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Occupational safety and health


Workplace Safety and Health Council

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Workplace Safety and Health Council

The Workplace Safety and Health (WSH) Council was formed on 1 April 2008. It is an industry-led Statutory Body that is based in Singapore. It is a step-up from its precursor, the Workplace Safety and Health Advisory Committee (WSHAC) formed in September 2005. The WSHC is endowed with statutory powers. The WSHC comprises 17 leaders from the major industry sectors (including construction, manufacturing, marine industries, petrochemicals and logistics), the Government, unions and professionals from the legal, insurance and academic fields. Under the WSHC, seven industry committees, three taskforces and two workgroups have been formed to address the specific WSH challenges in their respective sectors: Construction and Landscape Committee Chemical Industries Committee Healthcare Committee Hospitality & Entertainment Industries Committee Logistics and Transport Committee Marine Industries Committee Metalworking and Manufacturing Committee Chemical Management & GHS Hazard Communication Taskforce

Occupational safety and health

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Singaporean culture

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GESTIS Substance Database

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GESTIS Substance Database

GESTIS Substance Database is a freely accessible online information system on chemical compounds. It is maintained by the Institut für Arbeitsschutz der Deutschen Gesetzlichen Unfallversicherung (IFA, Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance). Information on occupational medicine and first aid is compiled by Henning Heberer and his team (TOXICHEM, Leuna). The database contains information for the safe handling of hazardous substances and other chemical substances at work: toxicology/ecotoxicology important physical and chemical properties application and handling health effects protective measures and such in case of danger (incl. first aid) special regulations e.g. GHS classification and labelling according to CLP Regulation (pictograms, H phrases, P phrases). The available information relates to about 9,400 substances. Data are updated immediately after publication of new official regulations or after the issue of new scientific results. A mobile vers

Occupational safety and health

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Online databases

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Automated conveyor roller condition monitoring

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Automated conveyor roller condition monitoring

Automated conveyor roller condition monitoring is an emerging field that has risen out of the need to make bulk handling conveyors more reliable. Belt conveyor systems are widely utilized for continuous transport of dry bulk materials (i.e. coal, iron ore) over varying distances. A vast variety of industries like the mining, power sector, cement production, and bulk terminals rely on the performance of belt conveyor systems. Compared with other bulk haulage modes like the trucking and railway, belt conveyor systems provide many advantages such as a higher capacity, lower cost, higher efficiency, less human involvement and proven reliability (Roberts, 1981; Smith and Spriggs, 1981).[1] Along with the growing international trade in major bulk materials, there is an increasing demand for the transportation of bulk materials. Correspondingly, large-scale belt conveyor systems have been installed to meet the demand for higher capacity and longer distance application of continuous conveying of bulk materials (Har

Bulk material handling

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Belt drives

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Nondestructive testing

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Job-exposure matrix

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Job-exposure matrix

A job-exposure matrix (JEM) is a tool used to assess exposure to potential health hazards in occupational epidemiological studies. Essentially, a JEM comprises a list of levels of exposure to a variety of harmful (or potentially harmful) agents for selected occupational titles. In large population-based epidemiological studies, JEMs may be used as a quick and systematic means of converting coded occupational data (job titles) into a matrix of possible exposures,[1] eliminating the need to assess each individual's exposure in detail. Advantages Assessing exposure by title is less costly than looking at individual cases. JEMs may also reduce differential information bias that might occur when evaluating exposure for individuals from medical records in which their jobs are apparent.[1] Disadvantages Variability of exposure within occupational classes in different workplaces, countries, or throughout time is commonly not taken into account, which can result in nondifferential exposure misclassification.[1]

Occupational safety and health

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Observational study

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Cohort study methods

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Institut national de recherche et de sécurité

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Institut national de recherche et de sécurité

INRS headquarters in Paris in 2018 INRS building in Nancy in 2018 The French National Research and Safety Institute for the Prevention of Occupational Accidents and Diseases[1] (French: Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, INRS) is a French association. It works under the auspices of the Caisse nationale de l’assurance maladie des travailleurs salariés (National Health Insurance Fund). Its board is composed of equal parts of representatives employers and representatives of the unions. The main tasks of the INRS are: Conduct studies and research in the areas of safety and working conditions Publish reports to improve the health and safety of people at work Train technicians prevention It produces and distributes many information media such as magazines (Travail et sécurité), forms with the professional world. It also has a role of expertise and training to improve safety conditions. Members Active: French Democratic Confederation of Labour French Confederation of Management – General

Occupational safety and health

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Organizations based in France

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Medical and health organizations based in France

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Hazmat diving

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Hazmat diving

US Navy Diver being decontaminated after a dive. If the contamination was serious, the decontamination team would have been wearing hazmat gear Hazmat diving is underwater diving in a known hazardous materials environment. The environment may be contaminated by hazardous materials, the diving medium may be inherently a hazardous material, or the environment in which the diving medium is situated may include hazardous materials with a significant risk of exposure to these materials to members of the diving team. Special precautions, equipment and procedures are associated with hazmat diving. Scope Hazmat diving describes diving operations which involve risk of exposure to hazardous materials beyond the usual range encountered in professional diving operations, where special precautions must be taken to reduce and mitigate the risks of exposure to these materials. Hazmat diving implies that specialised equipment will be required to dive at an acceptable level of risk. Equipment Most equipment used for hazm

Underwater diving training organizations

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Occupational safety and health

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Underwater work

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Pope Leo XIII

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Pope Leo XIII

Pope Leo XIII (Italian: Leone XIII; born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci[a]; 2 March 1810 – 20 July 1903) was head of the Catholic Church from 20 February 1878 to his death. He was the oldest pope (reigning until the age of 93), and had the third-longest confirmed pontificate, behind those of Pius IX (his immediate predecessor) and John Paul II. He is well known for his intellectualism and his attempts to define the position of the Catholic Church with regard to modern thinking. In his famous 1891 encyclical Rerum novarum, Pope Leo outlined the rights of workers to a fair wage, safe working conditions, and the formation of trade unions, while affirming the rights of property and free enterprise, opposing both socialism and laissez-faire capitalism. He influenced Mariology of the Catholic Church and promoted both the rosary and the scapular. Leo XIII issued a record of eleven papal encyclicals on the rosary earning him the title as the "Rosary Pope". In addition, he approved two new Marian scapulars

Cardinals created by Pope Pius IX

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Anti-Masonry

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People from the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital

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Software safety classification

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Software safety classification

Software installed in medical devices is assessed for health and safety issues according to international standards. Safety classes Software classification is based on potential for hazard(s) that could cause injury to the user or patient.[1] Per IEC 62304:2006, software can be divided into three separate classes: Class A: No injury or damage to health is possible Class B: Nonserious injury is possible Class C: Death or serious injury is possible Serious injury For the purpose of this classification, serious injury is defined as injury or illness that directly or indirectly is life threatening; results in permanent impairment of a body function or permanent damage to a body structure; or necessitates medical or surgical intervention to prevent permanent impairment of a body function or permanent damage to a body structure. References "Developing Medical Device Software to IEC 62304 | MDDI Medical Device and Diagnostic Industry News Products and Suppliers". www.mddionline.com. Retrieved 2017-06-

Software

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Occupational safety and health

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Respectful workplace

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Respectful workplace

A respectful workplace is a safe place of employment where employees are valued, recognised, treated fairly, have clear expectations, and work harmoniously.[1] Benefits Benefits of a respectful workplace include better morale, teamwork, lower absenteeism, lower turnover of staff, reduced worker's compensation claims, better ability to handle change and recover from problems, work seems less onerous, and improved productivity. Positively viewed teams will retain and employ better staff. Lack of respect and what is sometimes called "incivility"—low level negative behaviours (such as rudeness, discourteousness, not acknowledging others)—can create a dysfunctional team environment, relationship breakdown, decline in productivity, and the risk of psychological injury. Process Managers that want to encourage a respectful workplace must model the appropriate example. They should talk about what behaviours are encouraged. The managers must be willing to talk about problem behaviours. There should be safe ways to

Occupational safety and health

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Karen Messing

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Karen Messing

Karen Messing (born 2 February 1943) is a Canadian geneticist. She is an emeritus professor in the biological sciences at the University of Quebec at Montreal.[1] She is known for her work on gender, environmental health and ergonomics. She was given the Jacques Rousseau Award in 1993, the Governor General's Award in 2009, and was named an Officer of the Order of Canada on Dec.27, 2019 . Life Messing was born in Springfield, Massachusetts in 1943. She studied social sciences at Harvard before deciding to focus on science. She went to McGill University in Montreal where she studied biology, genetics and chemistry. She faced prejudice from colleagues because she was a single mother.[2] She began teaching at University of Quebec at Montreal in 1976 and two years later she was conducting research amongst phosphate workers. She knew of the potential and radioactivity and discovered that amongst six workers, four of them had children with birth defects like a club foot. She did manage to get dust extraction equi

People from Springfield, Massachusetts

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Occupational safety and health

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Alliance for Bangladesh Worker Safety

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Alliance for Bangladesh Worker Safety

The Alliance for Bangladesh Worker Safety, also known as "the Alliance" or AFBWS, is a group of 28 major global retailers formed to develop and launch the Bangladesh Worker Safety Initiative, a binding, five-year undertaking with the intent of improving safety in Bangladeshi ready-made garment (RMG) factories after the 2013 Rana Plaza building collapse. Collectively, Alliance members represent the majority of North American imports of ready-made garments from Bangladesh, produced in more than 700 factories. Background After the 2013 Savar building collapse, Walmart became a founding member of the Alliance for Bangladesh Worker Safety. Monsoon was a member of the Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI)[1][2] from before the 2013 Savar building collapse[1][2] due to structural integrity and failure. The building had housed a number of separate garment factories employing around 5,000 people, several shops, and a bank.[3] The factories manufactured apparel for brands including Benetton,[4] Monsoon Accessorize,[5] Bo

Occupational safety and health

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Working conditions

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Human rights organisations based in Bangladesh

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Miscarriage risks

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Miscarriage risks

Miscarriage risks are those circumstances, conditions, and substances that increase the risk of miscarriage. Some risks are modifiable and can be changed. Other risks cannot be modified and can't be changed. Risks can be firmly tied to miscarriages and others are still under investigation. In addition, there are those circumstances and treatments that have not been found effective in preventing miscarriage. When a woman keeps having miscarriages, infertility is present.[1] Anatomical defect in the mother[2][3][4] Amniocentesis[5] Chorionic villus sampling[6][7] Age >30[8][9][10][11][12] Smoking and exposure tobacco smoke[11][13][14][15] Obesity[11] Diabetes[16] Thyroid problems[17][18] Alcohol use[11][19] Chromosomal abnormalities[20][10] Infectious diseases Radiation exposure[21][22] Endocrine Genetic and chromosome abnormalities[23][24] Autosomal trisomy Monosomy X (45, X) Triploidy Structural abnormality of the chromosome Double or triple trisomy[25] Uterine stru

Miscarriage

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Medication side effects

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Obesity

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Total Recordable Incident Rate

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Total Recordable Incident Rate

The Total Recordable Incident Rate is a US measure of occupational safety and health, useful for comparing working conditions in workplaces and industries. It is calculated by combining the actual number of safety incidents and total work hours of all employees with a standard employee group (100 employees working 40 hours a week for 50 weeks a year).[1][2][3] References "Employer-reported Workplace Injuries And Illnesses – 2015" October 27, 2016. Bureau of Labor Statistics OSHA Recordable Incident Rate Online TRIR calculator

Working conditions

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Occupational safety and health

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PEROSH

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PEROSH

PEROSH (Partnership for European Research in Occupational Safety and Health) is a federation of currently thirteen European occupational safety and health (OSH) institutes in twelve member states. The cooperation of PEROSH is based on its statute. History The consortium was established in Rome on 7 November 2003 to foster research on important fields in OSH. In Dublin on 7 November 2008 the articles of association were revised and broadened to facilitate the collaboration within the institutes. The most important regulations imply that each partner institute bears the costs of its activities and that the partnership employs its own Manager International Affairs. He has been representing PEROSH since 2009. The partnership was renewed and extended in Paris in May 2013.[1] Members Austria (AUVA) Denmark (NFA) Finland (FIOH) France (INRS) Germany (BAuA and IFA) Italy (INAIL) Norway (STAMI) Poland (CIOP-PIB) Spain (INSST) Switzerland (IST) United Kingdom (HSE) The Netherlands (TNO) Aims The PE

Health research

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Occupational safety and health organizations

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Occupational safety and health

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Maslach Burnout Inventory

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Maslach Burnout Inventory

The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) is an introspective psychological inventory consisting of 22 items pertaining to occupational burnout.[1] The original form of the MBI was constructed by Christina Maslach and Susan E. Jackson with the goal to assess an individual's experience of burnout.[2] The MBI measures three dimensions of burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment.[1] The MBI takes between 10–15 minutes to complete and can be administered to individuals or groups.[3] Following the publication of the MBI in 1981, new versions of the MBI were gradually developed to fit different groups and different settings.[1] There are five versions of the MBI: Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), Human Services Survey for Medical Personnel (MBI-HSS (MP)), Educators Survey (MBI-ES), General Survey (MBI-GS),[4] and General Survey for Students (MBI-GS (S)).[1] An analysis of 84 published studies that report sample-specific reliability estimates for the three MBI scales found that the sc

Motivation

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Psychological testing

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Organizational theory

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Micro-g environment

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Micro-g environment

The International Space Station in orbit around Earth, February 2010. The ISS is in a micro-g environment. The term micro-g environment (also μg, often referred to by the term microgravity) is more or less synonymous with the terms weightlessness and zero-g, but indicates that g-forces are never exactly zero—just very small (on the ISS, for example, the small g-forces come from tidal effects, gravity from objects other than the Earth (such as astronauts, the spacecraft, and the Sun), and, occasionally, air resistance).[1][2] The symbol for microgravity, μg, was used on the insignias of Space Shuttle flights STS-87 and STS-107, because these flights were devoted to microgravity research in low Earth orbit. Absence of gravity A "stationary" micro-g environment[3] would require travelling far enough into deep space so as to reduce the effect of gravity by attenuation to almost zero. This is the simplest in conception but requires travelling an enormous distance, rendering it highly impractical. For example, t

Gravity

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Occupational safety and health

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Weightlessness

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Electrical injury

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Electrical injury

Electrical injury is a physiological reaction caused by electric current passing through the body.[1] Electric shock occurs upon contact of a (human) body part with any source of electricity that causes a sufficient magnitude of current to pass through the victim's flesh, viscera or hair. Physical contact with energized wiring or devices is the most common cause of an electric shock. In cases of exposure to high voltages, such as on a power transmission tower, physical contact with energized wiring or objects may not be necessary to cause electric shock, as the voltage may be sufficient to "jump" the air gap between the electrical device and the victim. The injury related to electric shock depends on the density of the current, tissue resistance and duration of contact.[2] Very small currents may be imperceptible or produce a light tingling sensation. A shock caused by low current that would normally be harmless could startle an individual and cause injury due to suddenly jerking away from the source of elec

Corporal punishments

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Electricity

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Physical torture techniques

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Sterilant gas monitoring

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Sterilant gas monitoring

Sterilant gas monitoring is the detection of hazardous gases used by health care and other facilities to sterilize medical supplies that cannot be sterilized by heat or steam methods.[1] The current FDA approved sterilant gases are ethylene oxide,[2] hydrogen peroxide[3] and ozone.[4] Other liquid sterilants, such as peracetic acid, may also be used for sterilization and may raise similar occupational health issues.[5] Sterilization means the complete destruction of all biological life (including viruses and sporoidal forms of bacteria), and sterilization efficacy is typically considered adequate if less than one in a million microbes remain viable. Hazards of sterilant gases Since sterilant gases are selected to destroy a wide range of biological life forms, any gas which is suitable for sterilization will present a hazard to personnel exposed to it. NIOSH's IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health) values for the three sterilant gases are 800 ppm (ethylene oxide), 75 ppm (hydrogen peroxide) and 5 pp

Occupational safety and health

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Sterilization (microbiology)

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Hygiene

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List of R-phrases

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List of R-phrases

R-phrases (short for risk phrases) are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. The list was consolidated and republished in Directive 2001/59/EC,[1] where translations into other EU languages may be found. These risk phrases are used internationally, not just in Europe, and there is an ongoing effort towards complete international harmonization using the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) which now generally replaces these risk phrases. Risk phrases Note: Missing R-numbers indicate phrases that have been deleted or replaced by other phrases. Code Phrase R1 Explosive when dry R2 Risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire, or other sources of ignition R3 Extreme risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire, or other sources of ignition R4 Forms very sensitive explosive metallic compounds R5 Heating may cause an explosion R6 Explosive with or without c

International standards

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Safety codes

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Occupational safety and health

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List of S-phrases

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List of S-phrases

S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. The list was consolidated and republished in Directive 2001/59/EC, where translations into other EU languages may be found. The list was subsequently updated and republished in Directive 2006/102/EC, where translations to additional European languages were added. These safety phrases are used internationally and not just in Europe, and there is an ongoing effort towards complete international harmonization. (Note: missing S-number combinations indicate phrases that were deleted or replaced by another phrase.) Code Phrase S1 Keep locked up S2 Keep out of the reach of children S3 Keep in a cool place S4 Keep away from living quarters S5 Keep contents under ... (appropriate liquid to be specified by the manufacturer) S6 Keep under ... (inert gas to be specified by the manufacturer) S7 Keep container tightly closed S8 Keep container dry S9 Keep co

International standards

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Safety codes

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Occupational safety and health

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Hearing protection device

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Hearing protection device

Sound levels of some daily activities A hearing protection device, also known as a HPD, is an ear protection device worn in or over the ears while exposed to hazardous noise to help prevent noise-induced hearing loss. HPDs reduce (not eliminate) the level of the noise entering the ear. HPDs can also protect against other effects of noise exposure such as tinnitus and hyperacusis. There are many different types of HPDs available for use, including earmuffs, earplugs, electronic hearing protection devices, and semi-insert devices.[1] Types Earmuff hearing protection device. Earmuffs Different styles of earplugs are pictured. Left, pre-molded earplugs. Center, formable earplugs. Right, roll-down foam earplugs. Earmuff style hearing protection devices are designed to fit over the outer ear, or pinna. Earmuff HPDs typically consist of two ear cups and a head band. Ear cups are usually lined with a sound-absorbing material, such as foam. The cups should be fit so that the center of the ear canal aligns wi

Hearing loss

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Noise reduction

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Occupational safety and health

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Ear protection

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Ear protection

Ear plugs are a form of hearing protection Ear protection refers to devices used to protect the ear, either externally from elements such as cold, intrusion by water and other environmental conditions, debris, or specifically from noise. High levels of exposure to noise may result in noise-induced hearing loss. Measures to protect the ear are referred to as hearing protection, and devices for that purpose are called hearing protection devices. In the context of work, adequate hearing protection is that which reduces noise exposure to below 85 dBA over the course of an average work shift of eight hours.[1] When sounds exceed 80 dBA, it becomes dangerous to the ears. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has standards that show how long a person can be in different loudness levels before the person reaches their maximum daily dose and becomes damaging to their hearing. These standards can give individuals an idea of when hearing protection should be considered. The maximum daily dos

Noise reduction

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Occupational safety and health

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Protective gear

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Code of practice

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Code of practice

A code of practice can be a document that complements occupational health and safety laws and regulations to provide detailed practical guidance on how to comply with legal obligations, and should be followed unless another solution with the same or better health and safety standard is in place,[1] or may be a document for the same purpose published by a self-regulating body to be followed by member organisations.[2][3] Codes of practice published by governments do not replace the occupational health and safety laws and regulations, and are generally issued in terms of those laws and regulations. They are intended help understand how to comply with the requirements of regulations. A workplace inspector can refer to a code of practice when issuing an improvement or prohibition notice, and they may be admissible in court proceedings. A court may use a code of practice to establish what is reasonably practicable action to manage a specific risk. Equivalent or better ways of achieving the required work health an

Underwater diving training organizations

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Occupational safety and health

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OHSAS 18001

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OHSAS 18001

Certificate of conformity to OHSAS 18001:2007 OHSAS 18001, Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (officially BS OHSAS 18001), was a British Standard for occupational health and safety management systems. Compliance with it enabled organizations to demonstrate that they had a system in place for occupational health and safety. BSI cancelled BS OHSAS 18001 to adopt ISO 45001 as BS ISO 45001. ISO 45001 was published in March 2018 by the International Organization for Standardization.[1] Organizations that are certified to BS OHSAS 18001 can migrate to ISO 45001 by March 2021 if they want to retain a recognized certification.[2] Origins Organizations worldwide recognize the need to control and improve health and safety performance and do so with occupational health and safety management systems (OHSMS). However, before 1999 there was an increase of national standards and proprietary certification schemes to choose from. This caused confusion and fragmentation in the market and undermined the credibi

Occupational safety and health

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Environmental standards

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Health standards

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ISO 45001

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ISO 45001

ISO 45001 adoption by country ISO 45001 is an ISO standard for management systems of occupational health and safety (OH&S), published in March 2018. The goal of ISO 45001 is the reduction of occupational injuries and diseases, including promoting and protecting physical and mental health.[1] The standard is based on OHSAS 18001, conventions and guidelines of the International Labour Organization including ILO OSH 2001, and national standards.[1][2] It includes elements that are additional to BS OHSAS 18001 which it is replacing over a three-year migration period from 2018 to 2021.[3] ISO 45001 follows the High Level Structure of other ISO standards, such as ISO 9001:2015 and ISO 14001:2015, which makes integration of these standards easier.[4][5] Development ISO 45001 was proposed at the ISO in October 2013. The committee ISO/PC 283, created in 2013, had direct responsibility for the standardization process.[6] At least 70 countries contributed to the drafting process.[7] Preparation and committee w

Occupational safety and health

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Safety codes

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ISO standards

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Occupational Health Science

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Occupational Health Science

The Society for Occupational Health Psychology (SOHP) is the first organization in the United States to be devoted to occupational health psychology. It is dedicated to the application of scientific knowledge in order to improve worker health and well-being. Constitution The Society for Occupational Health Psychology is a learned society "dedicated to the generation, dissemination, and application of scientific knowledge in order to improve worker health and well-being."[1] The goals of the society are threefold. First, SOHP promotes psychological research on important questions pertaining to occupational health. Second, SOHP encourages the application of research to improve the health and safety of people who work. Third, the society works to enhance undergraduate and graduate training in the field of occupational health psychology (OHP). Full membership in SOHP requires "a postgraduate degree in a field related to OHP," such as "occupational health psychology, public health, occupational health, industria

Academic journals

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Occupational safety and health

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Carbonless copy paper

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Carbonless copy paper

Carbonless copy paper Carbonless copy paper (CCP), non-carbon copy paper, or NCR paper (No Carbon Required, taken from the initials of its creator, National Cash Register) is a type of coated paper designed to transfer information written on the front onto sheets beneath. It was developed by chemists Lowell Schleicher and Barry Green,[1] as an alternative to carbon paper and is sometimes misidentified as such. Instead of inserting a special sheet in between the original and the intended copy, carbonless copy paper has micro-encapsulated dye or ink on the back side of the top sheet, and a clay coating on the front side of the bottom sheet. When pressure is applied (from writing or impact printing), the dye capsules rupture and react with the clay to form a permanent mark duplicating the markings made to the top sheet. Intermediary sheets, with clay on the front and dye capsules on the back, can be used to create multiple copies; this may be referred to as multipart stationery. Operation Carbonless copy pap

American inventions

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NCR products

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Paper

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Basic Occupational Health Services

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Basic Occupational Health Services

The Basic Occupational Health Services are an application of the primary health care principles in the sector of occupational health. Primary health care definition can be found in the World Health Organization Alma Ata declaration from the year 1978 as the “essential health care based on practical scientifically sound and socially accepted methods, (…) it is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work (…)”. An effort was launched by the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) to develop Basic Occupational Health Services, since occupational health services are available to only 10-15% of workers worldwide. Even where services are available, their quality and relevance may be low. Basic Occupational Health Services are most needed for countries and sectors that do not have services at all or which are seriously underserved. Objectives To provide occupational health

Occupational safety and health

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Community resilience

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Community resilience

Community resilience is the sustained ability of a community to use available resources (energy, communication, transportation, food, etc.) to respond to, withstand, and recover from adverse situations (e.g. economic collapse to global catastrophic risks).[1] This allows for the adaptation and growth of a community after disaster strikes.[2] Communities that are resilient are able to minimize any disaster, making the return to normal life as effortless as possible. By implementing a community resilience plan, a community can come together and overcome any disaster, while rebuilding physically and economically.[3][4] Community resilience planning A community resilience plan is an action plan that allows for a community to rebuild after disaster. The plan should entail specific guidelines that will aid the community to rebuild both the economy and the ecosystem that the community thrives on. This typically means there are measures in place that a community will follow, such as the distribution of volunteers,

Humanitarian aid

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Failure

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Emergency management

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Rope access

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Rope access

Rope access window cleaning of Portside Tower in Cape Town Façade painting in Moscow. Note the unsafe behaviour: the painter is not wearing a safety rope and a fall arrester with shock absorber, he lacks a helmet and safety boots and is using a Figure 8 descender which is not suitable for work. Rope access to a turret clock Rope access technician performing maintenance work on a building Rope access or industrial climbing is a form of work positioning, initially developed from techniques used in climbing and caving, which applies practical ropework to allow workers to access difficult-to-reach locations without the use of scaffolding, cradles or an aerial work platform. Rope access technicians descend, ascend, and traverse ropes for access and work while suspended by their harness. Sometimes a work seat may be used. The support of the rope is intended to eliminate the likelihood of a fall altogether, but a back-up fall arrest system is used in case of the unlikely failure of the primary means of s

Working conditions

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Occupational safety and health

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Climbing

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Occupational noise

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Occupational noise

Occupational noise is the amount of acoustic energy received by an employee's auditory system when they are working in the industry. Occupational noise, or industrial noise, is often a term used in occupational safety and health, as sustained exposure can cause permanent hearing damage. "Twenty-two million workers are exposed to potentially damaging noise at work each year. Last year, U.S. business paid more than $1.5 million in penalties for not protecting workers from noise." - OSHA[1] Occupational noise is considered an occupational hazard traditionally linked to loud industries such as ship-building, mining, railroad work, welding, and construction, but can be present in any workplace where hazardous noise is present. Regulation In the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) work together to provide standards and regulations for noise in the workplace.[2] National Institute for Occupational Safety an

Industrial hygiene

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Noise pollution

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Noise

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LTIFR

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LTIFR

LTIFR refers to Lost Time Injury Frequency Rate, the number of lost time injuries occurring in a workplace per 1 million hours worked. An LTIFR of 7, for example, shows that 7 lost time injuries occur on a jobsite every 1 million hours worked. The formula gives a picture of how safe a workplace is for its workers. Lost time injuries (LTI) include all on-the-job injuries that require a person to stay away from work more than 24 hours, or which result in death or permanent disability. This definition comes from the Australian standard 1885.1– 1990 Workplace Injury and Disease Recording Standard.[1][2] References Lost time injury frequency rates (LTIFR) http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/swa/statistics/ltifr/pages/lost-time-injury-frequency-rates Safe Work Australia Workplace Injury and Disease Recording Standard in the Workplace http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/swa/about/publications/pages/ns1990injuryanddiseaserecording Archived 2016-05-23 at the Wayback Machine Safe Work Australia

Occupational safety and health

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Occupational exposure limit

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Occupational exposure limit

An occupational exposure limit is an upper limit on the acceptable concentration of a hazardous substance in workplace air for a particular material or class of materials. It is typically set by competent national authorities and enforced by legislation to protect occupational safety and health. It is an important tool in risk assessment and in the management of activities involving handling of dangerous substances.[1] There are many dangerous substances for which there are no formal occupational exposure limits. In these cases, hazard banding or control banding strategies can be used to ensure safe handling. Background Simple representation of exposure risk assessment and management hierarchy based on available information Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs) have been established for airborne workplace chemicals by multiple regulatory and authoritative organizations around the world for well over 60 years now. With the changing regulatory arena, shifting centers of manufacturing growth, and the move tow

Occupational safety and health

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Toxicology

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Labour law

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Work accident

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Work accident

Erik Henningsen's painting A wounded worker from the National Gallery of Denmark A 19th century work accident in a mine A work accident, workplace accident, occupational accident, or accident at work is a "discrete occurrence in the course of work" leading to physical or mental occupational injury.[1] According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), more than 337 million accidents happen on the job each year, resulting, together with occupational diseases, in more than 2.3 million deaths annually.[2] The phrase "in the course of work" can include work-related accidents happening off the company's premises, and can include accidents caused by third parties, according to Eurostat. The definition of work accident includes accidents occurring "while engaged in an economic activity, or at work, or carrying on the business of the employer" according to the ILO. The phrase "physical or mental harm" means any injury, disease, or death. Occupational accidents differ from occupational diseases as accid

Industrial accidents and incidents

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Occupational safety and health

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Toluene

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Toluene

Toluene , also known as toluol , is an aromatic hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, water-insoluble liquid with the smell associated with paint thinners. It is a mono-substituted benzene derivative, consisting of a CH group attached to a phenyl group. As such, its IUPAC systematic name is methylbenzene. Toluene is predominantly used as an industrial feedstock and a solvent. As the solvent in some types of paint thinner, permanent markers, contact cement and certain types of glue, toluene is sometimes used as a recreational inhalant[7] and has the potential of causing severe neurological harm.[8][9] History The compound was first isolated in 1837 through a distillation of pine oil by the Polish chemist Filip Walter, who named it rétinnaphte.[10] In 1841, French chemist Henri Étienne Sainte-Claire Deville isolated a hydrocarbon from balsam of Tolu (an aromatic extract from the tropical Colombian tree Myroxylon balsamum), which Deville recognized as similar to Walter's rétinnaphte and to benzene; hence he called

Occupational safety and health

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Chemical articles having a data page

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Aromatic solvents

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Ototoxicity

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Ototoxicity

Ototoxicity is the property of being toxic to the ear (oto-), specifically the cochlea or auditory nerve and sometimes the vestibular system, for example, as a side effect of a drug. The effects of ototoxicity can be reversible and temporary, or irreversible and permanent. It has been recognized since the 19th century.[1] There are many well-known ototoxic drugs used in clinical situations, and they are prescribed, despite the risk of hearing disorders, to very serious health conditions.[2] Ototoxic drugs include antibiotics such as gentamicin, streptomycin, tobramycin, loop diuretics such as furosemide and platinum-based chemotherapy agents such as cisplatin, carboplatin, and vincristine. A number of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) have also been shown to be ototoxic.[3][4] This can result in sensorineural hearing loss, dysequilibrium, or both. Some environmental and occupational chemicals have also been shown to affect the auditory system and interact with noise.[5] Signs and symptoms Sympto

Hearing loss

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Occupational safety and health

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Otology

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Styrene

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Styrene

Styrene, also known as ethenylbenzene, vinylbenzene, and phenylethene, is an organic compound with the chemical formula CHCH=CH. This derivative of benzene is a colorless oily liquid that evaporates easily and has a sweet smell, although high concentrations have a less pleasant odor. Styrene is the precursor to polystyrene and several copolymers. Approximately 25 million tonnes of styrene were produced in 2010.[5] Natural occurrence Styrene is named after storax balsam, the resin of Liquidambar trees of the Altingiaceae plant family. Styrene occurs naturally in small quantities in some plants and foods (cinnamon, coffee beans, and peanuts)[6] and is also found in coal tar. History In 1839, the German apothecary Eduard Simon isolated a volatile liquid from the resin (called storax or styrax (Latin)) of the American sweetgum tree (Liquidambar styraciflua). He called the liquid "styrol" (now styrene).[7][8] He also noticed that when styrol was exposed to air, light, or heat, it gradually transformed into a h

Occupational safety and health

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Vinyl compounds

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Phenyl compounds

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Carbon disulfide

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Carbon disulfide

Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS. The compound is used frequently as a building block in organic chemistry as well as an industrial and chemical non-polar solvent. It has an "ether-like" odor, but commercial samples are typically contaminated with foul-smelling impurities.[7] Occurrence, manufacture, properties Small amounts of carbon disulfide are released by volcanic eruptions and marshes. CS once was manufactured by combining carbon (or coke) and sulfur at high temperatures. C + 2S → CS A lower-temperature reaction, requiring only 600 °C, utilizes natural gas as the carbon source in the presence of silica gel or alumina catalysts:[7] 2 CH + S → 2 CS + 4 HS The reaction is analogous to the combustion of methane. Global production/consumption of carbon disulfide is approximately one million tonnes, with China consuming 49%, followed by India at 13%, mostly for the production of rayon fiber.[8] United States production in 2007 was 56,000 tonnes.[9] Solvent Carbon disu

Carbon compounds

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Hazardous air pollutants

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Neurotoxins

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Carpal tunnel

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Carpal tunnel

In the human body, the carpal tunnel or carpal canal is the passageway on the palmar side of the wrist that connects the forearm to the hand.[1] The tunnel is bounded by the bones of the wrist and flexor retinaculum from connective tissue. Normally several tendons from the flexor group of forearm muscles and the median nerve pass through it. There are described cases of variable median artery occurrence. The canal is narrow, and when any of the nine long flexor tendons passing through it swell or degenerate, the narrowing of the canal may result in the median nerve becoming entrapped or compressed, a common medical condition known as carpal tunnel syndrome.[2] Structure Carpal tunnel as seen on MRI The carpal bones that make up the wrist form an arch which is convex on the dorsal side of the hand and concave on the palmar side. The groove on the palmar side, the sulcus carpi, is covered by the flexor retinaculum, a sheath of tough connective tissue, thus forming the carpal tunnel. On the side of the ra

Occupational safety and health

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Occupational diseases

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Pages containing Anatomical terms

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Occupational health concerns of cannabis use

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Occupational health concerns of cannabis use

Occupational health concerns are becoming increasingly important as cannabis becomes legal in more areas of the US. Of note, employers have concerns of workers either coming to work acutely impaired or recent use of cannabis still being detected in the body. Employment issues such as ADA law as it relates to accommodations for cannabis, paying unemployment benefits or paying out workers compensation benefits and disability claims are all important issues. While federal law still prohibits use, employers in different states have taken different stances based on whether they are federal contractors, perform safety sensitive work or whether the cannabis use is acutely impairing the employee. Cannabis is currently the most commonly used illicit drug in the world and one of the earliest plants cultivated by humans. Early evidence of cannabis use in medicine has been found in China and India for religious and medicinal uses. Archaeological research shows early civilization cultivation of hemp in India to create a

Cannabis and health

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Cannabis

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Occupational safety and health

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Shift work

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Shift work

Shift work is an employment practice designed to make use of, or provide service across, all 24 hours of the clock each day of the week (often abbreviated as 24/7). The practice typically sees the day divided into shifts, set periods of time during which different groups of workers perform their duties. The term "shift work" includes both long-term night shifts and work schedules in which employees change or rotate shifts.[1][2][3] In medicine and epidemiology, shift work is considered a risk factor for some health problems in some individuals, as disruption to circadian rhythms may increase the probability of developing cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, diabetes, and obesity, among other conditions.[4][5] Shift work can also contribute to strain in marital, family, and personal relationships.[6] A marriage where one partner works an irregular shift is six times more likely to end in divorce than a marriage where both partners work days.[7] Health effects A video on the health effects of sh

IARC Group 2A carcinogens

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Employment

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Occupational safety and health

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Occupational cancer

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Occupational cancer

Occupational cancer is cancer caused by occupational hazards. Several cancers have been directly tied to occupational hazards, including chimney sweeps' carcinoma, mesothelioma, and others. Common occupational hazards implicated in cancer Occupational exposure to chemicals, dusts, radiation, and certain industrial processes have been tied to occupational cancer. Exposure to cancer-causing chemicals (carcinogens) may cause mutations that allow cells to grow out of control, causing cancer. Carcinogens in the workplace may include chemicals like anilines, chromates, dinitrotoluenes, arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds, beryllium and beryllium compounds, cadmium compounds, and nickel compounds.[1] Dusts that can cause cancer leather or wood dusts, asbestos,[2] crystalline forms of silica, coal tar pitch volatiles, coke oven emissions, diesel exhaust and environmental tobacco smoke.[1] sunlight; radon gas; and industrial, medical, or other exposure to ionizing radiation can all cause cancer in the workplace.

Occupational safety and health

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Occupational diseases

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Safe-In-Sound Award

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Safe-In-Sound Award

Logo, Safe-in-Sound Excellence in Hearing Loss Prevention Award The Safe-in-Sound Excellence in Hearing Loss Prevention Award is an occupational health and safety award that was established in 2007 through a partnership between the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the National Hearing Conservation Association (NHCA). In 2018, the partnership was extended to include the Council for Accreditation in Occupational Hearing Conservation (CAOHC). This award recognizes organizations that demonstrate measurable achievements towards noise control and hearing loss prevention in the workplace.[1] Noise-induced hearing loss is a prevalent work related illness and case studies show that substantial reductions in noise levels in the workplace can be achieved. However, there is very little evidence to show that implementation of stricter legislation can reduce noise levels in workplaces.[2] This award disseminates information of effective practices to a broader occupational safety and heal

Occupational safety and health

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Prevention

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Workplace

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Workplace robotics safety

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Workplace robotics safety

An artist's representation of an industrial robot accident that occurred in 1984.[1] Workplace robotics safety is an aspect of occupational safety and health when robots are used in the workplace. This includes traditional industrial robots as well as emerging technologies such as drone aircraft and wearable robotic exoskeletons. Types of accidents include collisions, crushing, and injuries from mechanical parts. Hazard controls include physical barriers, good work practices, and proper maintenance. Background Many workplace robots are industrial robots used in manufacturing. According to the International Federation of Robotics, 1.7 million new robots are expected to be used in factories between 2017 and 2020.[2] Emerging robot technologies include collaborative robots,[3] personal care robots, construction robots, exoskeletons,[4] autonomous vehicles,[5] such as Google’s self-driving car project, and drone aircraft (also known as unmanned aerial vehicles or UAVs).[6] Advances in automation technologies

Occupational safety and health

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Workplace

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Military robots

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First Aid Only

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First Aid Only

Originally founded in 1988 by Mark Miller in Vancouver, Washington, First Aid Only was a solution to produce a better first aid kit for the average consumer than the options available at the time.[1]. History 1988 - 1997 After noticing the lack of quality of first aid kits available for home and business use, First Aid Only was founded in 1988. The first products were all-purpose kits that were made available to small businesses and consumers across the United States.[2] The company’s initial first aid kit, coined FAO-134, remains successful today.[3] In years thereafter, the company continued to expand the number of offerings. By 1992, First Aid Only was generating $3.4 million in sales and moved to a modern 50,000 square-feet facility in Vancouver, Washington.[4] 1998 – 2014 After 10 years, the company started focusing on Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) compliance products for the workspace. As part of this business expansion, the company thoughtfully decided to continue to do a

Medical technology companies of the United States

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Occupational safety and health

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Companies based in Vancouver, Washington

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Ash pit

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Ash pit

Ash pit An ash pit is a remnant of a wildfire. It is a hole in the ground filled with ash, possibly containing hot embers beneath. It is one of the many hazards faced by those fighting wildfires. It is also a danger to residents and their pets returning after a wildfire has gone out.[1][2] An ash pit may be imperceptible from the ground above, and can remain hot for days.[3] Those accidentally walking into one may be severely burned or killed. After a wildfire has gone out, firefighters may detect ash pits from helicopters using infrared sensors. Then can then dig down into them, and extinguish them to prevent flare ups.[4] Causes After a fire burns underground fuels, it can create a void that becomes filled with ash from the burned fuel. There are several environmental factors that increase the likelihood of an ash pit being formed. It may result from the presence of extensive root systems of trees and shrubs, as well as peat and deep duff covering mineral soil. Holes created by animals, such as coyote

Natural hazards

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Wildfires

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Occupational safety and health

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Sentinel outlet

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Sentinel outlet

A sentinel outlet in occupational safety and health is a water outlet that is chosen to have its temperature monitored so that risk from Legionella can be controlled. This is typically chosen to be the closest and furthest outlets from the water tank.[1] References "Managing legionella in hot and cold water systems". www.hse.gov.uk. Retrieved 2018-06-28.

Legionellosis

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Occupational safety and health

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Water supply

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Hazardous energy

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Hazardous energy

Hazardous energy in occupational safety and health is any source of energy (including electrical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, hydraulic, and pneumatic sources of energy) that "can be hazardous to workers", such as from discharge of stored energy.[1][2] [3] Failure to control the unexpected release of energy can lead to machine-related injuries or fatalities. The risk from these sources of energy can be controlled in a number of ways, including access control procedures such as lockout-tagout.[4][5][6] References "Control of Hazardous Energy". Occupational Safety and Health Administration. United States Department of Labor. Safety, Government of Canada, Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and. "(none)". www.ccohs.ca. Retrieved 2018-11-21. Safety, Government of Canada, Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and. "(none)". www.ccohs.ca. Retrieved 2018-11-21. "Using lockout and tagout procedures to prevent injury and death during machine maintenance". 2011-04-01. doi:10.26616/NIOSHPUB2011156

Energy sources

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Occupational safety and health

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National Occupational Research Agenda

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National Occupational Research Agenda

The National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) is a partnership program developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The program was founded in 1996 to provide a framework for research collaborations among universities, large and small businesses, professional societies, government agencies, and worker organizations. Together these parties identify issues in the field of workplace safety and health that require immediate attention based on the number of workers affected, the seriousness of the hazard, and the likelihood that new safety information and approaches can effect a change.[1] Developing the first research agenda Dr. Linda Rosenstock was appointed director of NIOSH in 1994. At that time many saw the Institute as an agency that yielded strong scientific research, but needed stronger connections to the real-world workforce.[2] To remedy this, Rosenstock sought to develop stronger relationships with other organizations and agencies. NIOSH moved its headquarters fro

Occupational safety and health

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National Institute for Occupational Safety and ...

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Occupational safety and health organizations

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Competent person

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Competent person

A competent person is designated by a company to ensure that the company's health and safety responsibilities are being met.[1][2] This may be a legal obligation required of the company, to ensure that the business understands, and can act on, the health and safety risks that might occur during their particular type of work.[2] United Kingdom The forerunner to the Competent Person Scheme in the UK was the 1991 Building Regulations Act, which enabled gas-heating appliance installers to self-certify that their work was safe and legal, rather than needing external checking. Then from 2002-2010, a series of Competent Person Schemes were implemented widely in the buildings sector to enable builders to self-certify that their work meets regulations in eighteen different fields.[3] By 2019, an estimated 85% of all building work requiring the notification of building control bodies was self-certified, and therefore no longer subject to external inspection.[4] In 2012, a UK government report found that 'although the

Occupational safety and health

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United Kingdom-centric

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