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Shia Islam


Ghufayla Prayer

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Ghufayla Prayer

Ghufayla Prayer (Arabic: صلاة الغفیلة) is a famous Nafl Salah (supererogatory prayer) which consists of two Rakats that is done between Maghrib and Isha prayers as a Mustahab (recommended) prayer.[1][2][3] The word "ghufayla" is the diminutive noun of "ghaflah" (neglect)[4][5][6] and it means small neglect. There are hadiths which mention this Salah as an efficient prayer in the requests of people from Allah being responded to and likewise person's sins being forgiven by Him.[7] Narrations It is said from Ja'far al-Sadiq (the six Imam of Shia Islam) that he quoted from Muhammad al-Baqir that the Islamic prophet, Muhammad said about this recommended prayer that "say prayer in the time of neglect, although it is two Rakats, these two Rakats enter (you) in the paradise;[8] it was asked Muhammad in a similar hadith that "when is the time of neglect?", then he answered "it is between Maghrib and Isha".[9][10] According to another narration, Ja'far al-Sadiq quoted from the Prophet Muhammad that he said: Do not l

Salah terminology

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Prayer

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Muhammad ibn Musa al-Kadhim (Sabze Ghaba)

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Muhammad ibn Musa al-Kadhim (Sabze Ghaba)

Sabze-Ghaba (Muhammad ibn Musa al-Kadhim's) mausoleum, in Dezful, Khuzestan province of Iran Muhammad ibn Musa al-Kadhim (Arabic: محمد ابن موسي الکاظم) who is famous as Sabze Ghaba or Sabz-e-Qaba, is regarded as a prominent Imamzadeh who is the son of Imam Musa al-Kadhim and also Imam Redha's brother.[1][2][3] Muhammad ibn Musa al-Kadhim who was in Medina, went out of that city due to the oppression of Abbasid dynast and likewise in order to promote his father's thoughts and his brother's Imamate. Sabze Ghaba passed burning deserts of the Arabian peninsula, and went to Khorramshahr (from Basra), afterwards he moved towards Ahwaz, and eventually he entered Dezful.[4][5][6][7] According to Seyyed Nematollah Jazayeri, Muhammad ibn Musa al-Kadhim is well-known as Sabze Ghaba (which means green long garment) because of his interest in green clothes. Actually he was/is called by that name, because at majority of times he used to wear green clothes like other Alawians. Sabze Ghaba whose shrine is in the city of

Dezful County

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Shia imams

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Abd al-Aziz al-Hasani

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Abd al-Aziz al-Hasani

The shrine of Hazrat Abd al-Azim al-Hasani, Rey, Iran Abd al-Aziz al-Hasani (Persian: عبدالعظیم حسنی) who is commonly known as Shah Abdol-Azim (especially in informal speaking of local people)[1][2][3] and likewise Sayyid al-Karim,[4][5] is among those scholars who are from the progeny of the second Imam of Shia Islam, Hasan ibn Ali.[6] His complete name is Abu al-Qasim ‘Abd al-Azim bin ‘Abdillah bin ‘Ali bin al-Hasan bin Zayd (bin ‘Ali) bin al-Hasan bin ‘Ali bin Abi Talib.[7][8] Abd al-Azim who is also named as Hazrat Abd al-Azim Hasani particularly in formal speaking/news[9][10] was a hadith transmitter.[11][12] Ibn Babawayh has compiled the Islamic narrations transmitted by Abd al-Azim in a collection which is famous as Jami'-al-Akhbar Abd al-Azim.[13] Inside the shrine of Hazrat Abd al-Azim al-Hasani Abd al-Azim whose Kunyas are Abul-Qasim[14][15] and Abol-Fath[16] was among the companions of the ninth and tenth Imams of Shia, namely Muhammad al-Jawad and Ali al-Hadi.[17][18] Besides, according to R

National Works of Iran

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Shia Islam

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Eid al-Ghadir

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Eid al-Ghadir

Eid (celebration) Ghadir-Khum Eid al-Ghadir (Arabic: عید الغدیر) is a Shia feast, and is considered to be among the "significant" feasts of Shia Islam. The Eid is held on 18 Dhu Al-Hijjah at the time when the Islamic prophet Muhammad (following instruction from Allah) was said to have appointed Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor. According to hadiths, this Eid has been named "Eid-Allah al-Akbar" (i.e. the greatest divine Eid),[5] "Eid Ahl al-Bayt Muhammad"[6][7] and Ashraf al-A'yaad (i.e. the supreme Eid).[8][9] This feast does not have mention in the Quran or the Sunnah, it was known in its early beginnings in 352 AH in Iraq, and in the days of Moez al-Dawla Ali ibn Buwayh [5]. Religious background Ten years after the migration (Hijrah), Muhammad, the founder of Islam, ordered his followers to call upon people everywhere to join him in his last pilgrimage. Islamic scholars believe more than seventy thousand people followed Muhammad on his way to Mecca, where, on the fourth day of the month of Dhu'l-Hijja

History of Islam

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Eid (Islam)

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Syed Hamidul Hasan

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Syed Hamidul Hasan

Ayatullah Hamidul Hasan at a Muharrum Majlis in Sultanat Manzil, Lucknow. Ayatullah Syed Hamidul Hasan[1] is a Shia alim of Lucknow, India. He has been giving religious lectures in India and abroad, especially during the Muslim month of Muharram, for the last 50 years (the longest by any living Shia cleric). He is also the current principal of Jamia Nazmia. He holds numerous other posts including President, Majlis-e-Ulema, Board of Trustees, Shia PG College, Lucknow, and Member of All India Muslim Personal Law Board. Education Ayatullah Hamidul Hasan with his teacher Grand Ayatullah Muhsin Al-Hakim, Najaf, 1962 He completed his education from Jamia Nazmia up to Mumtaz-ul-Afazil and was taught by Mufti Syed Ahmad Ali (son of Allama Mufti Mohammad Abbas) along with other learned teachers. After finishing his studies at Madrasatul Waizeen and completing different oriental courses from Lucknow University, Shia Arabic College and Aligarh Muslim University, he went to Najaf-e-Ashraf, Iraq, for higher educati

Shia Islam in India

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Shia clerics

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Encyclopedia of Imam Ali

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Encyclopedia of Imam Ali

The Encyclopedia of Imam Ali (Persian: دانشنامه امام علی ع‎) is a Persian encyclopedia about Imam Ali (the first Imam in Shia) studies that was published in 13 volumes. The editor-in-chief is Ali Akbar Rashad. This encyclopedia was published by the publishing organization of the "Islamic Research Institute for Culture and Thought".[1][2][3] Gallery References http://www.poiict.org/ "از سوي سازمان انتشارات پژوهشگاه فرهنگ و اندیشه اسلامی منتشر شد دانشنامه امام علی‌(ع)". IBNA. "به همت پایگاه حوزه نت؛ دانشنامه امام علی (ع) با ویژگیهای منحصر به فرد بر روی اینترنت قرار گرفت". BF news.

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Persian encyclopedias

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Encyclopedias of Islam

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Beshr ibn Hasan

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Beshr ibn Hasan

Beshr ibn Hasan (Arabic: بشر بن حسن) was a great-grandson of Muhammad. He was the son of second Shia Imam Hasan ibn Ali.[1][2] He is considered to be one of the martyrs of the Battle of Karbala,[3][4][5] although no record describes the circumstances surrounding his death by enemy forces.[6][7] The first instance of Beshr ibn Hasan to be listed among the martyrs of Karbala was by Shia scholar Ibn Shahrashub. Of Hasan ibn Ali's twenty sons, seven participated in the battle, among them Beshr ibn Hasan.[8] All but one brother was killed during the battle. In his account of their deaths, Shahrashub writes on Beshr: "... and it has been said that Beshr has been martyred, too."[9] Among Beshr ibn Hasan's brothers who were present at the event of Ashura were Amrobne Hasan (who was killed in the event at Karbala when he was a child),[10] Hasan ibn Hasan (who was famously known as 'Hasan Muthanna'), Qasim ibn Hasan (who was also considered to be one of the martyrs of Karbala), Abdullah ibn Hasan (Abdullah Asghar).[1

Husayn ibn Ali

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Shia Islam

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Muslim martyrs

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Culture of Iran

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Culture of Iran

The Culture of Iran (Persian: فرهنگ ایران), also known as Culture of Persia, is one of the most influential cultures in the world. Iran is considered as one of the cradles of civilization[1][2][3][4], and due to its dominant geo-political position and culture in the world, Iran has heavily influenced cultures and peoples as far away as Italy, Macedonia, and Greece to the West, Russia and Eastern Europe to the North, the Arabian Peninsula to the South, and the Indian subcontinent and East Asia to the East.[1][2][5] An eclectic cultural elasticity has been said to be one of the key defining characteristics of the Iranian identity and a clue to its historical longevity.[6] The first sentence of prominent Iranologist Richard Nelson Frye's book on Iran reads: "Iran's glory has always been its culture." [7] Furthermore, Iran's culture has manifested itself in several facets throughout the history of Iran as well as the Caucasus, Central Asia, Anatolia, and Mesopotamia. Art Iran has one of the oldest, richest

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Persian culture

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Western Asian culture

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Musa al-Kadhim

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Musa al-Kadhim

Mūsá ibn Ja‘far al-Kāzim (Arabic: موسى بن جعفر الكاظم‎), also called Abūl-Hasan, Abū Abd Allah, Abū Ibrāhīm, and al-Kāzim (the one who controls his anger), was the seventh Shiite Imam after his father Ja'far al-Sadiq. He is regarded by Sunnis as a renowned scholar, and was a contemporary of the Abbasid caliphs Al-Mansur, Al-Hadi, Al-Mahdi and Harun al-Rashid. He was imprisoned several times; finally dying in Baghdad in the Sindi ibn Shahak prison. Ali al-Ridha, the eighth Imām, and Fatemah Masume were among his children.[2][11][12][13] Birth and early life Musa al-Kadhim was born during the conflict between the Abbasids and Umayyads, and was four years old when As-Saffah, the first Abbasid Caliph, took the throne. His mother, Hamidah, was a former slave from either Berbery or Andalusia. Al-Kadhim was brought up in a large family, with nine sisters and six brothers. According to Twelver Shiites, his oldest brother Ismail predeceased his father Ja'far al-Sadiq, who held the position of Imam and Musa was chose

Shia Islam

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Shia days of remembrance

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Islamic festivals

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Sukayna bint Husayn

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Sukayna bint Husayn

Ruqayyah bint Al-Ḥusayn (Arabic: رقـيـة بـنـت الـحـسـيـن‎)[2] (born on the 20th of Rajab, 56 AH – 5 Rabi' al-thani, 60 / 61 AH or 676 CE; died on the 13th of Safar, 60 / 61 AH or 680 / 681 CE),[1] was the daughter of Husayn ibn Ali and Rubab bint Imra al-Qais ibn Adi bin Aws.[3] Her brothers included Ali Zaynul-Abidin, Ali al-Akbar, and Ali al-Asghar. Her sisters included Fatimah as-Sughra and Fatimah al-Kubra, with the latter also being called 'Sakinah'.[4][5][6][7][8] Narrative The story of Sakinah is one of the many emotional stories that Muslims tell about Husayn and his martyrdom at the hands of Yazid's troops. The Battle of Karbala and the subsequent events at the court of Yazid are explained and mourned annually during the commemoration of the 10th of Muharram, also known as ‘Âshûrá’ (Arabic: عَـاشُـورَاء‎, tenth day). Journey to Iraq and Shaam She accompanied her father when he traveled from Mecca to Kufah in Iraq. On the 2nd of Muharram, 61 AH (680 CE), Husain and 72 of his family members and com

Shia Islam

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NPOV disputes from October 2016

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7th-century women

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Talib ibn Abi Talib

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Talib ibn Abi Talib

Talib ibn Abi Talib (571–624) was a first cousin of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a brother of Ali. Family He was born in Mecca, the eldest son of Abu Talib ibn Abdul Muttalib and of Fatimah bint Asad.[1] The young Muhammad lived in their house from the time he and Talib were both eight years old.[2] He was childless.[3] The Battle of Badr In 624 Talib set out with the Meccan army to rescue the merchant-caravan that was threatened with a Muslim attack.[4] When word came from Abu Sufyan that the caravan had arrived safely home so there was no need to continue the march, some of the Quraysh nevertheless wanted to continue as far as Badr. They said to Talib: "We know, O Son of Hashim, that if you have come out with us, your heart is with Muhammad." After some discussion, Talib decided not to accompany them. A poem about his decision to return to Mecca is attributed to him. O God, if Talib goes forth to war unwillingly with one of these squadrons,Let him be the plundered not the plunderer, the vanquishe

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Family of Muhammad

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Family tree of Ali

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Family tree of Ali

The Ottomans were officially from Hanafi-Sunni branch of Islam, the names of two sons of Fatimah and Ali were inscribed inside all of their mosques. An example of this is the writings of Hasan and Husayn, two grandchildren of Muhammad by the calligrapher Kazasker Mustafa İzzed Effendi with Islamic calligraphy in Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey. Alī ibn Abī Tālib (Arabic: عَـلِي ابـن أَﺑِﻲ طَـالِـب‎, 599 – 661 ACE) was an early[a] Islamic leader. Ali is revered by Sunni Muslims as the last of the four Rightly Guided Caliphs, and as a foremost religious authority on the Qur'an and Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). Shi'a Muslims consider him the First Imam appointed by the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the first rightful caliph. Ali was the cousin of Muhammad, and after marriage to Fatimah he also became Muhammad's son-in-law. His descendants through Fatimah are revered today in Shia Islam as Imams, Sharifs or Sayyids. His father was Abu Talib and his mother was Fatima bint Asad, but he was raised in the household o

History of the Middle East

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People who claim Sayyid title

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History of Islam

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Karbala Governorate

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Karbala Governorate

Karbala Governorate (Arabic: كربلاء‎ Karbalāʾ) is a governorate in central Iraq. Its administrative center is the city of Karbala, a holy city for Shia Muslims for housing the shrine of the revered Imam Hussein. The population is 100% Shia.[4] The governorate includes part of the artificial Lake Milh. Provincial Government Governor: Aqil Al-Turaihi Deputy Governor: Jawad al-Hasnawi [1] Provincial Council Chairman (PCC): Abdul al-Al al-Yasseri [2] Districts Districts Ain Al-Tamur Al-Hindiya Karbala References "Prime Minister Dr. Haider Al-Abadi received the governor of Karbala Mr.Aqil Al-Turaihi and the head of the provincial council Mr. Nasayif Jassim Al-Khitabi". pmo.iq. Retrieved 16 April 2018. "Iraq: Governorates, Cities, Towns, Municipal Districts - Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". www.citypopulation.de. Retrieved 16 April 2018. "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13. http://www.iau-iraq.org/reports/IOM_Ke

Karbala Governorate

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Governorates of Iraq

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Banu Hashim

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Banu Hashim

Banū Hāshim (Arabic: بنو هاشم‎) is a clan in the Quraysh tribe. The Islamic prophet, Muhammad was a member of this Arab tribe; his great-grandfather was Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, for whom the clan is named. Members of this clan are referred to as Hashemites. Descendants of Muhammed usually carry the titles Sayyid, Syed, Hashmi, Sayed and Sharif, or the Ashraf clan (synonymous to Ahl al-Bayt). History Amongst pre-Islamic Arabs, people classified themselves according to their tribe, their clan, and then their house/family. There were two major tribal kinds: the Adnanites (descended from Adnan, traditional ancestor of the Arabs of northern, central and western Arabia) and the Qahtanites (originating from Qahtan, the traditional ancestor of the Arabs of southern and south eastern Arabia).[1][2] Banu Hashim is one of the clans of the Quraysh tribe,[3] and is an Adnanite tribe. It derives its name from Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, the great-grandfather of Muhammad, and along with the Banu Abd Shams, Banu Al-Muttalib, and Ba

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Tribes of Arabia

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Family of Muhammad

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Daughters of Husayn ibn Ali

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Daughters of Husayn ibn Ali

The Islamic figure Husayn ibn Ali had three daughters: Ruqayyah (Arabic: رُقَـيَّـة‎),[a] Fāṭimah aṣ-Ṣughrá (Arabic: فَـاطِـمَـة الـصُّـغـرَى‎, "Fatimah the Younger")[2] and Fāṭimah al-Kubrá (Arabic: فَـاطِـمَـة الـكُـبـرَى‎, "Fatimah the Elder").[3][4][5][6] Ruqayyah Main article: Sukayna bint Husayn Sayyidah Ruqayya Mosque, which contains the qabr (Arabic: قَـبـر‎, grave) of Ruqayyah, in Damascus, Syria Zarih Ruqayya bint Husain with beautiful chandelier over An Iranian child in Mourning of Muharram, with a red Headband written "O Ruqayyah" name board on the mosque Hall of Yazid Mahal where Ruqayya died weeping over her father's head. Ruqayyah (born on the 20th of Rajab, 56 AH – 5 Rabi' al-thani, 60 / 61 AH or 676 CE; died on the 13th of Safar, 60 / 61 AH or 680 / 681 CE),[7] was the daughter of Rubab bint Imra al-Qais ibn Adi bin Aws.[8] Her brothers included Ali Zaynul-Abidin, Ali al-Akbar, and Ali al-Asghar.[4][5][6][9] Shi'ite narrative The story of Sakinah is o

Karbala

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Shia Islam

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Battle of Karbala

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Muharram

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Muharram

The Tenth day of Muharram is known as the Day of Ashura. Sometimes, as part of the Mourning of Muharram Shia Muslims practice faka (partial fasting) and Sunni Muslims practice fasting on Ashura. Shia Muslims mourn the death of Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī and his family, honoring the martyrs by prayer and abstinence from joyous events. Shia Muslims do not fast on the 10th of Muharram, but some will not eat or drink until Zawal (afternoon) to show their sympathy with Husayn.[1] In addition there is an important ziyarat book, the Ziyarat Ashura about Husayn ibn Ali. In the Shia sect, it is popular to read this ziyarat on this date.[2] Muharram and Ashura The sighting of the new moon ushers in the Islamic New Year. The first month, Muharram, is one of the four sacred months mentioned in the Quran, along with the seventh month of Rajab, and the eleventh and twelfth months of Dhu al-Qi'dah and Dhu al-Hijjah, respectively, immediately preceding Muharram. During these sacred months, warfare is forbidden. Before the advent of

Public holidays in Malaysia

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Public holidays in Indonesia

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Shia Islam

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Al-Tall Al-Zaynabiyya

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Al-Tall Al-Zaynabiyya

Al-Tall Al-Zaynabiyya, Karbala, Iraq Al-Tall Al-Zaynabiya (at night), as the place where Zaynab viewed Battle of Karbala Al-Tall Al-Zaynabiyya (Arabic: التل الزینبیة‎) is the name of a holy place in Karbala, Iraq.[1][2][3] It overlooks the site of the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, who was killed during the Battle of Karbala on the day of Ashura.[4] During the Battle of Karbala, Ali ibn Abi Talib's daughter and Husayn's sister (Zaynab) went to Tall Zaynabiyya to stay informed about the status of Ali ibn Abi Talib's son, Husayn ibn Ali.[5][6] Al-Tall Al-Zaynabiyya is located at the southwest of Husayn's shrine is well regarded among Shia shrines. It is approximately five meters higher than the floor of the courtyard; its distance to the place where Husayn ibn Ali was killed is almost 35 meters. The site was built like a room with access to a few stages and has a dome with blue tiles. The Tall al-Zaynabiyya was rebuilt in 1978 (near the end of 1398 AH).[7] Meaning In Arabic, the word tall (Arabic: تل‎) m

Shia Islam

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Battle of Karbala

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Islamic terminology

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Umm ul-Banin

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Umm ul-Banin

Fāṭimah bint Ḥuzam al-Kulābīyya (Arabic: فاطمة بنت حزام الكلابية‎ - died (683/684)[1] or 69 A.H.[2] (688/689)[1]), commonly known as Umm ul-Banin ("mother of several sons"), was a wife of Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib. She was from the tribe of Banu Kilab[3] Kalbasi, Khasaes al-Abbasiah, (1387 S.H.), P. 63 a branch of Qais Ailan tribes. The grave of Umm ul-Banin, in Al-Baqi'[4] Umm ul-Banin married Ali ibn Abi Talib after the death of his first wife Fatimah, daughter of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad.[5][6] Umm ul-Banin and Ali had four sons, of whom the eldest was Abbas ibn Ali, the commander of Husain Ibn Ali's forces at the Battle of Karbala. Shimr ibn Dhi 'l-Jawshan, who later killed Husayn ibn Ali at the battle, had offered Abbas Ibn Ali and his brothers immunity before the battle commenced, however, Abbas Ibn Ali and his brothers rejected it since the offer was not including Imam Hussain Ibn Ali.[7] All of Umm ul-Banin's sons were killed later in the battle at Karbala.[8][9] It is believed that Umm ul-Ban

Shia Islam

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Banu Kalb

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683 deaths

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Ya Hussain

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Ya Hussain

Yā Hussain (Arabic: يا حسين‎) is an Arabic phrase used by Muslims to invoke the memory or intervention of Hussain ibn Ali. It is especially used in the context of the Mourning of Muharram. The British in colonial India heard Muslims chanting "Yā Hussain! Yā Hassan!" (a reference to Hussain ibn Ali, brother of Hasan ibn Ali) during the Mourning of Muharram, and approximated it as "Hobson-Jobson", which became a term referring to the similar derivation of an English equivalent for a foreign-language words by adapting English words or names that have a superficial resemblance in sound.[1][2] See also Descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib Day of Ashura Day of Tasu'a Sermon of Ali ibn Husayn in Damascus Ziyarat Ashura References Yule & Burnell, 419 Sir Henry Yule; Arthur Coke Burnell (1903). "HOBSON-JOBSON". In Crooke, William (ed.). Hobson-Jobson: A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases, and of Kindred Terms, Etymological, Historical, Geographical and Discursive (The University of

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Islamic terminology

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Donato Bramante church buildings

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Ziyarat al-Nahiya al-Muqaddasa

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Ziyarat al-Nahiya al-Muqaddasa

Ziyarat al-Nahiya al-Muqaddasa (Arabic: زیارة الناحية المقدسة) which means Ziyarat of the sacred area, is regarded as a related Ziyarat to Hussain ibn Ali; it is recited on Ashura day[1][2] (and likewise other times).[3][4] There are two Ziyarats which are well-known by that title, the first one that is considered as the famous one and the second one which is Ziyarat al Shuhada and it contains the name of Hussein's companions with the ones who killed them.[5] The beginning of the famous Ziyarat is about salutation to divine prophets and likewise Ma'sum (infallible) Imams; it keeps on by greeting to Imam Hussain and also his companions. Afterwards, it mentions some traits/virtues of him; his uprising background, his martyrdom and passions circumstances, the grief of all the universe, beings of heaven/earth, due to his sensations. Eventually, it is ended with tawassul (having recourse) to Ma'sum Imams and likewise du'a (suplication) to Allah.[6][7] Etymology Generally, ziyārah (Arabic: زیارة‎) means "visiti

Shia Islam

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Ziyarat

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Husayn ibn Ali

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Du'a al-Faraj

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Du'a al-Faraj

Du'a al-Faraj (Arabic: دعاء الفرج) is a du'a which is attributed to Imam Mahdi and is begun with the phrase of “Elahi Azomal Bala (O Allah, terrible was the calamity)”[1][2]. The —initial part of[3]— du'a has been quoted for the first time in the book of Konuz al-Nejah (Sheikh Tabarsi).[4] There are plenty of profits in (reciting) dua Faraj.[5][6] It has been mentioned from Ayatollah Bahjat that (the reciting of) Du’a Faraj is the best act in order not to be destructed at the End time (of course i.e. a du’a which effects on all of our practices and should be recited with its conditions, among repentance).[7] Terminology In Islamic terminology, the word du’a or dua (Arabic: دعاء) literally means invocation, which is regarded as the act of supplication, and actually Muslims consider it as a deep practice of worship. Meanwhile, the word of dua is derived from an Arabic word which means “summon” or “call out”. On the other word, Faraj means emancipation of sorrow, and opening (or improvement in the works/affair

Islamic terminology

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Mawla

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Mawla

Mawlā (Arabic: مَوْلَى‎, plural mawālī (مَوَالِي)), is a polysemous Arabic word, whose meaning varied in different periods and contexts.[1] In the days before Muhammad, the term originally applied to any form of tribal association.[2] In the Quran and hadiths it is used in a number of senses, including 'Lord', 'guardian', 'trustee', and 'helper'.[1] After Muhammad's death, this institution was adapted by the Umayyad dynasty to incorporate new converts to Islam into Arab-Muslim society and the word mawali gained currency as an appellation for converted non-Arab Muslims in the early Islamic caliphates. Etymology The word mawla is derived from the root w-l-y (Arabic: ولي‎), meaning "to be close to", "to be friends with", or "to have power over". Mawla can have reciprocal meanings, depending on whether it is used in the active or passive voice: "master" or "slave/freedman", "patron" or "client", "uncle" or "nephew", or simply friend. Originally, mawāli were clients of an Arab tribe, but with the advent of Is

Shia Islam

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Du'a Nudba

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Du'a Nudba

Reciting Du'a Nudba in the Jamkaran Mosque Du'a Nudba is one of the major Shiite prayers about Muhammad al-Mahdi and his occultation. Nudba means to cry and Shiites read the prayer for ask to help them during the occultation. The supplication recite in Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Ghadeer, and in every Friday morning.[1] Mazar al-Kabir, Mazar al-Ghadim, and Mesbaho al-Zaer were narrated the supplication. These books were written with authentic narrators such as Sayyed Ibn Tawus. Muhammad Baqir Majlisi wrote this prayer in Zaad-ul-Maad from Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq. Also, Albazofari, a person who lived in minor occultation, narrated from The Four Deputies of Imam Mahdi that Imam Mahdi said to read the prayer.[2] See also Dua Ahd Du'a Kumayl Mujeer Du'a Jawshan Saqeer Du'a Abu Hamza al-Thumali Du,a sanam-e-Quraish References Mohammed Raza Dungersi. A Brief Biography of Imam Muhammad bin Hasan (a.s.): al-Mahdi. Bilal Muslim Mission. pp. 41–. GGKEY:0J21Y4GWY0X. "Authenticity of Du'a Nudba". libra

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Dua Allahumma kun li-waliyyik

topic

Dua Allahumma kun li-waliyyik

Dua Allahumma kun li-waliyyik (Arabic: دعاء اللهم کن لولیك) or "Du'a Allahumma kun li-waliyyik al-Hujjatibnil Hasan" that is also known as "Dua Salamati Imam Zaman (Imam Mahdi)"[1][2][3] is a supplication which is recited for the health of Hujjat al-Mahdi [4][5][6] who is regarded as the last Imam --of Shia Islam--[7][8] and likewise the savior of the world from the oppression (from Islamic viewpoint).[9][10][11] Moreover, the Du'a "Allahumma kun li-waliyyik" is also famous as Dua Faraj between Shia Muslims (as well as the main Du'a al-Faraj which is started with the following sentences:)[12][13] "O Allah, terrible was the calamity, and its evil consequences are visible, the covering has been removed, (all) hopes have been cut off, the (plentiful) earth has shrunk (with very little to spare), ..."[12] The (English translated) text of the supplication of "Du'a Allahumma kun li-waliyyik al-Hujjatibnil Hasan" is as follows: "O Allah, be, for Your representative, the Hujjat (proof), son of AlHassan, Your bless

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Dua Simat

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Dua Simat

Du'a Simat (Arabic: دعاء السمات) is an Islamic supplication known as Du'a Shobbur.[1][2][3][4] This Du'a is mustahab (recommended) to be recited at sunset on Fridays.[5][6] It is regarded as a prominent supplication. Most old Islamic scholars followed this practice. Muhammad al-Baqir, the fifth Imam of Shia Islam, said, 'I've spoken the truth if I swear to Allah that Ismul Azam is in this supplication."[7][8] According to Allamah Mohammad Baqir Majlisi, the companions of the Prophet recited it regularly.[9] Naming Simāt is the plural form of Sīmah,[10] which means sign. This supplication includes many signs of answering prayers.[11] Authenticity This supplication can be found in the books Misbah al-Mutahajjid by Sheikh Tusi, Jamal al-Esbu' by Sayyid ibn Tawus, al-Balad al-Amin by Kaf'ami, Bihar al-Anwar by Muhammad Baqir Majlisi[12] and in prominent documents from Muhammad ibn Uthman Umri, one of the Four Deputies of Mahdi, and with the mediator from Ja'far al-Sadiq.[13] Text The initial (English transl

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Urwa al-Wuthqa

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Urwa al-Wuthqa

Urwa al-Wuthqa (Arabic: العروة الوثقي) is Mohammed Kazem Yazdi's book[1][2][3] which is considered as the most prominent compilation and Fiqhi book of him so that it is mentioned there are many --Islamic-- scholars who hold this book with themselves.[4] This compilation's author is known as the Sahib-Urwa (the owner of Urwa). The mentioned book includes diverse chapters of Fiqh, and expresses (Islamic) legal rulings/problems.[4][5][6] On the whole, Urwa al-Wuthqa consists of 3260 problems[7][8] in three volumes; its first volume includes the matters of Ijtihad and Taqlid, the books of: al-Taharah, al-Salah, al-Sawm, al-E'tekaf, al-Zakat, al-Khoms, al-Haj, al-Ijarah, al-Mudharebah, al-Mazare'ah, al-Musaqat, al-Dhiman, al-Hawalah, al-Nikah and al-Wasiah.[4] The second volume of that consists of: the matters of hypocricy Hormah (being haram), Iddah matters and its rulings; the book of al-Hibah, the book of al-Waqf; and a small Risalah in Sadaqah Bel-Ma'ni al-Khasah.[4] The third volume of the book of Urwa al

Shia Islam

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Al-Jafr (book)

topic

Al-Jafr (book)

Al-Jafr is a mystical Shia holy book[1][2] compiled, according to Shia belief, by Ali and inherited by him from Muhammad.[1][2][3] Al-Jafr is composed of two skin boxes in which were kept various books of the past Prophets and the books inherited from Muhammad, Ali and Fatimah to the Ahl al-Bayt, with each new Imam receiving them from his dying predecessor Imam, as well as the armour and weapons of Muhammad.[4][5] Al-Jafr was one of the sources and origins of knowledge acquired by the 12 Imams and the sixth Imam of Shia Islam, Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq took pride in having possession of al-Jafr, that comprised the hidden knowledge of Muhammad. The later Imams were accustomed to refer at times to the sacred and secret book of al-Jafr, which was left in their keeping by Ali and belief in the existence of al-Jafr with the Imams was firm, according to the Shia.[4][5][6][7][8][9] The Imams also learned the science of Huruf (letters of the alphabet) from al-Jafr and used this science to derive facts and rulings from a

Shia Islam

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Shia literature

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Imamzadeh

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Imamzadeh

A Mullah (Shia Islam cleric) praying in Imāmzādeh Sayyid Hamzah, Tabriz. The interiors of many Imamzadehs are covered with mirrors to create a brilliant display of light. An Imāmzādeh (Persian: امام‌زاده‎) refers to an immediate descendant of a Shi'i Imam in the Persian language. This Persian term is also used in Urdu and Azeri. Imamzadeh means "offspring" or descendant of an imam. There are many other different ways of spelling this term in the English language.[1] Some of these are imamzada, imamzadah, and emamzadah.[2][3] These all have the same meanings. Imamzadeh are basically the Syed's or Syeda's as they have descended from the Imams. Imamzadeh is also a term for a shrine-tomb of the descendants of Imams, who are directly related to Muhammad.[1] These shrines are only for the descendants of imams and they are not for imams themselves. Imamzadehs are also sayyids, though not all sayyids are considered imamzadehs.[4] These shrine-tombs are used as centers of Shi’i devotion and pilgrimages. These sh

Islamic terminology

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Bayt al-Ahzan

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Bayt al-Ahzan

Bayt al-Ahzan (Arabic: بیت الأحزان) literally means "the house of sorrows",[1][2] is a structure which has been destroyed in the Al-Baqi' cemetery in the city of Medina.[3][4] Bayt al-Ahzan is located at the south of ‘Abbas ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib;[5][6] and likewise behind the court of four Shia Imams in Baqi', namely: Hasan ibn Ali, Zayn al-Abidin, Muhammad al-Baqir and Ja'far as-Sadiq.[7] Considering that Fatimah al-Zahra was so sorrowful of her father's passing away and used to cry a lot for him,[8] then Ali ibn Abi Talib built a construction (Bayt al-Ahzan) for her to mourn for her father there.[9][10] Bayt al-Ahzan is considered to be the third probable place --after Al-Masjid an-Nabawi and al-Baqi' cemetery-- to be the grave place of Fatimah's grave.[11][12] This building was demolished after the (second) attack of Wahhabists to Hejaz and the occupation of Medina in 1926 (1344 A.H.).[13] Meaning The word "Bayt" (Arabic: بیت) in Arabic means home,[14] and the word "Ahzan" is the plural form of Hozn (so

Ahl al-Bayt

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Shia Islam

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Idrisid dynasty

topic

Idrisid dynasty

The Idrisids (Arabic: الأدارسة‎ al-Adārisah) were an Arab Muslim dynasty of Morocco, ruling from 788 to 974. Named after the founder Idriss I, the great grandchild of Hasan ibn Ali, the Idrisids are considered to be the founders of the first Moroccan state. Religion Idrisids have been described as a Sunni Muslim dynasty,[1][2] while other academics have described the Idrisids as a Zaydi-Shia Muslim.[3] They were opponents of the Abbasid Caliphate.[4] History The founder of the dynasty was Idris ibn Abdallah (788–791),[5] who traced his ancestry back to Ali ibn Abi Talib[5] and his wife Fatimah, daughter of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. After the Battle of Fakhkh, near Mecca, between the Abbasids and supporters of the descendants of the prophet Muhammad, Idris ibn Abdallah fled to the Maghreb. He first arrived in Tangier, the most important city of Morocco at the time, and by 788 he had settled in Volubilis. The powerful Awraba Berbers of Volubilis (or Walili as the Berbers called it) took him in and mad

Former country articles categorised by governme...

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African royal families

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Shia dynasties

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Alam

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Alam

Look up alam, عالم, or ع ل م in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ʿĀlam (عالم) is the Arabic word for "world" or "universe" (cognate with Hebrew ʿolam עוֹלָם‎). A distinct noun from the same root (ʿ-l-m "to perceive") is ʿalam (علم, plural أَعْلَام‎ ʾaʿlām), meaning "flag, banner". Alam "flag" Metal standards carried in Islamic (mostly Shia) processions Islamic flags banner or ensign attributed to Muhammed, see Black_Standard#Origin Flag of the Mughal Empire Surname surname عالم ("world") Intikhab Alam (born 1941), British Indian (Pakistani) cricketer Muhammad Mahmood Alam (1935–2013), Pakistani Air Force officer surname علم ("flag") Alexander Alam (1896–1983), English-Australian state politician, son of Lebanese-English parents Asadollah Alam (1919–1978), Iranian academic administrator and Prime Minister of Iran Rabih Alameddine (born 1959), Lebanese writer and painter surname اعلم ("flags") Mozaffar Alam (1882–1973), Iranian military officer, diplomat and politician uni

Urdu-language surnames

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Shia Islam

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Insignia

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Tasbih

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Tasbih

Glory to God "Subhan Allah" in Arabic, Desouk Muslim prayer beads Tasbīḥ (Arabic: تَـسْـبِـيْـح‎) is a form of dhikr that involves the repetitive utterances of short sentences in the praise and glorification of Allah in Islam, by saying Subḥānallāh (سُـبْـحَـانَ ٱلله, meaning "God is perfect (free of any errors/defects)"). To keep track of counting either the phalanges of the right hand or a misbaha is used.[1] Etymology The term tasbeeh is based on 3 root letters i.e. 'س [seen], ب [ba] , ح [ha]' of the Arabic language. The meaning of the root word when written means to glorify. 'Tasbeeh' is an irregular derivation from subhan, which is the first word of the constitutive sentence of the first third of the canonical form (see below) of tasbeeh. The word literally means, as a verb, "to travel swiftly" and, as a noun, "duties" or "occupation". However, in the devotional context, tasbih refers to Subhana Allah, which is often used in the Qur'an with the preposition 'an (عن), meaning "'God is [de]void' [of

Sunni Islam

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Donato Bramante church buildings

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Tasbih of Fatimah

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Tasbih of Fatimah

The Tasbih of Fatimah (Arabic: تسبیح فاطمة), commonly known as "Tasbih Hadhrat Zahra"[1][2] or "Tasbih al-Zahra" (Arabic: تسبیح الزهراء)[3], is a special dhikr which is attributed to Fatimah bint Muhammad,[4] and is included 34 times Allah-o-Akbar (Takbir), 33 times Alhamdulillah (Tahmid) and 33 times Subhanallah (Tasbih).[5][6][7] According to an Islamic narration from Ali ibn Abi Talib, the Islamic prophet Muhammad taught this dhikr (Tasbih of Fatimah) to his daughter Fatimah. According to this narration Fatimah who was suffering hardships of daily routine, intended to ask him for a servant helping them with household chores, then her father (Muhammad) taught her the mentioned tasbih and told her that this tasbih is better for you than that servant; hence Fatimah pleased with it.[8] Qur'an and Tasbih In regards to this tasbih which is also famous as Tasbihat al-Sayyidah al-Zahra[9] or Tasbihat Hazrat Fatimah al-Zahra,[10][11] it is said that this is Mustahab (recommended) to say tasbih of Fatimah after

Salah terminology

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Arabic words and phrases in Sharia

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Shia Islam

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Saeed Haddadian

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Saeed Haddadian

Saeed Hadadian, an Iranian Maddah Saeed Hadadian (Persian: سعید حدادیان) is an Iranian "Maddah" (Maddahi reader)[1][2][3] who was born in 1965 in Tehran;[4] and he is originally from the city of Nain. Saeed Hadadian is a Dhakir (Dhikr reciter) who holds Hei'ats (public places for religious rituals/mourning)[5] in the "(great) Mahdieh of Imam-Hassan" in Tehran.[6] This Iranian Maddah who is considered among the educated Iranian Noha readers,[7] teaches Ma'aref related lessons at "Daneshgah-Tehran" (university of Tehran). According to reports, he went to Syria (with his son)[8] in order to defend the shrine of Sayyidah Zaynab against the assaults of ISIS.[9] Saeed Hadadian who is also known as "Haj Saeed Hadadian",[10][11][12] is considered among the Maddahs who perform Maddahi at the presence of the supreme leader of Iran. In regards to his occupation, the report mentions that he was employed in 'University of Tehran' in 1997, and was the person in charge of "Qur'an section" (at that university) till the y

Nain County

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Battle of Karbala

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Husayn ibn Ali

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Maddah (religious singer)

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Maddah (religious singer)

A group of Iranian Maddahs, in a gathering Maddah (Persian: مداح), literally means eulogist or panegyrist;[1][2] and it is attributed to religious singer.[3] There is a kind of religious singer(s) in Islamic culture who are called Maddah that often participate in --anniversary-- funeral ceremonies of Muslims, particularly for the famous characters among the Islamic prophet Muhammad and twelve Imams of Shia; and they recite or sing in Islamic/sad manner for people (as a type of mourning).[4][5][6] The root of the word "Maddah" is "Madh" which means expressing the excellent traits of a character or a thing.[7] Maddah (or Dhakir)[8] is an individual who mentions/praises the great characters and religious education in (religious) gatherings; and its performance ought to be mostly full of Eulogy/Marsiya; besides, Maddahi doesn't have special gender, age, group or elegy.[9] Idiomatically, Maddah means a dhakir or panegyrist who (often) stands beside the pulpit, and praises or turns into poetry about Ahlul-Bayt[

Ahl al-Bayt

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Battle of Karbala

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Husayn ibn Ali

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Mahmoud Karimi (Maddah)

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Mahmoud Karimi (Maddah)

Mahmoud Karimi, in a meeting of Maddahs with Seyyed Ali Khamenei Mahmoud Karimi (Persian: محمود کریمی) is an Iranian Maddah who was born in 1968[1][2] in Tehran; his father is considered among Iranian missing combatants (during Iran-Iraq war), and his brother was killed in 1985 during "Operation Karbala 5' in Shalamcheh. Mahmoud Karimi got married in 1991 and has 2 children (a son and a daughter).[3] It has been mentioned in regards to Mahmoud Karimi's occupation that he is self-employed, and is working related-industrial activities; he has worked in carpentry fields, too. Karimi mentions that he has studied at Allameh Tabataba'i University at the subject of "industrial management" but he left it after passing 74 university credits; and preferred to be active at cultural front/issues, thus he entered cultural/maddahi fields.[4][5] This Iranian Maddah who is also known as "Haj Mahmoud Karimi",[6][7][8][9] has performed diverse Maddahis and mourning, and has presented various maddahi albums/Nohas, too.[10][

Ahl al-Bayt

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Battle of Karbala

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Husayn ibn Ali

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Seyyed Muhammad Jafar Moravej

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Seyyed Muhammad Jafar Moravej

Seyyed Muhammad Jafar Moravej (Persian: سید محمد جعفر مروج)[1][2][3] whose complete name/fame is "Seyyed Muhammad Jafar Jazaeri Moravej al-Shariah" (Persian: سید محمد جعفر جزائری مروج الشریعه),[4] was an Iranian Shia scholar who was born in 1910 and died in 1999, in a religious family in Shushtar.[5] His father was Seyyed Muhammad Ali Moravej, and he is among the descendants of Seyyed Nematollah Jazayeri who was a prominent Shia scholar.[6][7] This Shia scholar is commonly known as "Ayatollah Seyyed Muhammad Jafar Moravej" (Persian: آیت الله سید محمد جعفر مروج).[8][9] His compilations are more than 50 books, such as: "Shar (explanation of) Tahzib", "Sharh-Estebsar", "Sharh Awali al-La'ali", "Sharh Oyun Akhbar-al-Reza", "Sharh Nahj-al-Balaghah", "Qesas-al-Anbia", etc.[10][11] Seyyed Muhammad Jafar who was also known as "Seyyed Muhammad Jafar Jazayeri[12]/(Mousavi)[13]," finally died in 1999[14] in the city of Qom.[15] The supreme leader of Iran, Seyyed Ali Khamenei was among the Iranian famous officials who

Ayatollahs

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Iranian ayatollahs

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Shia Islam

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Salawat al-Sha'baniyya

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Salawat al-Sha'baniyya

Al-Ṣalawāt al-Shaʿbānīyya (Arabic: اَلصَّلَوات الشَّعبانِيَّة) is regarded as a supplication which was quoted from the fourth Imam of Shia Islam, Imam al-Sajjad. This Salawat is recommended to be recited every day in the month of Sha'ban as the eight month of the Islamic calendar. Meanwhile, it is better to recite it at noon and midnight. Shi'a Muslims usually recite it between Zuhr and 'Asr prayers. Its general message is related to the elucidation of Ahl al-Bayt position and likewise emphasis on their Wilaya.[1][2] Sources Shaykh Tusi narrated in Misbah al-Mutahajjid that Imam Sajjad used to recite it every day in the month of Sha'ban toward the sunset and likewise on the night of Shaban's half. This Salawat has been narrated through Shaykh Tusi in other books too, such as Eghbal al-A'maal and Jamal al-Osboo'. It is available in Mafatih al-Janan as well.[3][4][5] Messages In this Salawat, the position of Ahl al-Bayt and Imams (of Shia Islam) is considered as the most emphasized issue. The Phrase of Sala

Islamic calendar

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Shia Islam

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Ziyarat

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Irfan Raza Ansari

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Irfan Raza Ansari

Political career Irfan Reza Ansari, is an Indian politician who has been announced as the candidate for the Srinagar constituency for the Jammu and Kashmir People's Conference.[1][2][3] Early life and education Irfan Raza Ansari was born to Kashmir's influential Shia religious cleric Iftikhar Hussain Ansari on 8 July 1977. He is younger to his brother Imran Raza Ansari [4]. Irfan Raza Ansari had his matriculation from Burn Hall School in Srinagar and did his graduation from Delhi University References "Sajad Lone led People's Conference announces candidates for two LS seats in J&K". The Times of India. 11 February 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019. "Shia leader among two named by Lone party". The Tribune (Chandigarh). 12 February 2019. Retrieved 17 February 2019. "PC to field Irfan Ansari as its candidate for Srinagar in parliamentary elections". The Kashmir Walla. 27 December 2018. Retrieved 20 February 2019. https://www.groundreport.com/pdp-pays-glowing-tributes-to-molvi-iftikhar-hussai

People from Srinagar

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Shia Islam

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Indian Shia Muslims

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Sipah-e-Masoomeen(as)

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Sipah-e-Masoomeen(as)


Hujjat al-Islam

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Hujjat al-Islam

Hujjat al-Islam (from Arabic: حجة الإسلام‎ ḥujjatu l-Islām) (also Hojatoleslam) is an honorific title meaning "authority on Islam" or "proof of Islam".[1] Sunni Islam In Sunni tradition, the title was used exclusively for the scholar al-Ghazali, due to his influential integration of Sufism and sharia. However, there is some evidence of application of the term to later Sunni scholars, in imitaion of the Shia usage.[1] Shia Islam In Twelver Shia the title is awarded to scholars. It was originally applied as an honorific to leading scholars, but now the use indicates a status in the hierarchy of the learned below Ayatollah.[1] It is divided into two sub ranks, Hujjatu l-Islām wa l-Muslimīn ("Authority on Islam and Muslims") and Hujjatu l-Islām ("Authority on Islam"), given to middle-ranking clerics. Education Hawza students start their studies learning fiqh, kalam, hadith, tafsir, philosophy and Arabic literature. After mastering these levels they are given the Hojatoleslam title, and can start becoming mu

Islamic Persian honorifics

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Arabic words and phrases

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Religious leadership roles

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Ziaka Angeliki

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Ziaka Angeliki

Ziaka Angeliki is an academic scholar on Islamic studies expertise on Byzantine studies, Ibadi Studies and Shia Studies. Studies Angeliki Ziaka born in Thessaloniki and studied in School of Theology of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. She took her PhD from the Marc Bloch University of Strasbourg University of Strasbourg in 2002 with title La Recherche Grecque contemporaine et l’Islam. Angeliki Ziaka, also studied at the Institute of Arabic and Islamic Studies in Rome, the History Department of the Royal University of Amman, and she has conducted research in Iran and Oman since 2006.Her interests include early and medieval Islamic historiography and Kalam; Byzantine and post-Byzantine literature on Islam; religious historical narratives and the re-articulating of Muslim identities through religious discourse and political realities in the Middle East, inter-religious dialogue and Religious Education in religious and secular environments and institutions.[1][2] Carrier Angeliki Ziaka is a greek Associa

Ibadi

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Islamic studies

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Byzantine studies

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Event of Ghadir Khumm

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Event of Ghadir Khumm

The event of Ghadir Khumm (Arabic: حديث الغدير; Persian: رویداد غدیر خم) refers to a sermon delivered by the Islamic prophet Muhammad shortly before his death in 632 CE. According to Shia traditions, in the sermon, attended by over one hundred thousand people,[4] Muhammad announced Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor. After that announcement, the final verse of the Quran was revealed, proclaiming the perfection of the religion of Islam. The day's anniversary in the Islamic calendar (18 Dhu al-Hijjah) is celebrated by Muslims (primarily Shia Muslims) as Eid al-Ghadir.[5] The event of Ghadir Khumm occurred while the Muslims were returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage. A verse of the Quran was revealed instructing Muhammad to deliver an important message. The Muslims were gathered and Muhammad delivered a lengthy sermon. The speech included the famous statement by Muhammad that "to whomsoever I am Mawla, Ali is also their Mawla;" According to Ahmad al-Tabarsi's transcript, Muhammad also described Ali with the le

Shia days of remembrance

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7th-century Islam

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History of Islam

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Druze

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Druze

Video clips from the archive of Israel's channel 2 news company showing Israeli Druze men in traditional clothing. The flags shown are the Druze flags. Sixth caliph of the Fatimids, Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah The Druze ([17] Arabic: درزي‎ darzī or durzī, plural دروز durūz; Hebrew: דְּרוּזִי drūzī plural דְּרוּזִים, druzim) are an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethno-religious group[18] originating in Western Asia who self-identify as Al-Muwaḥḥidūn (lit., "The People of Monotheism").[19] Jethro of Midian is considered an ancestor of all people from the Mountain of Druze region, who revere him as their spiritual founder and chief prophet.[20][21][22][23][24] It is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the teachings of Hamza ibn-'Ali ibn-Ahmad and the sixth Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, and Greek philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle.[25][26] The Epistles of Wisdom is the foundational text of the Druze faith.[27] The Druze faith incorporates elements of Isma'ilism, a branch of Shia Islam,[28] Gnos

Shia Islam

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Accuracy disputes from May 2014

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CS1 uses Hebrew-language script (he)

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Etymology of Shia

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Etymology of Shia

Shi‘a ("followers" or "partisans") as an Islamic term traces its etymology to the very first century of Islam. Transliteration The singular/adjective form of Shi‘ah (Arabic: شيعة‎) is Shi‘i (Arabic: شيعي‎). The apostrophe frequently used (e.g. Shi'a) is technically incorrect, since the Arabic letter is the ayin (ع), standardly represented with a grave accent (`), left half-circle (ʿ), or turned comma (‘). The apostrophe represents the hamza, which has a noted difference in pronunciation. The final Arabic letter is the ta' marbuta, which also causes difficulty in transliteration. It is often pronounced as a soft /h/ (e.g. Shi‘ah), but in a construct state, and in more classical Arabic, it is pronounced as a /t/ (e.g. Shi‘at ‘Ali). The ta' marbuta is frequently dropped in transliteration (e.g. Shia). Due to the complexities of Arabic, there are approximately 30 possible transliterations of شيعة. For technical accuracy Shi‘ah is the preferred form. Using the Arabic chat alphabet, the transliteration is Shi3a.

Etymologies

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Shia Islam

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Hadith al-Thaqalayn

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Hadith al-Thaqalayn

The Hadith al-Thaqalayn, also known as the Hadith of the two weighty things, refers to a saying (hadith) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. According to the hadith of the Prophet Muhammad; the Qur'an and Ahl al-Bayt ("people of the house", Muhammad's family) had been described as the two weighty things. In the context of this Hadith, Muhammad's family refers to Ali ibn Abi Talib, Fatimah bint Muhammad (the daughter of Muhammad), and their children and descendants. This hadith is accepted by Shia and Sunni Islam.[1] Authority The Hadith al-Thaqalayn, as most strongly established hadiths, is classified in Islam as mutawatir and the authenticity of it is confirmed by numerous chains of transmission of Shia and Sunni Muslim [2]. According to Ayatollah Ja'far Sobhani, the hadith points the authoritative knowledge of the Ahl al-Bayt and the Quran and convinces Muslim to believe in both of them together. In spite of difference over historical interpretation, Hadith al-Thaqalayn can improve the union among the Musli

Shia Islam

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Imamate in Shia doctrine

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Imamate in Shia doctrine

In Shia Islam, the imamah (Arabic: إمامة‎) is the doctrine that the figures known as imams are the central figures of the ummah; the entire Shi'ite system of doctrine focuses on the imamah.[1] Shi'ites believe that the Imams are the true Caliphs or rightful successors of Muhammad, and further that Imams are possessed of divine knowledge and authority (Ismah) as well as being part of the Ahl al-Bayt, the family of Muhammad.[2] These Imams have the role of providing commentary and interpretation of the Quran[3] as well as guidance. According to Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, the Imam is a means through which humans receive divine grace, because "He brings men closer to obedience (of Allah) and keeps them away from disobedience." As fulfilling the human being is his wish, it is logical that God appoints Imams to subject man to his wishes. So his existence and his deeds display two forms of grace of God toward man.[4] Etymology The word "Imām" denotes a person who stands or walks "in front". For Sunni Islam, the word i

Shia Islam

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Imamate in Twelver doctrine

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Imamate in Twelver doctrine

Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala, Iraq, where the Battle of Karbala took place Imāmah (Arabic: اٍمامة‎) means "leadership" and is a concept in Twelver theology. The Twelve Imams are the spiritual and political successors to Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, in the Twelver branch of Shia Islam.[1] According to Twelver theology, the successors to Muhammad are infallible human beings, who rule justly over the community and maintain and interpret sharia and undertake the esoteric interpretation of the Quran. The words and deeds of Muhammad and the Imams guide the community. For this, the Imams must be free from error and sin and chosen by divine decree—nass—through the Prophet.[2][3] Shi'a believe that divine wisdom—'Aql—is the source of the souls of the Prophets and Imams and gives them esoteric knowledge—hikmah—and that their suffering is a means by which their devotees may acquire divine grace.[1][4][5] The Imam is not the recipient of divine revelation, but has a close relationship with God, who guides him, allo



Shia Islam in the Indian subcontinent

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Shia Islam in the Indian subcontinent

Ali wali Ullah Flag Shia Islam was introduced to the Indian subcontinent during the final years of the Rashidun Caliphate. The Indian subcontinent with Hindu Kush and Baluchi Hills on the west and the great Himalayas on the north and the Indian Ocean in the south, was the best place for the Shias escaping persecution under Umayyad and Abbasid rule. They could hide in the large and resourceful lands with fewer attacks from foes. However, it also detached them from their ideological and cultural centers in Medina and Kufa. This resulted in the evolution of a unique Shi'te tradition. Shias of Pakistan are thus, different from Shias of the middle east: they are scattered in India between the Hindu and in Pakistan between the Sunni Muslim majority. However, this majority is not hostile towards the Shias as Indian Sufi-Islamic tradition has special respect for the family of Prophet. While they are the second largest Shia community after Iran, unlike in the Middle East, Pakistani Shias are not concentrated in one g

Shia Islam in Pakistan

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Shia Islam

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Shia Islam by country

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Haji Bibi case

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Haji Bibi case

Haji Bibi v. His Highness Sir Sultan Mohamed Shah, the Aga Khan, often referred to as the Haji Bibi Case, was a 1908 court case in the Bombay High Court heard by Justice Russell. The case was fundamentally a dispute over the inheritance of the estate of Hasan Ali Shah, a Persian nobleman with the title Aga Khan I and the hereditary leader (46th Imam) of the Nizari Ismailis. A number of the properties and other monetary assets had been passed down to Aqa Ali Shah, Aga Khan II and then to his grandson, Sir Sultan Muhammad Shah, Aga Khan III.[1] The plaintiffs included Haji Bibi who was a widowed granddaughter of Aga Khan I and a few other members of the family that all claimed rights to the wealth.[2][3] The decision is notable as it confirmed the Aga Khan III’s exclusive rights to the assets of his grandfather and to the continued religious offerings by his followers, including some Khojas, as the 48th Imam of the Nizaris.[4] As part of the adjudication, the British judge extensively examined the religious id

Nizari Ismailism

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Ismailism

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Law in India

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