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Occupational safety and health


Short-term exposure limit

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Short-term exposure limit

A short-term exposure limit (STEL) is the acceptable average exposure over a short period of time, usually 15 minutes as long as the time-weighted average is not exceeded. STEL is a term used in occupational health, industrial hygiene and toxicology. The STEL may be a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (U.S. OSHA) has set OSHA-STELs for 1,3-butadiene,[1] benzene[2] and ethylene oxide.[3] For chemicals, STEL assessments are usually done for 15 minutes and expressed in parts per million (ppm), or sometimes in milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3).[4] The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists publishes a more extensive list of STELs as threshold limit values (TLV-STEL).[5] Similar national exposure limits United Kingdom COSHH (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health).[6] [7] Australia OES Occupational Exposure Standard[8] France VLEP 8h00 (Valeur Limite d’Exposition Professionnell

Occupational safety and health

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Toxicology

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Industrial hygiene

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Tagging system

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Tagging system

In occupational health and safety, a tagging system is a system of recording and displaying the status of a machine or equipment, enabling staff to view whether it is in working order. It is a product of industry-specific legislation which sets safety standards for a particular piece of equipment, involving inspection, record-keeping, and repair. This sets standardized umbrella terms for equipment and machinery (e.g. machinery, scaffolding, forklift, cherry picker) to be deemed 'safe to use'. Characteristics A tagging system consists of a holder and insert, and is specifically designed for certain industries, machinery and equipment. For instance, a scaffold tagging system is designed to be used at the entrances and exits of erect scaffolding. A ladder tag system is designed to be permanently fixed onto the inside edge of all ladders that are used within the workplace or site. The majority of tagging system holders are manufactured to withstand extreme weather conditions and remain attached to its equipmen

Maintenance

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Occupational safety and health

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Industrial robot

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Industrial robot

Articulated industrial robot operating in a foundry. An industrial robot is a robot system used for manufacturing. Industrial robots are automated, programmable and capable of movement on three or more axes.[1] Typical applications of robots include welding, painting, assembly, disassembly[2], pick and place for printed circuit boards, packaging and labeling, palletizing, product inspection, and testing; all accomplished with high endurance, speed, and precision. They can assist in material handling. In the year 2015, an estimated 1.64 million industrial robots were in operation worldwide according to International Federation of Robotics (IFR).[3] Types and features A set of six-axis robots used for welding. Factory Automation with industrial robots for palletizing food products like bread and toast at a bakery in Germany The most commonly used robot configurations are articulated robots, SCARA robots, delta robots and cartesian coordinate robots, (gantry robots or x-y-z robots). In the context of

Occupational safety and health

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American inventions

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Packaging machinery

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Xylene

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Xylene

The three possible xylene isomers: o-xylene, m-xylene, and p-xylene Xylene (from Greek ξύλο, xylo, "wood"), xylol or dimethylbenzene is any one of three isomers of dimethylbenzene, or a combination thereof. With the formula (CH)CH, each of the three compounds has a central benzene ring with two methyl groups attached at substituents. They are all colorless, flammable liquids, some of which are of great industrial value. The mixture is referred to as both xylene and, more precisely, xylenes. Occurrence and production Xylenes are an important petrochemical produced by catalytic reforming and also by coal carbonisation in the manufacture of coke fuel. They also occur in crude oil in concentrations of about 0.5–1%, depending on the source. Small quantities occur in gasoline and aircraft fuels. Xylenes are produced mainly as part of the BTX aromatics (benzene, toluene, and xylenes) extracted from the product of catalytic reforming known as reformate. The xylene mixture is a slightly greasy, colorless liquid c

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Aromatic solvents

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Alkylbenzenes

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Accident triangle

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Accident triangle

A depiction of Heinrich's original ratios An expanded triangle similar to that proposed by Bird in 1966 The accident triangle, also known as Heinrich's triangle or Bird's triangle, is a theory of industrial accident prevention. It shows a relationship between serious accidents, minor accidents and near misses and proposes that if the number of minor accidents is reduced then there will be a corresponding fall in the number of serious accidents. The triangle was first proposed by Herbert William Heinrich in 1931 and has since been updated and expanded upon by other writers, notably Frank E. Bird. It is often shown pictorially as a triangle or pyramid and has been described as a cornerstone of 20th century workplace health and safety philosophy. In recent times it has come under criticism over the values allocated to each category of accident and for focusing only on the reduction in minor injuries. Development The triangle shows a relationship between the number of accidents resulting in serious injury,

Industrial accidents and incidents

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Occupational safety and health

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List of diving environments by type

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List of diving environments by type

The diving environment is the natural or artificial surroundings in which an underwater dive is done. It is usually underwater, but professional diving is sometimes done in other liquids. Underwater diving is the human practice of voluntarily descending below the surface of the water to interact with the surroundings, for various recreational or occupational reasons. Some of the more common diving environments are listed and defined here. Recreational dive sites Recreational dive sites – Specific places that recreational divers go to enjoy the underwater environment or are used for training purposes Index of recreational dive sites – Alphabetical listing of popular places for underwater diving Inland dive sites – Dive sites in bodies of water other than the sea Coastal dive sites – Dive sites near a coast of the body of water Coral reef – Outcrop of rock in the sea formed by the growth and deposit of stony coral skeletons Wreck diving – Recreational diving on wrecks Cave diving – Underwater div

Underwater diving training organizations

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Underwater diving environment

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Underwater diving

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Electronic waste

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Electronic waste

Defective and obsolete electronic equipment Electronic waste or e-waste describes discarded electrical or electronic devices. Used electronics which are destined for refurbishment, reuse, resale, salvage recycling through material recovery, or disposal are also considered e-waste. Informal processing of e-waste in developing countries can lead to adverse human health effects and environmental pollution. Electronic scrap components, such as CPUs, contain potentially harmful materials such as lead, cadmium, beryllium, or brominated flame retardants. Recycling and disposal of e-waste may involve significant risk to health of workers and their communities.[1] Definition Hoarding (left), disassembling (center) and collecting (right) electronic waste in Bengaluru, India E-waste or electronic waste is created when an electronic product is discarded after the end of its useful life. The rapid expansion of technology and the consumption driven society results in the creation of a very large amount of e-was

Occupational safety and health

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Recycling

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Energy conservation

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Acute radiation syndrome

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Acute radiation syndrome

Acute radiation syndrome (ARS), also known as radiation sickness or radiation poisoning, is a collection of health effects due to exposure to high amounts of ionizing radiation over a short period of time.[1] Symptoms can begin within an hour and may last for several months.[1][3][5] Symptoms within the first few days typically include nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite.[1] This is followed by a few hours or weeks with little symptoms which later develops into additional symptoms followed by either recovery or death.[1] Acute radiation syndrome involves a total dose of greater than 0.7 Gy (70 rads), that generally occurs from a source outside the body within minutes.[1] Sources of such radiation can occur accidentally or intentionally.[6] They may involve nuclear reactors, cyclotrons, and certain devices used in cancer therapy.[4] It is generally divided into three types; bone marrow, gastrointestinal, and neurovascular syndrome, with bone marrow syndrome occurring at 0.7 to 10 Gy, and neurovascular synd

Occupational safety and health

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Radiation health effects

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Chemotherapy

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Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen. Chemotherapy may be given with a curative intent (which almost always involves combinations of drugs), or it may aim to prolong life or to reduce symptoms (palliative chemotherapy). Chemotherapy is one of the major categories of the medical discipline specifically devoted to pharmacotherapy for cancer, which is called medical oncology.[1][2] The term chemotherapy has come to connote non-specific usage of intracellular poisons to inhibit mitosis, cell division. The connotation excludes more selective agents that block extracellular signals (signal transduction). The development of therapies with specific molecular or genetic targets, which inhibit growth-promoting signals from classic endocrine hormones (primarily estrogens for breast cancer and androgens for prostate cancer) are now called hormonal th

Occupational safety and health

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Cancer treatments

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Antineoplastic drugs

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Occupational health and safety in the casino industry

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Occupational health and safety in the casino industry

There are unique occupational health issues in the casino industry. The most common are from cancers resulting from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, and musculoskeletal injury (MSI) from repetitive motion injuries while running table games over many hours. Regulation In the United States, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is empowered to educate employers and workers, set workplace standards, and enforce violations.[1] OSHA requires casinos to have a written safety plan specific to their location which commonly addresses risk factors for workers such as ergonomics, blood-born pathogens, personal protective equipment, food service, housekeeping, and slips/trips/falls.[2] Taken from regulations for sporting events, there are additional requirements for casino employees working in entertainment to help workers avoid hazards, injuries, and illness caused by theatrical scenery/rigging/props, wardrobe/hair/makeup, and audio/camera/projection/video/lighting.[3] As of January 1, 2018,

Casinos

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Occupational safety and health

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Chloroprene

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Chloroprene

Chloroprene is the common name for 2-chlorobuta-1,3-diene (IUPAC name) with the chemical formula CH=CCl−CH=CH[3] Chloroprene is a colorless volatile liquid, almost exclusively used as a monomer for the production of the polymer polychloroprene, a type of synthetic rubber. Polychloroprene is better known as Neoprene, the trade name given by DuPont. History Although it may have been discovered earlier, chloroprene was largely developed by DuPont during the early 1930s, specifically with the formation of neoprene in mind.[4] The chemists Elmer K. Bolton, Wallace Carothers, Arnold Collins and Ira Williams are generally accredited with its development and commercialisation although the work was based upon that of Julius Arthur Nieuwland, with whom they collaborated.[5] Production Chloroprene is produced in three steps from 1,3-butadiene: (i) chlorination, (ii) isomerization of part of the product stream, and (iii) dehydrochlorination of 3,4-dichlorobut-1-ene. Chlorine adds to 1,3-butadiene to afford a mixture

Conjugated dienes

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Occupational safety and health

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Chembox having DSD data

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Exposure science

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Exposure science

Exposure science is the study of an organism's (usually human) contact with chemical, physical, biological agents or other health risk (e.g. accidental) occurring in their environments, and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of events either causing or preventing adverse health outcomes.[1] Exposure science plays a fundamental role in the development and application of epidemiology, toxicology, and risk assessment. It provides critical information for protecting human and ecosystem health. Exposure science also has the ability to play an effective role in other fields, including environmental regulation, urban, traffic safety[2] and ecosystem planning, and disaster management; in many cases these are untapped opportunities. Exposure science links human and ecologic behavior to environmental processes in such a way that the information generated can be used to mitigate or prevent future adverse exposures. — Applications of Exposure Science[3] Exposure science can be thought of most simply

Occupational safety and health

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Toxicology

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Environmental health

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Exposome

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Exposome

The exposome encompasses the totality of human environmental (i.e. non-genetic) exposures from conception onwards, complementing the genome, first proposed in 2005 by a cancer epidemiologist. As of 2016, it may not be possible to measure or model. Definition The exposome was first proposed in 2005 by cancer epidemiologist Christopher Paul Wild in an article entitled "Complementing the genome with an "exposome": the outstanding challenge of environmental exposure measurement in molecular epidemiology".[1] The concept of the exposome and how to assess it has led to lively discussions with varied views in 2010,[2][3] 2012,[4][5][6][7][8][9] and 2014,[10][11] In his 2005 article, Wild stated, "At its most complete, the exposome encompasses life-course environmental exposures (including lifestyle factors), from the prenatal period onwards." The concept was first proposed to draw attention to the need for better and more complete environmental exposure data for causal research, in order to balance the investment

Occupational safety and health

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Toxicology

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Ecotoxicology

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Hydrazine

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Hydrazine

Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula N2H4. It is a simple pnictogen hydride, and is a colorless and flammable liquid with an ammonia-like odor. Hydrazine is highly toxic and dangerously unstable unless handled in solution as e.g., hydrazine hydrate (NH2NH2 · xH2O). As of 2015, the world hydrazine hydrate market amounted to $350 million.[8] Hydrazine is mainly used as a foaming agent in preparing polymer foams, but applications also include its uses as a precursor to polymerization catalysts, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. About two million tons of hydrazine hydrate were used in foam blowing agents in 2015. Additionally, hydrazine is used in various rocket fuels and to prepare the gas precursors used in air bags. Hydrazine is used within both nuclear and conventional electrical power plant steam cycles as an oxygen scavenger to control concentrations of dissolved oxygen in an effort to reduce corrosion.[9] Hydrazines refer to a class of organic substances derived by replacing on

Occupational safety and health

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Chembox having GHS data

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Bases (chemistry)

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Oil refinery

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Oil refinery

Anacortes Refinery (Marathon), on the north end of March Point southeast of Anacortes, Washington, United States A petrochemical refinery in Grangemouth, Scotland. An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.[1][2][3] Petrochemicals feed stock like ethylene and propylene can also be produced directly by cracking crude oil without the need of using refined products of crude oil such as naphtha.[4][5] Oil refineries are typically large, sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping running throughout, carrying streams of fluids between large chemical processing units, such as distillation columns. In many ways, oil refineries use much of the technology, and can be thought of, as types of chemical plants. The crude oil feedstock has typically been processed by an oil product

Occupational safety and health

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Petroleum production

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Northern Wei

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Isocyanate

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Isocyanate

The isocyanate functional group Isocyanate is the functional group with the formula R−N=C=O. Organic compounds that contain an isocyanate group are referred to as isocyanates. An organic compound with two isocyanate groups is known as a diisocyanate. Diisocyanates are manufactured for the production of polyurethanes, a class of polymers.[1] Isocyanates should not be confused with cyanate esters and isocyanides, very different families of compounds. The cyanate (cyanate ester) functional group (R−O−C≡N) is arranged differently from the isocyanate group (R−N=C=O). Isocyanides have the connectivity R−N≡C, lacking the oxygen of the cyanate groups. Structure and bonding In terms of bonding, isocyanates are closely related to carbon dioxide (CO) and carbodiimides (C(NR)). The C−N=C=O unit that defines isocyanates is planar, and the N=C=O linkage is nearly linear. In phenyl isocyanate, the C=N and C=O distances are respectively 1.195 and 1.173 Å.[2] Production Isocyanates are produced from amines by phosgenati

Occupational safety and health

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Isocyanates

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Commodity chemicals

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Safe-In-Sound award

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Safe-In-Sound award

Logo, Safe-in-Sound Excellence in Hearing Loss Prevention Award The Safe-in-Sound Excellence in Hearing Loss Prevention Award is an occupational health and safety award that was established in 2007 through a partnership between the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the National Hearing Conservation Association (NHCA)[1]. In 2018, the partnership was extended to include the Council for Accreditation in Occupational Hearing Conservation (CAOHC).[2] This award recognizes organizations that demonstrate measurable achievements towards noise control and hearing loss prevention in the workplace.[1] Noise-induced hearing loss is a prevalent work related illness and case studies show that substantial reductions in noise levels in the workplace can be achieved. However, there is very little evidence to show that implementation of stricter legislation can reduce noise levels in workplaces.[2] This award disseminates information of effective practices to a broader occupational safety an

Occupational safety and health

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Workplace health promotion

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Workplace health promotion

A video on creating an organizational culture of health in the workplace Workplace health promotion is the combined efforts of employers, employees, and society to improve the mental and physical health and well-being of people at work.[1] The term workplace health promotion denotes a comprehensive analysis and design of human and organizational work levels with the strategic aim of developing and improving health resources in an enterprise. The World Health Organization has prioritized the workplace as a setting for health promotion because of the large potential audience and influence on all spheres of a person's life.[2] The Luxembourg Declaration provides that health and well-being of employees at work can be achieved through a combination of: Improving the organization and the working environment Promoting active participation Encouraging personal development.[1] Workplace health promotion combines alleviation of health risk factors with enhancement of health strengthening factors and seeks to

Health promotion

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Occupational safety and health

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Public health

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Nikolai Izmerov

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Nikolai Izmerov

Nikolai Fedotovich Izmerov (Russian: Николай Федотович Измеров, 19 December 1927 – 23 December 2016) was a 20th-century Soviet and Russian occupational hygienist and public figure, who made significant contributions to occupational hygiene.[R 1] Early life Nikolai Izmerov was born in Bishkek (formerly Frunze), Kyrgyzstan in 1927, to Izmerov Fedot Fedotovich (1885) and Izmerova Evdokia Filatovna (née Shemilina) (1892). He was educated at a 10-years school in Jambul (Kyrgyzstan), and entered the Tashkent Medical Institute (faculty of hygiene) in 1946.[R 2] Middle years Izmerov entered the Central Institute of advanced medical training (1952) after graduation in the Tashkent Medical Institute and clinical training in hygiene. After additional studying, he became a senior inspector in the Ministry of health in 1953–1955.[E 1] He prepared and defended the dissertation of the candidate of medical sciences “Air pollution with gasoline vapor and its maximum permissible concentration” in the Central Institute of

Hygienists

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Russian scientists

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Academicians of the USSR Academy of Medical Sci...

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Hearing protection fit-testing

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Hearing protection fit-testing

Hearing protector fit-testing, also known as field attenuation estimation system (FAES), determines how effective a hearing protection device is for an individual when worn correctly. This is typically carried out using one of the available fit-testing hardware and software systems. The effectiveness is typically measured as a personal attenuation rating (PAR) which is subtracted from the known noise exposure to estimate the total noise exposure a single person has when wearing the tested hearing protection device (HPD).[1][2] The Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the National Hearing Conservation Association Best Practice Bulletin: Hearing Protection Fit-Testing: Hearing Protection- Emerging Trends: Individual Fit Testing describes existing testing methods and how to incorporate them in hearing conservation programs. Hearing protection devices such as earplugs or earmuffs must be worn correctly for the wearer to be protected from noise.[3] Correct use of hearing protection includes: Choosi

Audiology

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Hearing loss

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Occupational safety and health

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Health problems of musicians

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Health problems of musicians

Musicians experience a number of health problems related to the practice and performance of music. Health Conditions The most common injury type suffered by musicians is repetitive strain injury (RSIs). A survey of orchestral performers found that 64–76% had significant RSIs.[1] Other types of musculoskeletal disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome and focal dystonia, are also common.[2] Non-musculoskeletal problems include contact dermatitis, hearing problems such as tinnitus, respiratory disorders or pneumothorax, increased intraocular pressure, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and psychological issues such as performance anxiety.[2] Musicians may suffer tinnitus and hearing disorders due to exposure to loud music, such as hyperacusis or diplacusis.[3][4][5] They also are at an increased risk of having problems with the stomatognathic system, in particular mouth and teeth, which may in some cases lead to permanent injuries that prevent the musicians from playing.[6] There is little consistency across

Hearing loss

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Audiology

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Occupational safety and health

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Anticipate, recognize, evaluate, control, and confirm

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Anticipate, recognize, evaluate, control, and confirm

Anticipate, recognize, evaluate, control, and confirm (ARECC) is a decision-making framework and process used in the field of industrial hygiene (IH) to anticipate and recognize hazards, evaluate exposures, and control and confirm protection from risks (Figure 1). ARECC supports hazard-informed exposure assessment, exposure-informed hazard assessment, and risk-informed decision making in any endeavor.[1][2][3][4] History The ARECC decision-making framework began as recognize, evaluate, and control. In 1994 then-president of the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) Harry Ettinger added the anticipate step to formally convey the duty and opportunity of the worker protection community to proactively apply its growing body of knowledge and experience to assessing and managing hazards, exposures, and resulting risks in existing and emerging situations. The confirm step was added in 2011 to clarify the necessity of confirming that all steps in the decision-making framework were being effectively applie

Occupational safety and health

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Physician burnout

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Physician burnout

Physician burnout has been classified as a psychological syndrome that can be expressed as a prolonged response to due chronic occupational stressors.[1] In the practice of medicine, it has been known to affect a wide variety of individuals from medical students to practicing physicians; although, its impact reaches far beyond that. Because of the toll taken on the healthcare industry, various treatment and prevention strategies have been developed at individual, team, and organizational levels in hopes to seek the best method of addressing this epidemic. Characteristics Prevalence Research suggests that occupational burnout among physicians exceeds 50% in the USA.[2] This refers to not only physicians currently practicing medicine, but also those in training. Signs of burnout have even been traced back to medical students who have experienced disconnect between taught professional behaviors and those witnessed in practice. "Our data show wide variability in the prevalence of burnout by clinical specialty,

Physicians

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Occupational safety and health

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Stress

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5S (methodology)

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5S (methodology)

5S methodology. 5S resource corner at Scanfil Poland factory in Sieradz. 5S is a workplace organization method that uses a list of five Japanese words: seiri (整理), seiton (整頓), seisō (清掃), seiketsu (清潔), and shitsuke (躾). These have been translated as "Sort", "Set In order", "Shine", "Standardize" and "Sustain".[1] The list describes how to organize a work space for efficiency and effectiveness by identifying and storing the items used, maintaining the area and items, and sustaining the new order. The decision-making process usually comes from a dialogue about standardization, which builds understanding among employees of how they should do the work. In some quarters, 5S has become 6S, the sixth element being safety(Safe).[2] Other than a specific stand-alone methodology, 5S is frequently viewed as an element of a broader construct known as visual control,[3] visual workplace,[4] or visual factory.[5][6] Under those (and similar) terminologies, Western companies were applying underlying concepts of 5S b

Occupational safety and health

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Quality management

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Manufacturing

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Workplace safety standards

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Workplace safety standards

Workplace safety standards are sets of standards, aimed at safety at workplaces and to reduce occupational risk from occupational illnesses.[1] The First Foundations of Metallurgy, or Ore Affairs History Simcoe Park Workers Monument The Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov in 1763 first describes the dangers of mining in his book Первыя основанiя Металлургiи, или Рудныхъ Делъ(The First Foundations of Metallurgy, or Ore Affairs).[2] The history of the human safety in the workplace became in 1802 with the Health and Morals of Apprentices Act. In 1893 in the United States were formed Railroad Safety Appliance Act.[3] In 1911 were introduced Coal Mines Act.[4] In 1947, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was signed and published by a collaborative group of 23 countries working to establish smooth international trade.[5] In the United States the first Federal Safety Standards for cars become effective 1 January 1968. These new standards help protect drivers against unreasonable risk of crashes

Safety codes

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Lists of standards

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Occupational safety and health

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Risk control

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Risk control

Risk control, also known as hazard control, is a part of the risk management process in which methods for neutralising or reduction of identified risks are implemented. Controlled risks remain potential threats, but the probability of an associated incident or the consequences thereof have been significantly reduced.[1][2] Risk control logically follows after hazard identification and risk assessment.[3] The most effective method for controlling a risk is to eliminate the hazard, but this is not always reasonably practicable. There is a recognised hierarchy of hazard controls which is listed in a generally descending order of effectiveness and preference:[3] Elimination - the compete removal or avoidance of the hazard also removes the risk. Substitution - A less hazardous or lower risk material, equipment or process may be available. Isolation - If the hazard can be separated from the people or equipment at risk by barriers or demarcated areas. the risk is reduced. Safeguards - Tools or equipment, can

Occupational safety and health

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Noise-induced hearing loss

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Noise-induced hearing loss

Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is hearing impairment resulting from exposure to loud sound. People may have a loss of perception of a narrow range of frequencies or impaired perception of sound including sensitivity to sound or ringing in the ears.[1] When exposure to hazards such as noise occur at work and is associated with hearing loss, it is referred to as occupational hearing loss.[2] Hearing may deteriorate gradually from chronic and repeated noise exposure (such as to loud music or background noise) or suddenly from exposure to impulse noise, which is a short high intensity noise (such as a gunshot or airhorn).[1] In both types, loud sound overstimulates delicate hearing cells, leading to the permanent injury or death of the cells. Once lost this way, hearing cannot be restored in humans.[3] There are a variety of prevention strategies available to avoid or reduce hearing loss. Lowering the volume of sound at its source, limiting the time of exposure and physical protection can reduce the impact o

Occupational safety and health

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Public health

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Hearing loss

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Niksen

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Niksen

Niksen is a Dutch verb which means "doing nothing".[1][2] It has been explored as a method to combat work-related health problems such as stress and burnout. References Mecking, Olga (April 29, 2019). "The Case for Doing Nothing". The New York Times. Retrieved July 14, 2019. Gottfried, Sophia (July 12, 2019). "Niksen Is the Dutch Lifestyle Concept of Doing Nothing—And You're About to See It Everywhere". Time Magazine. Retrieved July 14, 2019.

Stress

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Occupational safety and health

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Dutch words and phrases

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Tinnitus

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Tinnitus

Tinnitus is the perception of sound when no corresponding external sound is present.[1] While often described as a ringing, it may also sound like a clicking, buzzing, hiss, or roaring.[2] Rarely, unclear voices or music are heard.[3] The sound may be soft or loud, low or high pitched, and appear to be coming from one or both ears.[2] Most of the time, it comes on gradually.[3] In some people, the sound may interfere with concentration or cause anxiety or depression.[2] Tinnitus may be associated with some degree of hearing loss.[2] Rather than a disease, tinnitus is a symptom that may result from various underlying causes.[2] A common cause is noise-induced hearing loss.[2] Other causes include ear infections, disease of the heart or blood vessels, Ménière's disease, brain tumors, exposure to certain medications, a previous head injury, earwax, and emotional stress.[2][4] It is more common in those with depression.[3] The diagnosis of tinnitus is usually based on the person's description.[3] It is commonly

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Goth subculture

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Exposure suit

topic

Exposure suit

An exposure suit, or anti-exposure suit is clothing intended to protect the wearer from an extreme environment. Depending on the environment and specific use the suit may be required to provide thermal insulation, buoyancy, and or complete isolation from the environment. The exposure suit may be a stand-alone unit, or may require undergarments to function correctly. The choice of undergarments may depend on the specific environment. A common use of the term refers to protection from cold and wet environments at sea. Depending on type, they may be worn during normal work, in emergencies, or when exposed to unusual conditions.[1][2][3] Examples of exposure suits as a class include diving suits,[4] space suits, offshore survival suits, immersion suits,[1] and foul weather gear. Snowsuits, firefighting apparel, hazmat suits and other body-covering personal protective equipment may also be considered forms of exposure suit. Types Survival suit – A waterproof suit that protects the wearer from hypothermia from

Clothing

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Occupational safety and health

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Permit To Work

topic

Permit To Work

Permit To Work (PTW) refers to management systems used to ensure that work is done safely and efficiently. These are used in hazardous industries and involve procedures to request, review, authorise, document and most importantly, de-conflict tasks to be carried out by front line workers. Permit to work is an essential part of control of work (COW), the integrated management of business critical maintenance processes. Control of work is made up of permit to work, hazard identification and risk assessment (RA), and isolation management (IM). Permit to work is a core element of integrated safe system of work (ISSOW) systems, that along with risk assessment and isolation planning, enable as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) reduction of unsafe activities in non-trivial work environments. Permit to work adherence is essential in process safety management. Instructions or procedures are often adequate for most work activities, but some require extra care. A permit to work system is a formal system stating ex

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Petroleum production

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Brigitta Danuser

topic

Brigitta Danuser

Brigitta Danuser is professor for occupational medicine at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland and directed from 2005 to 2015 the institute for work and health (Institut Universitaire Romand de Santé au Travail IST). Since 1993, she has been engaged in the development and teaching of the MAS/DAS Work+Health, which trains occupational physicians and hygienists. From 2012 till 2019 she was the academic director of this MAS/DAS.[1] Career Brigitta Danuser studied medicine at the University of Zurich and made her venia legendi in work physiology at the ETH Zurich on the topic of motivated attention.[2] Her psycho-physiological research focuses on the emotional and cognitive work involved in modern public performances, under the larger scientific body work and health research. Return to work and effects of the social compensation system became her research focus in recent years. At the Institut de Santé au Travail Brigitta, Danuser developed the following occupational medicine consultations for employees: a

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University of Zurich alumni

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University of Lausanne faculty

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Safety and health (magazine)

topic

Safety and health (magazine)

Safety and health is an American magazine[1] published by National Safety Council.[2] Editor of the magazine is Melissa J. Ruminski. The magazine is published above 86 000 copies. The magazine is composed of the following headings:Partick Kapust questions and answers,Safety tips,Workplace solutions,Your story.[3] The magazine is launch as National Safety News(ISSN 0028-0100)[4] in 1919, the publication has always had a special relationship with the National Safety Council Library.[5] References hsimagazine.com safetyandhealthmagazine.com/ nsc.org/ babel.hathitrust.org/ worldcat.org

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American magazines

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Toxicity

topic

Toxicity

Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.[1] Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole organism, such as an animal, bacterium, or plant, as well as the effect on a substructure of the organism, such as a cell (cytotoxicity) or an organ such as the liver (hepatotoxicity). By extension, the word may be metaphorically used to describe toxic effects on larger and more complex groups, such as the family unit or society at large. Sometimes the word is more or less synonymous with poisoning in everyday usage. A central concept of toxicology is that the effects of a toxicant are dose-dependent; even water can lead to water intoxication when taken in too high a dose, whereas for even a very toxic substance such as snake venom there is a dose below which there is no detectable toxic effect. Considering the limitations of this dose-response concept, a novel Drug Toxicity Index (DTI) has been proposed recently.[2] DTI redefines drug toxicity, ide

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Pharmacology

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Toxicology

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Jet fuel

topic

Jet fuel

Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines. It is colorless to straw-colored in appearance. The most commonly used fuels for commercial aviation are Jet A and Jet A-1, which are produced to a standardized international specification. The only other jet fuel commonly used in civilian turbine-engine powered aviation is Jet B, which is used for its enhanced cold-weather performance. Jet fuel is a mixture of a variety of hydrocarbons. Because the exact composition of jet fuel varies widely based on petroleum source, it is impossible to define jet fuel as a ratio of specific hydrocarbons. Jet fuel is therefore defined as a performance specification rather than a chemical compound.[1] Furthermore, the range of molecular mass between hydrocarbons (or different carbon numbers) is defined by the requirements for the product, such as the freezing point or smoke point. Kerosene-type jet fuel (including Jet A and Jet A-1, JP-5,

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Chemical articles with multiple CAS registry nu...

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Petroleum products

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Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm for Humans

topic

Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm for Humans

The Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm for Humans (AHAAH) is a mathematical model of the human auditory system that calculates the risk to human hearing caused by exposure to impulse sounds, such as gunfire and airbag deployment. It was developed by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) to assess the effectiveness of hearing protection devices and aid the design of machinery and weapons to make them safer for the user.[1][2] In 2015, the AHAAH became one of the two metrics used by the U.S. Department of Defense to approve the Military Standard (MIL-STD) 1474E for regulating maximum noise level exposure from military systems.[3][4] It is also used by the Society of Automotive Engineers to calculate the hazard of airbag noise and by the Israeli Defense Force for impulse noise analysis.[5] Overview Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) typically occurs when the auditory system experiences an elevation of hearing thresholds due to exposure to high-level noise, a phenomenon known as a temporary threshold shift

Hearing loss

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Deafness

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Audiology

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NIOSH air filtration rating

topic

NIOSH air filtration rating

A filtering facepiece N95 dust mask. Half-face air-purifying respirator with combination P100 particulate filter (magenta) and organic vapor (black) cartridge. A firefighter wearing an N95 dust mask The NIOSH air filtration rating is the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)'s classification of filtering respirators. The ratings describe the ability of the device to protect the wearer from dust and liquid droplets in the air. The certification and approval process for respiratory protective devices is governed by Part 84 of Title 42 of the Code of Federal Regulations (42 CFR 84).[1] Respiratory protective devices so classified include air-purifying respirators (APR) such as filtering facepiece respirators (dust masks) and chemical protective cartridges that have incorporated particulate filter elements. The classifications only cover the filtration of particles or aerosols, but not the air-purifying respirator's ability to remove chemical gasses and vapors from air, which

Respirators

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Occupational safety and health

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Medical masks

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Lockout–tagout

topic

Lockout–tagout

Folding lockout hasp, allowing six padlocks to lock out one device. Lock Out, Tag Out (LOTO), Lock Out, Tag Out, Try Out (LOTOTO) or lock and tag is a safety procedure used in industry and research settings to ensure that dangerous machines are properly shut off and not able to be started up again prior to the completion of maintenance or repair work. It requires that hazardous energy sources be "isolated and rendered inoperative" before work is started on the equipment in question. The isolated power sources are then locked and a tag is placed on the lock identifying the worker who placed it. The worker then holds the key for the lock, ensuring that only he or she can remove the lock and start the machine. This prevents accidental startup of a machine while it is in a hazardous state or while a worker is in direct contact with it.[1] Lockout-tagout is used across industries as a safe method of working on hazardous equipment and is mandated by law in some countries. Procedure Tags left in place in a pow

Safety codes

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Occupational safety and health

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Underwater diving training organizations

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Sexually transmitted infections in the pornography industry

topic

Sexually transmitted infections in the pornography industry

Sexually transmitted infections in the pornography industry deals with the occupational safety and health issue in the sex industry of transmission of sexually transmitted infections/diseases (STIs/STDs), especially HIV/AIDS, which became a major cause of concern since the 1980s, especially for pornographic film actors. As of 2009, 22 HIV cases in the U.S. pornography industry have been reported; roughly half were among men who work in gay films, and the other half were men and women working in heterosexual productions.[1] Types of diseases Because pornographic film making involves unsimulated sex, usually without condoms (barebacking), pornographic actors are particularly vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases including chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV/AIDS.[2][3][4] HIV cases 1980s and 1990s Aiden Shaw became HIV positive in 1997[5] Brooke Ashley became HIV positive in 1998 but returned to pornography in 2005 in a film with her boyfriend Eddie Wood, who was also HIV positive.[6] Acc

Research on the effects of pornography

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STDs in the sex industry

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Condoms

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Dental aerosol

topic

Dental aerosol

Dental aerosol from a dental hand piece A dental aerosol is an aerosol that is produced from dental instruments like ultrasonic scalers, dental handpieces, three-way syringes and other high-speed instruments. These aerosols are air suspended in the clinical environment.[1] These aerosols can pose risks to the clinician, staff and other patients as well.  The heavier particles (>50 µm ) of the aerosols suspend in the air for relatively short period and settles down quickly, but the lighter particles tend to remain suspended for longer periods and are capable to enter and get deposited in the lungs when they are inhaled and possess the capacity of transmitting diseases.[2] Dental aerosols flushing out of dental hand piece Composition These dental aerosols are also bioaerosols which are contaminated with bacteria, fungi and viruses of the oral cavity, skin and the water used in the dental units.[3] Dental aerosols also have micro-particles of the burs, and silica particles which are one of the components o

Occupational hazards

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Aerosols

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Occupational safety and health

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Occupational hazards in dentistry

topic

Occupational hazards in dentistry

Occupational hazards in dentistry are occupational hazards that are specifically associated with a dental care environment. Members of the dental team including dentists, hygienists, dental nurses and radiographers must ensure local protocols are followed to minimise risk. Radiation Wall protecting worker from primary beam whilst allowing visual communication with patient. Exposure to radiation can result in harm, categorised as either deterministic or stochastic. Deterministic effects occur above a certain threshold of radiation e.g. burns, cataracts. Stochastic events are random occurrences after exposure to radiation as there is not a threshold dose above which they will occur e.g. carcinogenesis.[1] Whilst radiation occurs naturally in the environment, additional exposure for medical purposes should be limited to where benefit outweighs risk to both staff and patients. The World Dental Federation guidelines highlight that operators of dental radiography equipment must be sufficiently trained and qua

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Occupational hazards

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Dentistry

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Coronavirus disease 2019

topic

Coronavirus disease 2019

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).[6] The disease was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of China's Hubei province, and has since spread globally, resulting in the ongoing 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic.[7][8] Common symptoms include fever, cough and shortness of breath.[9] Other symptoms may include fatigue, muscle pain, diarrhea, sore throat, loss of smell and abdominal pain.[3][10][11] While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some progress to viral pneumonia and multi-organ failure.[7][12] As of 7 April 2020, more than 1.35 million[5] cases have been reported in more than 200 countries and territories,[13] resulting in more than 75,900 deaths.[5] More than 289,000 people have recovered.[5] The virus is mainly spread during close contact[a] and by small droplets produced when those infected cough, sneeze or talk.[4][14][15] These small droplets may also be produced during breathi

Viral respiratory tract infections

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Pages with DOIs inactive as of 2020 April

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COVID-19

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2019–20 coronavirus pandemic

topic

2019–20 coronavirus pandemic

The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic is an ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).[6][b] The outbreak started in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, in December 2019. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 January 2020 and recognized it as a pandemic on 11 March 2020.[8][9] As of 7 April 2020, approximately 1.41 million cases of COVID-19 have been reported in 209 countries and territories,[5] resulting in approximately 81,200 deaths.[4] Approximately 298,000 people have recovered.[4] The virus is mainly spread during close contact[c] and by small droplets produced when those infected cough, sneeze or talk.[10][11][12] These droplets may also be produced during breathing; however, they rapidly fall to the ground or surfaces and are not generally spread through the air over large distances.[10][13][14] People may also become infected by touching a con

2020 health disasters

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Pneumonia

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Current events

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Occupational hazards with fire debris cleanup

topic

Occupational hazards with fire debris cleanup

Wildfires that extend into residential areas may pose a hazard to those tasked with cleaning up the debris that has been left behind.[1] Asbestos is still quite commonly found in older buildings, which has well known health risks, but there are also risks from degraded roofing tiles, melted metals and electronics, as well as the sooty residues from a whole range of burnt materials. Types of exposure Burned residential areas may contain crystalline silica, asbestos, metals, or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Silica Silica, or silicon dioxide, can occur in a crystalline or noncrystalline (amorphous) form. In fire debris, silica can be found in concrete, roofing tiles, or it may be a naturally occurring element in the rocks and soil of the burnt out areas. Occupational exposures silica can cause silicosis, lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, airway diseases, and some additional non-respiratory diseases.[2] The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)and National Insti

Firefighting

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Occupational safety and health

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Surgical mask

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Surgical mask

A surgical mask A surgical mask, also known as a procedure mask, medical mask or simply as a face mask,[1][2] is intended to be worn by health professionals during surgery and during nursing to catch the bacteria shed in liquid droplets and aerosols from the wearer's mouth and nose. They are not designed to protect the wearer from inhaling airborne bacteria or virus particles and are less effective than respirators, such as N95 or FFP masks, which provide better protection due to their material, shape and tight seal. Surgical masks are popularly worn by the general public all year round in East Asian countries like China, Japan and South Korea to reduce the chance of spreading airborne diseases to others, and to prevent the breathing in of airborne dust particles created by air pollution.[3] Additionally, surgical masks have become a fashion statement, particularly in contemporary East Asian culture bolstered by its popularity in Japanese and Korean pop culture which have a big impact on East Asian youth cu

Occupational safety and health

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Medical masks

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Medical hygiene

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Firefighter

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Firefighter

A firefighter is a rescuer extensively trained in firefighting, primarily to extinguish hazardous fires that threaten life, property and the environment as well as to rescue people and animals from dangerous situations. The complexity of modern, industrialized life has created an increase in the skills needed in firefighting technology. The fire service, also known in some countries as the fire brigade or fire department, is one of the three main emergency services. From urban areas to aboard ships, firefighters have become ubiquitous around the world. The skills required for safe operations are regularly practiced during training evaluations throughout a firefighter's career. Initial firefighting skills are normally taught through local, regional or state-approved fire academies or training courses.[1] Depending on the requirements of a department, additional skills and certifications such as technical rescue and pre-hospital medicine may also be acquired at this time. Firefighters work closely with other

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Protective service occupations

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Firefighters

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Firefighting in the United States

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Firefighting in the United States

Streets of New York (1869) As of 2018, there are around 1,216,600 firefighters serving in 27,228[1] fire departments nationwide and responding to emergencies from 58,150 fire stations. Of those firefighters, 31% or 346,150 were career firefighters and 69% or 788,250 were volunteers.[2] Overview A Fire department responds to a fire every 23 seconds throughout the United States.[3] Fire departments responded to 33,602,500 calls for service in 2015. 21,500,000 were for medical help, 2,533,500 were false alarms, and 1,345,500 were for actual fires.[4] Since at least 1980, calls for fires have decreased as a proportion of total calls and in absolute numbers from 3,000,000 to 1,400,000 in 2011, while in the same period medical calls have increased from 5,000,000 to 19,800,000.[5][6] While some medical calls are dealt with only by ambulances, it is common for fire engines to respond to them as well.[7] The professionalization of American firefighting was largely a result of three factors: the steam fire engines

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Disaster preparedness in the United States

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Firefighting in the United States

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Firefighting

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Firefighting

Firefighters at a major fire involving an abandoned convent in Canada, 2006 Kaman K-MAX helicopter fighting wildfires in Utah Firefighting is the act of attempting to prevent the spread of and extinguish significant unwanted fires in buildings, vehicles, woodlands, etc. A firefighter suppresses fires to protect lives, property and the environment.[1] Firefighters typically undergo a high degree of technical training.[1][2] This involves structural firefighting and wildland firefighting. Specialized training includes aircraft firefighting, shipboard firefighting, aerial firefighting, maritime firefighting, and proximity firefighting. One of the major hazards associated with firefighting operations is the toxic environment created by combustible materials. The four major risks are smoke, oxygen deficiency, elevated temperatures, and poisonous atmospheres.[3] Additional hazards include falls and structural collapse that can exacerbate the problems encountered in a toxic environment. To combat some of thes

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Fire

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Handbook of COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment

topic

Handbook of COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment

The Handbook of COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment was released on 31 March 2020. It was "compiled according to clinical experience" at the The First Affiliated Hospital of the Zhejiang University School of Medicine, who had[1] “ over the past 50 days, 104 confirmed patients have been admitted to FAHZU, including 78 severe and critically ill ones. Thanks to the pioneering efforts of medical staff and the application of new technologies, to date, we have witnessed a miracle. No staff were infected, and there were no missed diagnosis or patient deaths. ” References LIANG, Tingbo, ed. (31 March 2020). The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine. Zhejiang University School of Medicine: Alibaba Cloud. p. 68.

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COVID-19

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Viral respiratory tract infections

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Mitigation

topic

Mitigation

Mitigation is the reduction of something harmful or the reduction of its harmful effects.[1] It may refer measures taken to reduce the harmful effects of hazards that remain in potentia,[2] or to manage harmful incidents that have already occurred.[1] It is a stage or component of emergency management and of risk management.[2] Disaster mitigation An all-hazards approach to disaster management considers all known hazards and their natural and anthropogenic potential risks and impacts, with the intention of ensuring that measures taken to mitigate against one type of risk do not increase vulnerability to other types of risks. Proactive disaster mitigation measures are generally more effective than reactive measures in eliminating or reducing the impacts,[2] but not all disasters are reasonably foreseeable, and when an unforseen disaster occurs, mitigation is necessarily after the fact. Proactive disaster mitigation measures may be structural or non-structural, and will generally be based on measurement and a

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