-628) or Sheroe's Plague[2] was an epidemic that devastated the western provinces of the Sasanian Empire, mainly Mesopotamia (Asorestan), killing half of its population,[3] including the reigning Sasanian king (shah) which the plague is named after, Kavad II Sheroe (r. 628).[4][2] The Plague of Sheroe was one of several epidemics that occurred in or close to Iran within two centuries after the first epidemic was brought by the Sasanian armies from its campaigns in Constantinople, Syria, and Armenia.[2] It contributed to the fall of the Sasanian Empire. References Daryaee & Rezakhani 2017, p. 161. Christensen 1993, p. 81. Princeton Papers in Near Eastern Studies. Westerham, UK: Darwin Press. 1992. p. 141. Shahbazi 2005. Sources Christensen, Peter (1993). The Decline of Iranshahr: Irrigation and Environments in the History of the Middle East, 500 B.C. to A.D. 1500. Museum Tusculanum Press. pp. 1–351. ISBN 9788772892597. Daryaee, Touraj; Rezakhani, Khodad

620s in the Sasanian Empire

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Medieval health disasters

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Sasanian Empire

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Syndemic

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Syndemic

A syndemic or synergistic epidemic is the aggregation of two or more concurrent or sequential epidemics or disease clusters in a population with biological interactions, which exacerbate the prognosis and burden of disease. The term was developed by Merrill Singer in the mid-1990s. Syndemics develop under health disparity, caused by poverty, stress, or structural violence and are studied by epidemiologists and medical anthropologists concerned with public health, community health and the effects of social conditions on health. The syndemic approach departs from the biomedical approach to diseases to diagnostically isolate, study, and treat diseases as distinct entities separate from other diseases and independent of social contexts. Definition A syndemic is a synergistic epidemic. The term was developed by Merrill Singer in the mid-1990s, culminating in a 2009 textbook.[1] Disease concentration, disease interaction, and their underlying social forces are the core concepts.[2] Disease co-occurrence, with or

Epidemics

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Influenza pandemics

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Epidemiology

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Air China Flight 112

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Air China Flight 112

Air China Flight 112 was a scheduled international passenger flight on 15 March 2003 that carried a 72-year-old man infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). This man would later become the index passenger for the infection of another 20 passengers and two aircraft crew, resulting in the dissemination of SARS north to inner Mongolia and south to Thailand. The incident demonstrated how a single person could spread disease via air travel and was one of a number of superspreading events in the global spread of SARS in 2003. The speed of air travel and the multidirectional routes taken by affected passengers accelerated the spread of SARS with a consequential response from the World Health Organization (WHO), the aviation industry and the public.[2][3] The incident was atypical in that passengers sitting at a distance from the index passenger were affected and the flight was only three hours long. Until this event, it was thought that there was only a significant risk of infection in flights of mor

2003 in China

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Air China

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome

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Native American disease and epidemics

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Native American disease and epidemics

{{{1}}} In pre-Columbian times, a variety of diseases existed in the Americas.[1] The limited populations and interactions between those populations (as compared to places like Europe) hampered the development of widespread, deadly diseases in the Americas. One notable disease of American origin is syphilis[2]; aside from that, most of the major epidemic diseases we are familiar with today originated in the Old World. The American era of limited disease ended with the arrival of Europeans in the Americas and the Columbian exchange of organisms, including those that cause human diseases. European diseases and epidemics, while still present among Native American populations today, were especially influential in Native American life of the past. European diseases devastated entire tribes. In more modern times, these diseases still plague Native American populations. Current diseases and epidemics are being addressed by many different groups, both governmental and independent, through a multitude of programs. Be

Epidemics

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Native American templates

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Native American history

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1967 Marburg virus outbreak in West Germany

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1967 Marburg virus outbreak in West Germany

Marburg virus was named after Marburg in Germany where the first such outbreak ever, occurred (Above image-This negative stained transmission electron micrograph (TEM) depicts a number of filamentous Marburg virions, which had been cultured on Vero cell cultures, and purified on sucrose, rate-zonal gradients.) The 1967 Marburg virus outbreak in West Germany was first outbreak of Marburg virus disease[1]. It started in West Germany in early August 1967 when 30 people became ill in the German towns of Marburg and Frankfurt and 2 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia (now Serbia). Out of all one case was diagnosed retrospectively. The outbreak involved 25 primary Marburg virus infections and seven deaths, and six non-lethal secondary cases. Overview In early August 1967, patients with unusual symptoms indicating an infectious disease were admitted to the university hospitals in Marburg and Frankfurt. The first patients were treated in their homes for up to 10 days, even though the illness was described as beginning suddenl

Marburgviruses

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Hemorrhagic fevers

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Epidemics

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Epidemic curve

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Epidemic curve

An epidemic curve, also known as an epi curve or epidemiological curve, is a statistical chart used in epidemiology to visualise the onset of a disease outbreak. It can help with the identification of the mode of transmission of the disease. It can also show the disease's magnitude, its outliers, its trend over time, and its incubation period.[1][2] It can give outbreak investigators an idea as to whether an outbreak is likely to be from a point source (such as from a food handler), a continuous common source (with ongoing contamination), or a propagated source (that is transmitted primarily between people).[3][4] Epidemic curves generally show the frequency of new cases compared to the date of disease onset.[2] Examples Yellow Fever Epidemic curve showing disease outbreak of yellow fever in Angola, 2016 Coronavirus 2019 outbreak The first description of epidemiological curves from the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak showed the pattern of a "mixed outbreak". According to the investigators, there w

Statistical charts and diagrams

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Epidemics

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412 BC Epidemic

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412 BC Epidemic

The 412 BC Epidemic of an unknown disease, often identified as influenza[1][2][3], was reported in Northern Greece by Hippocrates[4] and Rome by Livy.[5] Both describe the epidemic continuing for roughly a year. The epidemic caused a food shortage in the Roman Republic and a famine was only prevented with food relief from Sicily and Etruria and trade missions to the "peoples round about who dwelt on the Tuscan sea or by the Tiber."[6] Symptoms Hippocrates names a wide variety of symptoms, among them: Fever, coughing, pain in head and neck and emaciation. The disease proved most fatal for "infants just weaned, and older children, until eight or ten years of age, and those before puberty".[4] References Potter, C.W. (2002). "Foreword". Influenza. Elsevier Science B.V. p. vii. Nelson, Kenrad E. (2001). Infectious Disease Epidemiology: Theory and Practice. Jones and Bartlett. p. 334. Hardman, Lizabeth (2011). Influenza Pandemics. Lucent Books. p. 8. Hippocrates, Of The Epidemics, Book I Livy,

Influenza

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History of medicine

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412 BC epidemic

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412 BC epidemic

The 412 BC epidemic of an unknown disease, often identified as influenza,[1][2][3] was reported in Northern Greece by Hippocrates[4] and in Rome by Livy.[5] Both described the epidemic continuing for roughly a year. The disease outbreak caused a food shortage in the Roman Republic, and a famine was only prevented with food relief from Sicily and Etruria, and via trade missions to the "peoples round about who dwelt on the Tuscan sea or by the Tiber."[6] Symptoms Hippocrates named a wide variety of symptoms, among them: fever, coughing, pain in head and neck, and emaciation. The disease proved fatal most often among prepubescent children.[4] References Potter, C. W. (2002). "Foreword". Influenza. Elsevier Science. p. vii. Nelson, Kenrad E. (2001). Infectious Disease Epidemiology: Theory and Practice. Jones and Bartlett. p. 334. Hardman, Lizabeth (2011). Influenza Pandemics. Lucent Books. p. 8. Hippocrates, Of the Epidemics, Book I Livy, The History of Rome, Book IV, 52, 3-5 Livy, The Hist

History of ancient medicine

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Influenza

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Epidemics

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Spanish flu

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Spanish flu

The Spanish flu (also known as the 1918 flu pandemic[2]) was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic.[3] Lasting from January 1918 to December 1920, it infected 500 million people – about a quarter of the world's population at the time.[1] The death toll is estimated to have been anywhere from 17 million[4] to 50 million, and possibly as high as 100 million, making it one of the deadliest pandemics in human history, behind the Black Death.[5][6] To maintain morale, World War I censors minimized early reports of illness and mortality in Germany, the United Kingdom, France, and the United States.[7] Newspapers were free to report the epidemic's effects in neutral Spain, such as the grave illness of King Alfonso XIII, and these stories created a false impression of Spain as especially hard hit.[8] This gave rise to the name Spanish flu.[9][10] Historical and epidemiological data are inadequate to identify with certainty the pandemic's geographic origin, with varying views as to its location.[1] Most influenza o

Epidemics

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Ended in 1920

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Influenza pandemics

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Cholera

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Cholera

Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.[4][3] Symptoms may range from none, to mild, to severe.[3] The classic symptom is large amounts of watery diarrhea that lasts a few days.[2] Vomiting and muscle cramps may also occur.[3] Diarrhea can be so severe that it leads within hours to severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance.[2] This may result in sunken eyes, cold skin, decreased skin elasticity, and wrinkling of the hands and feet.[5] Dehydration can cause the skin to turn bluish.[8] Symptoms start two hours to five days after exposure.[3] Cholera is caused by a number of types of Vibrio cholerae, with some types producing more severe disease than others.[2] It is spread mostly by unsafe water and unsafe food that has been contaminated with human feces containing the bacteria.[2] Undercooked seafood is a common source.[9] Humans are the only animal affected.[2] Risk factors for the disease include poor sanitation, not enough clean drinking water, an

Epidemics

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Vaccine-preventable diseases

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Tropical diseases

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