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Zoonoses


Cheyletiella blakei

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Cheyletiella blakei

Cheyletiella blakei is a small mite and ectoparasitic of domestic cats. It is a zoonosis that can be transmitted from the cat to humans. Its symptoms in human can include dermatosis, extreme 'itchiness'. Those who are most susceptible are people who have close contact with cats. Occurrences of the infection are low but it may be an emerging pathogen in California. The treatment and prevention of infection with C. blakei is to treat the cat with pesticide. The symptoms in the person then subside[1] References Schuller, S.; Francey, T.; Hartmann, K.; Hugonnard, M.; Kohn, B.; Nally, J. E.; Sykes, J. (2015). "European consensus statement on leptospirosis in dogs and cats". Journal of Small Animal Practice. 56 (3): 159–179. doi:10.1111/jsap.12328. ISSN 0022-4510. PMID 25754092.

Parasitic acari

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Arachnids described in the 20th century

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Animals described in 1970

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Feline zoonosis

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Feline zoonosis

A feline zoonosis is a viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoan, nematode or arthropod infection that can be transmitted to humans from the domesticated cat, Felis catus. Some of these are diseases are reemerging and newly emerging infections or infestations caused by zoonotic pathogens transmitted by cats. In some instances, the cat can display symptoms of infection (these may differ from the symptoms in humans) and sometimes the cat remains asymptomatic. There can be serious illnesses and clinical manifestations in people who become infected. This is dependent on the immune status and age of the person. Those who live in close association with cats are more prone to these infections. But those that do not keep cats as pets are also able to acquire these infections because of the transmission can be from cat feces and the parasites that leave their bodies.[1] People can acquire cat-associated infections through bites, scratches or other direct contact of the skin or mucous membranes with the cat. This includes '

Felinology

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Veterinary parasitology

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Cats

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Paragonimus

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Paragonimus

Paragonimus is a genus of flukes (trematodes). Some tens of species have been described, but they are difficult to distinguish, so it is not clear how many of the named species may be synonyms. The name Paragonimus is derived from the combination of two Greek words, “para” (on the side of) and “gonimos” (gonads or genitalia).[3] Several of the species are known as lung flukes. In humans some of the species occur as zoonoses; the term for the condition is paragonimiasis. The first intermediate hosts of Paragonimus include at least 54 species of freshwater snails from superfamilies Cerithioidea and Rissooidea.[2] The most prominent species of Paragonimus in human medicine is Paragonimus westermani, an infectious lung fluke originating in eastern Asia. Worldwide, about nine species of Paragonimus are known to cause human paragonimiasis in which many of the species reside in East Asia, West Africa, and in North and South America.[4] Morphology Morphology of typical Paragonimus: AC: acetabulum (ventral sucker

Plagiorchiida genera

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Trematode genera

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Cat diseases

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Chlamydophila abortus

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Chlamydophila abortus

Warning notice about C. abortus on a live stock pen. Chlamydophila abortus is a species in Chlamydiae that causes abortion and fetal death in mammals, including humans. Chlamydophila abortus was previously classified as Chlamydia psittaci along with all Chlamydiae except Chlamydia trachomatis. This was based on a lack of evident glycogen production and on resistance to the antibiotic sulfadiazine. In 1999 C. psittaci and C. abortus were recognized as distinct species based on differences of pathogenicity and DNA–DNA hybridization.[1] In humans There are approximately one or two cases of chlamydiosis diagnosis in pregnant women in the United Kingdom per year. Typically transmission occurs from contact with livestock who have recently given birth. The true prevalence in humans is unknown because serological antibody tests are unable to distinguish between C. abortus and other more common species such as Chlamydia trachomatis.[2] In other animals C. abortus is endemic among ruminants such as cows and shee

Bovine diseases

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Sheep and goat diseases

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Zoonotic bacterial diseases

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Listeriosis

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Listeriosis

Listeriosis is a bacterial infection most commonly caused by Listeria monocytogenes,[1] although L. ivanovii and L. grayi have been reported in certain cases. Listeriosis can cause severe illness, including severe sepsis, meningitis, or encephalitis, sometimes resulting in lifelong harm and even death. Those at risk of severe illness are the elderly, fetuses, newborns and those who are immunocompromised. In pregnant women it may cause stillbirth or spontaneous abortion, and preterm birth is common. Listeriosis may cause mild, self-limiting gastroenteritis and fever in anyone.[2] Listeria is ubiquitous and is primarily transmitted via the oral route after ingestion of contaminated food products, after which the bacteria penetrates the intestinal tract to cause systemic infections. The diagnosis of listeriosis requires the isolation of the causative bacteria from the blood and/or the cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment includes prolonged administration of antibiotics, primarily ampicillin and gentamicin, to which t

Foodborne illnesses

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Zoonotic bacterial diseases

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Zoonoses

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Angiostrongylus cantonensis

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Angiostrongylus cantonensis

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a parasitic nematode (roundworm) that causes angiostrongyliasis, the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Basin.[2] The nematode commonly resides in the pulmonary arteries of rats, giving it the common name rat lungworm.[3] Snails are the primary intermediate hosts, where larvae develop until they are infectious. Humans are incidental hosts of this roundworm, and may become infected through ingestion of larvae in raw or undercooked snails or other vectors, or from contaminated water and vegetables.[4] The larvae are then transported via the blood to the central nervous system, where they are the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis, a serious condition that can lead to death or permanent brain and nerve damage.[5] Angiostrongyliasis is an infection of increasing public health importance, as globalization contributes to the geographic spread of the disease.[6] History First described by the renowned Chinese parasitologist Hsin-

Pages with DOIs inactive as of 2019 August

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Pages with DOIs inactive since 2018

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Parasitic nematodes of mammals

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Angiostrongyliasis

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Angiostrongyliasis

Angiostrongyliasis is an infection by a roundworm of the Angiostrongylus type. Symptoms may vary from none, to mild, to meningitis.[1] Infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis (rat lungworm) can occur after voluntarily or inadvertently consuming raw Giant African land snails, great grey slugs, or other mollusks and even unwashed fruits and vegetables. In humans, Angiostrongylus is the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis.[2] Frequently the infection will resolve without treatment or serious consequences, but in cases with a heavy load of parasites the infection can be so severe it can cause permanent damage to the central nervous system or death.[3] Symptoms Infection first presents with severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and weakness, which gradually lessens and progresses to fever, and then to central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and severe headache and stiffness of the neck. CNS infection CNS symptoms begin with mild cognitive impairment and slowed reactions,

Rodent-carried diseases

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Zoonoses

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Helminthiases

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Dirofilariasis

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Dirofilariasis

Dirofilariasis is an infection by parasites of the genus Dirofilaria.[1] It is transmitted through a mosquito bite; its main hosts include dogs and wild canids. These can give rise to granulomas in the pulmonary artery. Some common symptoms include cough, fever and pleural effusion. It may also appear on x-rays of the chest.[2] Causes It can be caused by: Dirofilaria immitis Dirofilaria repens Dirofilaria tenuis Diagnosis Dirofilariasis is often diagnosed by the examination of tissue obtained as part of the diagnostic investigation of coin lesions. Blood tests are not yet helpful in the diagnosis of dirofilariasis in humans.[3] Treatment Treatment with tetracycline antibiotics has been reported to damage Dirofilaria immitis, often causing death of adult worms.[4] References "Dirofilariasis: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology". 2017-02-09. "Dirofilariasis FAQs". Center for disease control and prevention. February 8, 2012. Retrieved May 16, 2019. Prevention, CDC - Centers fo

Zoonoses

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Helminthiases

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Anisakis

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Anisakis

Anisakis is a genus of parasitic nematodes that have lifecycles involving fish and marine mammals.[1] They are infective to humans and cause anisakiasis. People who produce immunoglobulin E in response to this parasite may subsequently have an allergic reaction, including anaphylaxis, after eating fish infected with Anisakis species. Etymology The genus Anisakis was defined in 1845[2] by Félix Dujardin as a subgenus of the genus Ascaris Linnaeus, 1758. Dujardin did not make explicit the etymology, but stated that the subgenus included the species in which the males have unequal spicules ("mâles ayant des spicules inégaux"); thus, the name Anisakis is based on anis- (Greek prefix for different) and akis (Greek for spine or spicule). Two species were included in the new subgenus, Ascaris (Anisakis) distans Rudolphi, 1809 and Ascaris (Anisakis) simplex Rudolphi, 1809. Lifecycle Complex lifecycle of Anisakis worms Anisakis species have complex lifecycles which pass through a number of hosts through the cou

Parasitic nematodes

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Parasites of mammals

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Parasitic diseases

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Hookworm infection

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Hookworm infection

Hookworm infection is an infection by a type of intestinal parasite known as a hookworm.[1][5] Initially, itching and a rash may occur at the site of infection.[1] Those only affected by a few worms may show no symptoms.[1] Those infected by many worms may experience abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and tiredness.[1] The mental and physical development of children may be affected.[1] Anemia may result.[1] Two common hookworm infections in humans are ancylostomiasis and necatoriasis, caused by the species Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus respectively.[1] Hookworm eggs are deposited in the stools of infected people.[1] If these end up in the environment, they can hatch into larvae (immature worms), which can then penetrate the skin.[1] One type can also be spread through contaminated food.[1] Risk factors include walking barefoot in warm climates, where sanitation is poor.[1] Diagnosis is by examination of a stool sample with a microscope.[1] The disease can be prevented on an individual lev

Parasites of dogs

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Tropical diseases

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Parasitic nematodes

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Toxocara cati

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Toxocara cati

Toxocara cati, also known as the feline roundworm, is a parasite of cats and other felids. It is one of the most common nematodes of cats, infecting both wild and domestic felids worldwide. Adult worms are localised in the gut of the host. In adult cats, the infection – which is called toxocariasis – is usually asymptomatic. However, massive infection in juvenile cats can be fatal. Feline roundworms are brownish-yellow to cream-colored to pink and may be up to 10 cm in length. Adults have short, wide cervical alae giving their anterior ends the distinct appearance of an arrow (hence their name, toxo, meaning arrow, and cara, meaning head). Eggs are pitted ovals with a width of 65 μm and a length of about 75 μm making them invisible to the human eye. The larvae are so small that they are easily transmitted from an adult female to her nursing kittens through her milk.[1][2][3][4] Transmission Wild felids can become infected from a variety of sources; the primary source is infected fecal matter. The eggs of t

Infections specific to the perinatal period

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Mind-altering parasites

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Congenital disorders

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Cat bite

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Cat bite

Cat bites are bites inflicted upon humans, other cats, and other animals by the domestic cat.[1][2] (Latin: Felis catus). Data from the United States show that cat bites represent between 5-15% of all animal bites inflicted to humans,[3][4] but it has been argued that this figure could be the consequence of under-reporting as bites made by Felis catus are considered by some to be unimportant.[5][6] Though uncommon, cat bites can sometimes lead to complications and, very rarely, death.[7][8] Signs and symptoms Cat bites are usually considered minor injuries but can result in serious infection.[9] Common symptoms include pain and swelling around the affected area.[3] Sometimes, direct tissue damage from the cat bite can impair mobility or cause tenosynovitis or arthritis.[10] In these cases, surgical consultation is needed to assess severity.[3][4] Some unusual complications, like deep-vein thrombosis,[5] subcutaneous emphysema[11] and fetal tachycardia[11] have been described. Some of the infections acquired

Animal bites

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Pets

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Zoonoses

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Toxocara malayasiensis

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Toxocara malayasiensis

Toxocara malayasiensis is a species of feline roundworm, a parasite which infects the intestine of cats. Feline roundworms are passed in the fecal matter of cats, and can be transmitted to humans, causing toxocariasis, a potentially serious disease.[1] See also List of parasites (human) Susceptibility and severity of infections in pregnancy Feline zoonosis References Gibbons, L. M.; Jacobs, D. E.; Sani, R. A. (1 June 2001). "Toxocara malaysiensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) from the domestic cat (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758)". Journal of Parasitology. 87 (3): 660–665. doi:10.1645/0022-3395(2001)087[0660:TMNSNA]2.0.CO;2. PMID 11426732. External links Roundworms: Cats and Kittens from The Pet Health Library CDC podcast on Toxocariasis

Animals described in 2001

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Parasites of cats

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Health issues in pregnancy

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Parapoxvirus of red deer in New Zealand

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Parapoxvirus of red deer in New Zealand

Parapoxvirus of red deer in New Zealand (PVNZ) is a species of virus in the genus Parapoxvirus.[1] It has been reported in deer in New Zealand,[2] and in wild ruminants in Italy.[1] In 1987, deaths occurred on two Red Deer farms in New Zealand where secondary bacterial infections were seen alongside the lesions. In these particular cases, morbidity rates reached 100%.[3][4] Red Deer of New Zealand Viral classification PVNZ was classified as a separate species due to its unique patterns of restriction enzymes.[1] Parapoxviruses belongs to the family of viruses named Poxviridae, a group one family of double stranded DNA viruses. More specifically Parapoxvirus is classified into the subfamily of Chordopoxvirinae.[5] Virion size Generally, viruses within the Poxviridae family have brick or oval-shaped virions. Sizes range from between 140-260 nanometres in width and 220-450 nanometres in length. They are enveloped viruses with surface tubules sometimes referred to as surface filaments. Structure Parapo

Ruminant diseases

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Mammal diseases

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Chordopoxvirinae

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African trypanosomiasis

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African trypanosomiasis

African trypanosomiasis, also known as African sleeping sickness or simply sleeping sickness, is an insect-borne parasitic disease of humans and other animals.[1] It is caused by protozoa of the species Trypanosoma brucei.[1] Humans are infected by two types, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (TbG) and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (TbR).[1] TbG causes over 98% of reported cases.[1] Both are usually transmitted by the bite of an infected tsetse fly and are most common in rural areas.[1] Initially, the first stage of the disease is characterized by fevers, headaches, itchiness, and joint pains, beginning one to three weeks after the bite.[1][2] Weeks to months later the second stage begins with confusion, poor coordination, numbness, and trouble sleeping.[2] Diagnosis is by finding the parasite in a blood smear or in the fluid of a lymph node.[2] A lumbar puncture is often needed to tell the difference between first and second stage disease.[2] Prevention of severe disease involves screening the population at ri

RTTID

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RTT

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Zoonoses

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List of West Nile virus outbreaks

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List of West Nile virus outbreaks

Global distribution of West Nile virus.(2006) United States: From 1999 through 2001, the CDC confirmed 149 West Nile virus infections, including 18 deaths. In 2002, a total of 4,156 cases were reported, including 284 fatalities. Thirteen cases in 2002 were contracted through blood transfusion. The cost of WNV-related health care in 2002 was estimated at $200 million. The first human West Nile disease in 2003 occurred in June, and one West Nile-infected blood transfusion was also identified that month.[1] In the 2003 outbreak, 9,862 cases and 264 deaths were reported by the CDC. At least 30% of those cases were considered severe, involving meningitis or encephalitis. In 2004, only 2,539 cases and 100 deaths were reported. In 2005, there was a slight increase in the number of cases, with 3,000 cases and 119 deaths reported. Cases increased in 2006, with 4,269 cases and 177 deaths. In 2007, the number of cases reported decreased to 3,623 and the number of deaths dropped to 124. In 2007, 1,227 cases of WNV ne

Arthropod-borne viral fevers and viral haemorrh...

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Horse diseases

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Flaviviruses

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Rift Valley fever

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Rift Valley fever

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral disease that can cause mild to severe symptoms.[1] The mild symptoms may include: fever, muscle pains, and headaches which often last for up to a week.[1] The severe symptoms may include: loss of sight beginning three weeks after the infection, infections of the brain causing severe headaches and confusion, and bleeding together with liver problems which may occur within the first few days.[1] Those who have bleeding have a chance of death as high as 50%.[1] The disease is caused by the RVF virus, which is of the Phlebovirus type.[1] It is spread by either touching infected animal blood, breathing in the air around an infected animal being butchered, drinking raw milk from an infected animal, or the bite of infected mosquitoes.[1] Animals such as cows, sheep, goats, and camels may be affected.[1] In these animals it is spread mostly by mosquitoes.[1] It does not appear that one person can infect another person.[1] The disease is diagnosed by finding antibodies against the v

Anti-agriculture weapons

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Tropical diseases

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Neglected diseases

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Ebola virus disease

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Ebola virus disease

Ebola virus disease (EVD), or simply Ebola, is a viral haemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses.[1] Signs and symptoms typically start between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus with a fever, sore throat, muscular pain, and headaches.[1] Vomiting, diarrhoea and rash usually follow, along with decreased function of the liver and kidneys.[1] At this time, some people begin to bleed both internally and externally.[1] The disease has a high risk of death, killing 25% to 90% of those infected, with an average of about 50%.[1] This is often due to low blood pressure from fluid loss, and typically follows 6 to 16 days after symptoms appear.[2] The virus spreads through direct contact with body fluids, such as blood from infected humans or other animals.[1] Spread may also occur from contact with items recently contaminated with bodily fluids.[1] Spread of the disease through the air between primates, including humans, has not been documented in either laboratory or na

West African Ebola virus epidemic

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Bat-borne viruses

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Arthropod-borne viral fevers and viral haemorrh...

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West Nile fever

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West Nile fever

West Nile fever is an infection by the West Nile virus, which is typically spread by mosquitoes.[1] In about 80% of infections people have few or no symptoms.[2] About 20% of people develop a fever, headache, vomiting, or a rash.[1] In less than 1% of people, encephalitis or meningitis occurs, with associated neck stiffness, confusion, or seizures.[1] Recovery may take weeks to months.[1] The risk of death among those in whom the nervous system is affected is about 10%.[1] West Nile virus (WNV) is usually spread by infected mosquitoes.[1] Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on infected birds, which often carry the disease.[1] Rarely the virus is spread through blood transfusions, organ transplants, or from mother to baby during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding.[1] It otherwise does not spread directly between people.[3] Risks for severe disease include being over 60 years old and having other health problems.[1] Diagnosis is typically based on symptoms and blood tests.[1] There is no human vaccin

Flaviviruses

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Bird diseases

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Arthropod-borne viral fevers and viral haemorrh...

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Seal finger

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Seal finger

Seal finger, also known as sealer's finger and spekk-finger (from the Norwegian for "blubber"),[2] is an infection that afflicts the fingers of seal hunters and other people who handle seals, as a result of bites or contact with exposed seal bones; it has also been contracted by exposure to untreated seal pelts. The State of Alaska Section of Epidemiology defines it as "a finger infection associated with bites, cuts, or scratches contaminated by the mouths, blood, or blubber of certain marine mammals".[3] It can cause cellulitis, joint inflammation, and swelling of the bone marrow; untreated, the course of "seal finger" is slow and results often in thickened contracted joint.[3] Historically, seal finger was treated by amputation of the affected digits once they became unusable. It was first described scientifically in 1907.[4] The precise nature of the organism responsible for seal finger is unknown, as it has resisted culturing because most cases are promptly treated with antibiotics;[3] however, as seal

Zoonoses

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Musculoskeletal disorders

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Nipah virus (virus)

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Nipah virus (virus)

Henipavirus is a genus of RNA viruses in the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing five established species. Henipaviruses are naturally harboured by pteropid fruit bats (flying foxes) and microbats of several species.[1] Henipaviruses are characterised by long genomes and a wide host range. Their recent emergence as zoonotic pathogens capable of causing illness and death in domestic animals and humans is a cause of concern.[2] In 2009, RNA sequences of three novel viruses in phylogenetic relationship to known henipaviruses were detected in African straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) in Ghana. The finding of these novel henipaviruses outside Australia and Asia indicates that the region of potential endemicity of henipaviruses may be worldwide.[3] These African henipaviruses are slowly being characterised.[4] Taxonomy Genus Henipavirus: species and their viruses[5] Genus Species Virus (Abbreviation) Henipavirus Cedar henipavirus Cedar virus (CedV) Ghanaian bat he

Zoonoses

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Eyach virus

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Eyach virus

Eyach virus (EYAV) is a viral infection (genus Coltivirus) in the Reoviridae family transmitted by a tick vector. It has been isolated from Ixodes ricinus and I. ventalloi ticks in Europe.[1] It is closely related to Colorado tick fever virus, the type virus of Coltivirus. Transmission and clinical syndromes Eyach virus is acquired by tick bite. The tick gets infected after a blood meal from a vertebrate host, which is suspected to be the European rabbit O. cunniculus.[2] Eyach virus has been linked to tick-borne encephalitis, as well as polyradiculoneuritis and meningopolyneuritis, based on serological samples of patients with these neurological disorders. References Attoui, Houssam; Jaafar, Fauziah Mohd; Micco, Philippe de; Lamballerie, Xavier de (2005). "Coltiviruses and Seadornaviruses in North America, Europe, and Asia". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 11 (11): 1673–1679. doi:10.3201/eid1111.050868. PMC 3367365. PMID 16318717. Chastel, C.; Main, A. J.; Couatarmanac'h, A.; Le Lay, G.; Knudson, D.

Arthropod-borne viral fevers and viral haemorrh...

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Tick-borne diseases

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Zoonoses

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Bokeloh bat lyssavirus

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Bokeloh bat lyssavirus

Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV) is negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Lyssavirus first isolated from a Natterer's bat (Myotis nattereri) found in Bokeloh, Lower Saxony, Germany in 2010.[1] Bokeloh bat lyssavirus was found in Myotis nattereri for the first time in northeastern France in July 2012. The complete genome sequence of the virus from the infected Natterer's bat was determined by whole genome sequencing and compared to that of the first BBLV strain isolated in 2010 in Germany and with those of all currently identified lyssaviruses. The French isolate [KC169985] showed 98.7% nucleotide sequence identity to the German BBLV strain [JF311903]. Several organs of the infected French bat were examined by classical rabies diagnostic methods: fluorescent antibody test, cell culture inoculation test and RT-qPCR. Antigen, infectious virus, and high viral RNA levels were found in both the brain and salivary glands. Traces of genomic RNA were detected in the bladder, kidney, and lung tissue. The

Zoonoses

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European bat 2 lyssavirus

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European bat 2 lyssavirus

European bat 2 lyssavirus (EBLV-2) is one of three rabies virus-like agents of the genus Lyssavirus found in Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) in Great Britain.[1] Human fatalities have occurred: the naturalist David McRae who was bitten by a Daubenton's bat in Scotland, became infected with EBLV-2a and died in November 2002.[2][3] It must now be assumed that the virus is present in bats in the UK. Testing of dead bats by MAFF/DEFRA over the last decade indicates that the overall incidence of infection is likely to be very low, although limited testing of live Daubenton's bats for antibodies suggests that exposure to EBLV-2 may be more widespread. Nevertheless, infected bat bites have caused human deaths so appropriate precautions against infection must be taken. The Department of Health’s recommendation is that people regularly handling bats should be vaccinated against rabies. Included in this category are all active bat workers and wardens, and those regularly taking in sick and injured bats. The Statu

Lyssaviruses

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Zoonoses

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Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus

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Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus

Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV),[1] or EMC/2012 (HCoV-EMC/2012), is a species of coronavirus which infects humans, bats, and camels.[2] The infecting virus is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus which enters its host cell by binding to the DPP4 receptor.[3] The species is a member of the genus Betacoronavirus and subgenus Merbecovirus.[4][5] Initially called 2012 novel coronavirus (2012-nCoV) or simply novel coronavirus (nCoV), it was first reported in 2012 after genome sequencing of a virus isolated from sputum samples from a person who fell ill in a 2012 outbreak of a new flu. As of July 2015, MERS-CoV cases have been reported in over 21 countries, including Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Qatar, Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Turkey, Oman, Algeria, Bangladesh, Indonesia (none were confirmed), Austria,[6] the United Kingdom, South Korea,[7][8] the United States,[9][10] Mainland China,[11] Thailand,[12] and the Philippines.[13] MERS-CoV is one of several

Death in Saudi Arabia

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2013 in Saudi Arabia

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Middle East respiratory syndrome

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Spotted fever rickettsiosis

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Spotted fever rickettsiosis

Eschar at site of tick or mite bite[1] Spotted fever rickettsiosis, also known as spotted fever group rickettsia (SFGR), is a group of infections that include Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis, Pacific Coast tick fever, and rickettsialpox.[2] The group of infections was created in 2010 as they are difficult to tell apart.[2] References "Signs and Symptoms". www.cdc.gov. 2019-01-18. Retrieved 20 January 2019. "Epidemiology and Statistics Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF)". CDC. 26 October 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.

Rickettsioses

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Tick-borne diseases

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Zoonoses

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Pacific Coast tick fever

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Pacific Coast tick fever

Pacific Coast tick fever is an infection caused by Rickettsia philipii.[2] The disease is spread by the Pacific coast ticks.[2] Symptoms may include an eschar.[2] It is within a group known as spotted fever rickettsiosis together with Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and rickettsialpox.[3] These infections can be difficult to tell apart.[3] References Kato, C.Y., Robinson, L.K., White, F.H., Slater, K., Karpathy, S.E., Eremeeva, M.E. and Dasch, G.A. "Insertion/deletion (INDEL) typing of isolates of Rickettsia rickettsii." Gerogia Research Alliance Collaboration Roundtable. February 26, 2010. Poster Abstracts no. 10. pp. 5-6 "Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia (Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Pacific Coast Tick Fever)". www.cdph.ca.gov. Retrieved 20 January 2019. "Epidemiology and Statistics Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF)". CDC. 26 October 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2019.

Rickettsioses

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Tick-borne diseases

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Zoonoses

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White bream virus

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White bream virus

White bream virus is a species of virus. It is the sole species in the subgenus Blicbavirus, which is in the genus Bafinivirus.[1] It was first isolated from white bream (Blicca bjoerkna) in Germany.[2] It is a bacilliform (rod-shaped) positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus.[3] References "Virus Taxonomy: 2018 Release" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). October 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2019. McVey, D. Scott; Kennedy, Melissa; Chengappa, M.M., eds. (2013). Veterinary Microbiology (3rd ed.). Wiley. Batts WN, Goodwin AE, Winton JR (2012). "Genetic analysis of a novel nidovirus from fathead minnows" (PDF). J. Gen. Virol. 93 (Pt 6): 1247–52. doi:10.1099/vir.0.041210-0. PMID 22422065.

Nidovirales

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Zoonoses

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Huaiyangshan banyangvirus

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Huaiyangshan banyangvirus

Huaiyangshan banyangvirus, formerly SFTS virus, is a tick-borne Banyangvirus in the order Bunyavirales.[2] It appears to be more closely related to the Uukuniemi virus serogroup than to the Sandfly fever group.[2] It is a member of the Bhanja virus serocomplex.[3] The clinical condition it caused is known as severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS).[2] SFTS is an emerging infectious disease that was first described in northeast and central China and now has also been discovered in Japan, South Korea, Vietnam and Taiwan. SFTS has a fatality rate of 12% and as high as 30% in some areas. The major clinical symptoms of SFTS are fever, vomiting, diarrhea, multiple organ failure, thrombocytopenia (low platelet count), leukopenia (low white blood cell count) and elevated liver enzyme levels. History In 2009 Xue-jie Yu and colleagues isolated the SFTS virus (SFTSV) from SFTS patients’ blood.[2] Genome The genome has been sequenced.[2] There are three segments—large (L), medium (M) and small (S). Five p

Zoonoses

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Phleboviruses

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Hematology

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La Crosse encephalitis

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La Crosse encephalitis

La Crosse encephalitis is an encephalitis caused by an arbovirus (the La Crosse virus) which has a mosquito vector (Ochlerotatus triseriatus synonym Aedes triseriatus).[1] La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) is one of a group of mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause encephalitis, or inflammation of the brain. LAC encephalitis is rare; in the United States, about 80–100 LACV disease cases are reported each year, although it is believed to be under-reported due to minimal symptoms experienced by many of those affected.[2] Signs and symptoms It takes 5 to 15 days after the bite of an infected mosquito to develop symptoms of LACV disease. Symptoms include nausea, headache, vomiting in milder cases and seizures, coma, paralysis and permanent brain damage in severe cases. LAC encephalitis initially presents as a nonspecific summertime illness with fever, headache, nausea, vomiting and lethargy. Severe disease occurs most commonly in children under the age of 16 and is characterized by seizures, coma, para

Rodent-carried diseases

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Zoonoses

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Orthobunyaviruses

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MERS coronavirus EMC/2012

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MERS coronavirus EMC/2012

MERS coronavirus EMC/2012, or MERS coronavirus Erasmus Medical Center/2012 is the name of a strain of coronavirus isolated from the sputum of the first person to become infected with what was later named Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, or MERS-CoV.[1][2][3][4] Natural reservoir An investigation of bat roosts in Bisha, the hometown of the index patient, by the Saudi Ministry of Health discovered an Egyptian tomb bat in a large roost close to the index patient's home. Phylogenetic analysis showed a 100% match between the virus isolated from the bat and MERS coronavirus EMC/2012 isolated from the index patient.[5] Virology MERS coronavirus EMC/2012 is the sixth coronavirus known to infect humans and the first human virus within betacoronavirus lineage C. It is a new genotype which is related to bat coronaviruses, specifically an Egyptian tomb bat, and is not the same beta-CoV as the SARS-CoV, but is distantly related.[3][6] See also Novel virus References Zaki, AM; van Boheemen,

Infraspecific virus taxa

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Death in Saudi Arabia

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2013 in Saudi Arabia

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Rickettsia parkeri

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Rickettsia parkeri

Rickettsia parkeri (abbreviated R. parkeri) is a Gram-negative intracellular bacterium. R. parkeri causes mild spotted fever disease in humans, (sometimes referred to as American tick bite fever), characterized by headache, rash, fever, and an eschar at the site of tick attachment. It is transmitted via tick bite and found mainly in the Western Hemisphere. Doxycycline and Chloramphenicol are the most common drugs of choice for reducing the symptoms associated with disease caused by R. parkeri. External links "Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 10 January 2019.

Rickettsiaceae

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Bacteria described in 1922

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Zoonoses

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Sporotrichosis

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Sporotrichosis

Sporotrichosis is a disease caused by the infection of the fungus Sporothrix schenckii.[2] This fungal disease usually affects the skin, although other rare forms can affect the lungs, joints, bones, and even the brain. Because roses can spread the disease, it is one of a few diseases referred to as rose-thorn or rose-gardeners' disease.[3] The species was named for Benjamin Schenck, a medical student who in 1896 was the first to isolate it from a human specimen.[4] Because S. schenckii is naturally found in soil, hay, sphagnum moss, and plants, it usually affects farmers, gardeners, and agricultural workers.[2] It enters through small cuts and abrasions in the skin to cause the infection. In case of sporotrichosis affecting the lungs, the fungal spores enter through the respiratory pathways. Sporotrichosis can also be acquired from handling cats with the disease; it is an occupational hazard for veterinarians. Sporotrichosis progresses slowly – the first symptoms may appear 1 to 12 weeks (average 3 weeks)

Rodent diseases

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Bovine diseases

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Swine diseases

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Dengue fever

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Dengue fever

Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus.[1] Symptoms typically begin three to fourteen days after infection.[2] These may include a high fever, headache, vomiting, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash.[1][2] Recovery generally takes two to seven days.[1] In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into severe dengue, also known as dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in bleeding, low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure occurs.[1][2] Dengue is spread by several species of female mosquitoes of the Aedes type, principally A. aegypti.[1][2] The virus has five types;[7][8] infection with one type usually gives lifelong immunity to that type, but only short-term immunity to the others.[1] Subsequent infection with a different type increases the risk of severe complications.[1] A number of tests are available to confirm the diagnosis including detecting antibodies to the

Zoonoses

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Vaccine-preventable diseases

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Wikipedia articles published in peer-reviewed l...

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Leishmaniasis

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Leishmaniasis

Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by parasites of the Leishmania type.[2] It is spread by the bite of certain types of sandflies.[2] The disease can present in three main ways: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral.[2] The cutaneous form presents with skin ulcers, while the mucocutaneous form presents with ulcers of the skin, mouth, and nose, and the visceral form starts with skin ulcers and then later presents with fever, low red blood cells, and enlarged spleen and liver.[2][3] Infections in humans are caused by more than 20 species of Leishmania.[2] Risk factors include poverty, malnutrition, deforestation, and urbanization.[2] All three types can be diagnosed by seeing the parasites under the microscope.[2] Additionally, visceral disease can be diagnosed by blood tests.[3] Leishmaniasis can be partly prevented by sleeping under nets treated with insecticide.[2] Other measures include spraying insecticides to kill sandflies and treating people with the disease early to prevent further spread.[2] The trea

Zoonoses

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Dog diseases

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Neglected diseases

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Angiostrongylus costaricensis

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Angiostrongylus costaricensis

Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a species of parasitic nematode and is the causative agent of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in humans.[1] It occurs in Latin America and the Caribbean.[2][3] Hosts Rodents are the normal definitive hosts, especially the Cotton Rat. Aberrant infections have occurred in many other mammals including humans.[3] Infection of mammalian hosts occurs via ingestion of L3 larvae in mollusc tissue (e.g. undercooked or raw snails or accidentally on produce) or possibly food contaminated with slime containing such larvae. [3] Molluscs are the intermediate host and are infected through ingestion or penetration of the foot by L1 infective larvae from infected feces. Limax maximus [2] Slugs from the family Veronicellidae [3] Pathology Pathology is due to both the adults and the eggs. Adults in the ileo-caecal arterioles cause an inflammatory (eosinophilic) response in humans. In the Cotton Rat the adult worms cause local haemorrhages. The intestinal wall is also affected. In human

Rodent-carried diseases

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Zoonoses

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Parasites of rodents

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Lymphocytic choriomeningitis

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Lymphocytic choriomeningitis

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) is a rodent-borne viral infectious disease that presents as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis. Its causative agent is lymphocytic choriomeningitis mammarenavirus (LCMV), a member of the family Arenaviridae. The name was coined by Charles Armstrong in 1934.[2] Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) is "a viral infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord and of the cerebrospinal fluid".[3] The name is based on the tendency of an individual to have abnormally high levels of lymphocytes during infection. Choriomeningitis is "cerebral meningitis in which there is marked cellular infiltration of the meninges, often with a lymphocytic infiltration of the choroid plexuses".[4] Signs and symptoms LCMV infection manifests itself in a wide range of clinical symptoms, and may even be asymptomatic for immunocompetent individuals.[5] Onset typically occurs between one or two weeks after exposure to the virus and is followed by a biphasic febrile

Zoonoses

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Meningitis

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Animal viral diseases

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Zaire ebolavirus

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Zaire ebolavirus

Zaire ebolavirus, more commonly known as simply Ebola virus (EBOV), is one of six known species within the genus Ebolavirus.[1] Four of the six known ebolaviruses, including EBOV, cause a severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and other mammals, known as Ebola virus disease (EVD). Ebola virus has caused the majority of human deaths from EVD and is the cause of the 2013–2016 Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa,[2] which resulted in at least 28,646 suspected cases and 11,323 confirmed deaths.[3][4] Ebola virus and its genus were both originally named for Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of Congo), the country where it was first described,[1] and was at first suspected to be a new "strain" of the closely related Marburg virus.[5][6] The virus was renamed "Ebola virus" in 2010 to avoid confusion. Ebola virus is the single member of the species Zaire ebolavirus, which is the type species for the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. The members of the species are called Zaire

Zoonoses

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Tropical diseases

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Ebolaviruses

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Giardia duodenalis

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Giardia duodenalis

Giardia duodenalis, also known as Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia, is a flagellated parasitic microorganism, that colonizes and reproduces in the small intestine, causing giardiasis.[1][2] The parasite attaches to the epithelium by a ventral adhesive disc or sucker, and reproduces via binary fission.[3] Giardiasis does not spread via the bloodstream, nor does it spread to other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, but remains confined to the lumen of the small intestine.[4] Giardia trophozoites absorb their nutrients from the lumen of the small intestine, and are anaerobes. If the organism is split and stained, its characteristic pattern resembles the familiar "smiley face" symbol.[5] Chief pathways of human infection include ingestion of untreated sewage, a phenomenon particularly common in many developing countries;[6] contamination of natural waters also occurs in watersheds where intensive grazing occurs. Giardia infections occur worldwide, however Giardia lamblia is the most commonly identified

Protozoal diseases

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Metamonads

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Conditions diagnosed by stool test

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Lassa mammarenavirus

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Lassa mammarenavirus

Lassa mammarenavirus (LASV) is an arenavirus that causes Lassa hemorrhagic fever,[1] a type of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), in humans and other primates. Lassa mammarenavirus is an emerging virus and a select agent, requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment. It is endemic in West African countries, especially Sierra Leone, the Republic of Guinea, Nigeria, and Liberia, where the annual incidence of infection is between 300,000 and 500,000 cases, resulting in 5,000 deaths per year.[2] As of 2012 discoveries within the Mano River region of west Africa have expanded the endemic zone between the two known Lassa endemic regions, indicating that LASV is more widely distributed throughout the tropical wooded savannah ecozone in west Africa.[3] There are no approved vaccines against Lassa fever for use in humans.[4] Discovery In 1969, missionary nurse Laura Wine fell ill with a mysterious disease she contracted from an obstetrical patient in Lassa, a village in Borno State, Nigeria.[5][6][7] She was then

Biological weapons

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Animal virology

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Tropical diseases

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Chlamydia abortus

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Chlamydia abortus

Warning notice about C. abortus on a live stock pen. Chlamydia abortus is a species in Chlamydiae that causes abortion and fetal death in mammals, including humans. Chlamydia abortus was renamed in 1999 as Chlamydophila psittaci along with all Chlamydiae except Chlamydia trachomatis. This was based on a lack of evident glycogen production and on resistance to the antibiotic sulfadiazine. In 1999 C. psittaci and C. abortus were recognized as distinct species based on differences of pathogenicity and DNA–DNA hybridization.[1] In 2015, this new name was reverted to Chlamydia. In humans There are approximately one or two cases of chlamydiosis diagnosis in pregnant women in the United Kingdom per year. Typically transmission occurs from contact with livestock who have recently given birth. The true prevalence in humans is unknown because serological antibody tests are unable to distinguish between C. abortus and other more common species such as Chlamydia trachomatis.[2] In other animals C. abortus is endem

Zoonoses

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Zoonotic bacterial diseases

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Bovine diseases

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Nipah virus infection

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Nipah virus infection

A Nipah virus infection is a viral infection caused by the Nipah virus.[2] Symptoms from infection vary from none to fever, cough, headache, shortness of breath, and confusion.[1][2] This may worsen into a coma over a day or two.[1] Complications can include inflammation of the brain and seizures following recovery.[2] The Nipah virus (NiV) is a type of RNA virus in the genus Henipavirus.[2] The virus normally circulates among specific types of fruit bats.[2] It can both spread between people and from other animals to people.[2] Spread typically requires direct contact with an infected source.[3] Diagnosis is based on symptoms and confirmed by laboratory testing.[4] Management involves supportive care.[2] As of 2018 there is no vaccine or specific treatment.[2] Prevention is by avoiding exposure to bats and sick pigs and not drinking raw date palm sap.[5] As of May 2018 about 700 human cases of Nipah virus are estimated to have occurred and 50 to 75 percent of those who were infected died.[6][8][7] In May 2

Zoonoses

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Viral diseases

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Swine diseases

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Coronavirus respiratory syndrome

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Coronavirus respiratory syndrome

Coronavirus respiratory syndrome or coronavirus pneumonia or coronavirus flu or coronavirus respiratory syndrome pneumonia, or variant, is a disease caused by members of the coronavirus (CoV) group. It may refer to: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) disease caused by MERS-CoV virus, first occurring in an outbreak 2012–2014, and since recurring Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) disease caused by SARS-CoV virus, first occurring in an outbreak 2002–2004 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease (2019-nCoV-ARD) caused by 2019-nCoV, first occurring in an ongoing outbreak starting in 2019 See also Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) Coronavirus outbreak Coronaviridae Pneumonia

Syndromes affecting the respiratory system

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Coronaviridae

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Pneumonia

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Notoedric mange

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Notoedric mange

Notoedric mange, also referred to as Feline scabies, is a highly contagious skin infestation caused by an ectoparasitic and skin burrowing mite Notoedres cati (Acarina, Sarcoptidae). N. cati is primarily a parasite of felids, but it can also infest rodents, lagomorphs, and occasionally also dogs and foxes. This skin disease also has zoonotic potential.[2][3] Infestation is also called acariasis, which refers to a rash that is caused by mites.[4] Signs and symptoms Infestation of N. cati causes several symptoms such as severe itchiness, alopecia, scales and characteristic dry, crusted, pruritic lesions that first appear in the region of ears and rapidly spreads over the face, eyelids, neck and continues to infest the whole body.[5][6] Clinical symptoms appear within the incubation period, which is most commonly 10 days to 8 weeks after transmission has happened from contact with infested animal.[7] Skin will become thickened and colour of crusting will change yellowish or grey as the parasitic disease progre

Parasitic diseases

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Zoonoses

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Coronavirus disease

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Coronavirus disease

Structural view of a coronavirus Symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) A coronavirus disease (COVID),[1][2] coronavirus respiratory syndrome, coronavirus pneumonia, coronavirus flu, or any other variant, is a disease caused by members of the coronavirus (CoV) family. Coronaviruses cause different coronavirus diseases including Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS),[3] Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)[4] and can also cause the common cold.[5][6][7] The 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organisation (WHO) on 11 March 2020.[8] Local transmission of the disease has been recorded in many countries across all six WHO regions.[9] COVID-19 is caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.[4] Coronavirus diseases Characteristics of human coronavirus strainsMERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2,and related diseases MERS-CoV SARS-CoV SARS-CoV-2 Disease MERS SARS COVID-19 Outbreaks 2012, 2015, 2018 2002–2004

Pneumonia

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Set indices

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Zoonoses

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Coronavirus disease 2019

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Coronavirus disease 2019

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).[6] The disease was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of China's Hubei province, and has since spread globally, resulting in the ongoing 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic.[7][8] Common symptoms include fever, cough and shortness of breath.[9] Other symptoms may include fatigue, muscle pain, diarrhea, sore throat, loss of smell and abdominal pain.[3][10][11] While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some progress to viral pneumonia and multi-organ failure.[7][12] As of 7 April 2020, more than 1.35 million[5] cases have been reported in more than 200 countries and territories,[13] resulting in more than 75,900 deaths.[5] More than 289,000 people have recovered.[5] The virus is mainly spread during close contact[a] and by small droplets produced when those infected cough, sneeze or talk.[4][14][15] These small droplets may also be produced during breathi

Viral respiratory tract infections

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Pages with DOIs inactive as of 2020 April

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COVID-19

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2),[1][2] colloquially known as the coronavirus and previously known by the provisional name 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[3][4][5] is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus.[6] It causes the respiratory illness known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 is contagious in humans, and the World Health Organization (WHO) has designated the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.[7][8][9] The strain was first discovered in Wuhan, China, so it is sometimes referred to as the "Wuhan virus"[10][11] or "Wuhan coronavirus".[12][13][14] Because the WHO discourages the use of names based upon locations[15][16] and to avoid confusion with the disease SARS,[17] it sometimes refers to SARS-CoV-2 as "the COVID-19 virus" in public health communications.[18] The general public often call both SARS-CoV-2 and the disease it causes "coronavirus", but scientists typically use more precise terms.[19] Taxonomi

COVID-19

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Unaccepted virus taxa

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Betacoronaviruses

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SHC014-CoV

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SHC014-CoV

SHC014-CoV is a SARS-like coronavirus (SL-COV) which infects horseshoe bats (f. Rhinolophidae), first discovered in China in 2013.[1] In 2015, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Wuhan Institute of Virology conducted research showing the virus could be made to infect the human HeLa cell line, through the use of reverse genetics to create a chimeric virus consisting of a surface protein of SHC014 and the backbone of a SARS virus.[2][3] However, it has been shown to differ in over 5,000 nucleotides from SARS-CoV-2, the cause of a human pandemic in 2019-2020.[4] References Ge, X., Li, J., Yang, X. et al. Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor. Nature 503, 535–538 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12711 Menachery, V., Yount, B., Debbink, K. et al. A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence. Nat Med 21, 1508–1513 (2015) https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.3985 Butler, Declan (12 November 2015). "

2013 in China

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Bat-borne viruses

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Infraspecific virus taxa

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Lujo mammarenavirus

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Lujo mammarenavirus

Lujo is a bisegmented RNA virus—a member of the family Arenaviridae—and a known cause of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in humans. Its name was suggested by the Special Pathogens Unit of the National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service (NICD-NHLS) by using the first two letters of the names of the cities involved in the 2008 outbreak of the disease, Lusaka (Zambia) and Johannesburg (Republic of South Africa). It is the second pathogenic Arenavirus to be described from the African continent—the first being Lassa virus—and since 2012 has been classed as a "Select Agent" under U.S. law. History Only 5 cases of this virus have ever been reported; all 5 were identified in September and October 2008, and 4 were fatal. Those infections that proved fatal caused death within 10–13 days of showing symptoms. All four patients in which infection proved fatal first showed signs of improvement and then went into respiratory distress, displayed neurological problems, and had circul

Viral diseases

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Rodent-carried diseases

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Arenaviridae

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