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20th century


Racial liberalism era

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Racial liberalism era

Racial liberalism is an era in American history during the 1940s that is considered by many historians as the precursor to the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s. Causes Historians contend that the era of racial liberalism had its roots in New Deal liberalism. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal programs laid out a legacy that inspired and empowered many American citizens who had fallen victim to the Great Depression to challenge the power of corporations and other institutions. The Double V campaign is considered one of the most important events during the period of racial liberalism. The purpose of the campaign was to raise awareness about segregation and racism during World War II. The War was also a source of racial liberalism in that previously marginalized groups of Americans were able to gain a foothold in the economy due to the need for a strong labor force. This gain in economic power translated into strong political power, and as a result, certain government actions, such as Exe

History of African-American civil rights

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African-American history between emancipation a...

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20th century

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Short twentieth century

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Short twentieth century

The term short 20th century, originally proposed by Iván Berend (Hungarian Academy of Sciences) but defined by Eric Hobsbawm,[1] a British Marxist historian and author, refers to the period between the years 1914 and 1991. The period begins with the beginning of the First World War and ends with the collapse of the Soviet Union. The chain of events represented such significant changes in world history as to redefine the era: It started with the First World War, which caused the end of the German, Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian and Russian empires. The Second World War was greatly influenced by the outcome of the First World War. The Cold War was a result of the Second World War and ended with the fall of the Soviet Union. The term is analogous to the long 19th century, also coined by Hobsbawm, denoting the period 1789 to 1914, and to the long 18th century, or approximately 1688 to 1815. See also American Century Cold War The Age of Extremes Long War (20th century) References Footnotes Hobsbawm 1995,

Words coined in the 1990s

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Historiography

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20th century

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Social Darwinism

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Social Darwinism

Social Darwinism is any of various theories of society which emerged in the United Kingdom, North America, and Western Europe in the 1870s, claiming to apply biological concepts of natural selection and survival of the fittest to sociology and politics.[1][2] Social Darwinists argue that the strong should see their wealth and power increase while the weak should see their wealth and power decrease. Different social-Darwinist groups have differing views about which groups of people are considered to be the strong and which groups of people are considered to be the weak, and they also hold different opinions about the precise mechanisms that should be used to reward strength and punish weakness. Many such views stress competition between individuals in laissez-faire capitalism, while others were used in support of authoritarianism, eugenics, racism, imperialism, fascism, Nazism, and struggle between national or racial groups.[3][4][5] As a scientific concept, Social Darwinism broadly declined in popularity fol

Herbert Spencer

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Darwinism

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Maoism

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Space Age

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Space Age

The launch of the Sputnik 1 satellite marked the start of the Space Age.[1] The signals of Sputnik 1 continued for 22 days. The Space Shuttle lifts off on a manned mission to space. The Space Age is a time period encompassing the activities related to the Space Race, space exploration, space technology, and the cultural developments influenced by these events. The Space Age is generally considered to have begun with Sputnik 1 in 1957 and to continue on ever since. Beginning The Space Age began with the development of several technologies that converged with the October 4, 1957 launch of Sputnik 1 by the Soviet Union. This was the world's first artificial satellite, orbiting the Earth in 98.1 minutes and weighing 83 kg (183 lb). The launch of Sputnik 1 ushered in a new era of political, scientific and technological achievements that became known as the Space Age.[2] The Space Age was characterized by rapid development of new technology in a close race mostly between the United States and the Soviet U

1957 in spaceflight

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1957 introductions

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Spaceflight

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Sounds of the 20th Century

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Sounds of the 20th Century

Sounds of the 20th Century is a BBC Radio 2 documentary series originally broadcast in the UK between April 2011 and April 2012. Each 60-minute programme is dedicated to one year from 1951 to 2000 and features a montage of audio relating to that year. Featuring nothing that wasn’t heard, seen or read at the time, other than brief introduction to each episode by Jeremy Vine, the series does not feature any explanations, reminiscences or reflections upon the clips.[1] Instead, the series' website provided a list and description of the audio items, which was also supplied in real time by the show's Twitter feed. It is described as an 'audio journey through five decades of triumph, tragedy and trivia.'[2] The first part of the series was first broadcast at 10pm on Thursday 7 April. Focussing upon 1951, it featured the real King's Speech (as he opens the Festival of Britain), a General Election victory for the Conservatives and their Liberal allies, the first hit single with multi-tracking (Les Paul’s "How High

Radio documentaries

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2011 radio programme debuts

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BBC Radio 2 programmes

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Space Exploration Initiative

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Space Exploration Initiative

Artistic rendition of Space Station Freedom with the STS Orbiter Vehicle The Space Exploration Initiative was a 1989–1993 space public policy initiative of the George H. W. Bush administration. On July 20, 1989, the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 Moon landing, George H. W. Bush — then President of the United States — announced plans for what came to be known as the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI).[1] In a speech on the steps of the National Air and Space Museum he described plans calling for constructing Space Station Freedom, sending humans back to the Moon "to stay" and ultimately sending astronauts to explore Mars. He proposed not a 10-year Apollo-style plan, but a long-range continuing commitment based on the three above elements, ending with "a journey into tomorrow – a journey to another planet – a manned mission to Mars." The President noted it was humanity's destiny to explore, and America's destiny to lead. He asked Vice President Dan Quayle to lead the National Space Council in determining w

Human missions to Mars

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NASA oversight

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Space policy

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Stranger King

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Stranger King

Stranger Kings, Kandi, Ceylon, 1602. In this example, the Dutch explorer Joris van Spilbergen meets King Vimaladharmasuriya I of Kandy. The Stranger King theory offers a framework to understand global colonialism. It seeks to explain the apparent ease whereby many indigenous peoples subjugated themselves to an alien colonial power and places state formation by colonial powers within the continuum of earlier, similar but indigenous processes. It highlights the imposition of colonialism not as the result of the breaking of the spirit of local communities by brute force, or as reflecting an ignorant peasantry's acquiescence in the lies of its self-interested leaders, but as a people's rational and productive acceptance of an opportunity offered. The theory was developed by Marshall Sahlins in the Pacific region and is described by David Henley using the North Sulawesi region in Indonesia as his prime case study. The Stranger King theory suggests similarities and divergences between pre-colonial and colonial p

British Ceylon

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European colonisation in Oceania

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European colonisation in Asia

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Suffrage drama

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Suffrage drama

Suffrage drama (also known as Suffrage Plays or Suffrage theatre) is a form of dramatic literature that emerged during the British women's suffrage movement in the early twentieth century. Suffrage performances lasted approximately from 1907-1914.[1] Many suffrage plays called for a predominant or all female cast. Suffrage plays served to reveal issues behind the suffrage movement. These plays also revealed many of the double standards that women faced on a daily basis. Suffrage theatre was a form of realist theatre, which was influenced by the plays of Henrik Ibsen.[2] Suffrage theatre combined familiar everyday situations with relatable characters on the stage in the style of realist theatre. Pro-suffrage plays Suffrage dramas in favor of women's suffrage often portray strong female characters who illustrate the qualities of a rational, informed voters. They are meant to imply the obsolescence and inaccuracy of gender stereotypes that justified denying women the vote, such as separate spheres philosophy.[

Theatrical genres

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20th century

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Totalitarianism

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Totalitarianism

Joseph Stalin (left), leader of the Soviet Union, and Adolph Hitler (right), leader of Nazi Germany—prototypical dictators of totalitarian regimes Mao Zedong, former Chairman of the Communist Party of China Benito Mussolini, former Duce of Italy Kim Il-sung, the Eternal President of North Korea Totalitarianism is a political system or a form of government that prohibits opposition parties, restricts individual opposition to the state and its claims, and exercises an extremely high degree of control over public and private life. It is regarded as the most extreme and complete form of authoritarianism. Political power in totalitarian states has often been held by rule by one leader which employ all-encompassing propaganda campaigns broadcast by state-controlled mass media. Totalitarian regimes are often characterized by political repression, a total lack of democracy, personality cultism, control over the economy, restriction of speech, mass surveillance, and widespread use of state terrorism. O

Stalinism

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Communism

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21st century in politics

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Because of Romek

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Because of Romek

Because of Romek: A Holocaust Survivor's Memoir is a book written by David Faber. The book chronicles the events in the life of Faber and the horrors of living in Nazi concentration camps. All of Faber's family was killed except his sister who was in England at the time. Faber’s brother, Romek (a nickname), was a Polish soldier and a prisoner of war in Buchenwald. After his release from Buchenwald, he was active in the Polish Underground. Romek was eventually caught and tortured for information before he was murdered in front of his brother Faber.[1][2][3] Review Sonia Eliot of the San Diego Reader wrote: "There’s one scene — he was staying with his family in an empty apartment in the ghetto, and there was a bakery downstairs. Someone had left some flour there from when they were working there, and his family was using that to make bread. At one point, they were actually living pretty decently for the times — they had some food. And then the Germans came and caught them and saw all the food they had, and

Aftermath of the Holocaust

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Nazi war crimes

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20th century

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Drury's

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Drury's

Drury's was a noted restaurant that existed in Montreal, Quebec between 1868 and 1959. Founded by John Drury in 1868, the restaurant served as a tavern and alehouse. The restaurant was passed down to Jimmy Drury (son of John) and sold in 1938 to Leo Dandurand. The restaurant underwent significant changes during the 1930s and it increasingly became well known throughout the city and outside the city. In November 1959, the restaurant was expropriated by the City of Montreal causing the closure of Drury's. Origin Drury's was founded in 1868, by an Irish fellow named John Drury; it started out as an old English chop house and tavern located in Montreal, Quebec on the corner of Windsor and St. Antoine street. Drury's was relocated across the street to Osborne Street in 1888, following the Canadian Pacific Railway’s enlargement of the Windsor station.[1] Early Days Drury’s received popular attention from the president of the Canadian Pacific Railway during the late 19th century, Thomas George Shaughnessy. The C

Buildings and structures completed in the 19th ...

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Restaurants in Montreal

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19th century

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Jugoexport

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Jugoexport

Jugoexport was an import–export firm established in 1953 in Belgrade, then capital of Yugoslavia. The firm established a retail business selling imported items. In 1970, Mirjana Maric began the firm's own line of locally manufactured clothing for export.[1] In 1990, Jugoexport began the My way project, headed by Gorica Popesko Pešić. References Mirjana М. Menković, "Fashion & design: Mirjana Marić", The Ethnographic Museum, Belgrade, 2014, page 50.

Companies of Yugoslavia

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Companies based in Belgrade

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Started in 1953 in Serbia

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History of broadcasting

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History of broadcasting

Guglielmo Marconi. The Marconi Company was formed in England in 1910. The photo shows a typical early scene, from 1906, with Marconi employee Donald Manson at right. Lee DeForest broadcasting Columbia phonograph records on pioneering New York station 2XG,in 1916.[1] The British Broadcasting Corporation's landmark and iconic London headquarters, Broadcasting House, opened in 1932. At right is the 2005 eastern extension, the John Peel wing. It is generally recognised that the first radio transmission was made from a temporary station set up by Guglielmo Marconi in 1895 on the Isle of Wight. This followed on from pioneering work in the field by a number of people including Alessandro Volta, André-Marie Ampère, Georg Ohm and James Clerk Maxwell.[2][3][4] The radio broadcasting of music and talk intended to reach a dispersed audience started experimentally around 1905-1906, and commercially around 1920 to 1923. VHF (very high frequency) stations started 30 to 35 years later. In the early days, radio st

20th century in science

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History of communication

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Sound

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Post–Cold War era

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Post–Cold War era

Post-Cold War era is the period after the end of the Cold War. Because the Cold War was not an active war but rather a period of geopolitical tensions punctuated by proxy wars, there is disagreement on the official ending of this conflict and subsequent existence of the post-Cold War era. Some scholars claim the Cold War ended when the world’s first treaty on nuclear disarmament was signed in 1987, the end of the Soviet Union as a superpower amid the Revolutions of 1989 or when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991[1]. Despite this ambiguity, the end of the Cold War symbolized a victory of democracy and capitalism, giving a boost to the rising world powers of the United States and China. Democracy became a manner of collective self-validation for countries hoping to gain international respect: when democracy was seen as an important value, political structures began adopting the value[1]. The era has mostly been dominated by the rise of globalization (as well as nationalism and populism in reaction) enabled by

Aftermath of the Cold War

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Cold War

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War on Terror

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Timeline of nursing history

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Timeline of nursing history

A girl reads to a convalescent while a nurse brings in the patient's medicine Prior to the 16th century 1–500 AD (approximately)– Nursing care palliative needs of persons and families. Religious organizations were the care providers.[1] 55 CE – Phoebe was nursing history's Christian first nurse and most noted deaconess.[2] 300 – Entry of Christian women into nursing.[3] c. 390 CE – The first general hospital was established in Rome by Saint Fabiola.[4] c. 620 CE – Rufaidah bint Sa'ad became the first Muslim nurse. 16th century 1517 The Protestant Reformation – the breakdown of religious orders meant that monasteries, hospitals and nursing care facilities were close in most Protestant areas.[4] 17th century St. Louise de Marillac Sisters of Charity 1618–1648 – The Thirty Years' War – Catholic-Protestant wars rocked Europe, killing 8 million. 1633 – The founding of the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul, Servants of the Sick Poor by Sts. Vincent de Paul and Louise de Mari

History of nursing

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Pages with DOIs inactive as of 2018

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20th century

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Birth of public radio broadcasting

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Birth of public radio broadcasting

1910 The New York Times advertisement for the wireless radio The birth of public radio broadcasting is credited to Lee de Forest who transmitted the world’s first public broadcast in New York City on January 13, 1910. This broadcast featured the voices of Enrico Caruso and other Metropolitan Opera stars. Members of the public and the press used earphones to listen to the broadcast in several locations throughout the city. This marked the beginning of what would become nearly universal wireless radio communication. First public broadcast Date A 1907 Lee De Forest company advertisement said, It will soon be possible to distribute grand opera music from transmitters placed on the stage of the Metropolitan Opera House by a Radio Telephone station on the roof to almost any dwelling in Greater New York and vicinity ... The same applies to large cities. Church music, lectures, etc., can be spread abroad by the Radio Telephone.[1] Several years later, on January 13, 1910, the first public radio broadcast was an

1900s in science

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History of broadcasting

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20th century

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One-Mensch-Theater

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One-Mensch-Theater

One-Mensch-Theater Natias Neutert, at «Arena», Vienna 1982 Ein-Mensch-Theater (German: Mensch "human being") is a German expression for a traveling theater, within the owner is writer, director, stage designer, performer and sometimes even his own tour manager in one person.[1] Franca Rame, at the Italian TV-show "Canzonissima",1962 Nobel Prize winner Dario Fo in Cesena, Italy, 2008 Johnny Melville, 2012 Origin The term was coined by Natias Neutert after his performance (The poet stumbles into the open) at Schauspielhaus Bochum during a panel discussion with Peter Zadek[2] Robert Kreis at «Peety's», Köln 2013 Goal His intention was going to replace the worn and partial label one-man show by a label under which both males and females could find equally.[3] Exponents Dario Fo, Robert Kreis, Johnny Melville, Natias Neutert and Franca Rame became famous exponents as this type of theater in Europe.[4] See also Commedia dell'arte Monodrama Monologue References A definition, correspondin

20th-century literature

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20th-century German literature

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Theatre in Germany

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20th-century music

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20th-century music

Pianist Arthur Rubinstein in 1962 American jazz singer and songwriter Billie Holiday in New York City in 1947. Russian cellist Mstislav Rostropovich in 1978 During the 20th century there was a huge increase in the variety of music that people had access to. Prior to the invention of mass market gramophone records (developed in 1892) and radio broadcasting (first commercially done ca. 1919–20), people mainly listened to music at live Classical music concerts or musical theatre shows, which were too expensive for many lower-income people; on early phonograph players (a technology invented in 1877 which was not mass-marketed until the mid-1890s); or by individuals performing music or singing songs on an amateur basis at home, using sheet music, which required the ability to sing, play, and read music. These were skills that tended to be limited to middle-class and upper-class individuals. With the mass-market availability of gramophone records and radio broadcasts, listeners could purchase recordings of,

Contemporary music

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20th century

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Rock music

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Retreat of glaciers since 1850

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Retreat of glaciers since 1850

Retreat of White Chuck Glacier, Washington White Chuck Glacier in 1973 Same vantage point in 2006. The glacier retreated 1.9 kilometres (1.2 mi) in 33 years. In all, about 25 percent of the ice that melted between 2003 and 2010 occurred in the Americas (excluding Greenland). The retreat of glaciers since 1850 affects the availability of fresh water for irrigation and domestic use, mountain recreation, animals and plants that depend on glacier-melt, and, in the longer term, the level of the oceans. Studied by glaciologists, the temporal coincidence of glacier retreat with the measured increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases is often cited as an evidentiary underpinning of global warming. Mid-latitude mountain ranges such as the Himalayas, Alps, Rocky Mountains, Cascade Range, and the southern Andes, as well as isolated tropical summits such as Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa, are showing some of the largest proportionate glacial losses.[1][2] Glacier mass balance is the key determinant of the health

20th century

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19th century

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21st century

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Muzaffar ul-Mulk

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Muzaffar ul-Mulk

His Highness Muzaffar ul-Mulk (6 October 1901 – 12 January 1949) was the Mehtar of Chitral who reigned from 1943 to 1949.[1][2][3][4][5] He took the important decision of Chitrals accession to Pakistan in 1947.[6][7][8] He dispatched his army into Gilgit in August 1947, to help secure that territory for Pakistan.[9][10][11][12] Life prior to accession Muzaffar ul-Mulk was born on 6 October 1901. He was the second son of Mehtar Sir Shuja ul-Mulk.[13][14] He was given over for foster care at a young age and spent the early part of his childhood at his foster home.[15] He received education from Islamia College Peshawar, ultimately ending up with an F.A.[16][17] During the Anglo-Afghan War of 1919 he served with the Chitral State Bodyguards under the command of his brother Nasir ul-Mulk, in fending off the Afghan attack.[18] In 1924 he returned to Chitral and became the Chief Secretary to his father Mehtar Shuja ul-Mulk.[19] In 1930 he became the administrator of Torkhow region in Chitral. The designation was

Pakistani royalty

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Asian royalty

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20th-century Indian royalty

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Nasir ul-Mulk

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Nasir ul-Mulk

His Highness Sir Nasir ul-Mulk KCIE (29 September 1897 – 29 July 1943) was the eldest son of Mehtar Shuja ul-Mulk, who succeeded him in 1936.[1][2][3] He ruled the princely state of Chitral from 1936 to 1943.[4][5] Early life and education Nasir ul-Mulk was born in the royal fort at Chitral on 29 September 1897.[6][7] He was the eldest son of Mehtar Shuja ul-Mulk.[8][9][10][11] He spent his early days in the Chitral fort under the tutelage of several teachers who trained him in Persian, Urdu, English and Arabic. In 1916 he enrolled in Islamia College Peshawar, from where he did his Matriculation.[12][13] He later completed his Bachelor of Arts with a distinction, earning first position in the North West Frontier Province. For the feat he received the Chelmsford Gold Medal.[14] Starting from a young age Nasir was education oriented and had advanced political ideas.[15][16] Third Anglo-Afghan War (1919) As the Third Anglo-Afghan War unfolded, the southern borders of Chitral were attacked. The Chitral Scouts

Pakistani royalty

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19th-century Indian royalty

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20th-century Indian royalty

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Jet Age

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Jet Age

The de Havilland Comet was the first commercial jet airliner and began service on 9 January 1951. The Jet Age is a period in the history of aviation defined by the advent of aircraft powered by turbine engines, and by the social change this brought about. Jet airliners were able to fly much higher, faster, and farther than older piston‑powered propliners, making transcontinental and intercontinental travel considerably faster and easier: for example, aircraft leaving North America and crossing the Atlantic Ocean (and later, the Pacific Ocean) could now fly to their destinations non-stop, making much of the world accessible within a single day's travel for the first time. Since large jetliners could also carry more passengers than piston-powered airliners, air fares also declined (relative to inflation), so people from a greater range of socioeconomic classes could afford to travel outside their own countries. Besides the pure jet, the turbine driven propeller engines offered improvements of the piston engi

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20th century

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History of aviation

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Jet set

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Jet set

In journalism, jet set was a term for an international social group of wealthy people who travelled the world to participate in social activities unavailable to ordinary people. The term, which replaced "café society", came from the lifestyle of travelling from one stylish or exotic place to another via jet plane. The term "jet set" is attributed to Igor Cassini, a reporter for the New York Journal-American, who wrote under the pen name "Cholly Knickerbocker".[1] Although jet passenger service in the 1950s was initially marketed primarily to the rich, its introduction eventually resulted in a substantial democratization of air travel. Although the term "jet set" is still in some use, its literal meaning of those who travel by jet is no longer applicable per se.[2] It has continued to be used, however, to refer to those who have the independent wealth and time to travel frequently and widely for pleasure. History BOAC inaugurated the world's first commercial scheduled jet service on 2 May 1952, using the d

20th century

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History of aviation

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Social classes

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Masood Ul Mulk

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Masood Ul Mulk

Masood Ul Mulk (Urdu: مسود الملک‎) is a leading Pakistani expert on humanitarian aid and a renowned development practitioner. He is the CEO of SRSP, the largest NGO working to alleviate poverty in north-west Pakistan.[1][2][3][4] Background and education Masood hails from Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. He is the son of Shahzada Khush Ahmed Ul Mulk [5][6][7][8][9][10] and the grandson of H.H Sir Shuja Ul Mulk,[11][12][13][14] the former ruler/mehtar of the princely state of Chitral.[15][16][17][18][19] Masood is the son in law of veteran politician Shahzada Mohiuddin.[20] Masood pursued academic studies and professional courses from Lawrence College, Wye College, University of York, American University, the World Bank and IMF, Washington. He has also been a Hubert Humphrey Fellow at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin, US.[21][22][23][24] Career Masood has served in the development field for over 20 years.[25][26][27] While serving as the Regional Programme Ma

Cooperative organizers

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Renewable energy

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Cooperative organisers

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Risky sexual behavior

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Risky sexual behavior

Risky sexual behavior is the description of the activity that will increase the probability that a person engaging in sexual activity with another person infected with a sexually transmitted infection will be infected[1] or become pregnant, or make a partner pregnant. It can mean two similar things: the behavior itself, the description of the partner's behavior. The behavior could be unprotected vaginal, oral, or anal intercourse. The partner could be a nonexclusive partner, HIV-positive, or an intravenous drug user.[2] Drug use is associated with risky sexual behaviors.[3] Description Risky sexual behavior can be: Barebacking, i.e. sex without a condom. Mouth-to-genital contact. Starting sexual activity at a young age. Having multiple sex partners. Having a high-risk partner, someone who has multiple sex partners or infections. Anal sex. Sex with a partner who has ever injected drugs. Engaging in sex work.[4] Risky sexual behavior includes unprotected intercourse, multiple sex partners, and i

Pandemics

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Medical terminology

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20th century

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International relations (1919–1939)

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International relations (1919–1939)

International relations (1919–1939) covers the main interactions shaping world history in this era, with emphasis on diplomacy and economic relations. The coverage here follows Diplomatic history of World War I and precedes Diplomatic history of World War II. The important stages of interwar diplomacy and international relations included resolutions of wartime issues, such as reparations owed by Germany and boundaries; American involvement in European finances and disarmament projects; the expectations and failures of the League of Nations; the relationships of the new countries to the old; the distrustful relations of the Soviet Union to the capitalist world; peace and disarmament efforts; responses to the Great Depression starting in 1929; the collapse of world trade; the collapse of democratic regimes one by one; the growth of economic autarky; Japanese aggressiveness toward China; Fascist diplomacy, including the aggressive moves by Mussolini's Italy and Hitler's Germany; the Spanish Civil War; the appeas

20th century in international relations

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History of international relations

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International relations

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Diplomatic history of World War I

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Diplomatic history of World War I

The Diplomatic history of World War I covers the non-military interactions among the major players during World War I. For the domestic histories see Home front during World War I. For a longer-term perspective see International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919) and Causes of World War I. For the following era see International relations (1919–1939). The major allied players included Great Britain, France, Russia, and Italy (starting in 1915) and the United States (from 1917). The major Central Powers included Germany and the Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). Other countries—and their colonies—were also involved. For a detailed chronology see Timeline of World War I. The non-military diplomatic and propaganda interactions among the nations were designed to build support for the cause, or to undermine support for the enemy.[1][2] Wartime diplomacy focused on five issues: subversion and propaganda campaigns to weaken the morale of the enemy; defining and redefining the war goals, which

20th century in international relations

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Timeline of the 20th century

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Timeline of the 20th century

This is a timeline of the 20th century. 1900s 1901: First Nobel Prizes awarded. The Australian colonies federated. Boxer Rebellion ends. Edward VII becomes King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Emperor of India upon the death of Queen Victoria. Platt Amendment limits the autonomy of Cuba in exchange for withdrawal of American troops. Assassination of William McKinley. Emily Hobhouse reports on the terrible conditions in the 45 British concentration camps for Boer women and children in South Africa. Guglielmo Marconi receives the first trans-Atlantic radio signal. 1902: Second Boer War ends. Philippine–American War ends. Cuba gains independence from the United States. Willis Carrier invents the first modern electrical air conditioning unit. Unification of Saudi Arabia begins. Venezuela Crisis, in which Britain, Germany and Italy sustain a naval blockade on Venezuela in order to enforce collection of outstanding financial claims. 1903: First controlled heavier-than-air flight of the W

Wikipedia timelines

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Sumgayit State Musical Drama Theater

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Sumgayit State Musical Drama Theater

Sumgayit State Musical Drama Theater is a professional theater operating in Sumgayit. It is named after Huseyn Arablinski. History The Sumgayit State Drama Theater, named after the Azerbaijani theater figure and director Huseyn Arablinski, was created in September 1968. In 1969, the Azerbaijani government made a decision to perpetuate the memory of Huseyn Arablinski by naming the theater after him.[1] This was enacted as a decision of the Cabinet of Ministers of Azerbaijan SSR and by the order of the Ministry of Culture. The theater opened its curtain on March 14, 1969 with Mirza Fatali Akhundzadeh's "Monsieur Jordan, the Botanist, and Dervish Mastali-shah", directed by Jannat Salimova. On the following day, the British poet John Patrick's work was performed, produced by Nasir Sadigzade. In 1974 the theater was given the status of "Sumgayit State Drama Theater" by the decision of the Ministry of Culture.[2] Repertoire The repertoire of the theater includes the plays of classic and contemporary Azerbaijan

Arts organizations started in 1968

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Azerbaijani culture

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Annales school

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Annales school

The Annales school (French pronunciation: ​) is a group of historians associated with a style of historiography developed by French historians in the 20th century to stress long-term social history. It is named after its scholarly journal Annales d'histoire économique et sociale, which remains the main source of scholarship, along with many books and monographs.[1] The school has been highly influential in setting the agenda for historiography in France and numerous other countries, especially regarding the use of social scientific methods by historians, emphasizing social and economic rather than political or diplomatic themes. The school deals primarily with late medieval and early modern Europe (before the French Revolution), with little interest in later topics. It has dominated French social history and influenced historiography in Europe and Latin America. Prominent leaders include co-founders Lucien Febvre (1878–1956), Henri Hauser (1866-1946) and Marc Bloch (1886–1944). The second generation was led

Historiography of France

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Merz (art style)

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Merz (art style)

MERZ artist Kurt Schwitters Merz (art style) is a synonym for the more common expression and term Dada,[1] and traces back to Kurt Schwitters.[2] Origin The made-up word Merz, however, traces back to Kurt Schwitters, who planned a Dada section in Hanover. But not being invited to the First International Dada Fair in Berlin in 1920, Schwitters was on the look-out for a totally unique hat fitting only a single head"— his own.[3][4] The very moment He found Merz by chance when creating a collage with the German word Kommerz (commerce). The result: a nonsensical‚ dadaistic’ word. Merz became Schwitters 's very synonym for his own way of Dada.[5] The very reception Kurt Schwitters, father of installation art and a pioneer in fusing collage and abstraction—those two most transformative innovations of the 20th century art— influenced Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, the Fluxus movement and Joseph Beuys, too.[6] See also Kurt Schwitters Dada Fluxus Joseph Beuys Robert Rauschenberg Jasper Johns Louis

Modern art

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1920

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Western art

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1900s (decade)

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1900s (decade)

From left, clockwise: The Wright brothers achieve the first manned flight with a motorized airplane, in Kitty Hawk in 1903; U.S. President William McKinley is assassinated in 1901 by Leon Czolgosz at the Pan-American Exposition; An earthquake on the San Andreas Fault destroys much of San Francisco, killing at least 3,000 in 1906; America gains control over the Philippines in 1902, after the Philippine–American War; Rock being moved to construct the Panama Canal; Admiral Togo before the Battle of Tsushima in 1905, part of the Russo-Japanese War, leading to Japanese victory and their establishment as a great power. The 1900s (pronounced "nineteen-hundreds")[1] was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1900, and ended on December 31, 1909. The term "nineteen-hundreds" can also mean the entire century of years from 1900 to 1999 (see 1900s). The Edwardian era (1901–1910) covers a similar span of time. Pronunciation varieties There are several main varieties of how individual years of the d

20th century

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19th century

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1900s

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1930s

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1930s

From left, clockwise: Dorothea Lange's photo of the homeless Florence Thompson show the effects of the Great Depression; Due to the extreme drought conditions, the farms become dry and the Dust Bowl spreads through America; The Canton Operation during the Second Sino-Japanese War; Aviator Amelia Earhart becomes an American flight icon; German dictator Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party attempt to establish a New Order of absolute Nazi German hegemony in Europe, which culminates in 1939 when Germany invades Poland, leading to the outbreak of World War II; The Hindenburg explodes over a small New Jersey airfield, causing 36 deaths and effectively ending commercial airship travel; Mohandas Gandhi walks to the Arabian Sea in the protest Salt March of 1930. The 1930s (pronounced "nineteen-thirties", commonly abbreviated as the "Thirties") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1930, and ended on December 31, 1939. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the largest stock market crash in Americ

20th century

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1930s

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1910s

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1910s

From left, clockwise: The Model T Ford is introduced and becomes widespread; The sinking of the RMS Titanic causes the deaths of nearly 1,500 people and attracts global and historical attention; Title bar: All the events below are part of World War I (1914–1918); French Army lookout at his observation post in 1917; Russian troops awaiting a German attack; A ration party of the Royal Irish Rifles in a communication trench during the Battle of the Somme; Vladimir Lenin addresses a crowd in the midst of the October Revolution of 1917; A flu pandemic in 1918 kills tens of millions worldwide. The 1910s (pronounced "nineteen-tens", also abbreviated as the "teens") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1910, and ended on December 31, 1919. The 1910s represented the culmination of European militarism which had its beginnings during the second half of the 19th century. The conservative lifestyles during the first half of the decade, as well as the legacy of military alliances, was forever ch

Western culture-centric

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1910s

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1940s

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1940s

Above title bar: events during World War II (1939–1945): From left to right: Troops in an LCVP landing craft approaching Omaha Beach on D-Day; Adolf Hitler visits Paris, soon after the Battle of France; The Holocaust occurs as Nazi Germany carries out a programme of systematic state-sponsored genocide, during which approximately six million European Jews are killed; The Japanese attack on the American naval base of Pearl Harbor launches the United States into the war; An Observer Corps spotter scans the skies of London during the Battle of Britain; The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are the first uses of nuclear weapons, killing over a quarter million people and leading to the Japanese surrender; Japanese Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu signs the Instrument of Surrender on behalf of the Japanese Government, on board USS Missouri, effectively ending the war. Below title bar: events after World War II: From left to right: The Declaration of the State of Israel in 1948; The Nuremberg trials are hel

20th century

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1940s

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1950s

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1950s

Top, L-R: U.S. Marines engaged in street fighting during the Korean War, circa late September 1950; The first polio vaccine is developed by Jonas Salk. Centre, L-R: US tests its first thermonuclear bomb with code name Ivy Mike in 1952. A 1954 thermonuclear test, code named Castle Romeo, is shown here; In 1959, Fidel Castro overthrows Fulgencio Batista in the Cuban Revolution, which results in the creation of the first communist government in the Western hemisphere; Elvis Presley becomes the leading figure of the newly popular music genre of rock and roll in the mid-1950s. Bottom, L-R: Smoke rises from oil tanks on Port Said following the invasion of Egypt by Israel, United Kingdom and France as part of the Suez Crisis in late 1956; French paratroopers march in Algiers in the beginning of the Algerian War, 1957; The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite to orbit the earth, in October 1957. The 1950s (pronounced nineteen-fifties; commonly abbreviated as the fifties (among other varian

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20th century

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1990s

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1990s

From left, clockwise: The Hubble Space Telescope orbits the earth after it was launched in 1990; American F-16s and F-15s fly over burning oil fields in Operation Desert Storm, also known as the 1991 Gulf War; The signing of the Oslo Accords on 13 September 1993; The World Wide Web gains a public face during the start of the decade and as a result gains massive popularity worldwide; Boris Yeltsin and followers stand on a tank in defiance to the August Coup, which leads to the dissolution of the Soviet Union on 26 December 1991; Dolly the sheep is the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell; The funeral procession of Diana, Princess of Wales, who dies in 1997 from a car crash in Paris, and is mourned by millions; Hundreds of thousands of Tutsi people are killed in the Rwandan genocide of 1994. The 1990s (pronounced "nineteen-nineties"; shortened to "the '90s") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on 1 January 1990, and ended on 31 December 1999. Overview Culturally, the 1990s are

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20th century

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1990s

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1960s

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1960s

Top, L-R: 2 U.S. soldiers crawl on the ground during the Vietnam War; The Beatles who were part of the British Invasion that changed music in the United States and around the world. Centre, L-R: John F. Kennedy is assassinated in 1963, after serving as President for three years; Martin Luther King Jr. makes his famous I Have a Dream speech to a crowd of 250,000; The Soviet Union builds The Berlin Wall in 1961 which is one of the most famous moments of the 1960s. Bottom, L-R: China's Mao Zedong initiates the Great Leap Forward plan which fails and brings mass starvation in which 20 to 30 million people died by 1961; the Stonewall Inn, site of major demonstrations for gay and lesbian rights; for the first time in history, a human being sets foot on the Moon, during the Cold War-era Space Race, July 1969. The 1960s (pronounced "nineteen-sixties") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on 1 January 1960, and ended on 31 December 1969.[1] The term "1960s" also refers to an era more often called the Si

Counterculture of the 1960s

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20th century

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1980s

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1980s

From left, clockwise: The first Space Shuttle, Columbia, lifts off in 1981; American president Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev eases tensions between the two superpowers, leading to the end of the Cold War; The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 is considered to be one of the most momentous events of the 1980s; In 1981, the IBM Personal Computer is released; In 1985, the Live Aid concert is held in order to fund relief efforts for the famine in Ethiopia during the time Mengistu Haile Mariam ruled the country; Ukraine and much of the world is filled with radioactive debris from the 1986 Chernobyl disaster; The Iran–Iraq War leads to over one million dead and $1 trillion spent. The 1980s (pronounced "nineteen-eighties", shortened to "the '80s") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1980, and ended on December 31, 1989. Overview The decade was great socioeconomic change due to advances in technology and a worldwide move away from planned economies and towards laissez-f

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All articles to be split

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20th century

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1970s

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1970s

Clockwise from top left: U.S. President Richard Nixon doing the V for Victory sign after his resignation from office after the Watergate scandal in 1974; refugees aboard a US naval boat after the Fall of Saigon, leading to the end of the Vietnam War in 1975; the 1973 oil crisis puts the nation of America in gridlock and causes economic damage throughout the developed world; both the leaders of Israel and Egypt shake hands after the signing of the Camp David Accords in 1978; the 1970 Bhola cyclone kills an estimated 500,000 people in the densely populated Ganges Delta region of East Pakistan (which would become independent as Bangladesh in 1971) in November 1970; the Iranian Revolution of 1979 ousts Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi who is later replaced by an Islamic theocracy led by Ayatollah Khomeini; the popularity of the disco music genre peaks during the mid-to-late 1970s. The 1970s (pronounced "nineteen-seventies"; shortened to "the '70s") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1970,

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Baby boomers

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Baby boomers

Baby boomers (also known as boomers) are the demographic cohort following the Silent Generation and preceding Generation X. The Baby Boom generation is most often defined as those individuals born between 1946 and 1964.[1] In Western Europe and North America, boomers are widely associated with privilege, as many grew up during a period of increasing affluence[2] due in part to widespread post-war government subsidies in housing and education. As a group, baby boomers were wealthier, more active and more physically fit than any preceding generation and were the first to grow up genuinely expecting the world to improve with time.[3] They were also the generation that reached peak levels of income in the workplace and could, therefore, enjoy the benefits of abundant food, clothing, retirement programs, and even "midlife-crisis" products. However, this generation also has been criticized often for its increases in consumerism which others saw as excessive.[4] The boomers have tended to think of themselves as a

20th century

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Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images

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Words coined in the 1950s

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Silent Generation

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Silent Generation

The Silent Generation is the demographic cohort following the Greatest Generation and preceding the baby boomers. Demographers and researchers use mid-to-late 1920s as starting birth years and early-to-mid 1940s as ending birth years, with 1928 to 1945 a widely accepted definition. Terminology It is unclear where the term originated. As young adults during the McCarthy Era, many members of the Silent Generation felt it was dangerous to speak out.[1] Time magazine first used the term "Silent Generation" in a November 5, 1951 article titled "The Younger Generation", although the term appears to precede the publication.[2][3][4] The name was originally applied to people in the United States and Canada but has been applied to those in Western Europe, Australia and South America as well. It includes most of those who fought during the Korean War. In the United States, the generation was comparatively small because the financial insecurity of the 1930s and the war in the early 1940s caused people to have fewer ch

20th century

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Words coined in the 1950s

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Cultural generations

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Millennials

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Millennials

Millennials, also known as Generation Y (or simply Gen Y), are the demographic cohort following Generation X and preceding Generation Z. Researchers and popular media use the early 1980s as starting birth years and the mid-1990s to early 2000s as ending birth years, with 1981 to 1996 a widely accepted definition. Millennials are sometimes referred to as "echo boomers" due to a major surge in birth rates in the 1980s and 1990s, and because millennials are often the children of the baby boomers. The characteristics of millennials vary by region and by individual, and the group experiences a variety of social and economic conditions, but they are generally marked by their coming of age in the Information Age, and are comfortable in their usage of digital technologies and social media. Terminology Authors William Strauss and Neil Howe are widely credited with naming the millennials.[1] They coined the term in 1987, around the time children born in 1982 were entering kindergarten, and the media were first identi

20th century

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21st century

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Demographics

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Generation Z

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Generation Z

Generation Z, or Gen Z for short, is the demographic cohort after the Millennials. Demographers and researchers typically use the mid- to late-1990s as starting birth years, while consensus has not been reached on the ending birth years. Members of Generation Z have used digital technology since a young age and are comfortable with the Internet and social media. Terminology In 2012, USA Today sponsored an online contest for readers to choose the name of the next generation after the Millennials. The name Generation Z was suggested. Some other names that were proposed included: iGeneration, Gen Tech, Gen Wii, Net Gen, Digital Natives, Plurals, and Zoomers.[1][2][3][4] iGeneration (or iGen) is a name that several persons claim to have coined. Rapper MC Lars is credited with using the term as early as 2003.[5] Demographer Cheryl Russell claims to have first used the term in 2009.[1] Psychology professor and author Jean Twenge claims that the name iGen "just popped into her head" while she was driving near Sil

Generation Z

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20th century

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21st century

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Generation X

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Generation X

Generation X (or Gen X) is the demographic cohort following the baby boomers and preceding the Millennials. Researchers and popular media typically use birth years ranging from the mid 1960s to the mid 1980s, with 1965 a widely accepted starting birth year. Generation Xers were children during a time of shifting societal values and as children were sometimes called the "latchkey generation", due to reduced adult supervision as children compared to previous generations, a result of increasing divorce rates and increased maternal participation in the workforce, prior to widespread availability of childcare options outside the home. As adolescents and young adults, they were dubbed the "MTV Generation" (a reference to the music video channel). In the 1990s they were sometimes characterized as slackers, cynical and disaffected. Some of the cultural influences on Gen X youth were the musical genres of grunge and hip hop music, and independent films. In midlife, research describes them as active, happy, and achiev

20th century

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Words coined in the 1950s

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Marketing by target group

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Tobie Steinhouse

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Tobie Steinhouse

Tobie Steinhouse is a Canadian painter and printmaker.[1] Early life She was born April 1, 1925 in Montreal, Quebec to Romanian parents.[1] Growing up in the Mile-End district of Montréal, Tobie attended Baron-Byng High School, where she studied under Anne Savage– a critically acclaimed Canadian painter and founding member of the Canadian Group of Painters.[2] Education Tobie Steinhouse earned a diploma from Sir George-Williams University in Montréal (now Concordia University) in Engineering Drawing.[3] After graduation, she was hired as a draughtswoman, designing Anson warplanes from 1944 to 1945.[4] During this time, she also worked for the Royal Canadian Air Force illustrating manuals.[5] At the end of the war, Steinhouse attended the renowned Art Students League of New York with a scholarship to study art.[3] After she graduated, Tobie went to Paris, France to study art further at the École des Beaux-Arts de Paris.[5] Artistic career After graduating from École des Beaux-Arts de Paris, various reput

Artists from Montreal

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21st-century Canadian women artists

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Canadian printmakers

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Timeline of antisemitism in the 20th century

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Timeline of antisemitism in the 20th century

This timeline of antisemitism chronicles the facts of antisemitism, hostile actions or discrimination against Jews as a religious or ethnic group, in the 20th century. It includes events in the history of antisemitic thought, actions taken to combat or relieve the effects of antisemitism, and events that affected the prevalence of antisemitism in later years. The history of antisemitism can be traced from ancient times to the present day. For events specifically pertaining to the expulsion of Jews, see Jewish refugees. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Roman Catholic Church adhered to a distinction between "good antisemitism" and "bad antisemitism". The "bad" kind promoted hatred of Jews because of their descent. This was considered un-Christian because the Christian message was intended for all of humanity regardless of ethnicity; anyone could become a Christian. The "good" kind criticized alleged Jewish conspiracies to control newspapers, banks, and other institutions, to care only about accu

History of antisemitism

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20th-century attacks on synagogues and Jewish c...

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Jewish history timelines

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Greatest Generation

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Greatest Generation

The Greatest Generation, also known as the G.I. Generation and the World War II generation, is the demographic cohort following the Lost Generation and preceding the Silent Generation. Demographers and researchers typically use the early 1900s as starting birth years and ending birth years in the mid to late 1920s, with 1901 a widely accepted starting birth year. They were shaped by the Great Depression and were the primary participants in World War II. Definition U.S. Navy veteran Ruth Harden sings as "Anchors Aweigh" is played during the dedication ceremony of the World War II memorial at Legislative Hall in Dover, Delaware, November 9, 2013. The term The Greatest Generation comes from the title of a 1998 book by American journalist Tom Brokaw. In the book, Brokaw profiled American members of this generation who came of age during the Great Depression and went on to fight in World War II, as well as those who contributed to the war effort on the home front. Brokaw wrote that these men and women fought

Words coined in the 1990s

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20th century

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Cultural generations

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Women's suffrage in film

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Women's suffrage in film

This advertisement for A Militant Suffragette (1913) shows the film's main character smashing a window (left) and being force-fed by doctors in jail (right). Women's suffrage, the legal right of women to vote, has been depicted in film in a variety of ways since the invention of narrative film in the late nineteenth century. Some early films satirized and mocked suffragists and Suffragettes as "unwomanly" "man-haters,"[1] or sensationalized documentary footage. Suffragists countered these depictions by releasing narrative films and newsreels that argued for their cause. After women won the vote in countries with a national cinema, women's suffrage became a historical event depicted in both fiction and nonfiction films. General Early silent films, 1898–1915 Renewed campaigns for women's suffrage in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States coincided with the invention of the motion picture and the creation of the film industries in these same countries. Because of this, women's suffrage was a topic

19th century

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Film

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Jenny Kammersgaard

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Jenny Kammersgaard

Jenny Marie Ingeborg Kammersgaard (1918-1997) was a Danish female professional long-distance swimmer who rose to fame in the 1930s. Here she swam across inner Danish waters and from Denmark to Germany. Because of her results she was invited by Adolf Hitler to Germany. She was used in the Nazi propaganda as an example of the "aryan" ideal person. After the war she helped refugees getting out of Europe through Sweden. From 1950 she returned to swimming. Youth and sea swimming Locations in Denmark and Germany Jenny Kammersgaard was born in 1918 and grew up in the Jutland town of Horsens a daughter of blacksmith Jens Peter Hansen Kammersgaard and Hedvig Kristine Jensen. She started swimming at age 15 and, in 1934, became a member of the local swimming club. She was not a good competition swimmer but excelled in endurance swimming, which had become popular after World War I.[1] At the age of 17, she swam 18 km on open sea from Snaptun to Horsens in Horsens Fjord and later the same year 25 km from Langeland t

Danish people of World War II

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Open water swimming

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Swimming

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