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20th century


20th century

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20th century

The Blue Marble, Earth as seen from Apollo 17 in December 1972. The second half of the 20th century saw humanity's first space exploration. The 20th (twentieth) century was a century that began on January 1, 1901[1] and ended on December 31, 2000.[2] It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium. It is distinct from the century known as the 1900s which began on January 1, 1900, and ended on December 31, 1999. The 20th century was dominated by a chain of events that heralded significant changes in world history as to redefine the era: flu pandemic, World War I and World War II, nuclear power and space exploration, nationalism and decolonization, the Cold War and post-Cold War conflicts; intergovernmental organizations and cultural homogenization through developments in emerging transportation and communications technology; poverty reduction and world population growth, awareness of environmental degradation, ecological extinction;[3][4] and the birth of the Digital Revolution, enabled by the wide

2nd millennium

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Centuries

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Modern history

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2000s (decade)

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2000s (decade)

From left, clockwise: The World Trade Center on fire and the Statue of Liberty during the 9/11 attacks in 2001; the euro enters into European currency in 2002; a statue of Saddam Hussein being toppled during the Iraq War in 2003; U.S. troops heading toward an army helicopter in Afghanistan during the War on Terror; social media through the Internet spreads across the world; a Chinese soldier gazes at the 2008 Summer Olympics commencing in Beijing; an economic crisis, the largest since the Great Depression, hits the world in 2008; a tsunami from the Indian Ocean earthquake kills over 230,000 in 2004. The 2000s (pronounced "two-thousands") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 2000, and ended on December 31, 2009. The growth of the Internet contributed to globalization during the decade, which allowed faster communication among people around the world.[1][2][3][4][5] The economic growth of the 2000s had considerable social, environmental, and mass extinction consequences, and raised

Contemporary history

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Lists that need to be alphabetized

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2000s

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Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS

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Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS

AIDS and HIV prevalence 2009   No data   

20th-century epidemics

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21st-century epidemics

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20th-century health disasters

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Age of Oil

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Age of Oil

Offshore oil well drilling platform Continental Oil Co., C.A.T.C., Gulf of Mexico, 1955. The Age of Oil,[1] also known as the Oil Age,[2][3] the Petroleum Age, [4][5] ,or the Oil Boom, refers to the era in human history characterised by an increased use of petroleum in products and as fuel. Though unrefined petroleum has been used for various purposes since ancient times, it was during the 19th century that refinement techniques were developed and gasoline engines were created. Although crude petroleum oil has been used for a variety of purposes for thousands of years, the Oil Age is considered to have started in the 1800s with the advance of drilling techniques, as well as the processing of products made use in internal combustion engines. Alternatively, the age of oil can be placed in the first period until the early 1900s, when oil consumption and combustion engines utilization increased. Contemporary industrial society is built largely on petroleum resources, but the future of the Oil Age has become in

21st century

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Petroleum politics

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20th century

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American Century

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American Century

The American Century[1][2] is a characterization of the period since the middle of the 20th century as being largely dominated by the United States in political, economic, and cultural terms. It is comparable to the description of the period 1815–1914 as Britain's Imperial Century.[3] The United States' influence grew throughout the 20th century, but became especially dominant after the end of World War II, when only two superpowers remained, the United States and the Soviet Union. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the United States remained the world's only superpower,[4] and became the hegemon, or what some have termed a hyperpower.[5] Origin of the phrase The term was coined by Time publisher Henry Luce to describe what he thought the role of the United States would be and should be during the 20th century.[6] Luce, the son of a missionary, in a February 17, 1941 Life magazine editorial[7] urged the United States to forsake isolationism for a missionary's role, acting as the world's Good

CS1 errors: invalid mode

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Eras of United States history

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20th century

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Atomic Age

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Atomic Age

An early nuclear power plant that used atomic energy to generate electricity. The Atomic Age, also known as the Atomic Era, is the period of history following the detonation of the first nuclear weapon, The Gadget at the Trinity test in New Mexico, on July 16, 1945, during World War II. Although nuclear chain reactions had been hypothesized in 1933 and the first artificial self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction (Chicago Pile-1) had taken place in December 1942,[1] the Trinity test and the ensuing bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki that ended World War II represented the first large-scale use of nuclear technology and ushered in profound changes in sociopolitical thinking and the course of technology development. While atomic power was promoted for a time as the epitome of progress and modernity,[2] entering into the nuclear power era also entailed frightful implications of nuclear warfare, the Cold War, mutual assured destruction, nuclear proliferation, the risk of nuclear disaster (potentially as extreme a

Nuclear history

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Nuclear warfare

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20th century

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Belle Époque

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Belle Époque

The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque (French: ; French for "Beautiful Epoch") was a period of Western history. It is conventionally dated from the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871 to the outbreak of World War I in 1914.[1] Occurring during the era of the French Third Republic (beginning 1870), it was a period characterized by optimism, regional peace, economic prosperity, an apex of colonial empires, and technological, scientific, and cultural innovations. In the climate of the period, especially in Paris, France, the arts flourished. Many masterpieces of literature, music, theater, and visual art gained recognition. The Belle Époque was named in retrospect when it began to be considered a "Golden Age" in contrast to the horrors of World War I. The Belle Epoque was a period in which, according to historian R.R. Palmer, "European civilization achieved its greatest power in global politics, and also exerted its maximum influence upon peoples outside Europe."[2] In the United Kingdom, the Belle Époque over

Started in 1871 in France

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Ended in 1914 in France

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19th century

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Bengali renaissance

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Bengali renaissance

Rabindranath Tagore was a poet, philosopher and artist. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913. The Bengali Renaissance or simply Bengal Renaissance, (Bengali: বাংলার নবজাগরণ; Banglār Nobojāgoroṇ) was a cultural, social, intellectual and artistic movement in Bengal region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent during the period of the British Indian Empire, from the nineteenth century to the early twentieth century dominated by Bengalis.[1] Historian Nitish Sengupta describes the Bengal Renaissance as taking place from Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1775–1833) through Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941).[2] According to historian Sumit Sarkar, nineteenth-century Bengali religious and social reformers, scholars, literary giants, journalists, patriotic orators and scientists were revered and regarded with nostalgia in the early and mid-twentieth century. In the early 1970s, however, a more critical view emerged. "Few serious scholars could deny that nineteenth-century Bengal had fallen considerably sho

Renaissance by country

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Hindu movements

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Brahmoism

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Blessed Michael

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Blessed Michael

Blessed Michael may refer to: Blessed Michał Sopoćko, the Apostle of Divine Mercy Blessed Michał Kozal, bishop and martyr See also Saint Michael

Roman Catholic Church

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20th century

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Cajun fiddle

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Cajun fiddle

Michael Doucet Cajun fiddle music is a part of the American fiddle music canon. It is derived from the music of southwest Louisiana and southeast Texas, as well as sharing repertoire from the Quebec and Cape Breton Island traditions.[1] It is one of the few extant North American folk music traditions rooted in French chanson.[2] According to Ron Yule, "Louisiana fiddling had its birth roots in Europe, with fiddling being noted as early as the 1400s in Scotland".[3] Zydeco music is a geographically, culturally, and musically related style. Cajun music Cajun music, an emblematic music of Louisiana, is rooted in the ballads of the French-speaking Acadians of Canada. Cajun music is often mentioned in tandem with the Creole-based, Cajun-influenced zydeco form, both of Acadiana origin. These French Louisiana sounds have influenced American popular music for many decades, especially country music, and have influenced pop culture through mass media, such as television commercials. It is an aural tradition dating p

Cajun music

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19th century in music

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20th century in music

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Counterintelligence state

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Counterintelligence state

Russian President Vladimir Putin and former FSB director Nikolai Patrushev at a meeting of the board of the Federal Security Service in 2002. Counterintelligence state (sometimes also called intelligence state, securocracy or spookocracy) is a state where the state security service penetrates and permeates all societal institutions, including the military.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] The term has been applied by historians and political commentators to the former Soviet Union, the former German Democratic Republic, Cuba after the 1959 revolution, Iraq under Saddam Hussein, post-Soviet Russia under Vladimir Putin and the United States of America, especially after the Global surveillance disclosures. According to one definition, "The counterintelligence state is characterized by the presence of a large, elite force acting as a watchdog of a security defined as broadly that the state must maintain an enormous vigilance and enforcement apparatus... This apparatus is not accountable to the public and enjoys immense pol

Militarism

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Political science terminology

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Political science terms

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Edwardian era

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Edwardian era

The Edwardian era or Edwardian period of British history covers the brief reign of King Edward VII, 1901 to 1910, and is sometimes extended to the start of the First World War. The death of Queen Victoria in January 1901 marked the end of the Victorian era. Her son and successor, Edward VII, was already the leader of a fashionable elite that set a style influenced by the art and fashions of continental Europe. Samuel Hynes described the Edwardian era as a "leisurely time when women wore picture hats and did not vote, when the rich were not ashamed to live conspicuously, and the sun really never set on the British flag."[1] The Liberals returned to power in 1906 and made significant reforms. Below the upper class, the era was marked by significant shifts in politics among sections of society that had largely been excluded from power, such as labourers, servants, and the industrial working class. Women started to play more of a role in politics.[2] Perceptions The Edwardian period is sometimes portrayed as a

Edwardian era

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History of the United Kingdom by period

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Edward VII

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Digital Revolution

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Digital Revolution

A visualization of the various routes through a portion of the Internet. The Digital Revolution is the shift from mechanical and analogue electronic technology to digital electronics which began anywhere from the late 1950s to the late 1970s with the adoption and proliferation of digital computers and digital record keeping that continues to the present day.[1] Implicitly, the term also refers to the sweeping changes brought about by digital computing and communication technology during (and after) the latter half of the 20th century. Analogous to the Agricultural Revolution and Industrial Revolution, the Digital Revolution marked the beginning of the Information Age.[2] Central to this revolution is the mass production and widespread use of digital logic, MOSFETs (MOS transistors), and integrated circuit (IC) chips, and their derived technologies, including computers, microprocessors, digital cellular phones, and the Internet.[3] These technological innovations have transformed traditional production and b

Digital Revolution

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Globalization-related theories

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21st century

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Effects of the Cold War

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Effects of the Cold War

Part of a series on theHistory of the Cold War Origins of the Cold War World War II(Hiroshima and Nagasaki)War conferencesEastern BlocWestern BlocIron Curtain Cold War (1947–1953) Cold War (1953–1962) Cold War (1962–1979) Cold War (1979–1985) Cold War (1985–1991) Frozen conflicts Timeline · ConflictsHistoriography Cold War II The Cold War has had many effects on society, from the end of the war up until today. Primarily, communism was defeated. In Russia, military spending was cut dramatically and quickly. The effects of this were very large, seeing as the military-industrial sector had previously employed one of every five Soviet adults[1] and its dismantling left hundreds of millions throughout the former Soviet Union unemployed.[1] After Russia embarked on economic reforms in the 1990's, it suffered a financial crisis and a recession more severe than the United States and Germany had experienced during the Great Depression.[2] Russian living standards have worsened overall in the po

Aftermath of the Cold War

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20th century

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Cold War

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The End of History and the Last Man

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The End of History and the Last Man

The End of History and the Last Man (1992), by Francis Fukuyama, is a political book of philosophy which proposes that with the ascendancy of Western liberal democracy – occurred after the Cold War (1945–1991) and the dissolution of the Soviet Union (1991) – humanity had reached "not just ... the passing of a particular period of post-war history, but the end of history as such: That is, the end-point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government".[1] As an expansion of his essay "The End of History" (1989), for the book The End of History and the Last Man Fukuyama drew upon the philosophies and ideologies of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Karl Marx, who defined human history as a linear progression, from one socio-economic epoch to another.[1] [2] Highlights History should be viewed as an evolutionary process. Events still occur at the end of history. Pessimism about humanity's future is warranted because of humanity's

Works originally published in American magazines

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Works originally published in political magazines

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1989 essays

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20th-century events

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20th-century events

Events in the 20th century The world at the beginning of the century From 1914 to 1918, the First World War, and its aftermath, caused major changes in the power balance of the world, destroying or transforming some of the most powerful empires. "The war to end all wars": World War I (1914–1918) Picture believed to depict the arrest of Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo The First World War (or simply WWI), termed "The Great War" by contemporaries, started in 1914 and ended in 1918. It was ignited by the Assassination in Sarajevo of the Austro-Hungarian Empire's heir to the throne, Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand, by Gavrilo Princip of the organization "Young Bosnia," Bosnian Serbs' liberation movement.[1] Bound by Slavic nationalism to help the small Serbian state, the Russians came to the aid of the Serbs when they were attacked. Interwoven alliances, an increasing arms race, and old hatreds dragged Europe into the war.[2] The Allies, known initially as "The Triple Entente", comprised the British Empire, France an

Modern history

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20th century

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Fame in the 20th Century

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Fame in the 20th Century

First edition Fame in the 20th Century is a 1993 BBC documentary television series and book by Clive James. The book and series examined the phenomenon of fame and how it expanded to international mass media proportions throughout the 20th century. The 8 episodes were divided in roughly 8 decades, from the 1900s to the 1980s. Each episode highlighted world-famous people during that part of the century. James delivered interesting and amusing comments about the portrayed celebrities and the various ways they became famous. In the United States, the series were broadcast on PBS, though some footage was occasionally cut if the rights to it were too expensive. The series has never been repeated on television since, which James attributes to the fact that "every inch of footage in the gigantic compilation belonged to some agency legally equipped to charge the Earth."[1] Concept James and his team developed the series as a study on the concept fame, and more specifically "world fame". They focused on over 250 p

1990s British television miniseries

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1993 British television series debuts

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1993 British television series endings

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The God of the Machine

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The God of the Machine

The God of the Machine is a book written by Isabel Paterson and originally published in January 1943 in the United States by the G. P. Putnam's Sons.[1] At the time of its release, it was considered a cornerstone to the philosophy of individualism.[2] Her biographer, Stephen D. Cox, in 2004 described Paterson as the "earliest progenitor of libertarianism as we know it today".[3] The book has been published several times, by G. P. Putnam's Sons in 1943; by Muriel Hall in 1964;[4] by Transaction Publishers in 1993;[5] by Routledge in 2017.[6] Background Isabel Paterson wrote a regular column for the New York Herald Tribune, where she first articulated many of her beliefs, which reached their final form in The God of the Machine. She also foreshadowed those ideas, especially free trade, in her historical novels during the 1920s and 1930s. Paterson opposed most parts of the economic program known as the New Deal that US president Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Congress put into effect during the 1930s and she

Individualism

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1943 books

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Ethical schools and movements

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Harvard Project on Cold War Studies

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Harvard Project on Cold War Studies

The stated function of the Harvard Project on Cold War Studies (HPWCS) is to further the progress of, and actively encourage the ongoing primary research of archival, Cold War documents in the former Eastern-bloc nations. These documents have only become available since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, and rapidly increase in numbers year by year. This function, or focus, is then combined with the intent to build on and apply the knowledge gained from this process. The project also encourages scholars and students to apply insights gained from research to current discourses pertaining to areas of international and domestic politics. Overview Another component of this focus is helping to sort through these documents with the Cold War International History Project (CWIHP), and the National Security Archive, which have the lead sorting through these documents. Therefore, the Harvard project adds the resources of its large and distinguished university to this substantial task.[1][2][3] Furthermore, th

Historiography of the United States

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Harvard University publications

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Cold War

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The Holocaust

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The Holocaust

The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah,[b] was the World War II genocide of the European Jews. Between 1941 and 1945, across German-occupied Europe, Nazi Germany and its collaborators systematically murdered some six million Jews, around two-thirds of Europe's Jewish population.[a][c] The murders were carried out in pogroms and mass shootings; by a policy of extermination through labour in concentration camps; and in gas chambers and gas vans in German extermination camps, chiefly Auschwitz, Bełżec, Chełmno, Majdanek, Sobibór, and Treblinka in occupied Poland.[5] Germany implemented the persecution in stages. Following Adolf Hitler's appointment as Chancellor on 30 January 1933, the regime built a network of concentration camps in Germany for political opponents and those deemed "undesirable", starting with Dachau on 22 March 1933.[6] After the passing of the Enabling Act on 24 March,[7] which gave Hitler plenary powers, the government began isolating Jews from civil society, which included a boycott of Jewi

Vichy France

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History of modern Western subcultures

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History of modern Western subcultures

The 20th century saw the rise and fall of many subcultures. 20th century Fin de siècle In the early part of the 20th century, subcultures were mostly informal groupings of like-minded individuals with the same views or lifestyle. The Bloomsbury group in London was one example, providing a place where the diverse talents of people like Virginia Woolf, Leonard Woolf, John Maynard Keynes, and E.M. Forster could interact. Other pre-World War I subcultures were smaller social groupings of hobbyists or a matter of style and philosophy amongst artists and bohemian poets. In Germany, from 1896 onward there developed a movement of young men (and later young women) which focused on freedom and natural environments. Called Wandervogel (translated as "hikers", "ramblers" or, more precisely, "migratory birds"), they wanted to throw off the strict rules of society and be more open and natural. The first known organized club for nudists, Freilichtpark (Free-Light Park), was opened near Hamburg, Germany, in 1903. In Italy,

Cultural history

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History of subcultures

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Subcultures

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Imagination age

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Imagination age

The imagination age is a theoretical period beyond the information age where creativity and imagination will become the primary creators of economic value. This contrasts with the information age where analysis and thinking were the main activities.[1][2] The concept holds that technologies like virtual reality, user created content and YouTube will change the way humans interact with each other and how they create economic and social structures. A key concept is that the rise of the immersive virtual reality, the cyberspace or the metaverse will raise the value of imagination work of designers, artists, video makers and actors over rational thinking as a foundation of culture and economics. Origins of the term The terms imagination age and "age of imagination" were first introduced in an essay by designer and writer Charlie Magee in 1993. His essay,[3] "The Age of Imagination: Coming Soon to a Civilization Near You" proposes the idea that the best way to assess the evolution of human civilization is throug

Imagination

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Modern history

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21st century

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Industrial Age

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Industrial Age

Iron and Coal, 1855–60, by William Bell Scott illustrates the rise of coal and iron working in the Industrial Revolution and the heavy engineering projects they made possible. The Industrial Age is a period of history that encompasses the changes in economic and social organization that began around 1760 in Great Britain and later in other countries, characterized chiefly by the replacement of hand tools with power-driven machines such as the power loom and the steam engine, and by the concentration of industry in large establishments.[1][2] While it is commonly believed that the Industrial Age was supplanted by the Information Age in the late 20th century,[3] a view that has become common since the Revolutions of 1989, much of the Third World economy is still based on manufacturing. It is thus debatable whether civilisation has left the Industrial Age already or is still in it and in the process of reaching the Information Age.[4] Origins Huge changes in agricultural methods made the Industrial Revolutio

21st century in technology

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18th century in technology

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18th century

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International Human Rights Tribunal

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International Human Rights Tribunal

Title Page with logo of the Human Rights Tribunal The International Human Rights Tribunal (IHRT) was a symbolic tribunal which took place in Vienna, Austria, in June 1995.[1][2][3][4] It was chaired by environmental and human rights activist Freda Meissner-Blau and Gerhard Oberschlick, editor of FORVM, and was dedicated to the persecution of lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transgender persons in Austria from 1945 to 1995. International committee As the organizers feared repressions by the Republic of Austria,[5] they asked prominent figures from the international human rights community to join the International Committee and thus protect the endeavour. Amongst the members were Jacques Gaillot, bishop of Partenia, politicians Mel Read (UK), Svend Robinson (Canada), Claudia Roth (Germany) and Terezija Stoisits (Austria), writers Kuno Knöbl, Christine Nöstlinger and Gerhard Roth, developmentalist Robert Chambers (Frankfurt), sociologist Bernd Marin and human rights lawyer Manfred Nowak (both Vienna), political

1995 in law

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Human rights in Austria

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20th century in Austria

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Information Age

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Information Age

The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age) is a historic period beginning in the 20th century and characterized by the rapid shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization to an economy primarily based upon information technology.[1][2][3][4] The onset of the Information Age can be associated with the development of transistor technology,[4] particularly the MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor),[5][6] which revolutionized modern technology[4] and became the fundamental building block of digital electronics in the information age.[5][6] According to the United Nations Public Administration Network, the Information Age formed by capitalizing on computer microminiaturization advances.[7] This usage of computing technology within the wider society has led to modernized information and communication processes becoming the driving force of social evolution.[2] Progression Rings of time showing some

Sociocultural evolution

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21st century

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Information Age

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Inverted totalitarianism

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Inverted totalitarianism

The political philosopher Sheldon Wolin coined the term inverted totalitarianism in 2003 to describe what he saw as the emerging form of government of the United States. Wolin analysed the United States as increasingly turning into a managed democracy (similar to an illiberal democracy). He uses the term "inverted totalitarianism" to draw attention to the totalitarian aspects of the American political system while emphasizing its differences from proper totalitarianism, such as Nazi and Stalinist regimes.[1] The book Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt (2012) by Chris Hedges and Joe Sacco portrays inverted totalitarianism as a system where corporations have corrupted and subverted democracy and where economics bests politics.[2][3][4][5] Every natural resource and living being is commodified and exploited by large corporations to the point of collapse as excess consumerism and sensationalism lull and manipulate the citizenry into surrendering their liberties and their participation in government.[6][7] Inv

Words and phrases introduced in 2004

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Political science terminology

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Fascism

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Interwar period

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Interwar period

Map of the world in 1921, shortly after the end of the First World War. In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939. This period is also colloquially referred to as Between the Wars. Despite the relatively short period of time, this period represented an era of significant changes worldwide. Petroleum-based energy production and associated mechanisation expanded dramatically leading to the Roaring Twenties, a period of economic prosperity and growth for the middle class in North America, Europe and many other parts of the world. Automobiles, electric lighting, radio broadcasts and more became commonplace among populations in the developed world. The indulgences of this era subsequently were followed by the Great Depression, an unprecedented worldwide economic downturn which severely damaged many of the world's largest economies. Politically, this era

Modern history

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1918

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20th century in North America

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Machine Age

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Machine Age

Metalworking machinery A freight locomotive Bonneville Dam (1933–37) The Machine Age[1][2][3] is an era that includes the early 20th century, sometimes also including the late 19th century. An approximate dating would be about 1880 to 1945. Considered to be at a peak in the time between the first and second world wars, it forms a late part of the Second Industrial Revolution. The 1940s saw the beginning of the Atomic Age, where modern physics saw new applications such as the atomic bomb,[4] the first computers,[5] and the transistor.[6] The Digital Revolution ended the intellectual model of the machine age founded in the mechanical and heralding a new more complex model of high technology. The digital era has been called the Second Machine Age, with its increased focus on machines that do mental tasks. Universal chronology Developments The Yamato and other battleships in World War II were the heaviest artillery-carrying ships ever launched. They proved inferior to aircraft carri

19th century in technology

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19th century

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20th century in technology

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Old Time

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Old Time

The Dapper Dans, a barbershop quartet at Walt Disney World, present Old Timeyness to park guests. "Old time" and "old timey" are terms used to describe stereotyped images and representations of the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the United States, generally not more than a generation before or after the start of the 20th century. The term "old timeyness" is used more rarely. All these terms may also be used in a more general sense, in which case, they are synonymous with "old fashioned" or "antique". Connotation Old timeyness is sometimes considered campy and put forth as a sort of "ultra-corniness". At other rare times, it is used to invoke an era of integrity and quality that stands in opposition to inferior "newfangled" ways of doing things. Distinctions While they refer to the same era, "old time" has a different connotation than the term fin de siècle (end of century). The latter evokes images of sophistication to the point of decadence, a connotation opposite to that suggested by "old timeyn

19th century

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North American traditional music

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20th century

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20th century in poetry

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20th century in poetry

Decades and years 1890s 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900s 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910s 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920s 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930s 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940s 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950s 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960s 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970s 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980s 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990s 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000s 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Poetry by year

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20th-century poetry

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20th century in the arts

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Post–World War II baby boom

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Post–World War II baby boom

The end of World War II brought a baby boom to many countries, especially Western ones. There is some disagreement as to the precise beginning and ending dates of the post-war baby boom, but it is most often agreed to have begun in the years immediately after the war, though some place it earlier at the increase of births in 1941–1943. The boom started to decline as birth rates in the United States started to decline in 1958, though the boom would only grind to a halt 3 years later in 1961, 20 years after it began. In countries that had suffered heavy war damage, displacement of people, and post-war economic hardship (e.g., Germany and Poland), the boom began some years later. Baby-boom did coincide with the marriage boom, a significant increase in nuptiality.[1] Causes Economist and demographer Richard Easterlin in his "Twentieth Century American Population Growth" (2000), explains the growth pattern of American population in the 20th century by examining the fertility rate fluctuations and the decreasing

20th-century economic history

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20th-century births

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Natalism

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Postmodernity

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Postmodernity

Postmodernity (post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is the economic or cultural state or condition of society which is said to exist after modernity (In this context, "modern" is not used in the sense of "contemporary", but merely as a name for a specific period in history). Some schools of thought hold that modernity ended in the late 20th century – in the 1980s or early 1990s – and that it was replaced by postmodernity, while others would extend modernity to cover the developments denoted by postmodernity, while some believe that modernity ended after World War II. The idea of the post-modern condition is sometimes characterised as a culture stripped of its capacity to function in any linear or autonomous state like regressive isolationism, as opposed to the progressive mindstate of modernism.[1] Postmodernity can mean a personal response to a postmodern society, the conditions in a society which make it postmodern or the state of being that is associated with a postmodern society as well a historic

Modernity

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Cynicism

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21st century

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