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Legislative branch of the United States government


Hill committee

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Hill committee

The Hill committees are the common name for the political party committees that work to elect members of their own party to United States Congress ("Hill" refers to Capitol Hill, where the seat of Congress, the Capitol, is located). The four major committees are part of the Democratic and Republican parties and each work to help members of their party get elected to each chamber (the House of Representatives and the Senate). The committees The four major committees are the: Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee (DCCC; commonly pronounced "D-triple-C") National Republican Congressional Committee (NRCC) Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee (DSCC) National Republican Senatorial Committee (NRSC) Two third parties have Hill committees as well: The Libertarian Congressional Campaign Committee (LCCC) and Libertarian Senatorial Campaign Committee (LSCC) for the Libertarian Party and the Green Senatorial Campaign Committee (GSCC) for the Green Party of the United States. Each committee works to

Hill Committees

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Legislative branch of the United States government

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International Debates

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International Debates

International Debates, published by Congressional Digest Corp., is a 36-page, monthly publication featuring controversies before the United Nations and other international forums. The publication uses a pro and con format that gives equal weight to both sides of the issues covered. International Debates, started in 2003, and Supreme Court Debates, started in 1997, complement the company's flagship publication Congressional Digest. International Debates' subscribers includes high school and university libraries, debate organizations, and other groups and individuals interested in current events. References External links

Magazines started in 2003

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Publications started in 2003

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Legislative branch of the United States government

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International Financial Institution Advisory Commission

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International Financial Institution Advisory Commission

The International Financial Institution Advisory Commission, also known as the Meltzer Commission — named for its chair, Professor Allan Meltzer — was established by the United States Congress in November 1998 "to recommend future US policy toward several multilateral institutions: the IMF, the World Bank Group, the regional development banks such as the Inter-American Development Bank, the Bank for International Settlements, and the WTO"[1] as part of legislation authorizing $18 billion of U.S. funding for the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Majority Report The Commission's majority report proposed changes to the operations of the International Monetary Fund and especially to those of the World Bank, which the majority recommended should withdraw from lending to so-called "middle income countries". Four (out of 5) Commission members nominated by the then-minority Congressional Democrats filed a dissent from the majority's recommendations (Bergsten, Huber, Levinson and Torres), though one of the four (Hu

Legislative branch of the United States government

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Joint resolution

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Joint resolution

In the United States Congress, a joint resolution is a legislative measure that requires passage by the Senate and the House of Representatives and is presented to the President for his approval or disapproval. Generally, there is no legal difference between a joint resolution and a bill. Both must be passed, in exactly the same form, by both chambers of Congress, and signed by the President (or, re-passed in override of a presidential veto; or, remain unsigned for ten days while Congress is in session) to become a law. Only joint resolutions may be used to propose amendments to the United States Constitution and these do not require the approval of the President.[1] Laws enacted by joint resolutions are not distinguished from laws enacted by bills, except that they are designated as resolutions as opposed to Acts of Congress (see for example War Powers Resolution). While either a bill or joint resolution can be used to create a law, the two generally have different purposes. Bills are generally used to add,

Resolutions (law)

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Legislative branch of the United States government

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Iraq Study Group

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Iraq Study Group

Cover of the report The Iraq Study Group (ISG) also known as the Baker-Hamilton Commission was a ten-person bipartisan panel appointed on March 15, 2006, by the United States Congress, that was charged with assessing the situation in Iraq and the US-led Iraq War and making policy recommendations.[1] The panel was led by former Secretary of State James Baker and former Democratic congressman from Indiana, Lee H. Hamilton and was first proposed by Virginia Republican Representative Frank Wolf.[2][3] The Iraq Study Group was facilitated by the United States Institute of Peace, which released the Iraq Study Group's final report on their website on December 6, 2006.[4] The report described the situation in Iraq as "grave and deteriorating" and was the culmination of interviews with 170 people, a trip to Iraq, and seven months of research and policy analysis.[5] Members Lee H. Hamilton (left) and James Baker (right) presented the Iraq Study Group Report to George W. Bush on December 6, 2006. The ISG was led

United States national commissions

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Reports of the United States government

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Iraq War

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Joint session of the United States Congress

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Joint session of the United States Congress

A joint session of the United States Congress is a gathering of members of the two chambers of the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States: the Senate and the House of Representatives. Joint sessions can be held on any special occasion, but are required to be held when the president delivers a State of the Union address, when they gather to count and certify the votes of the Electoral College following a presidential election, or when they convene on the occasion of a presidential inauguration. A joint session is a ceremonial or formal occasion and does not perform any legislative function; and no resolution is proposed or vote taken. Joint sessions and meetings are usually held in the Chamber of the House of Representatives, and are traditionally presided over by the speaker of the House. However, the Constitution requires the vice president (as president of the Senate) to preside over the counting of electoral votes. Counting electoral votes The Twelfth Amendment mandates tha

Joint sessions of the United States Congress

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Legislative branch of the United States government

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Denise Krepp

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Denise Krepp

Kathryn Denise Rucker Krepp[1] is former Chief Counsel for U.S. Maritime Administration (MARAD) which operated under the United States Department of Transportation. Before her political appointment by President Obama, Krepp served in the United States Coast Guard for two years and worked as a United States Congressional staffer for seven years. Krepp left government service in February 2012. Krepp is now a critic of Obama administration maritime and USAID policies, after having left government service. Education Bachelor of Arts, International Affairs, Elliott School of International Affairs of The George Washington University, 1995 Juris Doctor, University of Miami School of Law, 1998[2] Biography Krepp is a lawyer specialized in a homeland security, transportation and energy. She is a former Chief Council for U.S. Maritime Administration (MARAD) which operated under the Department of Transportation, who has also served as a Senior Counsel to the House of Representatives’ Committee on Homeland Securit

Female United States Coast Guard personnel

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United States Coast Guard officers

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Fredric G. Levin College of Law alumni

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Lame-duck session

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Lame-duck session

A lame-duck session of Congress in the United States occurs whenever one Congress meets after its successor is elected, but before the successor's term begins. The expression is now used not only for a special session called after a sine die adjournment, but also for any portion of a regular session that falls after an election. In current practice, any meeting of Congress after election day, but before the next Congress convenes the following January, is a lame-duck session.[1] Prior to 1933, when the 20th Amendment changed the dates of the congressional term, the last regular session of Congress was always a lame duck session. Congress has held 16 lame-duck sessions since 1940. Recesses preceding lame-duck sessions have usually begun by mid-October, and typically lasted between one and two months. Congress typically reconvened in mid-November and adjourned before Christmas, so that the lame-duck session lasted about a month. Some recesses, however, have begun as early as August 7 or as late as November 3,

Legislative branch of the United States government

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Law Library of Congress

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Law Library of Congress

The Law Library of Congress is the law library of the United States Congress. The library contains the complete record of American law as well as materials from over 240 other global legal jurisdictions. Established in 1832, its collections are currently housed in the James Madison Memorial Building of the Library of Congress. With over 2.8 million volumes,[1] it is the largest law library in the world.[2] Mission statement From the Law Library of Congress website: The mission of the Law Library of Congress is to provide research and legal information to the U.S. Congress as well as to U.S. Federal Courts and Executive Agencies, and to offer reference services to the public ... To accomplish this mission, it has created the world's largest collection of law books and other legal resources from all countries, and now moves into the age of digitized information with online databases and guides to legal information worldwide.[1] History Early years The Library of Congress was established as an in-house refe

Law libraries

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Legislative branch of the United States government

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Library of Congress

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Logrolling

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Logrolling

Logrolling is the trading of favors, or quid pro quo, such as vote trading by legislative members to obtain passage of actions of interest to each legislative member.[1] In organizational analysis, it refers to a practice in which different organizations promote each other's agendas, each in the expectation that the other will reciprocate. In an academic context, the Nuttall Encyclopedia describes logrolling as "mutual praise by authors of each other's work". Concept and origin There are three types of logrolling: Logrolling in direct democracies: a few individuals vote openly, and votes are easy to trade, rearrange, and observe. Direct democracy is pervasive in representative assemblies and small-government units Implicit logrolling: large bodies of voters decide complex issues and trade votes without a formal vote trade (Buchanan and Tullock 1962[2]) Distributive logrolling: enables policymakers to achieve their public goals. These policymakers logroll to ensure that their district policies and pork b

Ethically disputed political practices

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English-language idioms

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Public choice theory

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Member of Congress

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Member of Congress

A Member of Congress (MOC) is a person who has been appointed or elected and inducted into an official body called a congress, typically to represent a particular constituency in a legislature. Member of Parliament (MP) is an equivalent term in other, unaffiliated jurisdictions. United States In referring to an individual lawmaker in their capacity of serving in the United States Congress, a bicameral legislature, the term Member of Congress is used less often than other terms in the United States. This is because in the United States the word Congress is used as a descriptive term for the collective body of legislators, from both houses of its bicameral federal legislature: the Senate and the House of Representatives. For this reason, and in order to distinguish who is a member of which house, a member of the Senate is typically referred to as Senator (followed by "name" from "state"), and a member of the House of Representatives is usually referred to as Congressman or Congresswoman (followed by "name" fr

Legislative branch of the United States government

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Government occupations

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Parliamentary titles

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Official Congressional Directory

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Official Congressional Directory

The Official Congressional Directory (also known as Congressional Directory) is the official directory of the United States Congress, prepared by the Joint Committee on Printing (JCP) and published by the United States Government Printing Office (GPO) since 1887. Directories since the 104th Congress (1995–1997) are available online from the Government Publishing Office. Per federal statute (44 USC 721) the Directory is published and distributed during the first session of each new Congress.[1] It is a designated essential title distributed to Federal depository libraries and the current edition is available for purchase from GPO. Description The foreword notes: The Congressional Directory is one of the oldest working handbooks within the United States Government. While there were unofficial directories for Congress in one form or another beginning with the 1st Congress in 1789, the Congressional Directory published in 1847 for the 30th Congress is considered by scholars and historians to be the first offi

Books about politics of the United States

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Reference works in the public domain

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American non-fiction books

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NOMINATE (scaling method)

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NOMINATE (scaling method)

NOMINATE (an acronym for Nominal Three-Step Estimation) is a multidimensional scaling application developed by political scientists Keith T. Poole and Howard Rosenthal in the early 1980s to analyze preferential and choice data, such as legislative roll-call voting behavior.[1][2] As computing capabilities grew, Poole and Rosenthal developed multiple iterations of their NOMINATE procedure: the original D-NOMINATE method, W-NOMINATE, and most recently DW-NOMINATE (for dynamic, weighted NOMINATE). In 2009, Poole and Rosenthal were named the first recipients of the Society for Political Methodology's Best Statistical Software Award for their development of NOMINATE, a recognition conferred to "individual(s) for developing statistical software that makes a significant research contribution".[3] In 2016, Keith T. Poole was awarded the Society for Political Methodology's Career Achievement Award. The citation for this award reads, in part, "One can say perfectly correctly, and without any hyperbole: the modern study

Dimension reduction

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Multivariate statistics

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Political science

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Congressional oversight

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Congressional oversight

Congressional oversight is oversight by the United States Congress over the Executive Branch, including the numerous U.S. federal agencies. Congressional oversight includes the review, monitoring, and supervision of federal agencies, programs, activities, and policy implementation.[1] Congress exercises this power largely through its congressional committee system. Oversight also occurs in a wide variety of congressional activities and contexts. These include authorization, appropriations, investigative, and legislative hearings by standing committees; specialized investigations by select committees; and reviews and studies by congressional support agencies and staff. Congress’s oversight authority derives from its “implied” powers in the Constitution, public laws, and House and Senate rules. It is an integral part of the American system of checks and balances. Report on the Organization of Congress Oversight is an implied rather than an enumerated power under the U.S. Constitution.[2] The government's cha

Legislative branch of the United States government

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Origination Clause

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Origination Clause

The Origination Clause, sometimes called the Revenue Clause, is Article I, Section 7, Clause 1 of the United States Constitution. This clause says that all bills for raising revenue must start in the House of Representatives, but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as in the case of other bills. The Origination Clause stemmed from a British parliamentary practice that all money bills must have their first reading (and any other initial readings) in the House of Commons before being sent to the House of Lords. This practice was intended to ensure that the power of the purse is possessed by the legislative body most responsive to the people, although the British practice was modified in America by allowing the Senate to amend these bills. This clause was part of the Great Compromise between small and large states. The large states were unhappy with the lopsided power of small states in the Senate, and so the Origination Clause theoretically offsets the unrepresentative nature of the Senate, compe

Article One of the United States Constitution

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Clauses of the United States Constitution

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Legislative branch of the United States government

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Party caucuses and conferences in the United States Congress

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Party caucuses and conferences in the United States Congress

Members of each major party in the United States Congress meet regularly in closed sessions known as party conferences (Republicans) or party caucuses (Democrats). Participants set legislative agendas, select committee members and chairs, and hold elections to choose various Floor leaders. This process takes place for both the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Republican Conference Chairman or Democratic Caucus Chairman is the third ranking position in each chamber's party leadership, after the Majority/Minority Leader and the Majority/Minority Whip, and before the Campaign Committee Chairman (Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee, National Republican Congressional Committee, National Republican Senatorial Committee, Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee). In the House of Representatives, if the party has a majority and controls the Speaker's chair, then the Conference/Caucus Chair ranks fourth.

Legislative branch of the United States government

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Project Greek Island

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Project Greek Island

Project Greek Island was a United States government continuity program located at the Greenbrier hotel in West Virginia.[1] The facility was decommissioned in 1992 after the program was exposed by The Washington Post. Purpose In the late 1950s, the United States government approached The Greenbrier resort and sought its assistance in creating a secret emergency relocation center to house Congress due to the Cuban revolution and soon after the Cuban missile crisis. The classified, underground facility was built at the same time as the West Virginia Wing, an above-ground addition to the hotel, from 1959 to 1962.[2] For 30 years, The Greenbrier owners maintained an agreement with the federal government that, in the event of an international crisis, the entire resort property would be converted to government use, specifically as the emergency location for the legislative branch.[3] The underground facility contained a dormitory, kitchen, hospital, and a broadcast center for members of Congress. The broadcast c

West Virginia articles missing geocoordinate data

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Government buildings completed in 1962

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Secret places in the United States

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Postal Clause

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Postal Clause

Article I, Section 8, Clause 7 of the United States Constitution, known as the Postal Clause or the Postal Power, empowers Congress "To establish Post Offices and Post Roads".[1] History The Postal Clause was added to the Constitution to facilitate interstate communication as well as to create a source of revenue for the early United States.[2][3] There were some early disagreements as to the boundaries of the Postal Power. John Jay, in a letter to George Washington, opined that the postal service should not be burdened with the responsibility for handling newspaper delivery, and also suggested that the Post Office be placed under the supervision of the executive branch (a suggestion which later led to the creation of the Post Office Department).[4] Thomas Jefferson feared that the postal service would become a source of patronage and a waste of money. Jefferson also expressed doubt at granting Congress the power to designate post roads, as he considered road building to be a state responsibility.[5] Inter

Clauses of the United States Constitution

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Legislative branch of the United States government

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Legal history of the United States

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Reconciliation (United States Congress)

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Reconciliation (United States Congress)

Reconciliation is a legislative process of the United States Congress that expedites the passage of certain budgetary legislation in the United States Senate. The Senate filibuster effectively requires a 60-vote super-majority for the passage of most legislation in the Senate, but reconciliation provides a process to prevent the use of the filibuster and thereby allow the passage of a bill with simple majority support in the Senate. The reconciliation procedure also exists in the United States House of Representatives, but reconciliation has had a less significant impact on that body.[1] Reconciliation bills can be passed on spending, revenue, and the federal debt limit, and the Senate can pass one bill per year affecting each subject. Congress can thus pass a maximum of three reconciliation bills per year, though in practice it has often passed a single reconciliation bill affecting both spending and revenue.[2] Policy changes that are extraneous to the budget are limited by the "Byrd Rule", which also proh

United States federal reconciliation legislation

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United States House of Representatives

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United States Senate

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Recorded vote

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Recorded vote

Deliberative assemblies – bodies that use parliamentary procedure to arrive at decisions – use several methods of voting on motions (formal proposal by members of a deliberative assembly that the assembly take certain action). The regular methods of voting in such bodies are a voice vote, a rising vote, and a show of hands. Additional forms of voting include a recorded vote and balloting. Regular methods Voice vote Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised (RONR) states that a voice vote (viva voce) is the usual method of voting on any motion that does not require more than a majority vote for its adoption.[1] It is considered the simplest and quickest of voting methods used by deliberative assemblies. The chair of the assembly will put the question to the assembly, asking first for those in favor of the motion to indicate so verbally ("aye" or "yes"), and then ask those opposed to the motion to indicate so verbally ("no"). The chair will then estimate which side had more members. Rising vote A simple rising

Incidental motions

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Legislative branch of the United States government

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Parliamentary procedure

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Rescission

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Rescission

Look up rescission in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Rescission is the noun form of the verb "to rescind." It may refer to: Rescission (contract law) Rescission bill, a procedure to rescind previously appropriated funding in the United States A synonym for repeal in parliamentary procedure Several bills which have used the term in their names: The Rescissory Act 1661, by which the Scottish parliament annulled the legislation of the last twenty years, covering the time of the Commonwealth and Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The Rescission Act of 1946, a United States law that retroactively annulled benefits that would have been payable to Filipino troops during the time that the Philippines was a U.S. territory

United States federal budgets

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Judicial remedies

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Legislative branch of the United States government

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Roll Call

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Roll Call

Senator Tim Wirth reading an issue of Roll Call in 1991 Roll Call is a newspaper and website published in Washington, D.C., United States, when the United States Congress is in session, reporting news of legislative and political maneuverings on Capitol Hill, as well as political coverage of congressional elections across the country. Roll Call is the flagship publication of CQ Roll Call, which also operates: CQ (formerly Congressional Quarterly), publisher of a subscriber-based service for daily and weekly news about Congress and politics, as well as a weekly magazine. Roll Call's regular columnists are Walter Shapiro, Mary Curtis, Patricia Murphy, and Stu Rothenberger. Every issue of Roll Call is delivered to Congress and to the White House free of charge. History Roll Call was founded in 1955 by Sid Yudain, a press secretary to Congressman Al Morano (R-Conn.).[1][2] The inaugural issue of the newspaper was published on June 16, 1955, with an initial printing of 10,000 copies.[3] Richard Nixon, then Vi

Started in 1955 in Washington, D.C.

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Economist Group

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Publications started in 1955

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Roll call

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Roll call

Look up roll call in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Roll call may refer to: A taking of attendance, as may be used in an order of business or an agenda for a meeting One of the types of voting methods in deliberative assemblies (such as a legislature), often synonymous with recorded vote Roll call (policing) Roll Call, an American newspaper focusing on news from Capitol Hill and Congress Roll Call (IQ album), a 2006 album by girl group IQ Roll Call (Hank Mobley album), a 1960 album by the tenor saxophone player Hank Mobley The Roll Call, an 1874 painting by Elizabeth Thompson, purchased by Queen Victoria Roll Call (novel), a novel by Malcolm Rose "Real Nigga Roll Call" (2004), a song by Lil Jon featuring Ice Cube See also Appellplatz (German for “parade ground”, used for the site of daily roll-calls in Nazi concentration camps) Assembly (bugle call)

Military life

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Legislative branch of the United States government

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Sabato's Crystal Ball

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Sabato's Crystal Ball

Sabato's Crystal Ball is a political newsletter and website that serves as an election handicapper by predicting electoral outcomes for the United States House of Representatives, United States Senate, U.S. governors, and U.S. presidential races. A publication of the University of Virginia Center for Politics, the Crystal Ball was founded by political analyst Larry Sabato, the Robert Kent Gooch Professor of Politics at the University of Virginia.[1][2] History 2002 The Crystal Ball was first launched in September 2002, evolving from pre-election presentations given by founder Larry J. Sabato.[3] For the 2002 midterm elections, the Crystal Ball tracked every U.S. Senate and gubernatorial race and the top 50 U.S. House of Representatives races. In 2002, the website received 160,000 hits, averaging over 5,000 hits per day over the last three weeks of the campaign, with over 1,500 people subscribing to its weekly e-mail updates.[3] 2004 Following a post-election hiatus, the Crystal Ball re-launched on January

Magazines published in Virginia

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Magazines started in 2002

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American weekly magazines

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Salaries of members of the United States Congress

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Salaries of members of the United States Congress

This chart shows historical information on the salaries that members of the United States Congress have been paid.[1] The Government Ethics Reform Act of 1989 provides for an automatic increase in salary each year as a cost of living adjustment that reflects the employment cost index.[2] Since 2010 Congress has annually voted not to accept the increase, keeping it at the same nominal amount since 2009. The Twenty-seventh Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1992, prohibits any law affecting compensation from taking effect until after the next election. Year Salary Per diem/annum Percent adjustment In 2014 dollars 1789 $50 per annum 1795 $1 per diem only Representatives $7 per diem only Senators 1796 $6 per diem 1815 $1,500 per annum $19,084 1817 $6 per diem only Representatives $7 per diem only Senators 1818 $8 per diem 1855 $3,000 per annum $75,109 1865 $5,000 per annum $76,244 1871 $7,500 per annum $146,107 1874 $5,000 per

Lists of salaries

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Salaries of office-holders

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Salaries of the office-holders

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Saxbe fix

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Saxbe fix

The Saxbe fix , or salary rollback, is a mechanism by which the President of the United States, in appointing a current or former member of the United States Congress whose elected term has not yet expired, can avoid the restriction of the United States Constitution's Ineligibility Clause. That clause prohibits the President from appointing a current or former member of Congress to a civil office position that was created, or to a civil office position for which the pay or benefits (collectively, "emoluments") were increased, during the term for which that member was elected until the term has expired. The rollback, first implemented by an Act of Congress in 1909, reverts the emoluments of the office to the amount they were when that member began his or her elected term. To prevent ethical conflicts, James Madison proposed language at the Constitutional Convention that was adopted as the Ineligibility Clause after debate and modification by other Founding Fathers. Historically, a number of approaches have be

Legislative branch of the United States government

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United States constitutional law

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Legal history of the United States

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Seersucker Thursday

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Seersucker Thursday

Seersucker Thursday, 2006 Seersucker Thursday is an annual tradition in the United States Congress in which Senators wear clothing made of seersucker on National Seersucker Day.[1] This light, cotton-based material is traditional in the Southern United States. The tradition was started by Republican Senator Trent Lott of Mississippi in 1996 who wanted to "bring a little Southern charm to the Capitol" to remind the Senate of how Senators dressed before the advent of air conditioning in the 1950s.[2] The practice was temporarily suspended in 2012 amid congressional gridlock, but began again in 2014.[3] While this tradition is an annual event, it is also common to see congressional staffers don seersucker suits on Thursdays throughout the year. History of the seersucker suit A blue and white seersucker jacket. Seersucker weave was introduced to the American south, probably through British colonial trade, sometime in the second half of the 19th century. The cotton weave, which originated in western India,

Holidays and observances by scheduling (nth wee...

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Movable June observances

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June observances

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Shadow congressperson

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Shadow congressperson

The posts of shadow United States senator and shadow United States representative are held by elected or appointed government officials from subnational polities of the United States that lack congressional vote. While these officials are not seated in either chamber of Congress, they seek for their subnational polity to gain voting rights in Congress. History Historically, shadow congressmen were elected by organized incorporated territories prior to their admission to the Union.[1][2] From its origins in Tennessee, this approach is sometimes known as the Tennessee Plan. The first shadow senators, William Blount and William Cocke of the Southwest Territory, were elected in March 1796, before being seated as senators representing the newly formed state of Tennessee. Michigan, California, Minnesota, Oregon, and Alaska likewise elected shadow senators before statehood. The Alaska Territory also elected the first shadow U.S. representative, Ralph Julian Rivers, in 1956. All were eventually seated in Congress

Accuracy disputes from February 2018

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Home rule and voting rights of the District of ...

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Legislative branch of the United States government

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Statement of managers

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Statement of managers

In the United States Congress, a Statement of Managers must accompany a conference report on legislation as negotiated by the House and the Senate. References [1]

Legislative branch of the United States government

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Taxing and Spending Clause

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Taxing and Spending Clause

The Taxing and Spending Clause[1] (which contains provisions known as the General Welfare Clause)[2] and the Uniformity Clause,[3] Article I, Section 8, Clause 1 of the United States Constitution, grants the federal government of the United States its power of taxation. While authorizing Congress to levy taxes, this clause permits the levying of taxes for two purposes only: to pay the debts of the United States, and to provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States. Taken together, these purposes have traditionally been held to imply and to constitute the federal government's taxing and spending power.[4] Constitutional text The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States; Background One of the most often claimed defects of the Articles of Confederation was its lack of a

Taxing and Spending Clause case law

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Clauses of the United States Constitution

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Legislative branch of the United States government

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Thanks of Congress

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Thanks of Congress

The Thanks of Congress is a series of formal resolutions passed by the United States Congress originally to extend the government's formal thanks for significant victories or impressive actions by American military commanders and their troops. Although it began during the American Revolutionary War, the practice peaked during the American Civil War. Similarly, the Confederate Congress also passed resolutions honoring extraordinary performance to individuals or military units.[1] Early years During the American Revolution, the official Thanks of Congress from the Continental Congress was often accompanied by a specially struck commemorative gold or silver medal. Among the recipients were George Washington, Horatio Gates, John Eager Howard, John Stark, Baron von Steuben, and Henry Lee (See also List of Congressional Gold Medal recipients).[1] Other recipients in the early years of the United States include all participants in the Battle of Tippecanoe (1811), Alexander Macomb (War of 1812) (1814), Oliver Haza

Politics of the American Civil War

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Government of the Confederate States

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Military history of the American Civil War

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U.S. Congress in relation to the president and Supreme Court

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U.S. Congress in relation to the president and Supreme Court

The U.S. Congress in relation to the president and Supreme Court has the role of chief legislative body of the United States. However, the Constitution's Framers built a system in which three powerful branches of the government, using a series of checks and balances, could limit each other's power. As a result, it helps to understand how Congress interacts with the presidency as well as the Supreme Court to understand how it operates as a group Checks and balances View of the United States Capitol from the United States Supreme Court building Congressperson Lee Hamilton explained about how Congress functions within American government: To me the key to understanding it is balance. The founders went to great lengths to balance institutions against each other––balancing powers among the three branches: Congress, the president, and the Supreme Court; between the House of Representatives and the Senate; between the federal government and the states; among states of different sizes and regions with differen

Legislative branch of the United States government

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United States Congressional Serial Set

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United States Congressional Serial Set

The United States Congressional Serial Set began in 1817 as the official collection of reports and documents of the United States Congress. The collection was published in a "serial" fashion, hence its name. Overview The Serial Set does not normally include the text of congressional debates, bills, resolutions, hearings, committee prints, and publications from congressional support agencies such as the Government Accountability Office and the Congressional Budget Office. Proceedings of the Congress are published in the Congressional Record, while committee hearings and prints in most cases are published separately through the Government Printing Office (GPO). However, by special order, some 300 selected committee hearings were included, especially in the 19th and early 20th centuries."[1] Coverage for the period 1789 to 1817 is via the separate compilation American State Papers, which consists of 38 volumes.[2] It is common for a volume of the Serial Set to be composed of a combination of documents and rep

Publications of the United States government

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Legislative branch of the United States government

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Unseated members of the United States Congress

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Unseated members of the United States Congress

Both houses of the United States Congress have refused to seat new members based on Article I, Section 5 of the United States Constitution which states that, "Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each House may provide." This had been interpreted that members of the House of Representatives and of the Senate could refuse to recognize the election or appointment of a new representative or senator for any reason, often political heterodoxy or criminal record. Powell v. McCormack (1969) limited the powers of the Congress to refuse to seat an elected member to when the individual does not meet the specific constitutional requirements of age, citizenship or residency. From the decision by Chief Justice Earl Warren: "Therefore, we hold t

Legislative branch of the United States government

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Structure of the United States Congress

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Structure of the United States Congress

The U.S. Capitol building in Washington, D.C. The structure of the United States Congress with a separate House and Senate is complex with numerous committees handling a disparate array of topics presided over by elected officers. Some committees manage other committees. Congresspersons have various privileges to help the presidents serve the national interest and are paid a salary and have pensions. Congress formed a Library of Congress to help assist investigations and developed a Government Accountability Office to help it analyze complex and varied federal expenditures.[1] Committees Most congressional legislative work happens in committees. It is neither expected nor possible that a member of Congress be an expert on all matters and subject areas that come before Congress.[2] Congressional committees provide invaluable informational services to Congress by investigating and reporting back in regard to specialized subject matter. While this investigatory function is indispensable to Congress, procedur

Legislative branch of the United States government

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Procedures of the United States Congress

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Procedures of the United States Congress

How U. S. federal legislation is made[1] Procedures of the United States Congress are established ways of doing legislative business. Congress has two-year terms with one session each year. There are rules and procedures, often complex, which guide how it converts ideas for legislation into laws. Sessions The southwest corner of the United States Capitol in Washington. The Constitution forbids Congress from meeting elsewhere. A term of Congress is divided into two "sessions", one for each year; Congress has occasionally also been called into an extra, (or special) session (the Constitution requires Congress to meet at least once each year). A new session commences on January 3 (or another date, if Congress so chooses) each year. Before the Twentieth Amendment, Congress met from the first Monday in December to April or May in the first session of their term (the "long session"); and from December to March 4 in the second "short session". (The new Congress would then meet for some days, for the inaugurat

Legislative branch of the United States government

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John Heinz Competitive Excellence Award

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John Heinz Competitive Excellence Award

Title 2 of the United States Code outlines the role of Congress in the United States Code.[1] Chapter 1 Chapter 1 — Election of Senators and Representatives § 1 — Time for election of Senators § 1a — Election to be certified by governor § 1b — Countersignature of certificate of election § 2a — Reapportionment of Representatives; time and manner; existing decennial census figures as basis; statement by President; duty of clerk § 2b — Number of Representatives from each State in 78th and subsequent Congresses § 2c — Number of Congressional Districts; number of Representatives from each District § 5 — Nominations for Representatives at large § 6 — Reduction of representation § 7 — Time of election § 8 — Vacancies § 9 — Voting for Representatives Omitted sections: 2, 3, & 4. Chapter 2 Chapter 2 — Organization of Congress § 21 — Oath of Senators § 22 — Oath of President of Senate § 23 — Presiding officer of Senate may administer oaths § 24 — Secretary of Senate or assi

United States federal government administration...

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Legislative branch of the United States government

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American awards

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Depository Library Act of 1962

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Depository Library Act of 1962

Depository Library Act of 1962 is a federal statute revising the depository library laws passed in the United States from 1895 to 1939. The Act of Congress mandated the availability of U.S. government publications through the Superintendent of Documents for public information. The statute established requirements for two depository libraries as allocated by U.S. Congressional representatives per their respective congressional districts. The U.S. federal law provided provisions appointing land-grant colleges and the United States service academies as depository libraries for U.S. government publications. The 87th U.S. Congressional legislation authorized regional depository libraries allocating two depository libraries per U.S. state as defined by a United States Senator. The Act repealed Public Law 76-281 designating the United States Coast Guard Academy library as a depository of U.S. government publications while redelegating the New London, Connecticut office of the Superintendent of Documents. Revised De

1962 in American law

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87th United States Congress

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United States government information

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Congressional staff

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Congressional staff

Congressional staff are employees of the United States Congress or individual members of Congress. History Before the American Civil War, members of Congress did not have staff assistance or even offices, and "most members worked at their desks on the floor."[1] In 1891, Congress had a total of 146 staff members: 37 Senate personal staff, 39 Senate committee staff, and 62 House committee staff (37 of whom only worked during congressional sessions).[2] The House first approved personal staff for Representatives in 1893.[2] By the beginning of the 20th century, congressional staff had become a well-accepted feature of congressional operations.[2] In 1943, House committees employed 114 staff members, while Senate committees employed 190 staff members.[2] The size of individual members' personal staffs were still relatively small, with the average senator having six staffers and representatives limited to having five staffers.[2] In the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946, which reformed Congress and great

Legislative staff

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United States congressional aides

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Chiefs of staff

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Lists of United States congress

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Lists of United States congress

This is an incomplete list of lists pertaining to the United States Congress. Sessions List of United States Congresses Leaders House of Representatives List of Speakers of the United States House of Representatives Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives Party whips of the United States House of Representatives Democratic Caucus Chairman of the United States House of Representatives Democratic Caucus Vice-Chairman of the United States House of Representatives Republican Conference Chairman of the United States House of Representatives Republican Conference Vice-Chairman of the United States House of Representatives Dean of the United States House of Representatives Senate List of Presidents pro tempore of the United States Senate Party leaders of the United States Senate Assistant party leaders of the United States Senate Democratic Caucus of the United States Senate Democratic Conference Chairman of the United States Senate Democratic Conference Secretary of the Unit

United States politics-related lists

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Legislative branch of the United States government

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List of joint sessions of the United States Congress

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List of joint sessions of the United States Congress

As of January 2020, there have been 450 joint sessions and joint meetings of the United States Congress. 1780s Congress Date Type Occasion Dignitary speaking 1st April 6, 1789 Joint session Counting electoral votes for the 1789 presidential election None 1st April 30, 1789 Joint session Inauguration of George Washington and church service George Washington, President of the United StatesSamuel Provoost, Chaplain of the Senate 1790s Congress Date Type Occasion Dignitary speaking 1st January 8, 1790 Joint session State of the Union address George Washington, President of the United States 1st December 8, 1790 Joint session State of the Union address George Washington, President of the United States 2nd October 25, 1791 Joint session State of the Union address George Washington, President of the United States 2nd November 6, 1792 Joint Session State of the Union address George Washington, President of the United States 2nd February 13, 1793

Joint sessions of the United States Congress

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Legislative branch of the United States government

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Closed session of the United States Congress

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Closed session of the United States Congress

In the Congress of the United States, a closed session (formally a session with closed doors) is a parliamentary procedure for the Senate or the House of Representatives to discuss matters requiring secrecy. The discussions which take place in a closed session are subject to confidentiality rules and are similar to an executive session, which itself can be open or closed. An executive session is for business which includes the President of the United States. Senate The United States Senate has been called into closed session 54 times since 1929. Under the Standing Rules of the Senate, a closed session may be called by any senator through a simple motion. Once the motion is seconded, the presiding officer of the Senate directs the Capitol Police to clear the public galleries of spectators and close all doors of the chamber. The Senate floor will be cleared of all persons except the senators and listed parliamentary officers, including the Secretary, the Sergeant at Arms, the Parliamentarian, and certain cl

Legislative branch of the United States government

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Federal Depository Library Program

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Federal Depository Library Program

Logo for a Federal Depository Library The Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) is a government program created to make U.S. federal government publications available to the public at no cost. As of March 2018, there are 1,141 depository libraries in the United States and its territories. A "government publication" is defined in the U.S. Code as "informational matter which is published as an individual document at Government expense, or as required by law" (44 U.S.C. 1901). History The groundwork for the FDLP was established by an 1813 Congressional Joint Resolution ordering that certain publications be distributed to libraries outside of the federal government.[1] Initially, the Librarian of Congress was responsible for running this program, but the responsibility shifted to the Secretary of the Interior in the 1850s. The Printing Act of 1895 revised public printing laws and established the roles of the FDLP and the Government Printing Office (GPO) in distributing government information. This act als

Deposit libraries

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Legislative branch of the United States government

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United States government information

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Congressional Record

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Congressional Record

A page from the February 12, 1999, edition of the Congressional Record, published during the impeachment trial of former President Bill Clinton. Formal citation: 1999 Congressional Record, Vol. 145, Page S1457 . A page from the June 14 to June 28, 1935, Congressional Record. The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress, published by the United States Government Publishing Office and issued when Congress is in session. Indexes are issued approximately every two weeks. At the end of a session of Congress, the daily editions are compiled in bound volumes constituting the permanent edition. Chapter 9 of Title 44 of the United States Code authorizes publication of the Congressional Record. Overview The Congressional Record consists of four sections: the House section, the Senate section, the Extensions of Remarks, and, since the 1940s, the Daily Digest. At the back of each daily issue is the Daily Digest, which summarizes the day's floor and com

Publications of the United States government

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Legislative branch of the United States government

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Congressional Soccer Match

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Congressional Soccer Match

The Congressional Soccer Match is an annual soccer game played each summer by members of the United States Congress. The game began in 2013 and in its current format in 2014. In the match, the Republicans and Democrats form separate teams and play against each other. The event is hosted by the United States Soccer Foundation and generally features members of the Congressional Soccer Caucus, and former professional players.[1] The money raised from the match is donated to local charities.[2] The defending champions are the Republicans.[3] Rosters 2018 Democrats Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. No. Position Player 1 MF Kathy Castor 2 DF Ruben Kihuen 3 MF Rick Larsen 4 MF Cobi Jones (guest player) 5 GK Saskia Webber (guest player) 6 FW Jaime Moreno (guest player) 7 DF Olivia Beavers (guest player) Republicans Note: Flags indicate nation

Soccer competitions in the United States

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Sports competitions in Washington, D.C.

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Recurring sporting events started in 2013

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United States Senate

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United States Senate

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which, along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—constitutes the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol Building, in Washington, D.C. The composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution.[1] The Senate is composed of senators, each of whom represents a single state in its entirety. Each state, regardless of its population size, is equally represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are currently 100 senators. From 1789 to 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states they represented; they are now elected by popular vote, following the ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913. As the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These incl

Legislative branch of the United States government

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All self-contradictory articles

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United States Senate

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Lists of United States Congress

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Lists of United States Congress

This is an incomplete list of lists pertaining to the United States Congress. Sessions List of United States Congresses Leaders House of Representatives List of Speakers of the United States House of Representatives List of Speaker of the United States House of Representatives elections Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives Party whips of the United States House of Representatives Democratic Caucus Chairman of the United States House of Representatives Democratic Caucus Vice-Chairman of the United States House of Representatives Republican Conference Chairman of the United States House of Representatives Republican Conference Vice-Chairman of the United States House of Representatives Dean of the United States House of Representatives Senate List of Presidents pro tempore of the United States Senate Party leaders of the United States Senate Assistant party leaders of the United States Senate Democratic Caucus of the United States Senate Democratic Conference Chairm

United States politics-related lists

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Lists of members of the United States Congress

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Legislative branch of the United States government

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List of positions filled by presidential appointment with Senate confirmation

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List of positions filled by presidential appointment with Senate confirmation

This is a list of positions filled by presidential appointment with Senate confirmation. Under the Appointments Clause of the United States Constitution and law of the United States, certain federal positions appointed by the president of the United States require confirmation (advice and consent) of the United States Senate. These "PAS" (Presidential Appointment needing Senate confirmation)[1] positions, as well as other types of federal government positions, are published in the United States Government Policy and Supporting Positions (Plum Book), which is released after each United States presidential election.[2] A 2012 Congressional Research Service study estimated that approximately 1200-1400 positions require Senate confirmation.[3] Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Department of Agriculture Secretary of Agriculture Deputy Secretary of Agriculture Under Secretary of Agriculture for Farm Production and Conservation Under Secretary of Agriculture for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Se

Legislative branch of the United States government

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Lists of American people by occupation

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Executive branch of the United States government

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The Hill (newspaper)

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The Hill (newspaper)

The Hill is an American website, based in Washington, D.C. which began as a newspaper publisher in 1994.[3][4] It is owned by Capitol Hill Publishing, which is owned by News Communications, Inc. Focusing on politics, policy, business and international relations, The Hill coverage includes the U.S. Congress, the presidency, and election campaigns.[5] On its website, The Hill describes its output as "nonpartisan reporting on the inner workings of Congress and the nexus of politics and business".[6] The paper was founded in 1994 by Democratic power broker and New York businessman Jerry Finkelstein and Martin Tolchin, a former correspondent for The New York Times.[7] As of 2019, the founder's son, James "Jimmy" A. Finkelstein, serves as its chairman, having succeeded his father after his death in 2012.[3][7] Bob Cusack serves as the editor-in-chief, Peter Greenberger as the publisher, and Ian Swanson as managing editor.[3] History Vending box for The Hill on K Street. The Hill was founded in 1994 under the

Started in 1995 in Washington, D.C.

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The Hill (newspaper) journalists

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American political media

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